Friday, March 30, 2012

Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques

13 techniques proposed by L.D. Miles, the founder of value analysis and engineering

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Value Analysis Techniques


Miles provided 13 ideas as value analysis techniques.
 
  1. Avoid generalities
  2. Get all available costs
  3. Use information from the best source
  4. Blast create and refine
  5. Use real creativity
  6. Identify and overcome roadblocks
  7. Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge
  8. Get a dollar sign on key tolerances
  9. Utilize vendors’ available functional products
  10. Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge
  11. Utilize specialty processes
  12. Utilize applicable standards
  13. Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”
The list in above order was given by Miles in his first edition of the book. The order can be changed to study the techniques in a sequential process way.

Value Analysis Techniques of Miles in a different order


Analysis techniques for creating low cost alternatives

1. Blast, Create and Refine
2. Utilize vendors’ available functional products
3. Utilize specialty processes
4. Utilize applicable standards


Information needed to start the activity and to analyze


5. Avoid generalities
6. Get all available costs
7. Use information from the best source 
8. Get a dollar sign on key tolerances


During the value engineering process use creativity and question the existing solutions

9. Use real creativity
10.Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”
This will motivate you to focus on the issue and come with alternatives

Use outside expertise also to come with value enhancing suggestions and their development 


11. Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge
12. Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge

Be ready for roadblocks after you come out with a solution

13. Identify and overcome roadblocks


Brief Explanation of the VE Analytical Techniques 

1. Blast, Create and Refine

Blast
To do blast activity, the basic functions to be accomplished by a product or a component are given the focus and alternative products, materials and processes are brought into the picture. These alternatives need not entirely accomplish all the basic functions completely. These alternatives need to qualify on the basis of accomplishing some important part of the function or functions in a very economical manner. The alternatives are in the consideration list even if they can accomplish important part of the function based on some modifications. During this activity, the amount of the function which would be accomplished by the suggested or identified alternatives and the cost involved are ascertained.

Create
Use real creativity to generate alternatives to  improve the ideas of blast stage, to accomplish large part of the required function with accompanying increase in cost. Increase in functions obtained needs to be accounted by increase in cost.

Refine
The solution obtained in create stage is further sifted and refined by adding features which provide further functions and fully accomplish the desired function. Miles stated that this blast, create and refine technique delivered the total function with the same reliability but at a cost of one-half to one-tenth of the original for many components and products.

2. Utilize vendors’ available functional products

Number of products like special hinges, special rivets, special tapered structural shapes etc. are available to perform various functions from vendors. Available functional products (even though not standard but special) have low costs because the specialty supplier has a sufficient lead in his particular technology and sufficient volume.

But there are interfering factors that prevent engineers from using the available functional products and they design items for their products afresh. Miles identified some of them as lack of knowledge regarding the availability of the items, preference for do-it-ourselves, feeling that boss wants me to design, inhouse design shows our capability thinking, feeling that own designs are proprietary knowledge, problems of search, and feeling that we can improve over a period of time etc.

Miles recommends preparing functional product lists and specially creating lists for items that are not usually bought.


3. Utilize specialty processes and special tools


Miles defines specialty process as an applicable process which would reliably accomplish the needed function for significantly lower cost and which either exists or could, and would be developed by some one who leads in the technology involved if he understood the need for it.

Miles gaves the opinion that even persons engaged in value work take time to recognize specialty processes. In 1961, he gave the delay as three years. Other engineers take around 10 years to recognize specialty processes. The purpose of identifying and emphasizing this point in the list of VE techniques is to reduce this time lag.

Special tools also provide value opportunities. Value engineers have to be on the lookout for appearance of special tools.

4. Utilize applicable standards

Miles has written that including in the list of techniques and highlighting it may look silly, but it is a valuable technique in VE application.

The full meaning includes utilization of standard parts, parts of standard products, engineering concepts, manufacturing concepts, manufacturing processes and materials. He also emphasized that where not applicable standard items should not be used.


5. Use information from the best source


This point is relevant to the issue of overcoming roadblocks to various value suggestions. In one example, a component, a cover of an item was judged to be redundant. The designer said it was required by the customers. When the value engineer approached the sales person, he was told that only one customer uses the item with the cover and all others actually remove the cover and use it. Hence the initial idea that the cover was redundant was right. So the suggestion is that information from the best and ultimate source is to be only used for decision making in value work.

6. Get a dollar sign on key tolerances

Tolerances are required to obtain necessary fit or to allow assembly.
But many times tolerances are specified as standard practice and to give the impression of a complete drawing. Tolerances have cost.
For efficient use in value work each tolerance is to subjected to the following questions.
i) What does it cost?
ii) What function does it provide?
If the cost of tolerance is trifling, it did not be analyzed further. But if it is substantial in the process cost, it is to be analyzed.

7. Use real creativity

Creativity is generating alternatives.  Creative people believe that there are many ways of doing a thing. Miles made the observation that many creative people believe there are at least eight ways of doing a thing. They are not satisfied when they find one way.

