Monday, December 23, 2013

Toyota Style Industrial Engineering - American Industrial Engineering - Difference



Toyota Style Industrial Engineering has focus on efficiency and waste elimination from manufacturing processes. They use all techniques advocated by pioneers to achieve their objective with some significant improvements.


Value analysis and engineering
Process Analysis
Operation Analysis
Motion Analysis
Work measurement
 Layout Improvement


 New Techniques - Shiegeo Shingo

SMED
Poka-yoke

Mathematical optimization
Operations Research
Statistics

New ideas - Reduce total costs associated with inventory - setup, inventory carrying cost and shortage cost.
Develop machines with more intelligence.
Involve operators and supervisors in improvement activities apart from industrial engineers and managers.
Strong belief,  commitment and effort for continuous improvement.

Industrial Engineering Techniques for Discussion and Presentation




1. Value Analysis and Engineering

2. Process Analysis using Flow Process Chart and Operation Process Chart - Method Study

3. Operation Analysis - Maynard - Nine areas

4. Principles of Motion Economy - Motion Analysis

5. Work Measurement using Stop Watch

6. OR Models

7. Six Sigma

8. PERT and CPM

9. Value Stream Mapping

10. SMED

11. Poka Yoke

12. Lean Manufacturing

Taachi Ohno - Japanese Books

Creating a Lean R&D System: Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations - Book Information



Creating a Lean R&D System: Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations
Terence M Barnhart
CRC Press, 20-Aug-2012 - Business & Economics - 267 pages

The ability to find and remove barriers between people and their systems in R&D can almost guarantee a doubling in performance, and often delivers multiples of that. R&D teams that have smooth handoffs deliver 100 percent of the required knowledge at those handoffs. As a result, such teams do not lose critical information, have unexpected knowledge gaps appear in their projects, or have uncoordinated knowledge transfers that waste minutes, days, and even months every year.

Creating a Lean R&D System: Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations lays out the logic of why Lean implementation isn’t strictly for manufacturing and describes why it can be just as effective in R&D organizations. Terence Barnhart, former senior director of continuous improvement at Pfizer R&D, describes the theoretical and physical underpinnings of creating a Lean transformation in any R&D organization, as exemplified by the Lean transformation initiated within the R&D division of a global pharmaceutical company.

Describing how to merge Lean principles with the cultural virtues inherent in R&D, the book presents Lean approaches that can be easily applied in pharmaceutical and research-based organizations. It takes a strategic approach to solving two problems unique to the Lean field. The first is in noting the key distinctions between R&D and manufacturing, and developing a Lean approach specific to the R&D environment. The second is that it proposes a systematic middle-out (merger/maneuver) strategy to help you initiate and sustain a Lean culture within your pharmaceutical R&D organization that will help you immediately engage all stakeholders involved.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=I7FE_DLSmJQC

Industrial Engineering in Toyota - Japanese Pages

Sunday, December 22, 2013

Toyota Kaizen Methods: Six Steps to Improvement - 2010 - Book Information



Isao Kato, Art Smalley
CRC Press, 19-Oct-2010 -  156 pages


Toyota Kaizen Methods: Six Steps to Improvement focuses on the skills and techniques practiced inside Toyota Motor Corporation during the past decades. This workbook focuses on the actual training course concepts and methods used by Toyota to develop employee skill level, a core element of Toyota’s success. It is not a book about holding Western-style five-day Kaizen events, which were in reality quite rare during the development of Toyota’s production system and are virtually nonexistent today inside Toyota. Written by two of Toyota’s most revered and experienced trainers, the book —

Traces the origins of Kaizen since the inception of Toyota Motor Corporation
Articulates the basic six-step Kaizen improvement skills pattern taught inside Toyota
Helps practitioners of Kaizen improve their own skill level and confidence by simplifying concepts and removing any mystery in the process
Provides homework assignments and a wealth of forms for analyzing work processes
If you take the time to study the concepts detailed here, you will be reviewing the same methods and techniques that were harnessed by generations of Toyota supervisors, managers, and engineers. These techniques are not the secret ingredient of Lean manufacturing; however, mastery of these timeless techniques will improve your ability to conduct improvement in almost any setting and generate improvement results for your organization.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=RS4nsJGsgmEC

Issued the book from the NITIE library



Thursday, December 19, 2013

Wage Incentives - Literature Review







Taylor's differential piece rate system:: This system introduced to penalize a slow worker by paying him a low piece rate for low production and to reward an efficient worker by giving him a higher piece rate for a higher production. Thus if a worker completes the work within or less than the standard time, he is paid a higher piece rate and if he does not complete the work within the standard time, he is given a lower piece rate.


Merricks multiple piece rate: Under this method, three piece rates are applied for workers with different levels of performance. Wages are paid at ordinary piece rate to those workers whose performance is less than 83% of the standard out put. 110% piece rate is given to workers whose performance is between 83% and 100% of standard. 120% of ordinary piece rate is given to those workers who produce more than 100% of the standard output.


Gants's task and bonus plan: This plan is based on careful time and motion study. A standard time is fixed for doing a particular job, worker's actual performance is compared with the standard time and his efficiency is determined. If a worker takes more time then the standard time to complete the job (Below 100%) he is given wages for the time taken by him and if a worker takes the standard time to perform job (100% efficiency), he is given wages for the standard time and bonus of 20% of wages earned. If the worker take less time than the standard time his efficiency is more than 100% and he is given wages for the actual time and bonus at the rate of 20%.


Halsey premium plan: Under this method standard time is fixed for the job and worker is given wages for the actual time taken to complete the job at the agreed rate per hour plus a bonus to one half on the wages of the time saved.
Total wages = T x R + % (S - T) R
Where, T = actual time, R = Rate per hour, S = Standard time, % = 50% otherwise mentioned in the question.

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Total Productive Maintenance - Japan Management Association - Proclamation - 1971



Tsutomu Nakamura, General Manager, Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance
Presentation at Chennai, 12 September, 2013

http://tpmclubindia.org/pdf/2013/Japan_Institute_Plant_Manintenance.pdf


1961 Japan Management Association established plant maintenance department.

1971 TPM was proclaimed.

1981 Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance was launched.

Monday, December 16, 2013

4-Week Basic Training Program in Industrial Engineering at NITIE, Mumbai, India



We will conduct 4-week training programs for companies on industrial engineering of product design and production processes.


Topics

Introduction to Industrial Engineering
Product Design Efficiency Engineering - Value Analysis and Engineering
Production Methods Efficiency Engineering
Human Effort Engineering
       Motion Analysis and Economical Motion Design
      Work Measurement
Lean Manufacturing
Japanese Innovations in Industrial Engineering
Application of Statistics for Zero Defects and Six Sigma
Optimization and Operations Research applied to Product Design and Production Processes
Accounting and Engineering Economics for Economical Design, Equipment and Production Decisions
Behavioral and Management Aspects of Industrial Engineering



You send an email to  Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao, Professor Industrial Engineering, NITIE ,  kvssnrao55 at gmail.com

Friday, December 13, 2013

Intra Ocular Lens at $5 - Drive Down Cost Creatively



David Green has figured out how to make expensive medical products affordable to the world's poorest people. He helped found Aurolab, a nonprofit manufacturing company in India, to produce surgically implanted artificial lenses for cataract patients for US$4 - $6 apiece, a dramatic reduction in the average US$100 - $150 price for lenses,

http://proxied.changemakers.net/journal/03january/herbst.cfm

Aurolab - Case Study
http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/MakingSightAffordable1/_res/id=sa_File1/INNOV0103_p25-41_ibrahim-et-al.pdf


Intraocular Lens Production at $5 by Fred Hollows Foundation
http://www.hollows.org.au/news-media/fred-hollows-lens-production-passes-four-million

Value Analysis: Approach and Job Plan





Basic Steps of value Analysis


The three basic steps are:

1. Identify the function.
2. Evaluate the function by comparison
3. Cause value alternatives to be developed.

The value analysis approach requires development of valid answers for five questions for value analysis of any item:

1. What is the item?
2. What does it cost?
3. What does it do?
4. What else would do the job?
5. What would that alternative cost?

