Saturday, July 27, 2013

Pre-Motion Study Operation Analysis



Before attempting motion study, the motion study person has to investigate all other factors and examine whether any changes to them can improve motion pattern. Of course, the examination can continue even when the motion analysis is being done. If changes to some operations factors can bring overall efficiency, motion study person has to recommend them to IE group and complete the motion study only after IE group examines all such recommendations.

Pre-Motion Study Process Analysis


There is a criticism that elaborate motion study is done on operations or jobs which may be no longer relevant. Pre-motion study process analysis is a step to avoid such a waste motion study.

A pre-motion study process analysis carried out by industrial engineers would help to eliminate or rearrange operator activity and provides a better foundation to focus on the motions of specific operators.

Sunday, July 21, 2013

Focus on Technical Efficiency by F.W. Taylor




Focus on Technological Efficiency – the era of Scientific Management

The primal focus of the Industrial Revolution in its formative years was on increased mechanization of activities. With this arose the need to put more efficiency in the manufacturing processes, for, the final output was directly related to the efficiency of the processes – the better the processes, the better the output. To improve the processes, Frederick Taylor (1856 - 1915) proposed systematic observation and study of the processes involved. He was of the view that a proper observation and analysis would help one arrive at the most efficient way to perform a task. Taylor would observe people working, then put them in controlled situation and analyze the results to arrive at conclusions. As Taylor used scientific ways to arrive at solutions to management problems, he is rightly regarded as the Father of Scientific Management. It was an irony that the first chapter of the book of Management Education was not written in the arena of academics, but was written on the shop floor. However, Taylor was of the view that management needed to be formulated as an academic discipline, and industries should consult those having the knowledge of this discipline to arrive at the most efficient ways of doing things.

Taylor believed that it would be better to separate planning from execution; earlier those who planned would execute. This way he reasoned that most of the work which the workers were doing could be done by the top management in a better way. Thus, the onus to plan shifted to the top management and the workers remained responsible only for the execution of the plans. Taylor also focused on the selection and development of workers. He put the emphasis on imparting skills through education; this was very different from the earlier thought of gaining skills through continual and repetitive practice. Nonetheless, he was of the view that continual practice helped one refine the skills, but ‘which skills to refine’, and ‘the best way to refine the skills’ was to be decided by the top management. Taylor also focused on designing a compensation system which was different from the traditional piece-meal system. The compensation system which he designed valued above-average performance and punished below-average performance; to arrive at the ‘average performance’ he once again took help of the scientific enquiry. This way, Taylor introduced the scientific enquiry into all the fields of management, whether it was selection, training, recruitment or compensation. For the first time, the industry was looking at these activities in a different way: the processes were being standardized and the focus was on finding the best way of doing things through scientific investigation. However, scientific investigation had its limits – in business activities, not all processes could have been standardized. The biggest criticism of scientific management was related with its treatment of humans as mere instrument of production. The men too were seen as being machines, and thus their behavior too was to be molded and standardized! Perhaps, scientific management tried to deliver too much, and with its excessive focus on treating humans as instrument of production, it failed to take care of the human issues inside the organization which had started to surface with the advancement of the industries.


Source for the content
http://www.voxmentis.com/2011/01/this-is-pa-r-t-one-of-t-w-o-pa-r-t.html


The content to be included in Technology Efficiency Engineering

Modernism and Culture of Efficiency
Book by Evelyn Cobley
Google Book Link
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=3J5fYfM0shoC

Special Issue on Taylor by Jounal of Business and Management
http://www.chapman.edu/asbe/_files/journals-and-essays/jbm-editions/jmb-vol-17-01.pdf

Friday, July 19, 2013

Method Study - Case Studies


2013
Case Study - Improvement of a Testing Process
http://sparc.nfu.edu.tw/~ijeti/download/V3-no3-134-143.pdf

2011
Productivity Improvement of a Manual Assembly Line
http://repository.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2011-08-10133/YERASI-THESIS.pdf?sequence=2


APPLICATION of WORK SAMPLING and ECRS (Eliminate, Combine, Re-lay out and Simplify)
PRINCIPLES of IMPROVEMENT at TO1 ASSEMBLY
http://www.onsemi.com/site/pdf/SANYO-ApplicationofWorkSamplingandECRS-FINAL2.pdf


Improvements in Material Handling: A Case Study of Cement Manufacturing Plant - 2011 - India plant


Gilbreth and Health care method study

Manufacturing Design for Productivity - 1959

Productivity improvement in parabolic spring manufacturing plant - Nov 2011

The Use of Structured Approach to Solve Yield Limiting Defects in a Compound Semiconductor Factory - 2011 paper - 5W1H method - Focused Improvement - Seven Step Process

Work Improvement in Car Manufacturing Company, 2002
http://eprints.utm.my/1303/1/JT36A5.pdf

