Thursday, February 27, 2014

Process Planning - The Design/Manufacture Interface - Peter Scallan - Book Information


Process Planning: The design/manufacture interface (Google eBook)
Peter Scallan
Butterworth-Heinemann, 20-Jun-2003 - 496 pages


Process planning is an important topic industrial engineering. Their Operation Analysis activity examines process plans and improves their efficiency.

Process Planning covers the selection of processes, equipment, tooling and the sequencing of operations required to transform a chosen raw material into a finished product. Initial chapters review materials and processes for manufacturing and are followed by chapters detailing the core activities involved in process planning, from drawing interpretation to preparing the final process plan. The concept of maximising or 'adding value' runs throughout the book and is supported with activities.

Designed as a teaching and learning resource, each chapter begins with learning objectives, explores the theory behind process planning, and sets it in a 'real-life' context through the use of case studies and examples. Furthermore, the questions in the book develop the problem-solving skills of the reader.

ISO standards are used throughout the book (these are cross-referenced to corresponding British standards).

This is a core textbook, aimed at undergraduate students of manufacturing engineering, mechanical engineering with manufacturing options and materials science.

* Features numerous case studies and examples from industry to help provide an easy guide to a complex subject
* Fills a gap in the market for which there are currently no suitable texts
* Learning aims and objectives are provided at the beginning of each chapter - a user-friendly method to consolidate learning
Google Book Link with Preview facility
http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Process_Planning.html?id=R7GkqkbZbPIC




Table of Contents
Preface.
Acknowledgements.
Introduction to manufacturing:Introduction.Aims and objectives.

What is manufacturing?What is a manufacturing system?Inputs and outputs of a manufacturing system.Common characteristics of a manufacturing system.Developing a manufacturing strategy.Manufacturing organizational structures.Categories of manufacturing system.Processing Strategies.Plant layout.Manufacturing engineering.Summary.Case Studies: Re-organization at Edward Marks Ltd; Manufacturing at Stickley Furniture.Chapter review questions.References and further reading.


What is process planning?Introduction.Aims and objectives.Design and manufacture cycle.What is process planning?Process planning - the design/manufacture interface.Process planning activities.Process planning and industrial engineering.Process planning and quality assurance.Process planning and production planning.Process planning methods.Basic process planning terminology.Summary.Case Studies: Manufacturing at McCall Diesel Works; Planning at High Performance Pumps.Chapter review questions.References and further reading


Drawing interpretation:Introduction.Aims and objectives.Engineering communication.Identifying useful supplementary information.Material and specification.Special material treatments.Equivalent parts (interchangeability and standardization).Screw thread forms.Tool references.Dimensional tolerances.Limits and fits.Gauge references.Geometrical tolerances.Surface finish.Identifying the critical processing factors.Summary.Case Studies: Standardization at JH Engineering; Analysis and interpretation of adapter ring.Chapter review questions.Chapter review problems.References and further reading.Relevant standards.



Material evaluation and process selection:Introduction.Aims and objectives.Basic classification of materials for manufacture.Basic material properties.Metals.Ceramics.Polymers.Composites and semiconductors.Material selection process and methods.Material evaluation method.Manufacturing processes.Process selection.Process and operations sequencing.Summary.Case Studies: Material evaluation for a car alternator; Material and process selection for car bumpers.Chapter review questions.Chapter review problems.References and further reading.


Relevant standards.Production equipment and tooling selection:Introduction.Aims and objectives.Production equipment for specific processes.Factors in equipment selection.Machine selection method.Tooling for specific production equipment.Factors in tooling selection.Tooling selection method.Summary.Chapter review questions.Chapter review problems.References and further reading.Relevant standards


.Process parameters:Introduction.Aims and objectives.Factors affecting speeds, feeds and depth of cut.Surface cutting speeds.Spindle speeds and number of strokes.Feed rates.Speeds and feeds for NC machines.Depth of cut.Machining times.Summary.Chapter review questions.Chapter review problems.References and further reading.Relevant standards.


Workholding devices:Introduction.Aims and objectives.General-purpose workholding devices.What are jigs and fixtures?General factors in workholder design and selection.Basic principles of jig and fixture design.Design methodology for jig and fixture design.Types of jig and fixture.Principles and practice of location.Principles and practice of clamping.Standard parts for jigs and fixtures.Workholding for NC machines.Further workholding devices.Summary.Case Studies: Designing a jig for a simple pin; Designing a plate-type jig; Designing a sandwich jig.Chapter review questions.Chapter review problems.References and further reading.Relevant standards.



Selection of quality assurance methods:Introduction.Aims and objectives.What is quality assurance?Statistical quality control.Process control.Statistical process control.Process capability.Inspection and measurement.Summary.Chapter review questions.Chapter review problems.References and further reading.Relevant standards.Economics of process planning:Introduction.Aims and objectives.Manufacturing costs.Cost categories.Job/batch costing.Marginal costing.Manufacturing materials and costs.Manufacturing processes and costs.The 'make or buy?' decision.Summary.Chapter review questions.Chapter review problems.References and further reading.



From design to manufacture:Introduction.Aims and objectives.organization.Component.Drawing interpretation and material evaluation.Process selection and sequencing.Machine selection and operations sequencing.Tooling selection.Setting the process parameters.Determining workholding requirements.Selection of quality assurance methods.Documenting the process plan.Costing the plan.Summary.Chapter review questions.Chapter review problems.References and further reading.



Appendices:Control chart factors for variables.Blank control charts.Blank process planning documents.Index.

NITIE LIBRARY  bok no. 670/SCA  acc no. 48591

Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Porsche - Lean Manufacturing Consultancy by Shin-Gijutsu - Benefits



Wendelin Wiedeking, at 41,  took charge of Porsche in October 1992.For the previous six years, Porsche, based in Zuffenhausen, near Stuttgart, had been accelerating downhill. In the mid-1980s, it was selling 50,000 cars a year; last year it sold 14,000 and made a record loss of DM239m.

Wiedeking went to the best Japanese lean consulting firm, Shin-Gijutsu. The firm's leading consultants were Mr. Iwata and Mr. Nakao. For 30 years, Mr Iwata and Mr Nakao had been steeped in the development of Toyota's super-efficient production process.  They were part of the inner circle around the legendary engineer Taiichi Ohno. Mr Iwata, who had spent many years in charge of Toyota's Kaizen, or continuous improvement programme, left to set up Shin-Gijutsu, which means 'new technology'.


The most dramatic transformation has taken place in the engine assembly plant, where shelves two and a half metres high on either side were stacked with parts up to 28 days requirement.

The Shin-Gijutsu men made the workers halve the height of the shelves as an  intermediate solution. Later in in  this year, the shelves were removed altogether. Now only inventory enough for just 30 minutes, hanging on specially designed trolleys that come up continuously from the 'supermarket' in the basement is arranged.  Porsche has leapt from old-fashioned stock control to a just-in-time system.

The results were impressive in 1993. The production time of the new Porsche 911 Carrera has been reduced by a third, to 86 hours. The best comparable Japanese time is of 50 to 60 hours. Whereas 70 per cent of Porsches three years ago required expensive rectification at the end of the production line, the proportion is now half that. Inventory levels have been reduced by 44 per cent: 7,000 square metres of shopfloor space have been freed and rented out. A worker suggestion scheme, which in the past generated fewer than 20 ideas a month, has now exploded to around 2,500.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/inside-story-shock-therapy-for-porsche-the-prestigious-german-car-firm-was-speeding-to-destruction-so-its-chief-swallowed-his-pride-and-hired-japans-top-consultants-to-improve-outdated-methods-of-production-john-eisenhammer-charts-the-brutal-remedies-they-prescribed-at-the-companys-plant-near-stuttgart-1411366.html



2003

In 2003, the firm turned a profit in excess of €1bn – a striking reminder of the true potential of process improvement.

http://www.themanufacturer.com/articles/out-and-about-tm-on-the-road-again/




2013
26 March 2013
Lean Manufacturing Workshop Hosted Porsche Leipzig Plant for FINAT members

Lean’ manufacturing considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination. Methods efficiency engineering (explained in detail as Operation Analysis by H.B. Maynard) and Value Analysis also have the same aim. Elimination of waste that is resources consumed by a product or process but not adding value to the customer)

Lean thinking or management aims to increase efficiency, optimize workflow and decrease waste. In other words, it aims preserving value for the customer with less resources. In the current context it fits perfectly in a company’s corporate responsibility as far as sustainability is concerned. The lean methodology results in saving various resources through improved quality and fewer defects; reduced inventory; less space; increased manufacturing flexibility. It also leads to safer work environment and  improved worker motivation. It is based on systematic detection and elimination of inefficiencies.
http://www.finat.com/~/media/Files/Lean%20Manufacturing/FYB13-%20Lean.ashx

Monday, February 24, 2014

MIT - LAI Self Assessment Tool (LESAT) - Website Page Information


http://lean.mit.edu/products/lai-self-assessment-tool-lesat-2



LAI Self Assessment Tool (LESAT)
The LAI Self-Assessment Tool (LESAT) 2.0 is now available.