Number of alternatives have to developed in the value analysis exercise. Value analysis approach developed by Miles, aims at identifying very low cost base alternatives early in the exercise and then creatively improving them to deliver the set of functions desired.



Job Plan for Value Engineering

 
Phase 1. Orientation: Understand the customers’ needs and wants. Understand the functions performed by the product and the contribution of each part and each feature of the part and the complete product to the functions to be performed by the product.
Value engineer has to make sure that he does not diminish the contribution of the product to the customers' needs and wants.
 
Phase 2. Information: Collection of information on quantities, vendors, drawings, materials, manufacturing methods, and costs.

Phase 3. Speculation: Using all the techniques of value analysis to come out with alternative low cost materials and methods to produce components and the product. Creativity is to be employed here. Value engineer has to involve experts from various disciplines to help with ideas.
Phase 4. Analysis:  Technical and cost analysis of the alternative proposed.
Phase 5. Program planning: Approach the specialists to further refine the selected alternatives. Inform the specialists the accepted suggestions and give mandate to them to take steps to implement the suggestions.
 
Phase 6. Program execution: Pursue regularly the specialists and vendors to get their inputs on various tasks assigned to them. The output of this phase is a detailed design, successful trail  pilot  run of a manufacturing process or  a confirmed estimate from a vendor for supplying a component, material or sub assembly.
 
Phase 7. Status summary and conclusion. The results of the value engineering study are to be presented to decision makers. The reports needs to have a summary sheet as well as the full supporting documentation.  The value engineering project is concluded when the product is manufactured and distributed at the lowered cost as per the value engineering study.


Value Analysis Techniques



1. Blast, Create and Refine
2. Utilize vendors’ available functional products
3. Utilize specialty processes
4. Utilize applicable standards
5. Use information from the best source 
6. Get a dollar sign on key tolerances
7. Use real creativity
8. Identify and overcome roadblocks
9. Avoid generalities
10. Get all available costs
11. Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge
12. Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge
13. Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”

Detailed description of techniques is in Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques


Job Plan for Value Engineering and Use of techniques
 
Phase 1. Orientation: Understand the customers’ needs and wants. Understand the functions performed by the product and the contribution of each part and each feature of the part and the complete product to the functions to be performed by the product.
Value engineer has to make sure that he does not diminish the contribution of the product to the customers' needs and wants.
 
Phase 2. Information: Collection of information on quantities, vendors, drawings, materials, manufacturing methods, and costs.
Techniques to be used:

Get all available costs
Get a dollar sign on key tolerances


Phase 3. Speculation: Using all the techniques of value analysis to come out with alternative low cost materials and methods to produce components and the product. Creativity is to be employed here. Value engineer has to involve experts from various disciplines to help with ideas.
Techniques to be used:

Blast, create and refine

Blast
For each function to be performed by a product or a component, find alternative products, materials or processes that serve the function to a great extent but at a less cost. These alternative ideas do not satisfy the specified or required function completely but they do to a significant extent. Identify they function they perform and the cost involved,

During the blast activity use these techniques.
Utilize vendors’ available functional products

  • Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge
  • Utilize specialty processes
  • Utilize applicable standards
  • Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”

  • All the five techniques have the potential to suggest lower cost alternatives

    Create

    In create phase, the technique of "Use real creativity" needs to be employed to come out with ways by which the low cost alternatives identified during the blast stage can be modified to accomplish the specified function to a much greater extent with pertinent increase in cost. During this stage also the improvement in function and the increase in cost are to be clearly identified.

    Refine

    In this step, much more creativity is used and also the techniques "Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge" and  "Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge" are used to refine the ideas developed during the create step to come out with a refined alternative that fully accomplishes the specified function at a lower cost. During refine step, some more functionality is added as well as some additional cost.

     
    Phase 4. Analysis:  Technical and cost analysis of the alternative proposed.
    The techniques to keep in mind and use during this stage are:
    Avoid generalities
    Use information from the best source
    Identify and overcome roadblocks

    Phase 5. Program planning: Approach the specialists to further refine the selected alternatives. Inform the specialists the accepted suggestions and give mandate to them to take steps to implement the suggestions.
     
    Phase 6. Program execution: Pursue regularly the specialists and vendors to get their inputs on various tasks assigned to them. The output of this phase is a detailed design, successful trail  pilot  run of a manufacturing process or  a confirmed estimate from a vendor for supplying a component, material or sub assembly.
    Phase 7. Status summary and conclusion. The results of the value engineering study are to be presented to decision makers. The reports needs to have a summary sheet as well as the full supporting documentation.  The value engineering project is concluded when the product is manufactured and distributed at the lowered cost as per the value engineering study.

    References
    L.D. Miles, Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering, First Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1961

    Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/value-analysis-approach-and-job-plan/2utb2lsm2k7a/3900

    How to Find Low Cost High Quality Alternatives for Value Engineering - Industrial Engineering?



    Search intensively for low cost alternatives by:

    Studying handbooks

    Perusing trade literature

    Contacting people who might have pertinent information

    Focusing intense creativity sharply on the task to be accomplished

    Refining the results obtained by the above methods

    Unless this search for low cost alternative is effectively and penetratingly done, the real low cost solutions will not be identified by industrial engineers.

    Handbooks only contain information on materials and processes and their uses. They will not contain cost information.

    Cost information can be obtained by a combination of the following sources

    The cost department and cost ledger, The financial accounting department and ledger
    Cost analyses
    Catalogues
    Suppliers of products and materials
    Special cost studies

    Miles said 100 times more information than that which was presented in his book is necessary a high degree of value work.

    Wednesday, December 11, 2013

    LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries - 2013 - Book Information

    LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries to Master Today's VUCA World

    Josef Packowski
    CRC Press, 26-Nov-2013 - Business & Economics - 493 pages


    Delivering excellent service to all customers is the key imperative for many sustainable businesses. So why do so many supply chains struggle to fulfill customer requirements at competitive costs? The answer is simple: traditional supply chain planning, which was tailored to a predominantly stable and predictable business environment, cannot handle the new challenges in the world of variability, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity—the VUCA world.

    Companies can either accept the drawbacks that often result in high inventories, poor asset utilization, and unsatisfactory customer service or, they can change their view of the fundamental approach to supply chain management. LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries to Master Today’s VUCA World introduces a new paradigm and a new approach to managing variability, uncertainty, and complexity in today’s planning processes and systems.

    Introducing a cutting-edge supply chain management concept that addresses current problems in the process industry's supply chains, the book presents powerful methods developed by leading research institutes, process industry champions, and supply chain experts. It explains how readers can change their approach to the fundamental planning paradigms in a manner that will help their organizations achieve higher levels of responsiveness, improved levels of customer service, and substantial increases in cost-efficiencies.