Apparel companies - survey - India
http://www.methodsapparel.com/download/Performance%20Assessment%20of%20Apparel%20Industries-A%20Survey.pdf

Technical audit
http://www.ijser.org/researchpaper%5CTechnical-Audit-A-Thoroughfare-To-System-Perfection.pdf

Integration and test strategies for complex machines
http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/200810289.pdf

Continuous improvement at Lonza
http://bio.lonza.com/uploads/tx_mwaxmarketingmaterial/Lonza_PowerpointSlidesCollections_032504_BioPharma_Conference.pdf

Using plastic components
http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3400/13/13_chapter%207.pdf

Thursday, July 11, 2013

Industrial Engineering - Steel Making - Steel Technology - Steel Plan

NPTEL Steel Making Course Lectures

NPTEL Steel Making Course Videos

Steel Plan Operations Manual - Neelachal Ispat
http://ninl.in/new/REFERENCE%20MANUAL(TECH)(DIPLOMA-BE).pdf


Steel Production Methods Improvement Study
http://www-personal.umd.umich.edu/~williame/ortiz.html


Case Study and Analysis of the Production Processes in a Steel Factory
in Jordan
Jamil J. Al Asfar, and Ashraf Salim
World Renewable Energy Conference 2011
http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/vol7/030/ecp57vol7_030.pdf


Energy system optimization for a scrap based steel plant using mixed
integer linear programming
Johan Riesbeck1,*
, Philip Lingebrant2
, Erik Sandberg1
, Chuan Wang1
2011
http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/vol7/026/ecp57vol7_026.pdf


Mingyuan Chen, Weimin Wang, (1997) "A linear programming model for integrated steel production and distribution planning", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 17 Iss: 6, pp.592 - 610


Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in the Iron and Steel Making Process 
Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming Jeong Hwan Kim
1
, Heui-Seok Yi,  and Chonghun Hang

A flexible decision support system for steel hot rolling
mill scheduling
Peter Cowling*
Computers & Industrial Engineering 45 (2003) 307–321

Material Design in Steel Making using mathematical approaches
PhD Thesis , 1997
http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2586&context=theses

Overview of Current Flux Practices and Challenges for the Oxygen Steelmaking Process
http://www.carmeusena.com/files/files/techpapersreports/aist_202006_20__20carmeuse_20oxygen_20flux_20paper.pdf


Three Steps for Steel Cost Reduction - Accenture 2010 paper
http://www.accenture.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PDF/Accenture-Three-Steps-Sustainable-Cost-Reduction-Steel-companies-set-sights.pdf

Optimization algorithms in the charge planning for the BOF Plant - 2012 paper
http://www.journalamme.org/papers_vol55_2/58239.pdf

New Siemens electric arc furnace cuts my co2 emissions by 30%
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2012/04/siemens-20120401.html

OPTIMIZATION OF THE EAF PROCESS AT CAPE GATE (PTY) LTD (DAVSTEEL DIVISION)
USING GOODFELLOW EFSOPr TECHNOLOGY
11% increase in tonnage - 2008
http://www.imim.pl/files/archiwum/Vol2_2008/artykuly/Scipolo.pdf

Strategic Cost Management for Steel Companies - Deloitte
http://www.deloitte.com.br/publicacoes/2007/MFG.Strategic_cost_management_for_steel_companies.pdf

Iron and Steel Enterprise Production Logistics Optimization
http://www.research-degree-thesis.com/showinfo-29-260755-0.html

Optimising iron and steel waste
http://www.iom3.org/news/optimising-iron-and-steel-waste

Heat exchanger system used in steel making
2008 patent
http://www.google.com/patents/EP1756320A4?cl=en

A Linear Programming Model of Integrated Iron and Steel Production
Journal: Management Science - MANAGE SCI , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 415-449, 1958

OPTIMIZATION METHODS IN MODELING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAVY STEEL PLATES
http://www.imim.pl/files/archiwum/Vol4_2012/10.pdf

Steel Production at Optimal Cost
India - 2006 paper
LP Model applied
http://www.iitk.ac.in/directions/may2006/PRINT~DEO.pdf

A Linear Programming Model for Distribution of Electrical Energy in a Steel Plant
Issue International Transactions in Operational Research
International Transactions in Operational Research
Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 17–29, January 1994


Tuesday, July 9, 2013

Methods Time Measurement (MTM) - Detailed Description




Engineered Work Measurement: The Principles, Techniques, and Data of Methods-time Measurement Background and Foundations of Work Measurement and Methods-time Measurement, Plus Other Related Material

Delmar William Karger, Franklin H. Bayha

Industrial Press Inc., 1987 - Technology & Engineering - 503 pages
Includes extensive information on I.E. and work measurement software. Focuses on the MTM material that has been refined for more than three decades. Provides accurate answers to all questions regarding MTM-1 found in the MTM Association for Standards and Research MTM-1 Examinations. Covers the minimum work measurement background essential to all who must understand and apply MTM-1.
Google Book Link with Preview facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=K-JSTQ0tkkkC

Sunday, July 7, 2013

Human Effort Engineering - General Statements



The work should be organized so that the operator receives only essential information through the appropriate sensory channels and at the time and place needed. The information should be presented in a way that permits the operator to react to it in the optimum manner.