LESAT is a tool for self-assessing the current state of an enterprise and its readiness to change. The tool is organized into three assessment sections:

Lean transformation/leadership: lean practices pertinent to the lean transformation process with an emphasis on enterprise leadership and change management.
Life cycle processes: lean practices related to the "life cycle processes of an enterprise, i.e., those processes involved in product realization.
Enabling infrastructure: lean practices applicable to infrastructure support units.
Each section contains diagnostic questions, lean practices, five capability levels, and lean indicators. Each of the practices are focused at the enterprise assessment level, and the tool is supported by a Facilitator's Guide as well as a LESAT calculator.

MIT - Lean Enterprise Product Development for Practitioners - Website Information

http://lean.mit.edu/products/lean-enterprise-product-development-for-practitioners

Drs. Josef Oehmen and Eric Rebentisch have come out with  a new series of whitepapers, Lean Product Development for Practitioners in 2011.


 LAI on Program Management for Large Scale Engineering Programs


Dr. Josef Oehmen, Dr. Eric Rebentisch, and Kristian Kinscher, LAI Whitepaper Series: Lean Product Development for Practitioners, Version 1.0, December 2011.

 This paper addresses Enterprise, Program and Multi-Project Management.

Risk Management in Lean Enterprise Product Development 


Dr. Josef Oehmen and Dr. Eric Rebentisch, LAI Paper Series: Lean Enterprise Product Development for Practitioners, Version 1.0, March 2010.

The paper follows LAI´s understanding and Risk Management in Lean Product Development philosophy regarding Lean Management concepts and especially their integration into large and complex Enterprise settings.

The papers draw mainly on the research done by LAI. Where necessary to ensure a comprehensive presentation of a topic, findings of other researchers and research groups from the field of Lean Product Development are integrated into the papers.  This paper addresses topic 9, Risk Management.

The two core challenges of risk management are finding the optimum balance a) between the cost of carrying risks vs. the cost of mitigating risks and b) between a risk that is taken with a certain development project and the return that is expected from the project.

Waste in Lean Enterprise Product Development 


Josef Oehmen and Eric Rebentisch, LAI Paper Series: Lean Product Development for Practitioners, Version 1.1, July 2010.

The main objective of this paper is to make the work that has been done at LAI in the area of waste in product development easily accessible to the consortium members. The focus of the discussion in this paper is therefore on past LAI work. Non-LAI work is integrated into the presentation where it is necessary to complete the picture.

The intended readership is engineers and managers in the areas of product development, product design, systems engineering and program management. The paper is also intended to provide a first overview to students and others interested in the field.

Reading this whitepaper provides a concise overview of the most important waste drivers in product development, that is, the most common project deficiencies that lead to cost and schedule overrun, as well as to performance issues. It will enable those involved in process improvement initiatives to include specific lean-related factors into their process analysis. It provides both managers and engineers with a common language and concepts to enhance the efficiency of their product development projects.

The Innovative Lean Enterprise - Anthony Sgroi, Jr. - Book Information



The Innovative Lean Enterprise: Using the Principles of Lean to Create and Deliver Innovation to Customers
Anthony Sgroi, Jr.
CRC Press, 19-Aug-2013 - Business & Economics - 315 pages


Explaining how to use Lean principles to drive innovation and strategic portfolio planning, The Innovative Lean Enterprise: Using the Principles of Lean to Create and Deliver Innovation to Customers outlines simple, yet powerful, visual Lean tools that can enhance idea generation and product development. It starts with a discussion of Lean principles and then identifies the applicable portions of Lean that can drive customer value.

The book discusses customer value in the form of the benefits your customers desire. It walks you through the processes of using Lean techniques to effectively evaluate the quality of any prospective marketing opportunity and includes examples from a variety of industries, including healthcare.

The text discusses value creation, reduction of waste, entrepreneurial system designer, set-based concurrent engineering, and Lean project management. It also includes numerous examples of visual management tools as they apply to innovation to help you develop the understanding required to achieve a competitive advantage for your brand, division, or company through Lean.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=iSAbAAAAQBAJ



Table of Contents


Visual Strategy
The First Parameter of Strategy
     Utility
     Emotion
The Second Parameter of Strategy
The Third Parameter of Strategy
The Fourth Parameter of Strategy
The Strategy Icon
Conclusion
Chapter Overviews
     Chapter 2: Understanding the Current State
     Chapter 3: Opportunity Identification
     Chapter 4: Idea Generation
     Chapter 5: Delivering Profitable Innovation to Targeted Customers
     Chapter 6: Barriers to Imitation
     Chapter 7: Applications of Graphical Strategy Tools
     Chapter 8: Ranking Offerings
     Chapter 9: The Strategy Transformation Process
     Chapter 10: Strategy Transformation Example
     Chapter 11: Alignment and Position Statements

Understanding the Current State
The 2-D Perceptual Map
The 2-D Map
The Utility Knife Industry
     First Innovation: The Retractable Utility Knife
     Second Innovation: Quick Blade Change
     Third Innovation: Folding Utility Knives
     The Switchback Knife
     Product Features: Lock-Back-Style Folding Utility Knives
     Product Features: Folding Retractable Utility Knife with Blade Storage
     Product Features: Fast-Open Gravity Utility Knife
Conclusion

Opportunity Identification
Must-Be Requirements
One-Dimensional Requirements
Attractive Requirements
Top Portion of Product Fulfillment Map
     Acquisition
     Product Use
     Barriers to Use
     Product Robustness
     End of Life
Left-Side Portion of Product Fulfillment Map
     Utility: Product Function Category
     Risk: Category in Which Customers Seek Risk Avoidance
     Simplicity or Convenience
     Emotional Well-Being or Social Well-Being
     Supports the Green Movement
     Financial
Product Fulfillment Map Example
Opportunity Scores
Conclusion

Idea Generation
Internal Perspective Techniques
     Surveys
     Focus Groups
     One-on-One Interview
     Intercepts
     Product User Testing
     Customer Feedback and Complaints
     Ethnographic Research
     Idea Generation
     The Problem Solution Statement
     Job Mapping
Internal Ideation Methods
     Brain Writing
     Brain Walking
     Worst Idea
     Patent Prompts
     Picture Prompts
     White Board Technique
External Perspective Techniques
     Looking to Alternative Industries
     Looking to Alternate Strategic Groups
     Looking at Different Buyer Groups
     Looking to Complementary Product and Service Offerings
     Adding or Removing Functional or Emotional Characteristics
     Identifying New Trends
Conclusion

Delivering Profitable Innovation to Targeted Customers
Utility
Emotion
Conclusion

Barriers to Imitation
Brand Power
Firm’s Knowledge
Customer Relationships
Supplier Relationships
High-Efficiency Operations
Skill of People
Processes
Technology and Money
Regulatory Pioneering
Economies of Scale
Switching Cost of the Consumer
Intellectual Property
     Patents
     Types of Patents
     Patent Claims
     The Power of Patent Pending (a defensive tool)
     Trademarks
     Trade Dress as an IP Tool
     Copyrights as an IP Tool
     Trade Secrets as an IP Tool
Conclusion

Applications of Graphical Strategy Tools
SWOT Analysis
     Strength
     Weakness
     Opportunities
     Threats
Balanced Scorecard Approach
     The Learning and Growth Perspective
     The Business Process Perspective
     The Customer Perspective
     The Financial Perspective
Disruptive Innovation
     New Market Disruptions
     Low-End Disruptions
Conclusion

Ranking Offerings
Conclusion

The Strategy Transformation Process

Strategy Transformation Example
Conclusion

Alignment and Position Statements
Conclusion

Epilogue

Bibliography

Sunday, February 23, 2014

Industrial Engineering - Information Technology Systems - Productivity Improvement and Cost Reduction Processes