    This holistic practitioner’s guide describes how to establish the right accountabilities for performance management and also provides a set of meaningful metrics to help measure your progress. Supplying detailed guidelines for transforming your supply chain, it includes first-hand reports of leading organizations that have already adopted some of the facets of this paradigm and used the relevant instruments to achieve unprecedented improvements to customer service, supply chain agility, and overall equipment effectiveness.


    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=zSUtAgAAQBAJ

    Lean Distribution: Applying Lean Manufacturing to Distribution, Logistics, and Supply Chain - 2012 - Book Information

    Lean Distribution: Applying Lean Manufacturing to Distribution, Logistics, and Supply Chain

    Kirk D. Zylstra
    John Wiley & Sons, 19-Jun-2012 - Business & Economics - 240 pages


    "Kirk Zylstra's focus on the customer is a fresh approach to lean. Companies that can bear the burden of variability will develop a strategic advantage in today's volatile market."
    —Travis Jarrell Institute of Industrial Engineers Program Committee Chair
    "Lean Distribution is a comprehensive yet concise work with clear leanings. Kirk's experience across a range of industries brings a unique understanding of common opportunities and solutions available to optimize distribution processes. Lean techniques, typically effective in manufacturing processes, are applied in the downstream supply chain in a practical and productive manner that will offer something to any business distributing tangible goods."
    —F. Jeff Duncan Jr. VP, CIO, and Director of Technology Louisiana Pacific Corp.

    "Lean Distribution has robustly captured the revolution occurring in today's increasingly competitive and global supply chain. Eliminating losses through lean manufacturing and lean distribution initiatives will become even more critical enablers to organizations developing cost-advantaged supply chains."
    —Rick McDonald Director of Manufacturing The Clorox Company

    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=jhaGGLoPdE0C

    Lean Supply Chain Management Essentials: A Framework for Materials Managers - Bill Kerber, Brian J. Dreckshage - 2011 - Book Information

    Lean Supply Chain Management Essentials: A Framework for Materials Managers

    Bill Kerber, Brian J. Dreckshage
    CRC Press, 27-Jun-2011 - Business & Economics - 274 pages


    Presenting an alternate approach to supply chain management, Lean Supply Chain Management Essentials: A Framework for Materials Managers explains why the traditional materials planning environment, typically embodied by an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, is an ineffective support system for a company that wants to adopt Lean practices. It begins by defining supply chain management basics, including roles, objectives, and responsibilities from a traditional framework. Next, it describes Lean basics and explores the conflicts between Lean and the traditional framework.

    The book focuses on the materials management aspects of Lean, such as leveling work into the value stream, heijunka scheduling, standard work, and the concept of intervals, including Every Part Every Interval (EPEI). By combining traditional materials management tools, such as Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP), with Lean manufacturing approaches and applying them to different manufacturing environments, the authors clarify the logic behind why you are doing what you’re doing with Lean components and how they fit together as a system. Specifically, they explain how to:

    Determine which leveling strategy to use to smooth production
    Calculate interval to determine lot sizes in various production environments
    Apply Lean to purchasing, warehouse, and logistics areas
    Use your value stream map for green initiatives and risk management
    Replace capacity planning and shop floor control with visual factory, operator balance charts, EPEI, and plan for every part
    Illustrating why balancing demand and capacity is better than trying to balance supply and demand, the book includes a definitive chart that matches Lean tools to the planning and control charts that have served as the model for ERP systems. It integrates the principles learned from Toyota’s fifty-plus-year journey with Lean principles to provide the up-to-date understanding required to approach the application of Lean to your supply chain with a methodology that allows for experimentation, learning, and continuous improvement.

    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=kmnsDjqKJm4C

    Quality System Industrial Engineering - Online Book





    Quality system industrial engineering is the study of resource use in various quality engineering and management activities with a view to increasing the efficiency or eliminating the waste wherever possible. While the quality activities are carried out to ensure that product designs and process designs produce products and services that meet the needs of the targeted customers and delight them by giving more, there is possibility of excessive use of organization's resources. Industrial engineering is concerned with the management of resource use and in this function, the quality system design is carefully investigated by the industrial engineering to identify and remove waste. Industrial engineering succeeded in reducing the cost of many processes designed in the first iteration by the managers up to 50% and hence it is a very important activity in systems design or systems engineering.

    Famous example of industrial engineering, is Henry Ford's production system redesign, that reduced the price of the automobile by half. Frederick Taylor, the founder of IE discipline has improved the productivity of some of the inspection processes.

    System Industrial Engineering - System Human Effort Engineering - System Efficiency Engineering


    Quality related activities are undertaken by marketing professions, product design professionals, process design professions, production persons, inspection persons in the case of products or services marketing by an organization. Apart from the various activities done by the company also need to have quality and hence all the persons in the organization are connected to quality. Statisticians contributed to quality field. Statistical quality control helped in increasing the efficiency of quality system by reducing inspection effort. Industrial engineers promoted SQC as a part of quality system industrial engineering.

    2013
    Why New Inspection Methods Can Cost Less? - Medical device inspection
    http://www.mdtmag.com/articles/2013/04/why-new-inspection-methods-can-cost-less#.UqiI-dKBni4

    Method improves ultrasonic inspection of complex parts
    http://www.theengineer.co.uk/channels/design-engineering/news/method-improves-ultrasonic-inspection-of-complex-parts/1016789.article

    2011
    The Technology of Inspection
    https://www.zurich.com/NR/rdonlyres/57697FBF-094A-482B-82DC-95503C500047/0/thetechnologyofinspection.pdf

    2007


    APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR EFFICIENT WIND TUNNEL TESTING:  THE TANDEM WING MAV CAS
    By  TERESA G. ENGLISH
    MS Thesis submitted to the Department of Industrial Engineering
    2007
    http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses_1/available/etd-04092007-182020/unrestricted/Manuscript_Teresa_G_English.pdf

    2003
    Five Steps to Cutting Inspection Costs
    http://www.qualitymag.com/articles/84037


    2002
    Modern Methods for Quality Control and Improvement
    Harrison M. Wadsworth, Kenneth S. Stephens, A. Blanton Godfrey
    John Wiley & Sons, 2002 - Quality control - 683 pages

    This is a revision of a classic! This text provides a single source for information on both the structure and management of quality systems and the use of statistics to control and improve quality. It incorporates an international flavor and a good balance of services and manufacturing coverage. The goal of the second edition remains the same as the first edition - to promote learning by means of practical, effective applications intended to develop, control, and improve quality systems and processes
    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=PjdUqegFUewC

    Sunday, December 8, 2013

    The SMED System: Shigeo Shingo's Explanation


    Before the SMED system development by Shingo, efficiency of setup required two things:

    1. Knowledge relating to the structure and function of the machinery and equipment, as well as a thorough acquaitenance with tools, blades, dies, jigs, etc.

    2. Skill in mounting and removing these items, and also in measuring, centering, adjusting, and calibrating after trial runs.


    The History of SMED

    In 1950, Shingo was conducting an efficiency improvement survey at Toyo Kogyo's Mazda plant. As the large body-molding presses of 350, 750 and 800 tons were declared as bottlenecks, Shingo did a production study.

    There was an incident of a missing bolt and one hour was wasted in finding the bolt. Shingo had written that gave him the idea that external set operations have to set up as standard procedures and one has to make sure that all items required for set up are there before one starts the set up procedure. Shingo established the external set up procedure of making all items required for a set up  and the efficiency was raised by 50% and the bottle neck problem disappeared.