In the decision-making phase of a task, the work should be arranged so that interpretations and decisions will be as nearly automatic as possible. The number of choices which the operator must make at a given time should be as few as possible.

The work method should be so designed so as to enable the operator to perform the task in the shortest possible time and with the greatest ease and satisfaction. The number of body members and the number of motions should be as few as possible, and the length of motions should be as short as possible. The job should be so designed so that it results in the lowest energy expenditure and the least physiological stress, as measured by calories per minute and heart beats per minute.


Source
R.M. Barnes, Motion and Time Study, 5 Edition
P. 212

Business Process Efficiency Engineering - Improvement



Business Process Efficiency Improvement or Engineering must involve process re-design to obtain processes that achieve the same (functional) goals, while increasing efficiency of the process (decreasing the cost of the process)

Maxine Attong - COD Business Process Improvement Manual, (Page 145)

Process Measurements

Three sets of  measures are used to gauge the process.

1. Process efficiency - measures the time that activities take to covert inputs to outputs.
2.Output effectiveness - measures how well the output meets the design requirements.
3. Output effectiveness and customer satisfaction - measures how well output meets customers' needs.

Process Efficiency Measures

Ideally, one measures identifies the minimum possible resources to be consumed during the process. Actual resource consumption is quantified and assessed against set standards as a variance, variation or deviation. The results lead to the control (managerial actions)  of people, materials, methods, environment and the way each resource or factor interacts with the other. Resource consumption is an easy measure since it is tangible.  Standards are set based on the experience or scientific investigations (Scientific Management).

Example - Accounts Payable Process Efficiency Measures

Inputs - Purchase invoices received per month.
Time - The cycle time and the basic work time taken for an invoice to be processes and for the vendor to receive payment.
People - Payroll cost, Level of training or skilled labor used in the process
Equipment - Utilization and cost
Output - The number of accurate payments generated per month and reasons for delays

Detailed description of measurements made is available in the book.

Purpose of Efficiency Measures

Efficiency measures are used to drive decision making around improving the process. Each measurement tells the story about the process. The process owner, process designer, and efficiency engineer (industrial engineer) have to know the causes before changes can be made to improve the process.

Efficiency Analysis of Inputs

Efficiency Analysis of Time

Efficiency Analysis of People

Details given in the book.







Using Business Process Re-engineering to Increase Process Efficiency of E-Catalogue
Distribution System
Zulkhairi Md Dahalin and Siti Fatimah Yusof
IBIMA Publishing
IBIMA Business Review
http://www.ibimapublishing.com/journals/IBIMABR/ibimabr.html
Vol. 2012 (2012), Article ID 731793, 8 pages
http://www.ibimapublishing.com/journals/IBIMABR/2012/731793/731793.pdf

A More Comprehensive Approach to Enhancing Business Process Efficiency
Seung-Hyun Rhee1, Nam Wook Cho2, and Hyerim Bae3 􀁧
1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Seoul National University,
151-742, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering,
Seoul National University of Technology,
139-743, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3 Department of Industrial Engineering, Pusan National University,
635-709, Busan, Republic of Korea

Abstract. Whereas Business Process Management (BPM) systematically
guides employee participation in business processes, there has been little
support, use or development of user-friendly functions to improve the
efficiency of those processes. To enhance business process efficiency, it is
necessary to provide automatic rational task allocation and work-item
importance prioritization, so that task performers no longer need to be
concerned with process performance. In the context of BPM, two different
perspectives, the Process Engine Perspective (PEP) and the Task Performer
Perspective (TPP), are considered. Accordingly, we developed a comprehensive
method that considers those two perspectives, in combination rather than
separately.


Development and testing of a business process orientation model to improve employee and
organizational performance
Arshad Zaheer,  Kashif Ur Rehman, and Muhammad Aslam Khan
October 2009
http://www.academicjournals.org/Ajbm/PDF/pdf2010/Feb/Zaheer%20et%20al.pdf

Accounting Analysis of IT Costs

Accounting for internal IT - Analyze Your Overlooked IT costs

Because of the many variables involved, many companies simply write off IT as necessary overhead
that’s too complex to track and analyze through cost and management accounting

Here are the key cost areas to watch and some practical ways to account for them.