IT Metrics and Productivity Institute
https://www.itmpi.org/


2013


A software process engineering approach to understanding software productivity and team personality characteristics: an empirical investigation
Yilmaz, Murat (2013) A software process engineering approach to understanding software productivity and team personality characteristics: an empirical investigation. PhD thesis, Dublin City University.
http://doras.dcu.ie/17731/

A bank increases developer productivity by 34 percent
An IBM DevOps solution provides an integrated, automated software development platform
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/success/cssdb.nsf/CS/CPAR-9BXTM7?OpenDocument&Site=default&cty=en_us


Developer Productivity Report 2013 – How Engineering Tools & Practices Impact Software Quality & Delivery
http://zeroturnaround.com/rebellabs/developer-productivity-report-2013-how-engineering-tools-practices-impact-software-quality-delivery/

What is Software Development Productivity?
http://www.slideshare.net/murphygc/development-productivitymsr2013-24457350


Enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of application development
http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/business_technology/enhancing_the_efficiency_and_effectiveness_of_application_development

Lean Software Development: Meshing  with Extreme Programming
http://fileadmin.cs.lth.se/cs/Education/EDA270/Reports/2013/Ridderheim.pdf

2012
Training Productivity Improvement at WIPRO
A person who took around 30 days to get trained is l now taking around 22 days.
“Over the last 18 months,  training days were reduced by 80,000 days for over 10,000 people,” according to  Mr Ved Prakash, Chief Knowledge Officer, Global IT Business, Wipro Ltd.
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-and-economy/info-tech/article2850929.ece



2010
Introduction to Software Productivity
Galorath Incorporated
2010 presentation
http://www.galorath.com/blogfiles/Galorath%20Productivity%20Introduction%20slides.pdf
Software Rework is a  Hidden Productivity Killer (Source IAG Consulting)

Rework generally defined as: “work redone due to misunderstandings the first time”

It can be 50% in some projects

Poor requirements / business analysis yielded 3 project failures for 1 success

Companies with poor requirements spent, on average, $2.24 million more per project than those employing best requirements practices

Software rework is a symptom. Root cause is lack software requirement detail & requirement tools abstract and lacking context.

Identify percentage of redesign, reimplementation, retest

Typical percentages:
• Redesign = 40% of total effort
• Reimplementation = 25% of total effort
• Retest = 35% of total effort
10 software productivity laws were mentioned in the presentation

2009

How CIOs can increase IT Capability while cutting costs - Accenture 2009
http://www.accenture.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PDF/Accenture_How_CIOs_Increase_IT_Capability.pdf

Technology in Turbulent Times - Accenture report 2009
100 levers of IT Cost Reduction - 50 levers were given the in the report in figure 3.


2007

Easier, Simpler, Faster: Systems Strategy for Lean IT

Jean Cunningham, Duane Jones
Productivity Press, 23-Feb-2007 - Business & Economics - 163 pages
To enhance and sustain its Lean journey, a company must implement information systems that fully support and enhance the Lean initiative. In Easier, Simpler, Faster: Systems Strategy for Lean IT, Jean Cunningham and Duane Jones introduce the case study of an actual Lean implementation involving the IT system of a mid-size manufacturer, highlighting the IT challenges that the manufacturer faced during the Lean transformation. Winner of a Shingo Prize, this book will provide you with a broader vision as well as a path to what a Lean system environment will look like for your company.
Duane Jones worked in Lantech Corporation, celebrated for its lean journey, and implemented ERP there.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=NL33SCQ4N0wC



Six Sigma for IT Management

Google Book Link
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=zgq-qhzT7I4C

Six Sigma provides a quantitative methodology of continuous (process) improvement and cost reduction, by reducing the amount of variation in process outcomes.

The production of a product, be it a tangible product like a car or a more abstract product like a service, consists of a series of processes. All processes consist of a series of steps, events, or activities. Six Sigma measures every step of the process by breaking apart the elements within each process, identifying the critical characteristics, defining and mapping the related processes, understanding the capability of each process, discovering the weak links, and then upgrading the capability of the process. It is only by taking these steps that a business can raise the high-water mark of its performance.IT is now a fundamental part of business and business processes; this book demonstrates how IT can be made to work as an enabler to better business processes, and how the Six Sigma approach can be used to provide a consistent framework for measuring process outcomes.ITIL defines the what of Service Management; Six Sigma defines the how of process improvement; together they are a perfect fit of improving the quality of IT service delivery and support. The Six Sigma approach also provides measures of process outcomes, and prescribes a consistent approach in how to use these metrics.This Pocket guide, provides a coherent view and guidance for using the Six Sigma approach successfully in IT service organisations. It particularly aims to merge ITIL and Six Sigma into a single approach for continuous improvement of IT service organizations.

2004
Software Process Improvement in WIPRO
CMU/SEI Report
http://www.sei.cmu.edu/reports/04tr006.pdf

2003
Ranking IT Productivity Improvement Strategies
Martin Griss, Flashline Software Productivity Development Council
http://martin.griss.com/pubs/WPGRISS01.pdf


Case Study on Six Sigma at WIPRO
http://www.iitk.ac.in/infocell/announce/convention/papers/Changing%20Playfield-04-Manisha%20Sharma,%20Kapil%20Pandla,%20Prasanth%20Gupta.pdf

Lean Systems: Applications and Case Studies in Manufacturing, Service, and Healthcare - Book Information

Lean Systems: Applications and Case Studies in Manufacturing, Service, and Healthcare
Elizabeth A. Cudney, Sandra Furterer, David Dietrich
CRC Press, 16-Oct-2013 - Business & Economics - 533 pages


Lean Systems: Applications and Case Studies in Manufacturing, Service, and Healthcare details the various Lean techniques and numerous real-world Lean projects drawn from a wide variety of manufacturing, healthcare, and service processes, demonstrating how to apply the Lean philosophy.

The book facilitates Lean instruction by supplying interactive case studies that enable readers to apply the various Lean techniques. It provides an in-depth discussion of the Lean tools (i.e., VSM, standard work, 5S, etc.) and several real-world case studies and applications of Lean that have shown significant improvement in meeting customer requirements. The case studies follow the Six Sigma framework of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) structure for process improvement. The authors include detailed descriptions of each Lean tool and examples of how each Lean technique was applied to a wide variety of manufacturing, service, and healthcare processes.

These in-depth descriptions and cases studies can be used by industry professionals and academics to learn how to apply Lean. They provide a detailed, step-by-step approach to Lean and demonstrate how to integrate Lean tools for process improvement and to sustain improvements. But more than this, the approach taken in this book gives readers the tools to effectively apply Lean techniques.



Table of Contents

Overview and Introduction to Lean
Instructional Strategies for Using This Book, Elizabeth A. Cudney, Sandra L. Furterer, and David M. Dietrich
Lean Six Sigma Roadmap Overview, Sandra L. Furterer

Lean Tools and Step-by-Step Implementation

Value Stream Mapping, Elizabeth A. Cudney
Using 5S and Visual Management to Create a Clean and Manageable Work Environment, Elizabeth A. Cudney
Using Single-Minute Exchange of Dies and Total Productive Maintenance to Reduce Setup Time and Downtime, Elizabeth A. Cudney
Flow, Pull, and Kanban, Elizabeth A. Cudney
Mistake Proofing (aka Poka-Yoke): Preventing Defects by Monitoring Process Conditions and Correcting Errors at the Source, Elizabeth A. Cudney
Standard Work: Documenting the Interaction between People and Their Environment, Elizabeth A. Cudney
Systems Thinking and Theory of Constraints, Elizabeth A. Cudney, David M. Dietrich, and Sandra L. Furterer
Hoshin Kanri, Elizabeth A. Cudney