In value analysis, creativity is to be applied as soon as the function desired is brought out in specifics. The most common obstacle to creative thinking is natural tendency to let judicial thinking work along. It interferes.  What is required is to suspend judicial thinking and let the ideas flow. Creativity is not associated with only complex problems. Even simple things can have creative alternatives. Creativity can be sustained and more alternatives can be generated in a group brainstorming.

8. Identify and overcome roadblocks

A roadblock is a decision that prevents value alternatives. The decisions could be due to lack of information, acceptance of wrong information and wrong belief on the part of the decision maker.  The value engineers have to recognize the roadblocks, and provide more correct information with proper timing and presentation so that the decision maker will use it.

9. Avoid generalities

Many times general statements are used to stop value alternatives from proceeding further. Examples given by Miles include:
* It's not practical to build dies for drop forging when quantities are less than 25,000 per order.
* It's not practical to build molds for casting in quantities of less than 5,000.
But a value engineer needs to make inquiries. Parts vary in complexity and material may make a difference.  There will be advancements in diemaking and as well as in diemaking machines. Instead stopping with general statements, value engineer needs to make specific inquiries.

10. Get all available costs

Cost data are produced in companies to support financial statements and tax statements. Hence a value engineer has to get all available costs and assess their utility for his decision making purpose. When costs are utilized for decision making they have to make economic sense. An example was given by Miles, wherein inappropriate cost allocations and decision report higher cost figures for an item.

11. Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge

The quality of answers to value problems is dependent upon the depth of penetration of the subject matter brought to bear on the problem. It has to be noted that knowledge, techniques and processes are continually being developed in each technology and that only the specialists know of those which have become practical with the last year or two. Value engineers have to bring these experts into their value projects and try and get best answers to the attainment of functions desired.

12. Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge

There are suppliers with skills to develop special products at low prices. They continuously upgrade their skills and are looking out for opportunities applying their technology. Users benefit by contacting them and posing their function fulfillment problems.  These suppliers spend time and come out with solutions. Whenever they come up with good value solutions, they need to be rewarded with orders. There have to fair relations between suppliers and company.

13. Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”

Miles documents that an average person evaluates his personal expenditures in the following steps.
A limited amount is allocated for the purpose.
Effort is done to secure maximum use function and appearance function from the expenditure. For this, he generates number of alternatives or considers number of alternatives. He will make a comparison of relative use values, esteem values and cost to make a decision.

Design engineers, manufacturing engineers, purchasing personnel and management have to follow similar procedure for organizational decision making also.

Extension of
     
Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/value-analysis-and-engineering/2utb2lsm2k7a/ 3887

Management and Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering (IE) is a service to management and MBA curriculums must include IE as a subject to appreciate its role in proper management of the organizations.
___________________________________________________________

Management Definition

Management of an organization is the process of establishing objectives and goals of the organization periodically, designing the work system and the organization structure, and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, accomplish their aims and objectives and goals of the organization effectively and efficiently (Narayana Rao).

The above definition was developed by me by modifying the definition given by Koontz and O'Donnell.

The definition implies the following.

(i) Management is a process.
(ii) Management applies to every kind of organization, government, profit making, or nonprofit making.
(iii) It applies to managers at all levels in the organization.
(iv) Management is concerned with effectiveness and efficiency.

Effectiveness and efficiency when combined are explained as productivity by Koontz and O'Donnell.
 
Weihrich and Koontz defined Management and explained it as follows in the tenth edition of their book Management: A Global Perspective (p.4).
 
"Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently and accomplish selected aims." This definition needs to be expanded:
 
1. As managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.
2. Management applies to any kind of organization.
3. It applies to managers at all organizational levels.
4. The aim of all managers is the same: to create a surplus.
5. Managing is concerned with productivity; this implies effectiveness and efficiency.


Industrial engineering is a discipline that evolved out of the involvement of engineers in managing engineering departments of enterprises. Frederick Taylor and Frank Gilbreth are pioneers of this branch - which is a hybrid  of engineering and management and  is a service to management.

Narayana Rao defined industrial engineering as: "Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering. It is an engineering discipline that deals with the design of human effort and system efficiency in all occupations: agricultural, manufacturing and service. The objectives of Industrial Engineering are optimization of productivity of work-systems and occupational comfort, health, safety and income of persons involved." (  Industrial Engineering )

The statement "Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering" appeared in the Industrial Engineer (March 2010 issue), magazine of Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE), which is the global association of Productivity and Efficiency professionals.

When both the definitions are examined together, one can easily conclude that industrial engineering is a service to management focusing on the efficiency aspect, which is a function of the management. Managers whenever they require a specialist looking after efficiency, in the division of labor based work organization, employ the services of industrial engineers.

Industrial engineering techniques and tools build efficiency into systems. Production management texts do cover some of the techniques of industrial engineering. Design professionals get some inputs in value engineering. A better system would be to introduce a course on industrial engineering in business curriculums so that business school graduates understand the profession and discipline of industrial engineering appropriately and make use of the services of IE departments in various functions of management.