1. IT labour

Projects ranging from a non-standard data query to the implementation of the latest business intelligence application may require hours, days and even months of IT labour time. Accounting  for this time alone will get organizations much closer to understanding IT costs. Establish a standard rate based on the average cost of an IT employee.  You need not overcomplicate this and with a standard average rate, you can get a pretty good picture of what it’s actually costing you without having to do overly  detailed cost accounting.

When coming up with a number, be sure to factor in staff turnover, absenteeism and training, as these costs can be substantially higher in IT than in other areas.


2. Data entry

The people who support IT systems are not exclusively in IT. ERP (enterprise resource planning) and other business support systems may require significant, regular data entry to keep current. As with IT labour, using an hourly rate to approximate what this activity is costing the organization. Some companies use  $20 an hour. Even at that rate, the costs can add up. If 100 hours a month is spend by various people to keep an ERP system up to date, the $24,000-per-year total might raise some eyebrows. “The big sin is to omit it,”

3. Training

If employees aren’t properly trained, even a routine software upgrade such as installing a new version of Microsoft  Outlook can wreak havoc on an organization’s workforce.People struggle to do things with new IT systems that they used to be able to do before with old process. A significant proportion of help-desk
calls — 25 per cent or more — occur because the end-user didn’t understand how to use the application. The true costs of neglected training are not directly visible. Instead, they show up in the poor use of software
features, buddy systems in which employees interrupt one another to get assistance and countless hours spent deciphering user manuals. It costs the organizations thousands and thousands of dollars in lost productivity, and most organizations don’t see that, and don’t track it.”

Real training costs, which include the training itself and employee time spent in classrooms, are substantial.  Two weeks per year is not unusual for IT people, and people who could be considered power users — administrators, coordinators, analysts — may require five days or more. Delegating end-user training to the
IT department is a common mistake. IT people are not necessarily good teachers, and they often can’t spare the time to train. [For more on IT training, see “Taking on the IT Training Deficit” in the July/August 2011 issue of CMA magazine.]

4. Change management

When an organization acquires significant information management capabilities that affect daily operations, big changes can occur in a workplace. Months can also pass before the workforce becomes comfortable with a new system.The costs can be especially high when the affected workforce deals directly with customers. This is the cost of disruption. You really need to have sufficient planning, testing and training to get people not just to a rudimentary level of user capability, but to a point where they are reasonably
proficient. Once again, labour costs should be approximated.

5. Infrastructure

Hardware and software quickly become obsolete, and because many organizations see annual data storage increases of 30 per cent or more, capacity is an ongoing concern. Changes in an IT system can also cause existing infrastructure to reach capacity and set off a spiral of upgrades. For example, a new software system might require more storage capacity which could trigger upgrades to operating systems, servers and network hardware.

The best way to stay on top of infrastructure costs is to create standard rates for machine capacity and storage, and track usage in dollars. This strategy prevents surprises. It also ensures that the cost of upgrading isn’t unfairly allocated to one department or project when an existing system reaches capacity or
is incompatible with a new application.


A rough system for estimating and tracking the costs of IT is far better than no system at all. By establishing standard rates and applying them continuously, organizations can bring  much-needed transparency to IT
funding.

In addition to allowing organizations to manage their recurring IT expenditures more effectively, this strategy also gives decision makers the cost benchmarks that they need to create business cases for new technology or outsourcing  options such as cloud computing.

Reference
Jacob Stoller
CMA MAGAZINE November/December 2012 pp.40-41
See www.jacobstoller.com.

(To be revised once again)

Saturday, July 6, 2013

Change or Die - The Business Process Improvement Manual - 2012 - Maxine Attong

Publishers CRC Press



Table of Contents


Case Study: URHere Co.
Company Background
The GPS Industry
Strategy Map
Scenario
Structure of URHere

Vision and Goals
Build or Validate the Vision
The Challenge
State the Vision
Creating Vision
Set Goals
Perform Gap Analysis
     Perform Skills Analysis
     Perform Gap Analysis
Illustration
SMART Objectives
Check for Alignment
Develop Action Plan
Relevancy to Business Process Improvement

Change Management
Background
Introduction
People Fear Change
Culture
Business Unusual
Fear
Change Management
Change Management Defined
Managing Change
Develop Components
Conclusion

Stakeholder Analysis
Define Organizational Stakeholders
Process Stakeholders
Group Stakeholders
Acknowledge Stakeholder Interests
Define Stakeholder Strategy Plan
Develop Stakeholder Strategy Plan
Define Communication
Develop a Communications Action Plan
Define Outreach Role
Select Outreach Member
Define Stakeholder Analysis
Determine Stakeholder Risks
Define Stakeholder Opportunity
Perform Detailed Stakeholder Analysis
Mitigate Behavior
Update Analysis
Conclusion