Manufacturing, Service, and Healthcare Case Studies

Lean Restaurant, Corbin LeGrand, Neha Pawar, Snehal Digraskar, Sneha Mahajan, Sukhada Mishra, and Susan Polson|
Achieving Flow in a Rapid Prototyping Laboratory, Shirish Sreedharan, Elizabeth A. Cudney, and Frank Liou
Implementing Lean Manufacturing Techniques to Achieve Six Sigma, Elizabeth A. Cudney
Pump Teardown Review Process Improvement, Shrey Arora and Rodney Ewing
Improving Women’s Healthcare Center Service Processes, Sandra L. Furterer
Application of Lean Tools in a Medical Device Company, Kelly M. Davis, Elizabeth A. Cudney, and Scott E. Grasman
Motor Grader Assembly Line Modification, Mujahid Abjul, Charlie Barclay, Nanday K. Dey, Amita Ghanekar, and Lynda Melgarejo
Sunshine High School Discipline Process Improvement: A Lean Six Sigma Case Study, Marcela Bernardinez, Khalid Buradha, Kevin S. Cochie, Jose Saenz, and Sandra L. Furterer
Financial Services Improvement in a City Government: A Lean Six Sigma Case Study, Sandra L. Furterer
Application of Lean Tools in a Hospital Pharmacy, Seth Langston, Jason Park, and Raj Vemulapally
Using Value Stream Mapping to Identify Performance Gaps for Hoshin Planning, Elizabeth A. Cudney

Planning and Implementation Strategies for Lean Initiatives

Planning and Executing a Kaizen Workshop, David M. Dietrich
Prioritizing the Lean Initiatives, Sandra L. Furterer
Emerging Technologies Influencing Lean, David M. Dietrich, Elizabeth A. Cudney, and Sandra L. Furterer
Future and Challenges of Lean: Engagement and Success Factors, Elizabeth A. Cudney and Sandra L. Furterer
Glossary
Index


http://books.google.co.in/books?id=VUnGAAAAQBAJ

Saturday, February 22, 2014

Low Cost Automation


There is a very good site offering tutorials on low cost automation


http://www.misumi-techcentral.com/tt/en/lca/


Fundamental technologies required for automating screw fastening process

173 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers - 9: Automating Screw Fastening - 1
http://www.misumi-techcentral.com/tt/en/lca/2013/12/173-production-technology-level-up-course-for-machine-designers---9-automating-screw-fastening---1.html
174 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers -10: Automating Screw Fastening - 2
http://www.misumi-techcentral.com/tt/en/lca/2014/01/vol-174-production-technology-level-up-course-for-machine-designers--10-automating-screw-fastening--.html

175 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers - 11: Automating Screw Fastening - 3
http://www.misumi-techcentral.com/tt/en/lca/2014/02/175-production-technology-level-up-course-for-machine-designers---38-automating-screw-fastening---3.html

Robotic Applications in Indian Companies - Engineering Economic Analysis



Sai Surface Coating Technologies Pvt. Ltd is using Roboruka supplied by Jay Robotix.

The deployment of RoboRuka™ 2.0 will enhance productivity by over 15 - 25% by ensuring less wastage of raw materials and maintaining the consistency in the product's quality. It will also reduce cost of production by 10% (approx) including savings in labor cost. Moreover the biggest advantage with RoboRuka™ 2.0 is that of easy accessibility to spare parts. Companies will be able to achieve greater precision and flexibility and faster production cycles as well. Companies can expect ROI within 6 - 10 months.

Lean Enterprise - The Machine That Changed the World - Book Summary and Excerpts



Preface

Chapter 1 The Industry of Industries in Transition


Chapter 2. The Rise and Fall of Mass Production

Chapter 3. The Rise of Lean Production

Example of Lean Production


In American Companies, die changes required a full day. The American companies dedicated die presses to each part. To Ohno of Toyota, that was not the solution. He has to stamp all the parts he needed from only few press lines. Hence he decided to decrease the die change time and he went on decreasing the die change time to 3 minutes and he also eliminated the need for die change specialists. The operators only will change the die. In the process he made the unexpected discovery - it actually cost less per part to make small batches of stampings than to run off enormous lots (due to  small setup costs).

Making only a few parts before assembling them into a car cause stamping mistakes to show up instantly. It made the production people more concerned about quality and that eliminated defectives significantly. But to make the system a success, Ohno needed both an extremely skilled and a highly motivated work force. Workers have take the initiative to maintain quality production. Otherwise, the whole factory will come to a halt.

Ohno organized his assembly workers into teams. The teams were given a set of assembly steps, their piece of line and told to work together on how best to perform the necessary operations. They work under a team leader, who would do assembly tasks, as well as coordinate the team and would  fill in for any absent worker. In mass production plans there were foremen and utility workers used to take the place of absentees. Ohno next gave the teams the job of housekeeping, minor tool repair, and quality checking. Finally, he gave them responsibility for process improvement also. This continuous, incremental improvement process, kaizen in Japanese, took place in collaboration with the industrial engineers, who still existed in much small number.

Ohno reasoned that rework at the end of assembly due to finding errors in final inspection is a waste. He wanted even assembly workers to pass on the work only if it is defect free and in case there is a defect which they could not rectify, they can stop the line and take the time to rectify the defect even with the help of other workers. Also, problem solving through 5 Whys methods is also used to avoid recurrence of the problem. In the initial days of this practice, the line was stopped  many times and workers got frustrated, with practice, the stoppages decreased significantly. Today, in Toyota plants,  yields approach 100 percent. That is the line practically never stops.  The extra benefit due to this method was that quality of shipped cars steadily improved. You cannot build quality by inspection, you have to build quality at the production centers only.  Today, Toyota assembly plant have practically no rework areas and perform almost no rework on assembled cars. In contrast, mass-production plants devote 20 percent of plant area and 25 percent of their total hours of final-assembly effort to fixing mistakes. American buyers report that Toyota's vehicles have among the lowest number of defects of any in the world, comparable to the very best of the German luxury car producers, who devote  many hours of assembly effort to rectification.

Supply Chain to Support Lean Production


The production of a car involves enginering and fabricating more than 10,000 major components and assembling them inot around 100 major subassemblies - engines, transmissions, steering gears, suspensions, and so on.

Toyota took a new approach to organize this supply 10,000 major components. It termed the suppliers of complete sub-assemblies  as first tier suppliers. These first-tier suppliers form an integral part of the new product development team. They are given responsibility for detail engineering the sub-assembly. They are given the performance specification of the subassembly, which is developed with them as a part of the team developing the new car. The supplier has to deliver the prototype for testing and once approved, the production order was given. Thus the detailed engineering of the subassembly was done by the tier 1 supplier.  The tier 1 suppliers were encouraged to talk among themselves about ways to improve the design process.  Each first- tier supplier formed a second tier of suppliers for components.

Toyota takes some equity in some supplier companies and these companies are encouraged to take equity in Toyota. Toyota also acts as banker for its supplier group providing loans to finance the machinery for new products.

Toyota share personnel also with suppliers. It provides work-force when load surges and also deputes its managers. Toyota encourages its suppliers to produce for other companies also.

Kanban system: Kanban system is used in Toyota production system to implement Just-in-time (JIT). As a container of parts was used up, it was sent back to the previous step or the supplier and this becomes the signal to make one more container of parts. Reduction of inventories in the JIT system means any error will disrupt the production. But the power of JIT idea is to involve everybody in quality and timely production by removing safety stocks or nets.

It took Eiji Toyoda and Ohno more than twenty years to fully implement JIT within the Toyota supply chain. They succeeded and created a highly productive, high quality, responsive supply chain.

Product Development and Engineering in Lean Enterprise


Ohno and Toyoda decided early that product engineering inherently encompassed both process and industrial engineering.. They formed product design teams with experts from process and industrial engineering teams. Career paths were structured so that rewards went to strong team players without regard to their function. The consequence of lean engineering  was a dramatic leap in productivity, product quality and responsiveness.

Lean Production and Changing Consumer Demand

Toyota's flexible production system and its low cost and time product engineering let the company supply the product variety that buyers wanted with little cost penalty. In 1990, Toyota offered consumers around the world as many products as General Motors even though Toyota was only half of GM's size. Toyota requires only half the time and effort required by GM to design and produce a new car. So Toyota can offer twice as many vehicles with the same development budget.  Japanes car makers offer as many models as all of the Western firms combined.  The product variety offered by Japanese is growing where that offered by Western companies is shrinking.

Japanese on an average are producing 500,000 copies in four years, whereas western companies making 2 million copies in 10 years.

Toyota is making profit by producing only two-thirds of the life-of-the-model production volume of European specialist firms and therefore it can attack the craft-based niche producers like Aston Martin and Ferrari. American mass producers could not attack them due to insufficient volume.

Lean Production: Dealing with Customers

Toyota in its initial days only developed a build-to-order system in which the dealer sent orders for presold car to the factory for delivery to specific customers in two to three weeks. The salesmen at the dealer went directly to customers making house calls. When demand began to droop, they worked more house and also they visited households they knew more likely to buy Toyota cars. This door-to-door selling of cars is termed as aggressive selling.  Toyota built a massive data base on households and their buying preferences for Toyota products.