    The Second Idea

    In 1957, Shingo was studying the operation of a large planer which is machining diesel engine beds. He noticed that centering and dimensioning of the engine bed had to be done and was being conducted on the planer table only. He came with the idea of buying an extra planer table on which this activity can be done while on the machine a job is getting machined. When the job was completed, the table was pushed out and the second table was pushed in ready with the job. This solution resulted in 40% increase in productivity.

    The Third Important Event

    In 1969, Shingo studied the set operation of 1,000 ton press at Toyoto Motor Company/s plant. The setup time was four hours and it was known that Volkswagen in Germany was doing the same set up in two hours. Shingo in association with Toyota engineers have identified the external setup operations and internal setup operations and improve the process to a time of 90 minutes. According to Shingo, it took six months of effort to reach that stage.

    At this stage, Toyota management thought of a challenging goal. Can be reduced drastically to only  three minutes? This challenge resulted in the inspiring insight in Shingo. Can we convert much more internal activity (setup activity that was being done on the machine) to external activity. So a search began for eliminating activities from internal setup activity to move them the external activity. Shingo had written that 8 ideas came in quick succession and they developed these 8 ideas in 3 months time to reach the single digit setup time. So Shingo remarked that it took 19 years of time to make a drastic improvement to the setup operations.


    The SMED System - Book by Shigeo Shingo - Chapter Summaries 


    Foreword

    SMED system is the most essential method for achieving Just-In-Time Production. SMED system will revolunize existing production systems and I hope you will practice it after reading this book.

    Introduction

    In many factories, diversified low-volume production is a problem. The main difficulty is the setup operations and adjustments required - calibration, switching of tools or dies etc. Frequent setups of course are necessary to produce a large variety of goods in small lots.

    But now I can tell you, you can cut your setup time and increase productivity. You can do setups in three minutes for tasks which had taken 3 hours earlier. The theory and techniques are made available to you in this book. Japanese industrial engineers have long understood the need to reduce setup times and many examples are made available by them in books. But in this book for the first time principles are provided so that you can apply them to your situation even though it does not match any of the previous examples or applications.

    Why the setup times remained high for long. Managers and industrial engineers neglected the task and left it to the skill of workers.

    People have to realize that high volume production and large lot production are the same. Even high volume production can be achieved through small lots and economy of manufacturing can be realized.  Traditional production planning assumes inventory as inevitable but new production system based on SMED works on the concept of confirmed production and eliminates inventory.

    It took 19 long years for me to develop the SMED system.

    Chapter 1 The Structure of Production


    Production activities may best be understood as a process consisting of operations.

    A process refers to a continuous flow by which raw materials are converted into finished goods. An operation is action performed by men, machine or equipment on raw materials, or intermediate or finished goods (for example packing). A process can have one or more operations.

    Manufacturing processes can be further divided into four distinct phases (traditional IE categories)

    1. Processing (termed as operation) 2. Inspection  3. Transportation 4. Storage.

    The storage phase can be further categorised into:
    1. Storage of raw materials.
    2. Storage of finished goods
    3. Lot waiting for process: The entire lot is in a queue before a machine
    4. Waiting for a lot: Some of items of the lot are yet to be processed and some are processed.

    Each operation on a lot will have preparation and clearing. These are termed setup operations.
    The principal operation carried out on workpieces include essential operation, auxiliary operation like loading the workpiece and removing it and margin allowances (activities) that irregularly happen like sweeping up cuttings and personal activities of the operator like taking rest for fatigue and drinking water etc.

    It is important to note that there are setup operations in inspection, transportation and storage also.

    Chapter 2. Setup Operations in the Past


    The blind spot: The unspoken assumption that drastic reductions in setup time are not possible. But with the development of SMED, the concept of economic lot size has diappeared from the profit-engineering agenda. Moreover, SMED has substantially reduced the level of skill required for setups and production operators themselves can do the setup.

    3. Fundamentals of SMED


    In the spring of 1950, Shingo was conducting an efficiency improvement survey at Toyo Kogyo's Mazda plant. At the presses were bottleneck machines, Shingo conducted a production analysis and observed a die change.  As he observed the time wasted after the machine was stopped for setup change, it dawned to him that setup operations fundamentally were two types: Internal setups which are to be done after a machine is stopped and external setups which can be conducted when the machine is in operation. The external set up were identified and only internal setups were done when the machine is stopped. The setup time reduced by 50%.

    The first step of SMED was discovered and Shingo started advising companies on improving setups.

    The second insight

    Shingo was doing study of open-sided planer at the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Shipyard for methods improvement. He observed that marking-off procedure for centering and dimensioning the engine bed ws being conducted on the planer table and it was taking significant time. The idea came came to install a second planer table and perform the setup operation on it separately. Then the table was shifted in less time and it saved time and increased productivity.

    The third experience

    In 1969, the divisional manager of body shop at Toyota Motor Company told Shingo that they were taking 4 hours to make a die change and they know that in Volkswagen they were doing in two hours. Shingo worked with them to separate internal and external setup items and got the die change time reduced to one and half hours.

    After a month, Shingo was informed that management want the setup time to go to three minutes. Shingo was strartled but challenged. The thinking led to the idea that some more internal elements can be converted into external elements. In three months, three minute goal was reached and Shingo says, he named the method SMED.

    This SMED concept then spread to all types of setups in Toyota.

    Basic steps in the Setup Procedure

    1. Preparation, checking of all required items, tools and materials   30%
    2. Removing old tools and mounting new tools 5%
    3. Centering, dimensioning and setting other conditions 15%
    4. Trial runs and adjustments 50%
    5. Returning Old tools - Negligible

    The time taken for trail runs and adjustments can be shortened by improving the prior process of centering, dimension and setting.

    Basic Steps of SMED

    Separating Internal and External Setup
    Converting Internal Operations to External Operations
    Improving Internal Setup Operations
    Improving External Operations

    4. Techniques for Applying SMED





    Separating Internal and External Setup

    Doing External Setup Operations Efficiently - Preliminary Steps

    Use a checklist

    Make a list of all the parts required with names and specifications and make sure that they are there before the setup. For it to happen without any shortcoming, Shingo recommended that a drawing is made with all the parts pictures and keep the parts on those drawing.

    Then there has to be one more list that specifies details of pressure, temperature and other settings that are part of external setup. One has to go through this checklist and ensure that every item is having the required specification and also functioning. These list of items and checklists have to be separate for every machine.

    The old die and related items should be transported back either after the setup is completed or by people who are specific to transportation. The machine should not be made to idle due to the transport operation of old die and related items.


    Converting Internal Operations to External Operations

    The first step in converting internal operations to external operations is to create operating conditions of the dies externally. Then only internal operations are to push the dies and attach them to ram and body.


    Preheating Dies

    Old practice was to heat dies in die casting by injecting hot metal between them. Instead of that if dies were preheated using gas or electric heat externally, 30 minutes could be saved.

    Standardization of dies of various sizes or items on a machine can be done by shape standardization to reduce setup time. But the dies of even small parts can be large because of that. Instead Shingo suggested function standardization.

    Function Standardization

    What are the functions in attaching die to machine? Clamping, centering, dimensioning, expelling,grasping, and maintaining loads.