Core Process
A Process Is
Define Core Processes
Determining Core Processes
Identifying Core Processes
     Step 1: Define the Organization’s Purpose
     Step 2: Determine What the Organization Does to Support Its Purpose
     Step 3: Identify the Processes
     Step 4: Define the Processes
     Step 5: Ask the Question—Challenge
          Process View
          Define Core Processes
          Activities
Tasks
Process View
Conclusion

Business Process Improvement
Definition
Beliefs
Teams
The BPI Approach
Conclusion

Facilitation and Business Process Improvement Methodology
Overview
Benefits
Components
Group Size
Roles
Workshop Life Cycle
Disciplined Leadership
Overview
Guiding Principles
Primary Skills
     Considerations
People Principles
Ground Rules
Groups and Conflict

The Case for Business Process Improvement
Labels
Why We Need Business Process Improvement
Vision, Goals, and Objectives
Interactions
Reports Analysis Activity
     Step 1: Identify the Reports
          Complete the Table
     Step 2: Why the Reports Exist
     Step 3: How to Eliminate the Unnecessary Reports
Conclusion

Tools for Business Process Improvement
Project Issues
Project Tools
     Project Plan
          Project Team
Team Composition
     Team Charter
     Project Budget
     Project Timetable
Build Project Plan
     Risk and Opportunity Registers
          Risks
          Risk Register
          Opportunity Register
Lessons Learned
Documentation Plan

Process Selection
Introduction
Step 1: Establish What Is Important to the Organization
Step 2: Match Each What to One or More Processes
Step 3: Select from the Competing Whats
Process Characteristics
Introduction
Definitions
Process Characteristics Illustrated

Workflow Diagrams
Overview
Introduction
Questionnaire
Creating Workflow Diagrams
Test the Workflow
Walkthrough
Departmental Flows
Conclusion
Workflow Characteristics
Introduction
Value-Added
Activities
Non-Value-Added
Activities
Conclusion

Phase Gate One
Accomplishments of the Process Management Team
Role of the Process Examination Team

Dreams of the Process
Test Driving the Vision
Setting Goals
Align Goals to Vision
Perform Gap Analysis
Set SMART Objectives
     Objectives
          An Illustration
Develop Action Plans
Check for Alignment
Conclusion

Process Measurements
Why Measure?
Measurement System
Measurement Types
Process Measurements
Process/Efficiency Measures
Selected Process Measurements
     Measuring Inputs
     Measuring Time
     Measuring People
     Output Cost
Purpose of Efficiency Measures
     Decisions about Inputs
     Decisions about Time
     Decisions about People
Output/Effectiveness Measures
Purpose of Effectiveness Measures
     Decisions about Output Measures
     Decisions about Features
     Decisions about Conversion
     Other Processes
     Decisions about Customer Satisfaction
     Decisions about Customer Preferences
Outcome Effectiveness and Customer Satisfaction
Purpose of the Output Effectiveness Measure
Goals, Objectives, and Measurements
Conclusion

Strengths and Weaknesses
Process SWOT
     Step 1: Identify Internal Strengths and Weaknesses
     Step 2: Scan the External Environment
          Government
          Economic
          Technological
     Step 3: Prepare the SWOT Matrix
     Step 4: Compile Strategies
          Weaknesses
          Threats
          Opportunities
          Strategies
     Step 5: Validate Goals and Objectives
Conclusion

Business Process Improvement Planning
Purpose of Business Process Improvement Plan
Business Process Improvement Plan Elements
     Executive Summary
          The Problem
          The Solution
          Resources Needed
     The Process
     Vision, Goals, and Objectives
     SWOT Analysis
     Project Dream Team
     Risks
     Opportunities
     Resources
     Next Steps
     Conclusion

Phase Gate Two
Accomplishments of the Process Examination Team
Role of the Process Dream Team

Assumptions and Rules
Example
Introduction
Assumptions
Testing
     Step 1: Identify Assumptions
     Step 2: Validate Assumptions
     Step 3: Change the Activities That Are Invalid. Replace with New Ideas or Discard
          Discard Assumptions
          Generate New Ideas
          Uncertain Assumptions
     Step 4: For Assumptions That Hold True, What Can We Do to Change Them?
Results
Rules
Impact


Improve the Process
Alignment
Begin to Design
Questions
Non-Value- Added Activities
Value-Added Activities
Rules and Assumptions
Constraints
Technology
Design Again
Benchmarking
How to Benchmark
Improvements at the Service Center
Design Details
What Next?
Return to the Vision, Goals, and Objectives
Return to Stakeholders Analysis
Communications Plan
Conclusion

Phase Gate Three
Accomplishments of the Dream Team
Role of the Process Implementation Team