The Toyota sales system incorporates the buyer into the product development process. In Japan vehicle inspection take place frequently and buyers change cars after six years.  Toyota minimize the chances of losing a Toyota user by using its consumer data base to predict what buyers want next as their incomes, family size, driving patterns and tastes changed.  Thus Toyota directly goes to existing customers in planning new products.


Chapter 4 Running the Factory


Chapter 5 Designing the Car

Chapter 6 Coordinating the Supply Chain

Chapter 7 Dealing with the customers

Chapter 8 Managing the Lean Enterprise

Related Reading


Are Japanese car building techniques the best?
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/under-the-hood/auto-manufacturing/japanese-car-building-techniques.htm




Solar Energy Industrial Engineering




22 Feb 2014
Solar Power at 11 cents per kWh

Target  6 cents per kWh
Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced that the SunShot Initiative program is already 60 percent of the way toward its goal of bringing the average price for a utility-scale solar power plant down to the target price of six cents per kilowatt-hour.
It means it is now available at 11 cents by the end of 2013. That’s now less than the average price of electricity in the U.S., which is about 12 cents per kWh, according to the Energy Information Administration.
http://www.triplepundit.com/2014/02/25-million-doe-funding-for-low-cost-solar-power/



Grand Challenge Announced by National Academy of Engineering


Make Solar Energy Economical
http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/cms/8996/9082.aspx

But exploiting the sun’s power is not without challenges. Overcoming the barriers to widespread solar power generation will require engineering innovations in several arenas — for capturing the sun’s energy, converting it to useful forms, and storing it for use when the sun itself is obscured.

Many of the technologies to address these issues are already in hand. Dishes can concentrate the sun’s rays to heat fluids that drive engines and produce power, a possible approach to solar electricity generation. Another popular avenue is direct production of electric current from captured sunlight, which has long been possible with solar photovoltaic cells.

How efficient is solar energy technology?
But today’s commercial solar cells, most often made from silicon, typically convert sunlight into electricity with an efficiency of only 10 percent to 20 percent, although some test cells do a little better. Given their manufacturing costs, modules of today’s cells incorporated in the power grid would produce electricity at a cost roughly 3 to 6 times higher than current prices, or 18-30 cents per kilowatt hour [Solar Energy Technologies Program]. To make solar economically competitive, engineers must find ways to improve the efficiency of the cells and to lower their manufacturing costs.

Prospects for improving solar efficiency are promising. Current standard cells have a theoretical maximum efficiency of 31 percent because of the electronic properties of the silicon material. But new materials, arranged in novel ways, can evade that limit, with some multilayer cells reaching 34 percent efficiency. Experimental cells have exceeded 40 percent efficiency.

Another idea for enhancing efficiency involves developments in nanotechnology, the engineering of structures on sizes comparable to those of atoms and molecules, measured in nanometers (one nanometer is a billionth of a meter).

Recent experiments have reported intriguing advances in the use of nanocrystals made from the elements lead and selenium. [Schaller et al.] In standard cells, the impact of a particle of light (a photon) releases an electron to carry electric charge, but it also produces some useless excess heat. Lead-selenium nanocrystals enhance the chance of releasing a second electron rather than the heat, boosting the electric current output. Other experiments suggest this phenomenon can occur in silicon as well. [Beard et al.]
Theoretically the nanocrystal approach could reach efficiencies of 60 percent or higher, though it may be smaller in practice. Engineering advances will be required to find ways of integrating such nanocrystal cells into a system that can transmit the energy into a circuit.

How do you make solar energy more economical?

Other new materials for solar cells may help reduce fabrication costs. “This area is where breakthroughs in the science and technology of solar cell materials can give the greatest impact on the cost and widespread implementation of solar electricity,” Caltech chemist Nathan Lewis writes in Science. [Lewis 799]
A key issue is material purity. Current solar cell designs require high-purity, and therefore expensive, materials, because impurities block the flow of electric charge. That problem would be diminished if charges had to travel only a short distance, through a thin layer of material. But thin layers would not absorb as much sunlight to begin with.

One way around that dilemma would be to use materials thick in one dimension, for absorbing sunlight, and thin in another direction, through which charges could travel. One such strategy envisions cells made with tiny cylinders, or nanorods. Light could be absorbed down the length of the rods, while charges could travel across the rods’ narrow width. Another approach involves a combination of dye molecules to absorb sunlight with titanium dioxide molecules to collect electric charges. But large improvements in efficiency will be needed to make such systems competitive.

How do you store solar energy?
However advanced solar cells become at generating electricity cheaply and efficiently, a major barrier to widespread use of the sun’s energy remains: the need for storage. Cloudy weather and nighttime darkness interrupt solar energy’s availability. At times and locations where sunlight is plentiful, its energy must be captured and stored for use at other times and places.
Many technologies offer mass-storage opportunities. Pumping water (for recovery as hydroelectric power) or large banks of batteries are proven methods of energy storage, but they face serious problems when scaled up to power-grid proportions. New materials could greatly enhance the effectiveness of capacitors, superconducting magnets, or flyweels, all of which could provide convenient power storage in many applications. [Ranjan et al., 2007]

Another possible solution to the storage problem would mimic the biological capture of sunshine by photosynthesis in plants, which stores the sun’s energy in the chemical bonds of molecules that can be used as food. The plant’s way of using sunlight to produce food could be duplicated by people to produce fuel.
For example, sunlight could power the electrolysis of water, generating hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen could then power fuel cells, electricity-generating devices that produce virtually no polluting byproducts, as the hydrogen combines with oxygen to produce water again. But splitting water efficiently will require advances in chemical reaction efficiencies, perhaps through engineering new catalysts. Nature’s catalysts, enzymes, can produce hydrogen from water with a much higher efficiency than current industrial catalysts. Developing catalysts that can match those found in living cells would dramatically enhance the attractiveness of a solar production-fuel cell storage system for a solar energy economy.

Fuel cells have other advantages. They could be distributed widely, avoiding the vulnerabilities of centralized power generation.

If the engineering challenges can be met for improving solar cells, reducing their costs, and providing efficient ways to use their electricity to create storable fuel, solar power will assert its superiority to fossil fuels as a sustainable motive force for civilization’s continued prosperity.


Industrial Engineering Professor Promoting Solar Energy

Dr. Earnest Fant, associate professor of industrial engineering,  has designed solar panel platforms that can be tilted to optimize the amount of solar energy they absorb, and solar arrays based on his design can be installed using materials found at local hardware stores. He takes classes and helps people to set up solar arrays in their backyards and connect it to grid.
http://www.ineg.uark.edu/4923.php


Optimum design of solar water heating systems
Layek Abdel-Malek†
Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Rutgers University, PO Box 909, Piscataway, NJ 08854, U.S.A.
Computers & Operations Research
Volume 12, Issue 2, 1985, Pages 219–225
Abstract
This paper presents an approach to the design of solar water heating systems for optimum performance in different locations. The results of a previously developed queueing model for solar water heating systems evaluation are used to determine the optimum size of the system design parameter. The approach concerns itself in selecting the optimum volume of the system water tank, and its collector area in different locations.

Friday, February 21, 2014

Machining Solutions





http://www.distinct.in/Brake_Cam.html

Component : Brake Cam
Sector : Two Wheeler
Operation : Profile Milling
Machine : Vertical Machining Center

http://www.distinct.in/Brake_Spider.html

Component : Brake Spider
Sector : Auto Components
Operation : ID , Facing & Back Facing
Machine : CNC Turning Center

Industrial Engineering - Productivity Enhancing Technology Development

1000th Published Post in Industrial Engineering Knowledge Center Blog

What is Industrial Engineering?

Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering.

Technology is a subsystem in the Systems made efficient by industrial engineers. Hence creating efficient technology or more productive technology is a task of industrial engineering. So we can say one task of industrial engineering is productivity enhancing technology development. Technology mean products and processes. Industrial engineers need to specialise. Industrial engineers with mechanical engineering background will work primarily on mechanical engineering products and processes and make them more efficient. Civil engineers with industrial engineering specialisation will primarily work on structures and construction processes.