    Efficient function standardization requires that for each die, the function providing features are only standardized as required by examining the die feature by feature or element by element.

    Clamping height can be changed by adding shims to smaller dies. Centering can be done centering jigs. The dies can be made as a set and they can be inserted and withdrawn like a casette so that die inserting time can be only 20 seconds. Various locating elements can be used to adjust the dies in the required positions externally.


    5 Applying SMED to Internal Operations

    Improving Internal Operations or Reducing Time of Internal Operations

    Implementation of Parallel Operations

    Die-change operations on plastic molding machines, and die-casting machines and large presses require work both at front and at the back of the machine. If two work parallelly  one at the back and one at the front lot of time is saved.

    The Use of Function Clamp

    The length of the bolt should be determined such that only one turn is required for fastening or loosening. Such bolt will be called functional clamp.

    Examples of One Turn Attachments

    The Pear Shaped Hole Method

    The U Shaped Washer Method

    The Split Thread Method

    The U-Slot Method

    The Clamp Method

    One Motion Methods
      Cams and clamps
      Wedges, tapered pins and knock pins
       springs

    Magnetism and Vacuum Suction

    Interlocking Methods
    (Punch and die assembly for making interlocking integral fasteners - Patent No. US2924312)

    Instead of fastening, many times, two pieces can be interlocked and it is sufficient.

    Interlocking Method for Press Dies

    In a press, the upper die is attached to the machine ram and the lower die is attached to the machine tool. Why there should be same number and diameter of bolts in both sides. While the die attached to the ram has to be supported against gravity, the die attached to the machine bed need not be so supported. Shingo suggests holding plates and cradles for the holding plate to hold the die.


    Seeing is believing. Watch in YouTube video die changes in less than 9 minutes
    SMED - YouTube Videos


    Related Development:

    Design for changeovers
    http://etidweb.tamu.edu/hsieh/ENTC410/Design%20for%20Mass%20Customerization/DesignForChangeOver.pdf
    The paper is on original equipment manufacturer making design of machine that facilitates quick setup changes

    Kaizens - Production Improvement Ideas Implemented - India - Kaizen Eye



    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=3006
    Fevicol keeps drying in its drum, leading to wastage of same
    Drum is covered from all sides within a wooden box with cover on the top also.
    Drying of fevicol has reduced upto the 60 %. Quality of fevicol remains as is throughout its consumption from the drum, for change in its viscosity is NEGLIGIBLE.

    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=3000
    Zero rejection on CV line::ASSY C/MEMBER Cyl Mtg.

    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=2500
    Tube light should glow only if machine starts

    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=2000
    To eliminate the hand/finger injuries at Rieter winder

    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=1500
    Elimination of extra time for counting.

    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=1000
    Eliminate graphite primer drops falling on the floor.


    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=529
    To reduce the maintenance cost of air supply units.


    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=102
    Problem: 3 operator,3 machines were input for 210 nos. Production.The line was  Covering more area (40 sq. Mtrs)
    Improvement: Line balancing done & layout  Made compact .Now 2 operators & 3 Machines are the input for 210 nos. Production.The area covered is 28 sq. Mtrs.

    http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=101
    Problem: Position of hinge used to get shifed While clamping manually in ye-2 r/b Non split fixture.More time was taken for clamping.
    Improvement
    Pneumatic clamping done for quality & productivity improvement.

    Saturday, December 7, 2013

    Combination Tools



    http://www.amkus.com/product-type/combination-tools/


    AMK 25C Combination Tool for Rescue Operations

    Combination cutting/spreading/pulling tool
    Extremely lightweight, compact size for easy storage
    Ideal for "first response" applications
    Anodized for corrosion protection
    Check valve design maintains load
    Available with D-ring handle
    Convert a Model AMK-25C Combination Tool to any Model 25 Cutter with genuine AMKUS blades
    http://www.amkus.com/products/amk-25c-combination-tool/

    AMK 15C Combination Tool for Rescue Operations

    Combination cutting/spreading/pulling tool
    Well balanced and easy to use
    Check valve design maintains load
    Anodized for corrosion protection
    Equipped with D-ring handle
    http://www.amkus.com/products/amk-c15-combination-tool/






    Holmatro combination tools are multifunctional and allow the user to cut, spread, squeeze, and pull with just one tool. Now featuring a unique blade design and a deadman's handle. The deadman's handle improves one-hand operation with a positive grip, features an accurate spring return to neutral position, and allows for proportional operation for more precise control.

    The Holmatro 4150 combi tool also has all the benefits and features of the 4000 series and CORE® Technology.
    http://www.holmatro-usa.com/Product.aspx?id=143&family=6#


    High Performance Combination Tools from  Kennametal

    Drill, chamfer and countersink with one tool
    http://www.kennametal.com/kennametal/en/products/20478624/556249/3924455.html




    Combination Tools Improve Machining Center Productivity


    With today's CNC technology, it is possible to combine drilling, tapping and chamfering in a single operation by using specially designed cutting tools.

    A good example  is the Thriller Tool, manufactured by Thriller, Inc. (Dearborn, Michigan), a division of the Turchan Technologies Group. This tool can perform in a single operation what usually calls for a drill, chamfering tool, and tap or thread mill. In so doing, this kind of combination tool reduces the number of tools, toolholders and tool positionings required, and it eliminates tool changes between operations. Properly applied, the result is a significant cost and time savings.
    http://www.mmsonline.com/articles/combination-tools-improve-machining-center-productivity




    Allied Machine  combination tool for drilling and chamfering.


    A part made of modified 4140 steel, required a considerable amount of holemaking. It has 57 1.362 "-dia., 2½ "-deep through-holes and 54 1.438 "-dia., 4½ "-deep through-holes.

    RMC was applying three cutting tools to complete each of the 57 holes: a drill, a twin boring bar and a chamfer mill. The challenge was consistently achieving the tolerance while maintaining the production rate, . “The ±0.002 " tolerance was too tight for the twin boring bar setup.

    The shop then decided to have a special made to both drill the hole and cut the 0.150 "×45° chamfer. It is tooled with the GEN3SYS XT insert and the tool body was customized to have a built-in chamfer. It shortened the cycle time and  also reduced inventory by eliminating the boring bar and chamfer mill.

    RMC runs two parts before replacing an insert. Each tip is reground at least once. Reground inserts provide  identical performance. By switching to this comnination GEN3SYS XT drill, RMC went from a 1,600-rpm spindle speed, 524-sfm cutting speed, 8.0-ipm feed rate and 1-minute cycle time per hole, to 865 rpm, 308 sfm, 12.11 ipm and 14.12 seconds per hole.
    (Source:http://www.ctemag.com/aa_pages/2012/120413-ProductiveTimesA.html    )



    Crank Shaft Design, Manufacture, and Inspection - Students Projects - IE Course




    Productivity Improvement Of Crankshaft by Priti Mandwe
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 7, JULY 2013
    http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/july2013/Productivity-Improvement-Of-Crankshaft.pdf

    Improving Productivity of Crank Shaft Machine Line Using TPS Techniques and Simulation - 2013 paper
    http://www.academia.edu/3255498/IMPROVING_PRODUCTIVITY_FOR_ENGINE_CRANK_SHAFT_MACHINING_LINE_USING_TPS_TECHNIQUES_AND_SIMULATION




    Crankshaft introduction
    http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/sketch-of-crankshaft_4384.html

    Crankshaft nomenclature
    http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/sketch-of-crankshaft_607.html