Implementation Plan
Background
Illustration: New Payroll System
Who: Implementation Team
What and When: Implementation Plan
Implementation Budget
Testing
Determine What to Do
Pre-implementation
Change Management
How to Implement
Post Implementation
Implementation Report
Conclusion

Phase Gate Four

Procedures
Bent Cookies
Recipe for Procedure
Purpose of Procedures
Developing Procedures
     The Target Audience
     Application of the Procedures
     Life Cycle of the Process
Procedures Document
Writing Procedures
Procedure Deployment
Changing Procedures
Example: Procedure Management
Audit
Background
Why Audit
Materiality and Impact
Sampling
     What to Sample
     How to Sample
     Sampling Results
     Sampling Risk
When to Audit
Audit Team
Audit Preparation
Audit Method
Conducting the Audit
Audit Findings
Recommendations
Audit Reports
Audit Meeting
Audit Check
Issue Closure
Audit Evaluation and Findings
Conclusion

Phase Gate Five

Wrap-Up
Final Report
     Executive Summary
     Problem and Solution—the Report
     Project Teams
     New Process
     Stakeholders
     Risks and Opportunities
     Lessons Learned
     Budget Comparisons
     Timetable
     Return-on-Investments (ROI)
     Outstanding Issues
     Conclusion
Handover
Dismantling the Project Team
Documentation
Other Processes
Conclusion

Appendix A: Structuring Your Workshop
Well Codified
The Beginning
The Middle Steps
Review and Wrap-Up

Appendix B: Workshop Tools
Brainstorming
Responsibility Matrix
Guardian of Change (Communications Plan)
Assessment
Power Balls

Appendix C: Workshop Agendas
Vision and Goals Workshop
Stakeholder Analysis Workshop
Core Process Workshop
The Tools for Business Process Improvement: Budgets Workshop
Process Selection Workshop
Dreams of the Process Workshop
Strengths and Weaknesses Workshop
Implementation Plan Workshop
Wrap-Up Workshop

Appendix D: Workshop Ice Breaker and Warm-Up Activities
Batons, Jam, and Tape Activity
Business Process Improvement Cartoon Activity
Carry Me Activity
Coin Toss Activity
Do You Know Me? Activity
Fairy Tales Activity
Fear Activity
Getting to Know You Activity
Glass of Wine Activity
Group Car Crash Activity
Group Directions Activity
Group Resumé Activity
Hair Dye Activity
Jack-in-the-Box Activity
Jobs Activity
Language Activity
License Plates Activity
Making Excuses Activity
Measure Me Activity
Musical Composition Activity
Objects Activity
Relay Activity
Relay Race Activity
Say It Again Activity
Share Your Dreams Activity
Bibliography
Glossary
Index


Tuesday, July 2, 2013

Business Process Improvement - Bibliography


Process Analysis and Process Improvement
_____________

_____________


Course Syllabus - Business Process Improvement )Czech course)
https://isis.vse.cz/katalog/syllabus.pl?predmet=90870;quick=1

Introduction to Business Process Optimization - California University at Irvine
http://unex.uci.edu/courses/sectiondetail.aspx?year=2013&term=SUMMER&sid=00359

Review of Beyond Business Process Improvement, Onto Business Transformation, by John C. Jeston
http://www.bptrends.com/publicationfiles/03-2013-BR-Transformation-Jeston.pdf

Key Role of Employees in BPI
http://kaizeninstituteindia.wordpress.com/2013/05/31/key-role-of-employees-in-business-process-improvement/


Steamlined Process Improvement
H. James Harrington
McGraw Hill - July 2011
Harrington's process improvement method cuts costs by 60% while improving quality 100%
One of the best-known innovators in the field, Harrington worked in process improvement at IBM for 40 years and was a quality advisor for Ernst & Young for 10 years; he is the author of Business Process Improvement
Shows operations managers how to improve processes by using simulation modeling, risk analysis, innovation techniques, Lean, process variation, and organizational change management
http://www.mcgraw-hill.com.au/html/9780071768634.html
Chapter two of the book
What is Streamlined Process Improvement?
A chapter by Harrington - McGraw Hill Book
http://www.mhprofessional.com/downloads/products/0071768637/0071768637_harrington_streamlined-process-improvement_ch_2.pdf



Business Process Improvement Toolbox
Bjorn Andersen
ASQ Quality Press, 01-Jan-2007 - Business & Economics - 296 pages
This best-seller is fully revised and updated! Its goal is still to give readers practical insight into how they can create a coherent business process improvement system. The author works from the premise that consistently working on improving various aspects of how things are done, large and small, is the key to success for any organization. The first half presents an overall business process improvement model, with the ensuing chapters dealing with topics of understanding and modeling your current business processes, using performance measurement in improvement work, creating a business process improvement roadmap, and organizing for improvement work. The second half of the book presents the overall toolbox, followed by one chapter for each phase of the overall improvement model. For each of these phases, a selection of suitable tools is presented with background, steps to use them, and an example of their use. The final two chapters contain two more extensive case studies illustrating the use of the full methodology. And finally, a number of templates can be found at the very end of the book, templates that support most of the tools presented. This book is suitable for employees and managers at any organizational level in any type of industry, including service, manufacturing, and the public sector. It should also be useful as a textbook for students in courses relating to quality management and continuous improvement.