Industrial engineering has techniques like value engineering (product design efficiency engineering), methods efficiency engineering, optimization techniques, six sigma and simulation which facilitate efficiency/productivity improvement. All these techniques help industrial engineers to systematically identify efficient engineering alternatives. Hence engineers in various branches are to be given industrial engineering education to develop the capabilities in them to develop more productive technologies in their branch of engineering.


While industrial engineers keep working towards making technologies more productive, there are other engineers who are making new product, who are improving products by adding more features and engineers who are guiding operators in using the technology.

The data bases of industrial engineers are more cost oriented and efficient oriented. An vendor trying to sell a more efficient technical device in a company should visit industrial engineers and industrial engineer has to welcome him. Engineering economic analysis is the discipline that helps industrial engineers to do economic feasibility analysis of the new device. His engineering background helps him to do the technical analysis.

Industrial Engineers have to develop special purpose machines that have more productivity than general purpose machines.

They have to develop jigs and fixtures which help in improving productivity.

They have to select tools and design special tools to improve productivity.

Material handling is another area ripe for productivity improvement.

Inspection tools also can be made more efficient.


Special Purpose Machines

SPMs are very useful for producing large quantities of high quality products at low costs. These machines can also be altered to produce similar components when necessary as modular components and systems are now available to develop SPMs. High accuracy, uniform quality, and large production quantities are important characteristics of SPMs. However, the inadequate knowledge of machining specialists with this technology has resulted in its low utilization in manufacturing firms.

In this article a detailed discussion of SPMs, their capabilities and accessories have been described. It also explained the development of a KBES to assist SPM users in deciding whether or not to make use of SPMs for a given production task. An  analysis was made on the basis of technical and economical considerations. In a  case study  presented in the paper for the given production task SPM would result in a significant 59% reduction of costs when compared to CNC, and an unbelievable 95.5% cost reduction was achieved when compared to traditional lathe.
( http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/30663 )

Industrial engineers have to take the responsibility for development of special purpose machines.

Operation Analysis described H.B. Maynard clearly brought the role of industrial engineering in analysing material, equipment, cutting tools, jigs and fixtures, material handling and work station design.

Productivity and IE in Aluminum Sheet, Plate, and Foil Manufacturing


Manufacturing History: Aluminium foil rolling - Thinner, faster, wider
http://www.alufoil.org/manufacturing-history-aluminium-foil-rolling-thinner-faster-wider.html

2011
Noranda Aluminum Holding Corp. - A passion for Productivity

The company uses its CORE program (“Cost Out, Reliability and Effectiveness”),  a project-based framework to control costs, de-bottleneck capacity constraints and improve reliability at the company’s production facilities.

 Noranda’s CORE projects fall into three broad categories. The first is the do-it-better category – small-scope process changes that require little or no capital. For example, smelter engineers increased the size of the anodes in one of the smelters three pot lines from 61 inches to 63 inches. This change required essentially no capital.  The benefit was reduced voltage, increased amperage and $1 million in annualized savings.

Second is the better-tools category – projects requiring modest capital, and provide employees with additional tools to either drive out costs or improve operational reliability and effectiveness. In one of its rolling mill facilities, for example, the company  installed an internally developed graphite-spray system. The new system improved quality, improved reliability and reduced graphite usage, generating more than $100,000 of savings in its first quarter of operations.

Third are major projects that require meaningful capital and extend over several quarters or years. An example: a $2.5 million project to replace a piece of equipment that slits larger pieces of foil to allow for processing into thinner material. This slitter project allowed that facility to meet the needs of certain product groups, which it previously could not serve in a cost-effective manner.
http://manufacturing-today.com/index.php/featured-content/670-noranda-aluminum-holding-corp

Manufactuters



http://alnan.com/en/aboutus/index.htm
China


India

INDAL
IFL
PGF
BALCO
IFL
Annapurna Foils Ltd (AFL)
Synthiko Foils
http://www.dsir.gov.in/reports/techreps/tsr012.pdf

Productivity and IE in Plastics Bottle Manufacturing



2014

Raising productivity and protecting worker health through ABB Robot

Packing 60,000 plastic bottles a day by hand was taking a high toll in labor costs and operator health for an Australian plastics company. A single ABB robot not only solved the problem, it increased productivity by up to 40 percent.
Power Plastics is a Sydney-based manufacturer of plastic bottles and containers for customers in the food, pharmaceuticals, personal care, househould and industrial segments.

Skyrocketing raw material prices and the operational and human costs of hand-packing 60,000 bottles a day were the key reasons behind the company's decision to switch from manual to robot-based production in its labor-intensive squeezable bottle line.

The final decision to automate was made after a particularly bad year with workers' compensation claims from RSI (repetitive strain injury).
Prior to the installation of the ABB robot, two operators spent each shift putting the bottles into cardboard boxes, sealing the boxes and stacking them on pallets. Now a single ABB IRB 4400L robot, with a 2.43 meter reach and a 30kg payload, picks up eight to ten bottles at a time (depending on bottle size) from two production lines. A single operator is required to seal the boxes and palletize them.
http://www.abb.com/cawp/seitp202/76b0a1b4c85d7a1ec1257736002801f7.aspx

2012

COMPRESSION BLOW FORMING PROCESS NOW IN COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION

Close Up: Blow Molding
By Matthew H. Naitove, Executive Editor
Share on twitterShare on facebookShare on printShare on gmailMore Sharing Services
13
From: Plastics Technology
Issue: July 2012
Expectations of higher productivity, improved quality, and energy savings for a novel blow molding process are now being realized in commercial production at Amcor Rigid Plastics in Youngsville, N.C.
Based in Ann Arbor, Mich., Amcor (amcor.com) is producing 75-cc HDPE pharmaceutical bottles for one customer and also plans stock bottles of 150 and 300 cc. The machine is suitable for the pharmaceutical packaging range of 60 to 300 cc. “For the pharmaceutical industry, compression blow forming is one of the most significant technological developments for rigid packaging in decades. It’s a game-changer for an industry that demands risk-free performance,
CBF is said to have several advantages over injection-blow molding (IBM) of small HDPE bottles:
Amcor says the 12-station CBF machine can run at up to 6000 bottles/hr and a 20-station model (coming later this year) could produce 10,000/hr, depending on bottle size and weight. Productivity is enhanced by the continuous rotary motion of the cam-operated process, eliminating station-to-station indexing time.
http://www.ptonline.com/articles/compression-blow-forming-process-now-in-commercial-production

Plastics manufacturer improves safety and ergonomics while increasing productivity with the Motion Controls Robotics “Robotic SUBTA” 


Challenge
A national manufacturer of stock and custom plastic packaging solutions for the food packaging, chemical, automotive and household industries faced the challenge of improving its safety and ergonomics associated with its manual system of unloading its Nissei Bottle Making Machine at its manufacturing facility.

Motion Controls Robotics’ created the Robotic SUBTA system, a pre-engineered robotic system designed for PET blow-molded bottle handling. The system uses different robotic units depending on the type of machine that is being unloaded. The Robotic SUBTA system grabs and sets the bottles on a conveyor, standing up, acting as a takeaway unit. The system provides increased throughput due to high reliability and
uptime and cycle times faster than most mold machine rates. The Robotic SUBTA system also requires a minimum of floor space, a high priced commodity in a manufacturing facility.
http://www.motioncontrolsrobotics.com/downloads/Robotic%20SUBTA%20Case%20Study.pdf

Productivity and IE in Plastics Pipe and Pipe Fitting Manufacturing




2011

Pipe extrusion: Internal cooling system boosts productivity
Published: February 11th, 2011

Plastics pipe extruders are offered a new tool to help increase their lines' efficiency when processing polyolefins. Developed and manufactured by KraussMaffei Berstorff, this new internal pipe cooling (IPC) system is said to dramatically reduce the initial cost and space requirements for a new pipe extrusion line, while also helping increase the productivity of already-installed pipe extrusion lines.
http://www.plasticstoday.com/mpw/product-watch/plastic-pipe-extrusion-internal-cooling-system


2010

HOW TO GET PEAK PERFORMANCE & EFFICIENCY OUT OF YOUR EXTRUSION LINE, PART I
http://www.ptonline.com/articles/how-to-get-peak-performance-efficiency-out-of-your-extrusion-line---part-i

BOOSTING EXTRUSION PRODUCTIVITY-PART II OF III: OPTIMIZE PRODUCT CHANGEOVER & PURGING
http://www.ptonline.com/articles/boosting-extrusion-productivitypart-ii-of-iii-optimize-product-changeover-purging