    Dimensions of crankshafts - Thumb rules
    http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/sketch-of-crankshaft_07.html

    Counterweights on crankshaft
    http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/sketch-of-crankshaft.html

    Crank shaft materials
    http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/crankshaft_06.html

    Crank shaft material choice for durability
    http://www.irday.com/html/Engine%20fuel%20engineering/20080412/9349.html

    Crankshaft design - some questions
    http://orion.math.iastate.edu/lhogben/classes/crankshaft.pdf

    Crankshaft analysis

    Evolution of crankshaft design analysis
    http://support.mscsoftware.com/cgi-bin/kb_files/Cummins_Pfleuger_paper.pdf?name=ri%2F1-13%2F1-13B2-2668%2FCummins_Pfleuger_paper.pdf


    Improving Productivity of Crank Shaft Machine Line Using TPS Techniques and Simulation - 2013 paper
    http://www.academia.edu/3255498/IMPROVING_PRODUCTIVITY_FOR_ENGINE_CRANK_SHAFT_MACHINING_LINE_USING_TPS_TECHNIQUES_AND_SIMULATION
    ____________________________________________________________________________

    Students' Projects and Posts


    Crankshaft design, manufacturing and testing procedure Chevrolet Aveo U-VA 1.2 LS 76 BHP 4 Cyl Engine
    Design of Crankshaft   Maruti Suzuki 800  - 37 BHP 3 cylinder
    Process Design  Crankshaft TVS WEGO
    Crank Shaft Design    45 HP 3 cylinder engine
    Design and Manufacture of Crank shaft - Maruti Swift - 4 cylinder 53 HP engine
    Design of crank shaft for Mahindra Xylo - 4cylinder d2 variant Diesel CRDE technology, ९५भ्प
     Design of crankshaft of Hero Honda Splendor -single cylinder air cooled engine, power 5.5KW @8000 RPM
    Design of Crankshaft_Taurus Tipper_Ashok Leyland
    Design Crank Shaft Ford figo            4 Cylinder 1.2 lt Power 70 भप

    design and manufacture of crankshaft for FORD FIESTA

    _______________________________________________________________
    Orinally posted by me in http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/crank-shaft-design-manufacture-and/2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2712

    Automation & Productivity Tools By Langlais Computer Consultants, LLC - USA


    http://www.cncsw.com/


    Langlais Computer Consultants, LLC
    67 Posa Drive
    Bristol, CT  06010
    Phone:  (860) 589-0093
    Email:  lcc-sales@cncsw.com
    Bristol, CT, USA

    Special Purpose Machines for Increased Productivity



    Intelligent Analysis of Utilization of Special Purpose Machines for Drilling Operations
    Majid Tolouei-Rad
    School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia

    SPMs are superior to computer numerical control (CNC) machines for producing large quantities of
    similar parts; however, most manufacturers still rely on well-known CNCs for large volume production tasks. This is mainly attributable to the fact that both SPMs and CNCs incorporate high capital costs; SPMs are more productive and CNCs are more flexible. When the part in production is no longer in demand due to frequent market changes, SPMs become idle while CNCs can be easily reprogrammed for producing other parts. Yet the concluding statement could be different when modular SPMs are utilized.

    http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/30663/InTech-Intelligent_analysis_of_utilization_of_special_purpose_machines_for_drilling_operations.pdf

    Engineering Review - India

    ANTECH TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE - CAD CAM Training for Productivity - Pune - India


    http://www.antechmicro.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=18&Itemid=24

    ANTECH TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE
    (Training and Projects)
    16 B Parvati Industrial Estate
    Parvati
    Pune 411009
    India
    Tel No. : +91 20 32313236, +91 9823515053
    Email : atc@antechmicro.com

    ANTECH head quarters in Pune - India develops, markets & support innovating solutions in the field of CAD/CAM/Embedded technology to Engineering Industries. Our Focus is on manufacturing sector and would like to remain in the same. Antech today is well diversified group and followings is the partial list of our products and services.

    DNC, BTR and machine monitoring solutions. (Wire /Wireless)
    CAD CAM for CNC wire EDM, laser, Gas cut and turret punch press
    Technological solutions for Engg. Colleges and polytechnics
    Training programs in CAD CAM
    Training programs in Embedded & VLSI
    3D CAD CAM software from UGS Solutions, USA
    Consultation in CNC turret punch press

    AAA Innovations - CNC Machining Productivity Consultants - India


    http://aaainnovations.net/Aboutus.html

    Benefits Provided

    Less Machine Investment required

    Cost Savings

    Productivity Improvement

    Cycle Time Reduction

    Advance Future Technology

    Service Delivery on Time

    Avoidance of Accidents of CNC Machines


    ACCIDENTS OF CNC MACHINE PREVENTED FROM :

    Sudden breakage of insert in the auto cycle
    Insert wear
    Due to more material cutting (variation in input material)
    Wrong offset value input
    During changeover setting of different components.
    Semi-skill associate while operating the machine
    IMPROVES

    Overall equipment availability
    Productivity (from 10% to 50 %)
    Machine life
    Tool utilization (tool life can be improved by 20% to 250%)
    Life of fixture parts, holders etc
    SAVINGS

    Machine damages by avoiding the accidents
    Production losses due to setting after accident
    Production losses due to machine breakdown (after accident)
    SAFTEY

    Man accidents on machine are avoided during setting
    FUTURE

    It can be very effectively used in making the automation of machine successful by avoiding accidents in automated machine, which is the major limitation of automation.
    TIME REQUIRED

    Time duration for completion of one machine 24 - 40 hrs. (That is actual machine hold time).

    http://aaainnovations.net/WhyOurService.html

    SMED - Single Minute Exchange of Dies - Bibliography



    Setup time reduction: SMED-balancing  integrated model for manufacturing systems with automated transfer
    2013 paper
    http://www.enggjournals.com/ijet/docs/IJET13-05-05-259.pdf

    Setup Time Reduction of Medical Device Assembly Process
    2011 - MS Dissertation
    Changeover time from 0.15mg to 0.3 mg
    Gonzenbach, Derek L.
    http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2011/2011gonzenbachd.pdf

    Setup Time for Reduction of Electronics Assembly - 2005
    http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0f94x554#page-1

    SMED process description and videos

    The power of smed - procedure also discussed
    http://www.maintenanceworld.com/Articles/jonesM/Single-Minute-Exchange-Die.html


    Setup Time Reduction - PCB Assembly - 1997
    http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6kn3d2gm#page-1

    SMED Guide - Treitsch - Defence guide - Uses pictures from Shingo's book
    http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ada255893


    A Revoultion in Manufacturing: SMED by Shigeo Shingo - Google Book with Preview facility
    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ooXVVIfqEQwC

    Kaizen for Quick Changeover
    by Keisuke Arai, Kenichi Sekine
    Google book link
    http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Kaizen_for_Quick_Changeover.html?id=dKZBFGYJrhYC



    Presentation on SMED - 2005 presentation on Best Practices
    http://bec.msoe.edu/sig_presentations/setup_reduction_2005_nov.pdf




    Line Improvement in SMT Electronics - MS thesis
    http://www.smtnet.com/library/files/upload/SMT-Line-Improvements.pdf


    SMED Implementation Step by step Part 1
    http://www.leanexpertise.com/ArticlesLX/SMED%20Step%20by%20Step.htm