Business Process Improvement Workbook
H.James Harrington et. al.
McGraw Hill, 1997

Business Process Improvement
Book by H. Hames Harrington, McGraw Hill, 1991
Google Book Link with Preview Facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=H3ZpibxZQZ0C

The Power of Business Process Improvement
Susan Page
Amacom, 2010
Google Books Link with Preview Facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=JQo04k8eGvYC

Improving Business Processes
Harvard Press Books, 2010
http://hbr.org/product/improving-business-processes/an/13283-PBK-ENG




Aydinli, O.F, Brinkkemper, S, and Ravesteyn, P. “”Business Process Improvement in Organizational Design of e-Government Services.” Electronic Journal of e-Government Volume 7 Issue 2 2009, (pp. 123 - 134), available online at www.ejeg.com


Business Process Improvement: Seven Steps to Operational Excellence (in Insurance Companies)
http://www.jiops.com/01/2008/business-process-improvement-seven-steps-to-operational-excellence/

Business Process Improvement
Harrington Institute Brochure
http://www.harrington-institute.com/knowledge-objects/methodologies/harrington-institute-methodology-business-process-improvement.pdf

What is Streamlined Process Improvement?
A chapter by Harrington - McGraw Hill Book
http://www.mhprofessional.com/downloads/products/0071768637/0071768637_harrington_streamlined-process-improvement_ch_2.pdf


Literature review
Title: A structured evaluation of business process improvement approaches
Author(s): Gregor Zellner (Department of Management Information Systems, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany)
Gregor Zellner, "A structured evaluation of business process improvement approaches", Emerald 17, (2011)
Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a structured overview of so-called business process improvement (BPI) approaches and their contribution to the actual act of improving. Even though a lot is said about BPI, there is still a lack of supporting the act of improving the process. Most approaches concentrate on what needs to be done before and after the improvement act, but the act of improving itself still seems to be a black box.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper is mainly based on a review of literature that deals with the term “Business Process Improvement”. The analysis of the literature is supported by qualitative content analysis. The structure of the evaluation follows the mandatory elements of a method (MEM).

Findings – A lot of literature and consulting approaches deal with the restructuring and improvement of business processes.

Originality/value – The paper is valuable for academics and practitioners because the impact of BPI on organizational performance is high. Its originality is in the structured evaluation of so-called BPI approaches according to the MEM, which so far no one has investigated.
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/case_studies.htm/case_studies.htm?articleid=1921892&show=html



A Model-driven and Service-oriented framework
for the business process improvement
Andrea Delgado, Francisco Ruiz, Ignacio García-Rodríguez de Guzmán,Mario Piattini
Journal of Systems Integration 2010/3
http://si-journal.org/index.php/JSI/article/viewFile/55/41

Role of process knowledge in business process improvement methodology: a case study
Ravi Seethamraju, Olivera Marjanovic, (2009) "Role of process knowledge in business process improvement methodology: a case study", Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 15 Iss: 6, pp.920 - 936



The Idea Behind Business Process Improvement: Toward a business process improvement pattern framework
Florian Forster, BP Trends, April 2006
http://www.bptrends.com/publicationfiles/04-06-ART-PatternFramework-Forster.pdf


Business-oriented process improvement: practices and experiences
at Thales Naval The Netherlands (TNNL)
Jos J.M. Trienekens, Rob J. Kusters, Ben Rendering, Kees Stoklac
Information and Software Technology 47 (2005) 67–79

ANALYSIS OF TECHNIQUES FOR BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
Griesberger, Philipp, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, 93040 Regensburg,
Germany,
Leist, Susanne, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, 93040 Regensburg,
Germany,
Zellner, Gregor, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, 93040 Regensburg,
Germany,
Abstract
This paper is about identifying and analyzing techniques that can be used in a business process improvement (BPI) situation. To determine suitable techniques, the term BPI is defined and criteria are
derived to analyze the usability of the selected techniques. Over 300 techniques from various improvement methods were reduced to those techniques which can be applied to help improve business
processes and, in particular, to support the act of improvement. Identifying these techniques is helpful,
because in most cases the act of improvement is a black box that lacks guidelines or structured procedures. In our research we developed an evaluation scheme to analyze the usability of BPI techniques
and give hints about how to select a suitable technique for a certain improvement situation