___________________
Bibliography

Industrial Engineering
Industrial Engineering - Knols of Narayana Rao K V S S


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Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/management-and-industrial-engineering/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2380

Mechanical Engineering - Production Processes - Revision Topics for Industrial Engineers

1. Foundry

Mould types and methods
Cleaning and cutting
2. Forging

3. Turning

4. Milling
__________________




_________________



5. Drilling

6. Grinding
 

7. Welding

8. Joining Processes

9. Assembly Processes
 
Mechanical Assembly MIT Course Materials
 
Work station design considerations
 
 
 

10. Dismantling

11. Carpentry

12. Fitting



Machine Tools


1. Lathe
 
_________________________________
Story of Home Made Lathe
Lathe , Part 23, 4, 56, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Source
_________________________________

2. Semiautomatic lathes

3. Automatic lathes

4. Horizontal Milling Machines

5. Vertical Milling Machines
________________________




_______________________
For detailed information and photos of many different makes of various machine tools visit
http://www.lathes.co.uk/

A big source for all resources on various production processes in various industries

http://www.martindalecenter.com/Calculators4_C_Ind.html#IND-CAST

________________________
Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/mechanical-engineering-production/2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2287

Cloud Computing - Cost Reduction Technology - Adoption Case Studies and News


Microsoft and Google in open war in India in Cloud computing business, 29 March 2012, ET news item

SBI is using Google's services. Indian YouthCongress, India Mart, India Infoline, Flipcart, and Sterlite Technoliges are using Google's servces. Google claimed 200,000 business are using Google's services.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

Industrial Engineering Opportunity in IT Departments - Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is an efficiency improving technology. Industrial engineers have to understand the potential of this technology and advocate its adoption in the organization and thereby reduce cost of providing IT services.

IBM in a white paper claims reduction of 20 to 29% is possible through adopting cloud computing facilities.

http://www-05.ibm.com/cz/businesstalks/pdf/WP_Dispelling_the_vapor_around_cloud_computing_in_the_financial_services.pdf

Engineering Economics of Cloud Computing


ComputingCloudonomics - A rigorous approach to cloud benefit quantification - Joe Weinman, October 2011, Journal of Software Technology. Joe Weinman is regarded as a top ten cloud experts.

Overview of Cloudonomics - Blog post by Joe Weinman,  April 2011

Industrial Engineering Programs At University of California Berkeley

Industrial Engineering Program At University of California Berkeley is a highly ranked program.


Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research
4141 Etcheverry Hall,
Mail Code 1777
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720-1777


__________________________________________________________________________________________

The Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research (IEOR) educates students to become highly skilled in:

the quantitative modeling and analysis of a broad array of systems-level decision problems concerned with economic efficiency, productivity and quality;





__________________________________________________________________________________________

Undergraduate Program

The undergraduate program is designed to prepare students for technical careers in production or service industries. It provides a strong foundation for those headed for engineering management positions or for those intending to go on to specialized graduate study in operations research, industrial engineering, or business administration.


The core of the program includes: basic science mathematics, including probability and statistics engineering optimization and stochastic models This forms the methodological foundation for upper division IEOR electives involving the analysis and design of production and service systems, information systems, and human work systems and organization, among others.





__________________________________________________________________________________________

Graduate Program

At the master's level, students may emphasize applied courses, preparing them for professional practice, or may follow a more theoretical program intended for those who will pursue doctoral studies.

__________________________________________________________________________________________


Research Program


The paramount requirement of a doctoral degree is the successful completion of a thesis on a subject within the major field. Research areas may include the investigation of the mathematical foundations of and computational methods for optimization or stochastic models, including risk analysis. Research also may be undertaken to develop methodologies for the design, planning, and/or control of systems in a variety of application domains.

_______________________________________________________________________________


Faculty:

Robert C. Leachman
Andrew Lim
Shmuel S. Oren
Christos Papadimitriou
Rhonda L. Righter (Chair)
Lee W. Schruben
Zuo-Jun "Max" Shen
Ikhlaq Sidhu
Candace Yano


EMERITUS:

Richard E. Barlow
Stuart Dreyfus
Roger Glassey
Robert M. Oliver
Sheldon M. Ross
(Now Chair at USC)
J. George Shanthikumar
Ronald W. Wolff
Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/kvss/industrial-engineering-programs-at/1zb6eis38d7or/ 25

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

PLIBEL - A Method for Identification of Ergonomic Hazards

PLIBEL - A Method for Identification of Workplace Injury Hazards - Task Hazards
 
PLIBEL is a questionairre developed by Kristina Kemmlert for identification of musculoskeletal stress factors which may have injurious effects on operators or workmen. The check list examines issues related to five body regions.
 
1. Neck, shoulders, upper part of the back
2. Elbows, forearms, hands
3. Feet
4. Knees and hips
5. Low back
 
The questionairre has 17 items with some items having sub-items.
 