    Part 2
    http://www.leanexpertise.com/ArticlesLX/SMED%20Step%20by%20Step%20Part%202.htm

    Setup time reduction in a batch manufacturing plant - BS thesis
    http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1090&context=imesp


    SMED steps in die cutting - pictorial description - 52 pages
    http://www.aadieinc.com/newsletters/ABC%20SMED.pdf



     Paperboard Packaging / Feb, 2000
    A Proactive Approach to Pre-makeready : Here's what you can do to make sure that makeready proceeds quickly and smoothly
    http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3116/is_2_85/ai_n27556318/

    SMED
    https://workspace.imperial.ac.uk/insolex/Public/18%20SMED.pdf

    SMED Quick Changeover
    http://members.peo.on.ca/index.cfm/document/1/ci_id/44383/la_id/1

    SMED: Literature Review  - 2012
    http://www.thinkinglean.com/img/files/PAPER_3.pdf

    An Application of SMED Methodology in an Electric Power Controls Company - 2011
    http://www.incdmtm.ro/mecahitech2011/articole/Pp47-55.pdf


    Good presentation on SMED
    http://www.freeleansite.com/training.html


    http://www.thefabricator.com/article/toolanddie/how-to-implement-quick-die-change


    http://www.ptonline.com/articles/extrusion-goes-'just-in-time'-with-quick-die-changers


    Die Making and Die Design
    Franklin D. Jones
    1915
    https://archive.org/details/diemakingdiedesi00jone





    GS Productivity Solutions Limited - Bristol, UK - CNC Productivity Consultants



    http://www.gspsltd.co.uk/


    What can GS Productivity Solutions provide?
    When you are looking for innovation to help improve efficiency and quality, GSPS are able to offer cutting edge solutions, all the nescessary training and the technical job knowledge and back up to ensure that your manufacturing facility is always running at peak performance.

    Our team specialise in the sale (at the right price!), the installation (at the right time!) and the training (to right level!) of only the products we consider will fit your company and your job.  If we don’t cover what you need, we’ll  probably know someone who does -

    Probing
    Machining
    Production Management
    Microsoft Excel
    CAD/CAM systems
    Siemens controllers
    Data Collection
    Haas controllers
    Fanuc Controllers

    GS Productivity Solutions Ltd

    37 Baileys Mead Road

    Stapleton

    Bristol

    BS16 1AE

    England

    Trainor and Associates - IE Consultants - Bartlett, TN, USA



    http://industrialengineeringconsultingfirm.com/


    Trainor and Associates
    Process Improvement Specialists
    4285 Wind Tree Cove
    Bartlett, TN 38135

    bobtrainor@bellsouth.net
    Phone: 901-373-8940

    10 Industrial Engineering Services
    http://industrialengineeringconsultingfirm.com/structured-processimprovements

    Modern Approaches to Manufacturing Improvement: The Shingo System - Book Information

    Modern Approaches to Manufacturing Improvement: The Shingo System
    Shigeo Shingō
    Productivity Press, 01-Apr-1990 - Business & Economics - 399 pages

    Selection from Shingo's Books
    Alan Robinson


    Here's the quickest and most inexpensive way to learn about the pioneering work of Shigeo Shingo, co-creator (with Taiichi Ohno) of just-in-time. It's an introductory book containing excerpts of five of his classic books as well as an excellent introduction by Professor Robinson.

    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=4PPSwZ1qBrkC



    Table of Contents
    Publisher's Foreword
    1. Editor's Introduction: Shigeo Shingo's Contributions to Manufacturing
    2. Author's Introduction: Fundamental Flaws in European and American Production Philosophies

    SECTION ONE: Improvement
    Introduction
    3. Basic Concepts for Improving Production System
    4. Stage One: Problem Identification
    5. Stage Two: Basic Approaches to Improvement
    (I) Understand the Status Quo
    6. Basic Approaches to Improvement
    (II) The Pursuit of Goals
    7. Basic Approaches to Improvement
    (III) Better Means
    8. Stage Three: Making Plans for Improvement
    9. Stage Four: Translating Improvement Plans into Reality
    10. Understanding and Conviction
    11. The Force of Habit

    SECTION TWO: Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and the Poka-Yoke System
    Introduction
    12. Inspections
    13. Approaching the Zero QC Method
    14. More on Inspection Systems
    15. Using Poka-Yoke Systems

    SECTION THREE: A Revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED System
    Introduction
    16. Introduction to SMED
    17. Setup Operations in the Past
    18. Fundamentals of SMED
    19. Techniques for Applying SMED
    20. Applying SMED to Internal Operations
    21. Basic Examples of SMED
    22. Effects of SMED


    Difference Between Japanese and American Approaches to Production Systems, Management and Industrial Engineering

    1. Japanese companies are more active about process improvement and simplification than their western counterparts.

    2. The Japanese have a more enlightened approach to employees.

    3. The Japanese appreciate the power of continuous improvement.

    4. Japanese companies have better understanding of pervasiveness of invisible waste and how to eliminate it?

    Lean and Agile Value Chain Management - 2010 Book Information




    Lean and Agile Value Chain Management: A Guide to the Next Level of Improvement (Google eBook)
    Ehap H. Sabri, Salim N. Shaikh
    J. Ross Publishing, 2010 - Business & Economics - 454 pages


    One of the biggest challenges for companies in today's competitive environment is to get products to customers when and where they need it, exactly the way they want it, with a competitive price and in a cost effective manner. Managing the value chain is becoming more complicated because of globalization, outsourcing, the need for shorter time to market, and the requirement for more responsiveness and flexibility due to customer changes.Although the benefits of applying lean concepts or improving the flexibility of a value chain are clear and desperately needed in today's competitive environment, none of the current literature provides guidance on how to do this. Lean & Agile Value Chain Management fills that gap by providing a breakthrough start-to-finish roadmap for organizations to implement a lean and agile value chain transformation program successfully. It brings together the field's latest advances and offers practical, proven tactics and detailed guidance into every aspect of value chain process redesign, including mapping the existing process, intelligently leveraging new technologies, building a strategy for strengthening the relationship with suppliers and customers, identifying comprehensive related metrics, and much more.

    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=tCg8zgG7Kg4C

    Eight Steps or Principles for SMED - Shigeo Shingo

    STEP 1 – SEPARATE INTERNAL FROM EXTERNAL SETUP OPERATIONS :

    Internal setup operations have to be done when machine is not running or producing. External setup operations can be done when the machine is doing its production job.
    Examine and  identify which of the current setup operations must be performed while the machine is shut down  and which can be performed when the machine is running . For example, transportation of dies, jigs, fixtures, tools and materials to and from the machine can be done while the machine is running. Any preparatory activity on the die to be setup can be done without stopping the machine. Internal setup should be limited to removing the old die or tool and placing and securing the new one.
    By simply separating and organizing external and internal operations in traditional setup operations, internal setup time  can be reduced by 30 to 50 per cent



    Step 2 – CONVERT INTERNAL TO EXTERNAL SETUP :

    There are opportunities convert some  internal operations  to external setup operations. For example, one can avoid  the internal setup time involved in shut height adjustments for the press dies, by standardizing the  die height and by attaching blocks or shims to smaller dies. Another simple conversion is to preheat dies for die-casting, which eliminates heating the die by trial shot after its was placed in the machine.

    Shut Height -  Distance between the upper dead center and the lower dead centre in a die.