Process Steamlining and Its Application to Your Management System
P. Crawford, Business Post
http://www.businessport.net/files/docs/Whitepapers/Process_Streamlining_and_its_Application_to_your_Management_System.pdf

Business Process Improvement - Wikipedia article
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_improvement

MIPIM Framework for Business Process Improvement
by Sola Adesola, Cranefield University
http://www.abepro.org.br/biblioteca/enegep2000_i0282.pdf

Applying Lean and Workout as Tools for Business Improvement
Presentation
http://www.ler.illinois.edu/sociotech/documents/590slides-lp-9-29-09.pdf

Action workflow approach to workflow management technology
1992 article
http://cos.ufrj.br/~jano/CSCW2004/medina-mora_1992.pdf

Capabilities of Various Muscles, Joints and Bones - Biblography




Endurance time, pain and resumption in passive loading of the elbow joint
Linda Roseab, Mats Ericsonb & Roland Ortengrena

Ergonomics, Volume 43, Issue 3, 2000, pages 405-420

Monday, July 1, 2013

Industrial Engineering in Forestry - Bibliography



Analysis of Methods of  Studying Operation Efficiency in Forestry
1967 MS Thesis  describing the role of various IE techniques
https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/id/128824/UBC_1967_A6 

Motion and Time Study for Lean Manufacturing, 3rd Edition By Fred E. Meyers, Jim R. Stewart - Book Information



Published by Prentice Hall

Published Date: May 22, 2001

Table of Contents



 1. Introduction to Motion and Time Study.


 2. Motion and Time Study for the Lean Environment.


 3. History of Motion and Time Study.


 4. The Importance and Uses of Motion and Time Study.


 5. Techniques of Methods Design: The Product Flow Macromotion.


 6. Techniques of Micromotion Study: Operations Analysis.


 7. Motion Study: The Work Station Design.


 8. Predetermined Time Standards (PTS) System.


 9. Stopwatch Time Study.


10. Standard Data and Its Uses in Balancing Work.


11. Work Sampling.


12. Indirect Labor and Motion and Time Study.


13. Performance Control Systems.


14. Wage Payment Systems.


15. Time Management Techniques.


16. Attitudes and Goals for Industrial Engineers.


Appendix A: Forms.


Appendix B: Answers to Problems. 

Articles by R.M. Barnes - Bibliography



AN INVESTIGATION OF SOME HAND
MOTIONS USED IN FACTORY WORK
BY
R a l p h M. B a r n e s
Professor of Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering Department
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa
PU B L ISH E D BY T H E U N IV ER SITY
IOW A CITY, IOW A
February, 1936
http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=uisie


STUDIES OF HAND MOTIONS AND
RHYTHM APPEARING IN
FACTORY WORK
BY
R a l p h M . B a r n e s
Professor of Industrial Engineering
Mechanical Engineering Department
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
AND
M arvin E. M u n d e l
Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
PUBLISHED BY T H E UN IVER SITY
IO W A CITY, IO W A
FEBRUARY, 1938
http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&context=uisie







A STUDY OF HAND MOTIONS USED IN
SMALL ASSEMBLY WORK
B y
R a l p h M . B a r n e s
Professor of Industrial Engineering
and Director of Personnel
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
AND
M a r v in E . M u n d e l
Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
PUBLISHED BY TH E UNIVERSITY
IOWA CITY, IOWA
January, 1939
http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=uisie



A STUDY OF SIMULTANEOUS SYMMETRICAL  HAND MOTIONS
By
R a l p h M. B a r n e s
Professor of Industrial Engineering
and Director of Personnel
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
A N D
M a r v in E . M u n d e l
Research Assistant in Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY
IOWA CITY, IOWA
April, 1939
http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1017&context=uisie

STUDIES OF ONE AND TWO-HANDED WORK
I. Grasping Small Parts from Different Type Bins
II. Grasping Various Sized Parts
III. Positioning Small Parts
By
Ra l ph M. B arnes
Professor of Industrial Engineering
and Director of Personnel
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
Marvin E. Mu n d e l
Instructor in Industrial Engineering
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
AND
J o h n M. Ma c k e n z ie
Graduate Student in Mechanical Engineering
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY
IOWA CITY, IOWA
March, 1940
http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1021&context=uisie


A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRACTICE
ON THE ELEMENTS OF A FACTORY
OPERATION
By
R a l p h M . B a r n e s
Professor of Industrial Engineering
and Director of Personnel
College of Engineering
University of Iowa
And
J a m e s S. P e rk in s
Industrial Engineer
Western Electric Company
Chicago, Illinois
W ith the assistance and collaboration of
J. M. J u ra n
Manufacturing Engineer
Western Electric Company
New York, New York
PUBLISH ED BY T H E UNIV ERSITY
IOW A CITY , IOW A
NOVEMBER, 1940
http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1022&context=uisie