For some more details and references of Kemmlert's articles
 
 
For a filled checklist (Table B-6 and Table B-11) along with other types of evaluations for shear Operators)
 
Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/plibel-a-method-for-identification-of/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 1570

Monday, March 26, 2012

Industrial Engineer Magazine Article Summaries by 2010 IE Students NITIE, Mumbai, India




Industrial Engineer Magazine Article Summaries


Please insert your articles in serial order of roll number
8. Summary on "A World Gone Green"
9. Summary on "Red Hot Chili Processing-A case study" http://knol.google.com/k/anonymous/-/2xwrr4k6vtq7f/3#edit
13. Summary on "DUBAI A CLASS OF ITS OWN"
14. Summary on Taking a risk
21  summay:From Tortoise to Eagle:Management  of  change:http://knol.google.com/k/ashay-bhagat/from-tortoise-to-eagle-management-of/3qkhjnhu5mtqr/2
27 Summary on "Lightening the Load ".
28 .Telecommunication Fraud : http://knol.google.com/k/ayanangshu-das/telecommunication-fraud/35o029njba0ts/2#
29. Summary on "Leveraging Supply Chain" http://knol.google.com/k/bhrigu-kaushal/leveraging-supply-chain/1wfkysvyzhqsf/2#
38. Summary on "Final Item Adjustment"
43. Summary on  "Higher Education reinvented"
44.Summary on "Mighty Chain of Management"
45. Summary on "Cross Docking"
46 . Summary on "OPTIMIZATION OF MATERIAL " 
52. Summary on "Predicting performance of Complex Systems"
54 Summary  of "losing  our span  of  control"        http://knol.google.com/k/mayank/summary-of-losing-our-span-of-control/2mb1ruqgxxpdi/1#
58. Summary on "Great expectations"
60. Summary on "Automate Purchase-to-Pay"
http://knol.google.com/k/navjyot-s/automate-purchase-to-pay/1l9k02ynqupo4/2
63 .Summary on "Global Situational Awareness"
69 Summary on "Power Saving Heroes"
71 Summary on "Banking on food and Technology"  (Roll  No  -71 )
74. Summary on "Policy of ages" 
76 . summary on "Toyota’s quality lapse"
90.  Summary on "MAKING GOOD EVEN BETTER" - http://knol.google.com/k/saurabh/lean-and-agile-manufacturing-works/cy0t975kgh95/5
manufacturing-works/cy0t975kgh95/5 - roll no-90  SECTION - B PGDIE -४०
94.Summary on "Ergonomics in food processing industry"- http://knol.google.com/k/shristi-gupta/ergo-and-yummy-burgers/19li1wj99hgxh/5
95. Summary on "Statistical concepts associated with Six-Sigma"- http://knol.google.com/k/anonymous/stastical-concepts-associated-with-six/s7bpbdthaot5/2
98. Summary on the Taguchi's application in a Multi response optimization - http://knol.google.com/k/srinivasan-balan/minimize-the-variation-in-bore-diameter/3dfuc9fklidy5/1
100. A technology to produce ultra fine grain(UFG) materials-ECAS by Sudhanshu Yadav Roll. No.-100
101.Summary on "Optimal maintenance decisions for asset managers"
http://knol.google.com/k/sudhir-kumar/101-optimal-maintenance-decisions-for/1zblc1dc2sga8/1
108. Biometrics - An Overview Summarised By Suraj Mahapatro Roll No 108 Sec B PGDIE 40 NITIE Mumbai
http://knol.google.com/k/suraj-mahapatro/biometrics/w2tqrk2k6679/3
109. Summary on the article "Photo book guru"- http://knol.google.com/k/swapnil/photo-book-guru/sfrx8nzto50c/3 roll no.-109, PGDIE40, Swapnil S Bhure
117.summary on Article"BUILT TO SERVE-Law enforcement vehicle designed with human factors in mind" http://knol.google.com/k/vivek-tiwari/built-to-serve-law-enforcement-vehicle/3do7e9coyps10/३
120. summary on"Made with wood,solar cell and food" by sanjay kumar jena,roll no-120
___________________________________________________________________________________________

Related Knols

Knol Day of Industrial Engineering  -  Write your comments on it.
 
 
 
 
 
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Original Knol - Knol Number 2702

Saturday, March 24, 2012

Sales Force Productivity Improvement - An Industrial Engineering Activity

Industrial engineering is human effort engineering and system efficiency engineering. Industrial engineering takes care of efficiency dimension of management in all activities and functions of an organization. Efficiency improvement takes place through employment of latest efficiency improving technologies as well as efficiency improvements brought about by special studies within the organization and efficiency improvement carried out by various managers, supervisors and operators. Industrial engineering is responsible for all these ways of efficiency engineering of an enterprise.

Industrial engineering has a responsibility to help sales and marketing managers to improve the efficient of sales force.