TIPS AND TECHNIQUES: BOOSTING EXTRUSION PRODUCTIVITY - PART III OF III: TRIM YOUR MATERIAL & ENERGY COSTS
http://www.ptonline.com/articles/tips-and-techniques-boosting-extrusion-productivitypart-iii-of-iii-trim-your-material-energy-costs

Productivity and IE in Plastics Packaging Film and Sheet Manufacturing




ERP for Plastic Industry

CyFrame.com We are the leading international provider of Best-of-Breed ERPII business software solutions (ERP Softwares and MRP Softwares) dedicated to improve productivity exclusively for the plastic industry : Plastic inventory, planning and packaging software, injection blow moulding, extrusion blow moulding and blown film softwares and management systems.
http://www.cyframe.com/



2012
Napco Modern Plastic Products Company – Technical Division installs additional slitter machine at Dammam-based plant to increase productivity and plant output. The co–extruded plastic film manufacturer produces flexible barrier films, as well as polypropelyne (PP)/polyehthylene (PE), cast polypropylene (CPP), and PE films for the food and medical sectors.
http://news.indevcogroup.com/en/April2012/Plastics/166/New-Machine-at-Napco-Modern-Plastic-Products-Company-%E2%80%93-Technical-Division-Increases-Productivity-co-extruded-PE-Films-Dammam-Napco-Modern-Technical-new-machine-Saudi-Arabia.htm

2011
Performance: Plastic Packaging Materials and Unlaminated Film and Sheet Manufacturing (NAICS 32611) - Canada
https://www.ic.gc.ca/app/scr/sbms/sbb/cis/performance.html?code=32611&lang=eng


Quality Claims

If you want to save money and gain efficiencies with your film packaging, you need the flattest, most consistent film available. And with state-of-the-art technologies that controls gauge variances, we can offer you just that.
http://www.haremar.com/advantages/productivity

Thursday, February 20, 2014

Productivity and IE in Printing Ink Manufacturing










2007
HP Improves Productivity of ElectroInk Manufacturing Process, Reduces Carbon Footprint

HP today announced that it has improved its manufacturing process for HP ElectroInks - the liquid inks used in HP Indigo presses - a change that has yielded significant benefits in productivity and energy efficiency.
http://www8.hp.com/us/en/hp-news/press-release.html?id=170070#.UwbRo2KSxe4



http://www.sakataindia.com/aboutus.htm
Manufacturers

http://www.rupainks.com/about-rupa-inks.html

http://www.sakataindia.com/aboutus.htm

Productivity and IE in Tire Manufacturing




2012

CONTINENTAL TIRE PLANT INCREASES PRODUCTIVITY, REDUCES WASTE

After installing AeroScout Wi-Fi-based RFID tags and RTLS software, the company's French factory is producing 5,000 more tires per day, while decreasing waste of materials by 20 percent.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?9466

2011

Increased Productivity of Tyre Manufacturing
Process using Lean Methodology
Ajit Chavda, Prof. M.Y.Patil

Toyota Motors - History of Productivity



1933:
Automobile Department is created within Toyoda Automatic Loom Works.
1935:
First Model A1 passenger car prototype is completed.
1937:
Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. is formed.
1950:
Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd. is established.


When the war ended in August 1945 most of Japan's industrial facilities had been wrecked, and the Toyoda (or Toyota as it became known after the war) production plants had suffered extensively. The company had 3,000 employees but no working facilities, and the economic situation in Japan was chaotic. But the Japanese tradition of dedication and perseverance proved to be Toyota's most powerful tool in the difficult task of reconstruction.


In 1950, in the end management and labor agreed to reduce the total workforce from 8,000 to 6,000 employees,

By 1950, the cumulative production of Toyota, after 13 years of operation, was 2685 automobiles, as compared to the 7000 vehicles Ford’s Rouge plant was putting out per day.


In 1903, Ford's 125 workers made 1,700 cars in three different models (13.6 cars per worker). In 1914, 13,000 workers at Ford made 260,720 cars (20.05 cars/worker). By comparison, in the rest of the industry, it took 66,350 workers to make 286,770 (4.322 cars per worker).
http://www.wiley.com/legacy/products/subject/business/forbes/ford.html





http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/toyota-motor-corporation-history/

Number of Employees in Toyota
For formatted table see the source:
http://www.toyota-global.com/company/history_of_toyota/75years/data/company_information/personnel/employee/index.html





_____________________________________

Year
Grand total
Number of employees
Toyota Motor Corporation/Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.
Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd.
Data period
Consolidated
Unconsolidated
Total
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
1938
-
4,065
4,065
3,679
386
-
-
-
As of November 1938
1939
-
5,348
5,348
4,448
900
-
-
-
As of August 1939
1940
-
6,427
6,427
5,259
1,168
-
-
-
As of August 1940
1941
-
5,335
5,335
4,681
654
-
-
-
As of August 1941
1942
-
7,195
7,195
5,715
1,480
-
-
-
As of August 1942
1943
-
7,623
7,623
6,104
1,519
-
-
-
As of August 1943
1944
-
7,360
7,360
5,602
1,758
-
-
-
As of October 1944
1945
-
3,467
3,467
2,939
528
-
-
-
As of December 31 1945
1946
-
6,463
6,463
5,202
1,261
-
-
-
As of August 1946
1947
-
6,345
6,345
5,085
1,260
-
-
-
As of December 31 1947
1948
-
6,481
6,481
5,331
1,150
-
-
-
As of December 31 1948
1949
-
7,337
7,337
6,148
1,189
-
-
-
As of December 31 1949
1950
-
5,887
5,504
4,786
718
383
278
105
As of December 31 1950
1951
-
5,685
5,264
4,618
646
421
288
133
As of December 31 1951
1952
-
5,609
5,160
4,553
607
449
305
144
As of December 31 1952
1953
-
5,789
5,287
4,669
618
502
340
162
As of December 31 1953
1954
-
5,753
5,235
4,642
593
518
351
167
As of December 31 1954
1955
-
5,644
5,130
4,601
529
514
363
151
As of December 31 1955
1956
-
5,897
5,315
4,808
507
582
413
169
As of December 31 1956
1957
-
6,372
5,688
5,299
389
684
483
201
As of December 31 1957
1958
-
6,685
5,936
5,483
453
749
535
214
As of December 31 1958
1959
-
8,087
7,260
6,735
525
827
587
240
As of December 31 1959
1960
-
11,045
10,127
9,318
809
918
648
270
As of December 31 1960
1961
-
13,093
11,966
11,023
943
1,127
793
334
As of December 31 1961
1962
-
14,918
13,460
12,438
1,022
1,458
997
461
As of December 31 1962
1963
-
17,771
16,126
15,024
1,102
1,645
1,094
551
As of December 31 1963
1964
-
22,807
20,783
19,536
1,247
2,024
1,287
737
As of December 31 1964
1965
-
24,639
22,330
20,910
1,420
2,309
1,449
860
As of December 31 1965
1966
-
27,890
25,484
23,931
1,553
2,406
1,472
934
As of December 31 1966
1967
-
32,606
30,066
28,434
1,632
2,540
1,517
1,023
As of December 31 1967
1968
-
36,426
33,681
32,021
1,660
2,745
1,602
1,143
As of December 31 1968
1969
-
39,534
36,581
34,822
1,759
2,953
1,712
1,241
As of December 31 1969
1970
-
43,040
39,814
37,991
1,823
3,226
1,860
1,366
As of December 31 1970
1971
-
43,815
40,322
38,168
2,154
3,493
1,987
1,506
As of December 31 1971
1972
-
44,694
41,032
38,813
2,219
3,662
2,093
1,569
As of December 31 1972
1973
-
46,452
42,620
40,375
2,245
3,832
2,176
1,656
As of December 31 1973
1974
-
48,544
44,484
42,097
2,387
4,060
2,309
1,751
As of December 31 1974
1975
-
47,665
43,399
40,888
2,511
4,266
2,397
1,869
As of December 31 1975
1976
-
47,841
43,514
41,047
2,467
4,327
2,406
1,921
As of December 31 1976
1977
-
48,358
43,951
41,399
2,552
4,407
2,491
1,916
As of December 31 1977
1978
-
48,802
44,274
41,671
2,603
4,528
2,570
1,958
As of December 31 1978
1979
-
49,486
44,849
42,238
2,611
4,637
2,650
1,987
As of December 31 1979
1980
-
51,206
46,402
43,621
2,781
4,804
2,749
2,055
As of December 31 1980
1981
-
53,254
48,181
45,238
2,943
5,073
2,893
2,180
As of December 31 1981
1982
-
55,354
55,354
49,950
5,404
-
-
-
As of December 31 1982
1983
-
57,005
57,005
51,502
5,503
-
-
-
As of December 31 1983
1984
-
59,164
59,164
53,572
5,592
-
-
-
As of December 31 1984
1985
-
61,696
61,696
56,117
5,579
-
-
-
As of December 31 1985
1986
-
63,031
63,031
57,300
5,731
-
-
-
As of December 31 1986
1987
-
64,859
64,859
58,553
6,306
-
-
-
As of June 30 1987
1988
86,082
65,926
65,926
59,581
6,345
-
-
-
As of June 30 1988
1989
91,790
67,814
67,814
61,379
6,435
-
-
-
As of June 30 1989
1990
96,849
70,841
70,841
64,105
6,736
-
-
-
As of June 30 1990
1991
102,423
72,900
72,900
65,596
7,304
-
-
-
As of June 30 1991
1992
108,167
75,266
75,266
67,376
7,890
-
-
-
As of June 30 1992
1993
109,279
73,046
73,046
65,230
7,816
-
-
-
As of June 30 1993
1994
110,534
71,573
71,573
63,819
7,754
-
-
-
As of March 31 1994
1995
142,645
69,748
69,748
62,594
7,154
-
-
-
As of March 31 1995
1996
146,855
68,641
68,641
61,895
6,746
-
-
-
As of March 31 1996
1997
150,736
70,524
70,524
64,318
6,206
-
-
-
As of March 31 1997
1998
159,035
69,753
69,753
63,932
5,821
-
-
-
As of March 31 1998
1999
183,879
67,912
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 1999
2000
210,709
65,290
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2000
2001
215,648
66,005
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2001
2002
246,702
66,820
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2002
2003
264,096
65,551
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2003
2004
264,410
65,346
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2004
2005
265,753
64,237
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2005
2006
285,977
65,798
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2006
2007
299,394
67,650
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2007
2008
316,121
69,478
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2008
2009
320,808
71,116
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2009
2010
320,590
71,567
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2010
2011
317,716
69,125
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2011
2012
325,905
69,148
-
-
-
-
-
-
As of March 31 2012