    Step  3 – STANDARDIZE FUNCTION, NOT SHAPE :

    Standardizing the shape and size of dies can reduce setup times considerably. Shape standardization is wasteful, however, because all dies would have to confirm to the largest size used, which would increase costs unnecessarily.
    Function standardization, on the other hand, requires only uniformity in the parts and features necessary for setup operations. For example, adding a plate or block to the attachment edge of the die standardizes the dimensions of that part only and makes it possible to use the same clamps in different setups. The functions identified by Shingo in his book are clamping, centering, dimensioning, expelling, grasping, and maintaining loads. The engineers or industrial engineers must study various dies and standardize the features of the die that necessitate changes.

    Step 4 – USE FUNCTIONAL CLAMPS OR ELIMINATE FASTERNERS ALTOGETHER:

    Bolts are most commonly used to attach the die to ram and machine body, but tightening bolts can be very time consuming. Normally, about with fifteen threads must be turned fourteen times before it is actually tightened on the last turn. But Shingo's insight is that only the last turn tightens the bolt and the first loosens it – the other thirteen are wasted motion. If the purpose of the bolt is simply to fasten or unfasten, it should be just long enough for fasten in one turn. A bolt with one turn possibility is called a functional clamp by Shingo. One-turn functional clamps include the I- slot method, the pear shaped hole method, and the external clamp.
    Threaded screws are by no means the only way to secure items. There are methods and industrial engineers have to explore then and examine them. One touch methods using wedges, cams, and clamps or springs reduce setup times considerably, as do interlocking improvements that simply fit and join two parts together. These methods can reduce setup times to seconds.



    In clamping methods, the direction and magnitude of force required in the situation are critical considerations.An analysis needs to be done to find what is neeed to design the clamping method.
    At Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, for example, stoppers were screwed to each of the spindles of a boring machine in a difficult and time-consuming way in extremely cramped conditions. An examination showed they are not necessary. This operation was improved by cutting grooves near the end of the spindles and attaching three springs around the edge of each stopper. When the stopper was placed over the end of the spindle, the springs snapped into the groove, and the spring tension held the stopper in place. This shortened the time for securing and removing stopper considerably.


    Step 5 – USE INTERMEDIATE JIGS :

    While the work piece attached to one jig is being processed, the next work piece is centered and attached to a second jig that is easily mounted on the machine for processing. This is using a duplicate jig to load the center the workpiece as an external operation.

    For example, on  a profile milling machine, blocks for television picture tubes were being made. Marking off for concurring and setting heights for the template and the material was done as internal setup on the bed of the machine. Because of the many curves in the blocks, this was a complicated and time consuming operation. Two jigs were constructed.  While one item is machined, a template and next work piece are attached to the other jig, then centred and set for proper height.  Clamps are used to mount the jigs quickly and easily on the table. Intermediate jigs can also be used on large process with multiple dies of different sizes and heights. In that situation, they are used to move the internal centering and securing operations off the machine. With this improvement, the press needs to be turned off only while a forklift switches the intermediate jigs with the dies already mounted.


    Step 66 – ADOPT PARALLEL OPERATIONS :

    Operations on plastic molding or die-casting machines and large presses invariably involve setup work on both sides or at both the front and back of the of the machine.

    If only one worker performs these operations, much time and motion are wasted as he goes from side to side or back and forth around the machine. But when two people perform the parallel operations simultaneously. Setup time is usually reduced by more than half, due to the economies of movement.  The assistance for these operations can be provided by even the foreman.



    Step  7 : ELIMINATE ADJUSTMENTS :

    Typically, adjustments and trials runs account for 50 to 70 percent of internal setup time. Their elimination products tremendous time savings.  The assumption that adjustment is an unavoidable leads to unnecessarily lengthy internal setup times and requires a high level of skills and experience on the part of the operator. Adjustments can be eliminated, however, if a gauge is used to precisely determine the correct position of the limit switch.  The first setup in doing away with it is to make calibrations which eliminate the need to rely on intuition. If an approximation is all that is required, a gradated scale may be sufficient, but it cannot do away with adjustments altogether. Greater precision is achieved using a dial gauge magnescale, or numerical control device.

    Of course, the best kind of adjustment is no adjustment at all. For example, the least common multiple’ (LCM) system is based on the principle and that adjustment can be eliminated entirely when the number of setting is limited and unvarying.

    In one plant, a limit switch was used to set the end point in machining shaft. Since there were five shaft lengths the switch had to be moved to five different location. It could not be positioned correctly without as many as four trial adjustments every time the set up changed. By installed limit switches at the five sites, each equipped with an electrical switch that is supplied with current independently of the other switches, this problem was eliminated Now setup is performed by flipping a switch.


    A second example of the LCM approach:. In this operation, a drill was used to countersink a hole for a stationery screw in a motor core shaft. Stoppers had to be repositioned for eight different lengths which made repeated test runs and adjustments necessary. The adjustments were eliminated by mounting stopper plugs of eight different heights on a single plate. To change operations, to plate is simply rotated to set the stopper at the desired height and then secured. This one-touch method reduced internal setup to a matter of seconds.

    The LCM approach as well as the one-touch and interlocking methods simplify setting or positioning and eliminate adjustment. For example, some presses are sold with adjustable shut heights because different companies have different requirements. This does not mean, companies actually operate with dies of varying shut heights. These companies should either standardize the heights or purchase presses customized for their needs. The same faculty logic is evident when expensive presses are equipped with motorized adjustable shut heights and highly accurate adjustment functions. When there is no need for adjustments, why invest in such functions with it is much more economical to eliminate adjustments through standardization.

    Step 8 : MECHANIZATION :

    Although changing small blades, jigs, dies and gauges does not pose much of a problem, mechanization is often essential to efficiently move large dies, casting dies, and plastic molds. Oil and air pressure can be used for convenient one-touch attachment of dies.
    Investment in mechanization should, however, be considered very carefully. Recently, many companies have standardized the dimension of clamping plates and finished them to a high degree of precision. One-touch clamping is then performed by inserting these plates into special clamping fixtures. However, only the die actually forms the product considering the purpose of the operation, it is wasteful to finish clamping to a high degree of precision.
    Mechanization should be considered only after every effort has been made to improve setups using the techniques described. The first seven principles can reduce a two-hour setup to three minutes, and mechanization will probably reduce that time only by another minute.

    SMED is an analytical approach to setup improvement of which mechanization is only one component.
    One should attempt to mechanize setups after they have first been thoroughly streamlined by applying the SMED principles.


    Friday, December 6, 2013

    SMED - YouTube Videos



    Seeing believing. Recently in a class, I was describing the SMED procedure and a participant said, it is impossible. He would have believed it, if I showed him this video which I found it on 5.12.2013. The incident occurred some time in November 2013


    Shanley Enterprises - Clamps - Die change video
    ______________

    ______________

    In the above video the old die is removed, the new die is inserted and some bolts were tightened in 5.26 minutes.

    A large stamping press die change over using an air cart and our mechanical die change clamps

    http://DieChangeClamp.com


    Atlas Technologies Automatic Die Change System - Video
    _______________

    _______________


    Vidoe Published on 20 Aug 2012
    Atlas Technologies fully automatic, domino die change utilizes one additional cart to the number of presses in the line. The line shown above exchanges die sets in less than 5 minutes.
    ________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________

    Removing the Old Die in 5.39 minutes
    _______________

    _______________


    Fitting the New Die in 7.42 minutes
    ______________

    ______________


    _____________ ______________