References for Sales Force Productivity

http://www.crmsoftwareblog.com/2012/02/sales-people-are-more-productive-when-crm-goes-social/  23 February 2012

The New Science of Sales Force Productivity, HBR article - 2006
https://webfiles.uci.edu/imohdsal/www/Harvard%20Business%20Review%20-%20The%20New%20Science%20of%20Sales%20Force%20Productivity.pdf

Increasing Sales Productivity by Making by Getting Salespeople to Work Smarter,
Paper published in Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, August 1988
http://warrington.ufl.edu/mkt/docs/weitz/Increasing_Sales.pdf


Friday, March 23, 2012

Productivity Improvement Idea Bank

2011

March 2011
Transform the way you store and manage data with EqualLogic  (Dell)

Information is at the core of business value. Ignited by the need for real-time data access, enterprise mobility and pervasive virtualization, it’s no surprise that storage growth is expected to accelerate past 60% per year through 2020*. On average, essentially doubling every 18 months*. As if managing your organizations data growth isn’t enough, doing it on a flat annual budget makes it even more challenging.

Consider the Dell EqualLogic virtual iSCSI SAN. Its seamlessly scalable architecture and intelligent array software natively integrates with your tier-1 application and virtual environments to help you efficiently manage data without adding complexity. EqualLogic’s automation can help save you 45 days per year on common storage tasks and accelerate VM deployments by over 70%. Learn more about why virtual storage is an ideal solution for efficiently managing your data growth

http://www.dellenterprise.com/goto/equallogic/default.aspx?wt.mc_id=EBCFY12Q1018


2010

October 2010 - Air plane
Reinvent Your Hawker
More Speed, Fuel economy (7%)
Avaition Partners Winglets
http://www.duncanaviation.aero/airframe/promotions/winglets/hawker.php

2005 
Design-build model can increase productivity in construction industry compared to design-bid-build model.
_____________________________________
2004
T N S Machining, Inc. has found a universal shop-wide coolant that has solved many common operational problems.  PICOCOOL 5254, a new generation high technology synthetic coolant, provides excellent lubricity for a variety of machining operations on many different materials especially difficult aluminum alloys. Reduced machine downtime and improve machining.
___________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Bibliography

Productivity Improvement Using Ten Process Commandments  (Software Ind. Context), 2009
Chip Design Process Productivity Improvements - Presentation - 2007
Making to High Performance and Productivity Improvement of Steel Bar and Wire Rod Rolling Process
NIPPON STEEL TECHNICAL REPORT No. 96 July 2007
How to Improve Fab Productivity  (2006)
PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT OF COMPOSITES PROCESSING THROUGH THE USE OF INDUSTRIAL MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGIES
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 66, 267–285, 2006
Power Plant Efficiency Improvement in India (2004)
Presentation by S.C. Deosharma, NTPC
Five Leadership Skills for Implementing Productivity Improvement
All Newsletters link
SATPI: Strategic Administration by Total Productity Improvement
Michitoshi Oishi (Around 1999)
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Reports - Productivity Improvement
Productivity Improvement for Fossil Steam Power Plants, 2009
Date Published: 1/15/2010
Full list price:$25,000 (US dollars)
Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
EPRI 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Journal Articles
PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT OF COMPOSITES PROCESSING THROUGH THE USE OF INDUSTRIAL MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGIES
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 66, 267–285, 2006

Productivity improvement in heart surgery - a case study on care process development 
Authors: Sauli Karvonen;  Juhani Rm ;  Mauri Leijala ; Jan Holmstrm 
Production Planning & Control, Volume 15, Issue 3 April 2004 , pages 238 - 246
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Books
Total productivity management: a systemic and quantitative approach  By David J. Sumanth
CRC Press, 1998
Creating productive organizations: developing your work force : manual By Elizabeth A. Smith
CRC Press, 1995
The productivity manual By Elizabeth A. Smith
1995, Gulf Professional Publishing
Productivity management: a practical handbook, Page 965 By Joseph Prokopenko, International Labour Office
International Labour Organization, 1987
Productivity: A Practical Program for Improving Efficiency By Clair F. Vough, Bernard Asbell
Productivity Research International, 1986
________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/productivity-improvement-idea-bank/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2331

Job and Work Analysis - Brannick, Levine and Morgeson - Book Information and Review

Job and Work Analysis

Methods, Research, and Applications for Human Resource Management Second Edition

Michael T. Brannick University of South Florida
Edward L. Levine University of South Florida
Frederick P. Morgeson Michigan State University, Eli Broad Graduate School of Management
 
 
 