http://www.toyota-global.com/company/history_of_toyota/75years/data/automotive_business/production/production/overview/index.html
_____________________________________


1935-1960

Year
Passenger cars
Trucks & buses
All vehicles
Total (units)
Total (units)
Total (units)
Passenger car ratio (%)
1935
0
20
20
0.00
1936
100
1,042
1,142
8.80
1937
577
3,436
4,013
14.40
1938
539
4,076
4,615
11.70
1939
107
11,874
11,981
0.90
1940
268
14,519
14,787
1.80
1941
208
14,403
14,611
1.40
1942
41
16,261
16,302
0.30
1943
53
9,774
9,827
0.50
1944
19
12,701
12,720
0.10
1945
0
3,275
3,275
0.00
1946
0
5,821
5,821
0.00
1947
54
3,868
3,922
1.40
1948
21
6,682
6,703
0.30
1949
235
10,589
10,824
2.20
1950
463
11,243
11,706
4.00
1951
1,470
12,758
14,228
10.30
1952
1,857
12,249
14,106
13.20
1953
3,572
12,924
16,496
21.70
1954
4,235
18,478
22,713
18.60
1955
7,403
15,383
22,786
32.50
1956
12,001
34,416
46,417
25.90
1957
19,885
59,642
79,527
25.00
1958
21,224
57,632
78,856
26.90
1959
30,235
70,959
101,194
29.90
1960
42,118
112,652
154,770
27.20

_____________________________________



______________________________________


Year
Passenger cars
Trucks & buses
All vehicles
Total (units)
Total (units)
Total (units)
Passenger car ratio (%)
1961
73,830
137,107
210,937
35.00
1962
74,515
155,835
230,350
32.30
1963
128,843
189,652
318,495
40.50
1964
181,738
244,026
425,764
42.70
1965
236,151
241,492
477,643
49.40
1966
316,189
271,350
587,539
53.80
1967
476,807
355,323
832,130
57.30
1968
659,189
438,216
1,097,405
59.30
1969
964,088
507,123
1,471,211
65.50
1970
1,068,321
540,869
1,609,190
66.40
1971
1,400,186
554,847
1,955,033
71.60
1972
1,487,661
599,472
2,087,133
71.30
1973
1,631,940
676,158
2,308,098
70.70
1974
1,484,737
630,243
2,114,980
70.20
1975
1,714,836
621,217
2,336,053
73.40
1976
1,730,767
757,084
2,487,851
69.60
1977
1,884,260
836,498
2,720,758
69.30
1978
2,039,115
890,042
2,929,157
69.60
1979
2,111,302
884,923
2,996,225
70.50
1980
2,303,284
990,060
3,293,344
69.90
1981
2,248,171
972,247
3,220,418
69.80
1982
2,258,253
886,304
3,144,557
71.80
1983
2,380,753
891,582
3,272,335
72.80
1984
2,413,133
1,016,116
3,429,249
70.40
1985
2,569,284
1,096,338
3,665,622
70.10
1986
2,684,024
976,143
3,660,167
73.30
1987
2,708,069
930,210
3,638,279
74.40
1988
2,982,922
985,775
3,968,697
75.20
1989
3,055,101
920,801
3,975,902
76.80
1990
3,345,885
866,488
4,212,373
79.40


______________________________________

ear
Passenger cars
Trucks & buses
All vehicles
Total (units)
Total (units)
Total (units)
Passenger car ratio (%)
1991
3,180,054
905,027
4,085,081
77.80
1992
3,171,311
760,030
3,931,341
80.70
1993
2,882,698
679,052
3,561,750
80.90
1994
2,769,359
739,097
3,508,456
78.90
1995
2,557,174
614,103
3,171,277
80.60
1996
2,796,839
613,221
3,410,060
82.00
1997
2,910,107
591,939
3,502,046
83.10
1998
2,669,975
495,830
3,165,805
84.30
1999
2,698,503
419,723
3,118,226
86.50
2000
2,992,889
436,320
3,429,209
87.30
2001
2,938,820
415,604
3,354,424
87.60
2002
3,070,456
414,712
3,485,168
88.10
2003
3,082,045
437,973
3,520,018
87.60
2004
3,231,430
449,516
3,680,946
87.80
2005
3,374,526
415,056
3,789,582
89.00
2006
3,826,819
367,369
4,194,188
91.20
2007
3,849,353
376,784
4,226,137
91.10
2008
3,630,886
381,242
4,012,128
90.50
2009
2,543,715
248,559
2,792,274
91.10
2010
2,993,714
289,141
3,282,855
91.92
2011
2,473,546
286,482
2,760,028
89.62



_______________________________________


In 1955, General Motors produced 4,477,000 cars and trucks in U.S. factories with 555,000 employees, or eight cars for every worker. In 2009 GM sold 2,084,000 cars in the United States with 77,000 employees, or 27 cars per worker. Toyota produces almost 50 cars per employee and the new Hyundai plant in Beijing is aiming at a 100 cars per worker.

Daimler Benz

1906 to 1913 were further expansion years, with the creation of new capacity reducing the number of external suppliers. Increased mechanization took the annual productivity from 0.7 cars per worker, to 10
http://automobile.wikia.com/wiki/Daimler_Motoren_Gesellschaft




The latest data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate that in 1980, about 20 million manufacturing employees in the United States produced about $800 billion worth of goods. Today, (2012) 12 million workers produce almost $2 trillion worth. This is good for the economy but not so good for employment.
http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Walkers_World_Looking_ahead_to_2013_999.html



Relations Between Safety and Productivity
Kazuaki Goto & Shingo Kato
*Assembly Dept., Tsutsumi Factory of Toyota Motor Co.*
1999

1. Outline of Tsutusmi Works
Established: 1970 (28-year operation as a passenger car factory) Capacity: 400,000 - 500,000 cars per year The Number of Employees: 5,600 employees in the factory, including 1,500 employees working for the assembly department. The factory has been functioning as a mother plant of Toyota Kentucky factory in the USA and Derby factory in England
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/icpro/jicosh-old/english/osh/jisha-nsc/toyota.html