Sage Publications 2007
 
Table of Contents
 
1. Introduction
Overview of the Book
The Uses of Job Analysis
Definitions
Building Blocks of Job Analysis Methods 
A Couple of Job Analysis Projects 
2. Work-Oriented Methods 
Overview of the Chapter 
Time-and-Motion Study 
Functional Job Analysis 
Task Inventories 
Critical Incident Technique 
Chapter Summary 
3. Worker-Oriented Methods 
Overview of the Chapter 
Job Element Method 
Position Analysis Questionnaire 
Other Trait-Based Worker-Oriented Measures 
Cognitive Task Analysis 
Chapter Summary 
4. Hybrid Methods 
Overview of the Chapter 
Combination Job Analysis Method 
Multimethod Job Design Questionnaire 
Occupational Information Network 
Chapter Summary 
5. Management and Teams 
Overview of the Chapter 
Management and Leadership 
Job Analysis for Teams 
Chapter Summary 
6. Job Analysis and the Law 
Overview of the Chapter 
Federal Legislation 
Enforcement of Equal Employment Opportunity Laws 
Executive orders 
Professional Standards 
Prescriptions for Job Analysis 
Chapter Summary 
7. Job Description, Performance Appraisal, Job Evaluation, and Job Design 
Overview of the Chapter 
Job Description 
Performance Appraisal 
Job Evaluation and Compensation 
Job Design/Redesign 
Chapter Summary 
8. Staffing and Training 
Overview of the Chapter 
Staffing 
Training 
Chapter Summary 
9. Doing a Job Analysis Study 
Overview of the Chapter 
Matching Purpose and Job Analysis Attributes 
Selecting Approaches 
Observations and Interviews 
Questionnaires 
Analyzing Data 
A Note About Accuracy in Job Analysis 
Chapter Summary 
10. The Future of Job Analysis 
Overview of the Chapter 
Changing Conditions 
Implications for Jobs and Job Analysis 
Chapter Summary 
A Final Note 
Glossary 
References 
Index 
About the Authors
 
Review
 
An important book to be browsed by industrial engineers
Original Knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/job-and-work-analysis-brannick-levine/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 1842

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Job Evaluation - Purpose - Consultants

 
 
Job evaluation is an instrument available to ensure integration of internal fairness and external competitiveness. A well-designed, carefully implemented job evaluation system is not only a basic tool for driving changes in your company’s reward structures and achieving equal pay for work of equal value, it also defines the value of a job within your company.
 

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)

 
PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) can help you in the process

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)  can help you develop and implement all, or part, of a job-evaluation system designed to meet the specific needs of your company.
 
They claim:
 
Our experienced professionals know how to listen, and they know what questions to ask so that they get the right answers. We can then help you to create the processes and the tools you will need, and, if needed, train your staff in their use. Or, if you would prefer, we can undertake the entire process for you: writing job descriptions, designing or selecting a job-evaluation method, and implementing the chosen method—either PricewaterhouseCoopers’ own IFA or STRATA method, or a 100% customised system, or a system based on a combination of existing methods (already gathered in a database or customised methods). We can also negotiate with the unions in your company; create an effective communications plan, and hold information sessions for your employees; deploy new job classifications, benchmark your salary structure, and implement and maintain the complete procedure, from beginning to end. At PwC our aim is to make your job as easy and effective as possible.

PWC says you consider them when:
 
• You need a refined evaluation system that includes people's competences.
• You need a evaluation process that can be easily be monitored and adjusted quickly when needed.
• Your company is complex enough to require a number of job evaluation systems that target different groups and objectives.
• You want to develop a job classification procedure that is not a self-contained process but is wholly integrated into the HR value chain—recruitment, salary management, performance management, development and career management).
• You need a new evaluation system that allows you to manage people development and ensure that appropriate skills are developed.
 
 

Hay Group

 
Hay group provides assistance in job evaluation. It claims:
 
A consistent, objective framework
 

Thousands of organizations – including more than half of the world’s largest companies – rely on Hay Group’s job evaluation methodologies to help them bring together the right people, jobs and structures to execute their strategies.
 
The main Hay Group methodology, the Hay Guide Chart®-Profile Method of Job Evaluation provides you with a consistent and objective framework to:
 
  • analyze your organizational structure and identify ways to make it more effective
  • evaluate people and jobs to match the right individuals to the right roles
  • define career progressions both from individual roles and across related job groups and
  • develop targeted pay and reward programs, using Hay Group’s global compensation database.
 

All of this ultimately leads to an increased ability to manage your human resources more effectively.
 
Evolving evaluation

Crucially, this isn’t a one-off approach: the Hay Group job evaluation method is designed to evolve with your business. As a result, several Hay Group clients have used the method successfully to help with job design, talent development and performance management for over 25 years.
 
 
 
Job Evaluation (1952])
Authors: Pigage, Leo Charles; Tucker, John Lawson
 
Job Evaluation Methods, 1946 (Preface only)
Charles W. Lytle, Professor of Industrial Engineering, New York University,
 
ISOS; A Job Evaluation System to Implement Comparable Worth
Intangible Capital, 2008
 
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Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/ job-evaluation-purpose-consultants/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 32

Computer Graphics Workstation Ergonomics

For Computer Artists

http://www.khulsey.com/computer-workstation-ergonomics.html

Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Shigeo Shingo - Famous Industrial Engineer of Japan - Videos

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TPS - Toyota Industrial Engineering - The Story

TPS - the ancestors

Sakichi Toyoda - Toyoda Loom Works -  invented an automatic power loom, Jikoda (autonomous automation), 5 Whys

Kiichiro Toyoda - dreamed of branching into automobiles, started in 1933.
Frustrated by difficulties in engine casting, begins process study.
1936 - creates Kaizen improvement teams
Resigned 1948 due to poor sales.

Department of War TWI program -
1950 - Deming visits Japan. at request of Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers, June-August 1950, trains 100s of engineers, managers and scholars in statistical process control and quality.

JUSE - > Genichi Taguchi - consults with Toyota

In 1957 cousin Eiji Toyoda takes over. Visits Ford. Implements Ford mass production standards.

Frederick Taylor's PSM -> Shigeo Shingo

Toyota Production System

Many folks may think that Japan achieved market dominance through robots, or being workaholics. Not so.

Taiichii Ohno - graduated from Nagoya Technical High School, joined Toyota in 1943 -
Shigeo Shingo - late 50s to 60s - consulting with Toyota
Eiji Toyoda..
Started in 1948 - based on work of Deming

muri - inconsistency
mura - overburden
muda - waste

design out mura - be able to meet required results smoothly - Tai Chi
decrease muri - increase flexibility without stress - Yoga
eliminate muda - eliminate waste - Shaolin Kung-Fu
Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to remove. - Saint-Exupery

Unable to eliminate bottlenecks in production
EOQ - Economic Lot Size - calculation of best use of line, production must be high enough to meet demand for different models

different model = different parts, different dies, different procedures, different tools

high downtime for line changeover = high economic lot size
high economic lot size = high stock  of parts inventory
high stock of inventory = investment of $$$, land costs in Japan are expensive, high cost for big warranty
lesser diversity of models

First - rework factory and models to make use of standard parts, tools, and processes.

Next goal is SMED
biggest component of changeover is die exchange
examine process -
die weighs many tons
use crane to remove old and install new
requires minute measurement to put into place
done by hand and by eye
tested by making test stampings, wasting time and resources
process took 12 hours to 3 days

improve
invest in precision measurement devices
record necessary measurements for each die
install according to measurements rather than by hand and eye - changeover to 90 minutes

FRS - fixed repeating schedule
die changes in standard sequence
scheduling tool changeovers as the new product moved through factory
scheduling use of cranes

SMED achieved
Single Minute Exchange of Die
<10 minutes to change die.
EOQ = 1 vehicle.
Just in time manufacturing

intangible benefits
stockless production
reduction of process footprint = free floor space
productivity increased
ability to changeover more
elimination of defects
improved quality of each product
improved quality from
increased safety due to simpler setup
simplified housekeeping
lower expense of setup
operator preferred = better worker satisfaction
lower skill requirements
elimination of waste
goods are not lost due to deterioration in inventory
new attitudes on work process among staff

Source:
TPS by Ken Harris
http://knol.google.com/k/ken-harris/tps/6p1yn013rxws/2

Posted under creative commons 3.0 attribution license

Human Effort Engineering

Human Effort Engineering - The Concept and Techniques

Human effort engineering is a term used in describing and defining industrial engineering by Narayana Rao.

Industrial Engineering can be described adequately by three components.

1. Human Effort Engineering

2. Systems Efficiency Engineering

3. Systems Design, Installation and Improvement Management

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Concept

Human effort engineering is a term used in describing and defining industrial engineering by Narayana Rao.
The definition of industrial engineering given by Narayana Rao is:
“Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering. It is an engineering discipline that deals with the design of human effort in all occupations: agricultural, manufacturing and service. The objectives of Industrial Engineering are optimization of productivity of work-systems and occupational comfort, health, safety and income of persons involved.” According to this definition the two focus areas of industrial engineering are human effort engineering and systems efficiency/productivity engineering.
Reference:

Narayana Rao, K.V.S.S., “Definition of Industrial Engineering: Suggested Modification.” Udyog Pragati. October-December 2006. p. 1-4.
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Components of Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering can be described adequately by three components.
1. Human Effort Engineering
2. Systems Efficiency Engineering
3. Systems Design,  Installation and Improvement Management
In the area of systems design, industrial engineering activities of human effort engineering and systems efficiency engineering are speciality engineering areas. As industrial engineering has a good involvement in the systems design through two important areas and also as industrial engineering is output conscious and profit (value) conscious, IE department can take up the management of systems design activities of an organization. The official definition of IE of IIE provides scope for all these activities by stating that IE is concerned with system design, installation and improvement. It does not emphatically says that IEs design systems. They do number of activities related to systems design especially where multiple resources are involved and in that role human factor definitely demands that IEs are involved in the systems design to eliminate waste related the utilization of human resources.
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Marvin Mundel - Industrial Engineer

Different Kinds of Changes

To improve a work method (work system), innovations or changes are necessary in any one of the five areas that affect its performance.
They are:
1. Human activity: The hand and body motions or the perceptive or cognitive activity or their sequence may be changed to ease or improve the task.
2. Workstation (tools, workplace layout, or equipment): The design of any single workstation or the equipment used for any part of the task may be modified.
3. Process or work sequence: The order or condition in which the various work stations receive the in-process output may require change or the number of work stations may be modified.
4. Output design: The product design or the form of goods sold or the material sent out or the nature of the completed service may be changed in order to facilitate the attainment of the objectives of improvement.
5. Inputs: The incoming supplies of raw materials or parts may be changed with respect to the form, condition, specification, or timing of the arrival to allow the desired improvements to be made.
From the list of possible changes, innovations in human activity and work station fall in the domain of human effort engineering
Marvin Mundel, Motion and Time Study, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall, 1985,Pp.36-37.

Basic Orders of Work Units

8th Order WU : Results - What is achieved due to the outputs (7th order WU)
(work-unit )
7th Order WU: Gross output
6th Order WU: Different product groups/ total output
5th Order WU: One End Product/output
4th Order WU: Intermediate product
3rd Order WU: Task - Individual or group
2nd Order WU: Element
1st Order WU: Motion
Analysis at 1st, 2nd and 3rd order work units is human effort engineering
Marvin Mundel, Motion and Time Study, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall, 1985,Pp.96-99.
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Human Effort Engineering - Areas of Design and Installation

Interface Device Design: Jigs and Fixtures
Motion Design: Motion Study
Posture Design
Comfort Design: fatigue analysis
Safety Design: Safety Aids
Occupational Hazard Analysis Certification
Work Measurement
Operator Training
Incentive scheme design
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Time Study, Motion Study, and Methods Study

Time study was proposed by F.W. Taylor and as conceptualized by Taylor and it includes methods study and motion study in itself. Frank Gilbreth proposed motion study, but he did use the term methods also in his writings. Gilbreth recognized the contribution of Taylor in proposing in his time study, the study of work at element level. People credit Maynard in developing the concept of method study, to end the differences between followers of Taylor and Gilbreth over time study and motion study.
But as things stand today, we can separate the three. Method study is a study of various operations and their sequence. Methods efficiency design is an evaluation of method proposed by functional designers using method study approach. Each operation is to be performed by an individual man or man-machine system or in some cases by a group of men. Lifting of heavy furniture is an example wherein a group has to carry out an operation. Each operation requires motion design. Data for motion design comes from earlier motion studies and some study conducted as a part of the current motion design. Work measurement is carried out for each operation in an approved method. Work measurement can be carried out using predetermined motion time systems or time studies or work sampling methods as appropriate.
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Taylor - A Pioneer in Human Effort Engineering

Henry Towne, Past President of A.S.M.E. in foreword to Shop Management, A Paper of F.W. Taylor, First published in 1910.
The substitution of machinery for unaided human labor was the great industrial achievement of the nineteenth century. The new achievement to which Dr. Taylor points the way consists in elevating human labor itself to a higher plane of efficiency and of earning power.
We are proud of the fact that the United States had led all other nations in the development of labor-saving machinery in almost every field of industry. Dr. Taylor has shown us methods whereby we can duplicate this ahievement by vastly increasing the efficiency of human labor, and of accomplishing thereby a large increase in the wage-earning capacity of the workman, and a still larger decrease in the labor cost of his product.
The Editor of the book Scientific Management, jointly published by Harper & Row, New York and John Weatherhill, Inc., Tokyo, 1911
"The Principles of Scientific Management," is simply an argument for Mr. Taylor's Philosophy of Human Labor, - an outline of the fundamental principles on which it rests.
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Gilbreth Founder of Motion Study

Motion study : a method for increasing the efficiency of the workman (1911)
Applied motion study; a collection of papers on the efficient method to industrial preparedness (1917)
Fatigue study; the elimination of humanity's greatest unnecessary waste, a first step in motion study (1919)
Watch Original Movies Made by Gilbreth
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Related knols

 

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Related Articles and Papers




Estimating The Physical Effort of Human Poses, Yinpeng Chen, Hari Sundaram and Jodi James,
Arts, Media and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85281
A Unique Learning System for Engineering: Technology of the Human Body!
Stephanie Farrell, Jennifer Kadlowec, Anthony Marchese, John Schmalzel, and Shreekanth Mandayam
Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028
Therblig Analysis
---------------------------
Interesting Paper
Matching TRIZ engineering parameters to human factors issues in
manufacturing
DENIS A. COELHO, Department of Electromechanical Engineering
University of Beira Interior, Calçada Fonte do Lameiro, PORTUGAL
Abstract: - An overview of the development of the TRIZ problem solving approach is provided in the first part
of this paper. Having emerged in Russia in 1946, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving Technique (TRIZ)
has been commonly used in the USA and Europe in the last few decades. TRIZ, as a method, has been used
successfully to solve problems such as many of those typically arising during the process of product
development, as reviewed in the second part of the paper. While the TRIZ method is also considered fit to
address human factors problems in manufacturing, straightforward application would benefit from a resource
gathering supporting knowledge and techniques. In the third part, analysis of previous work leads to suggest that new TRIZ method users might benefit from specific guidance in the interpretation of the engineering parameters in the contradiction matrix, considering human factors problems in manufacturing. A tentative correspondence is proposed in the fourth part between human factors issues in manufacturing and the engineering parameters in the matrix. The paper concludes emphasizing the need to further extract and categorize human factors and ergonomics principles and understand and analyze them under the light of the 40 inventive principles of TRIZ.
Key-Words: - Industrial engineering, Inventive principles,
---------------------------
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  Original knol - Knol number 792