Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Institute of Systems and Industrial Engineers - Areas of Expertise


ABOUT IISE

Systems world view. Productivity. Efficiency.                   These are words that describe the distinctive attributes of industrial engineering, and IISE is the world's largest professional society dedicated solely to the support of the industrial and systems engineering profession and individuals involved with improving quality and productivity. Founded in 1948, IISE is an international, nonprofit association that provides leadership for the application, education, training, research, and development of industrial and systems engineering. ISEs figure out a better way to do things and work in a wide array of professional areas, including management, manufacturing, logistics, health systems, retail, service and ergonomics. They influence policy and implementation issues regarding topics such as sustainability, innovation and Six Sigma. And like the profession, ISEs are rooted in the sciences of engineering, the analysis of systems, and the management of people. Join today!   
(http://www.iienet2.org/Default.aspx  Accessed on 30 August 2016)

Systems world view indicates that industrial engineering take care of productivity and efficiency at the system level that is enterprise level.

The basic area of application of industrial engineering is engineering activities in any concern. To improve productivity and efficiency, industrial engineering improve technical processes. They also examine management processes being used in the engineering activities to assess the contribution of management processes to low productivity. If the productivity is low, they need to study the management process to identify better ways to improve productivity.  Industrial engineering was used by organizations in non engineering activities also. Experienced industrial engineers were successful in increasing productivity of non-engineering activities also. But it is essential to stress that primary job of industrial engineers is to improve engineering activities using engineering knowledge and knowledge in mathetatics, statistics, social sciences, engineering economics and human sciences.

Sustainability movement which stress resource efficiency is an area where industrial engineers can contributed once again especially in engineering concerns.

Industrial engineers are innovators as they redesign products and processes. So innovation is a subject of interest for industrial engineers.

Six sigma is a two decade old optimization technique based on statistical data collection and analysis. Industrial engineering discipline recognized the utility of six sigma in improving productivity and made the technique part of IE tool kit.

Saturday, August 27, 2016

Improving Instructional Productivity in Higher Education Institutions

Procurement Transactional Productivity Expert



27 August 2016
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Sourcing and Procurement Benchmarking:
Assess investments and operational excellence fast and objectively
http://www.thehackettgroup.com/expertise/sourcing-procurement-strategy/sourcing-procurement-benchmarking.jsp



Zamak Alloys - Value Engineering Opportunity

Saturday, August 13, 2016

Industrial Engineering Methods - Classified Articles with Links


Updated  31 June 2016,


History of Industrial Engineering


Contribution of Taylor to Industrial Engineering - Shop Management and Scientific Management
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2013/08/contribution-of-taylor-to-industrial.html

Industrial Engineering - Definition, Explanation, History, and Programs
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/industrial-engineering-definition.html

Motion Study - Explanation by Frank B. Gilbreth - Index


ARE INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS TAKING A BROAD ENOUGH VIEW?
H. Harold Bass
Supervisor Research and Development Group
Industrial Engineering Division
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York
PROCEEDINGS FIFTEENTH ANNUAL INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING INSTITUTE
1963, University of California
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/irle/ucb/text/ir00035.pdf


Deployment of Industrial Engineering West Germany after WWII
http://r-cube.ritsumei.ac.jp/bitstream/10367/4375/3/E61_5yamazaki.pdf


Product Design Efficiency Improvement


Analysis of Material in Methods Efficiency Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/analysis-of-material-in-operation.html

Product Design Efficiency Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/product-design-efficiency-engineering.html

Value Engineering - Introduction
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/value-engineering-introduction.html

Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) - Value Engineering Method
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/03/functional-analysis-systems-technique.html

Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/03/value-engineering-examples-cases-and.html

Value Engineering Applications in India (Tisco 1993 paper in Value World)
http://www.value-eng.org/valueworld/older_issues/1993_Oct-Dec.pdf


Fifth Annual Industrial Engineering Institute of the University of California, 1953
VALUE ANALYSIS - "A PLANT WIDE CREATIVE COST REDUCTION
PROGRAM UNDER PURCHASING LEADERSHIP''
By L, D, Miles General Electric Company
file:///C:/Users/hp/Downloads/124.pdf


Scaling Lean Product Management for Better Innovation
Ash Maurya  wrote the step-by-step guide for implementing Lean startup practices, titled Running Lean, created the Lean Canvas tool, and blogs regularly about these topics at http://www.leanstack.com.

Ash has written a new book  "Scaling Lean: Mastering the Key Metrics for Startup Growth," about applying Lean Startup principles to go from new product concept to a product that will have a predictable success with customers. The concepts discussed in the book apply to any product innovation effort that involves creating a new product or improving an existing one.
http://innovationexcellence.com/blog/2016/07/05/scaling-lean-product-management-for-better-innovation/

Process Efficiency Improvement  - System Efficiency Improvement


Methods Efficiency Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/methods-efficiency-engineering.html

Method Study
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/02/method-study.html

Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/09/eliminate-combine-rearrange-simplify.html

Work Station Design - Introduction
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/07/work-station-design-introduction.html



Process Analysis - Questions/Check List
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/02/process-analysis-questionscheck-list.html

Method Study - Case Studies
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/02/method-study-case-studies.html

Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/inspection-methods-efficiency.html

Operation Analysis
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/04/operation-analysis.html

5S System - Work Place Design (Industrial Engineering)
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/02/5s-system-work-place-design-industrial.html

Seven Wastes Model
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/01/chapter-seven-wastes-model-2013-edition.html

SMED - Single Minute Exchange of Dies - An Industrial Engineering Innovation
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/02/smed-single-minute-exchange-of-dies.html


Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2013/12/toyota-production-system-industrial.html


Optimization of Engineering Systems and Engineering Management Systems


Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/operations-research-efficiency.html

Mathematical Programming for Industrial Engineers
Mordecai Avriel, Boaz Golany
CRC Press, 16-May-1996 - Mathematics - 656 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=425y5HIb7ooC

Fuzzy Applications in Industrial Engineering
Cengiz Kahraman
Springer, 31-May-2007 - Mathematics - 598 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=-_u6BQAAQBAJ


Technological Concepts and Mathematical Models in the Evolution of Modern Engineering Systems: Controlling • Managing • Organizing
Mario Lucertini, Ana Millàn Gasca, Fernando Nicolò
Birkhäuser, 06-Dec-2012 - Mathematics - 246 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=ICDyBwAAQBAJ

Using Statistics and Improving Productivity


Statistics - Applications by Industrial Engineers - Knol Book
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/04/statistics-applications-by-industrial.html


Statistics and Industrial Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/07/statistics-and-industrial-engineering.html

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/statistical-quality-control-industrial.html

Lean Six Sigma
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/08/lean-six-sigma.html

Factory Organization in Relation to Industrial Education
Author(s): Hugo Diemer
Source: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 44, The
Outlook for Industrial Peace (Nov., 1912), pp. 130-140
Diemer suggested a department of records with knowledge of statistics
http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1012127.pdf?_=1468513035791


Industrial Engineering Economics



Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/engineering-economics-is-efficiency.html

Engineering Economic Analysis - Case Studies
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/05/engineering-economic-analysis-case.html

Engineering Economics - Bulletin - Information Board
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/05/engineering-economics-bulletin.html


Human Effort Engineering


Motion Study - Explanation by Frank B. Gilbreth - Index
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2015/08/motion-study-explanation-by-frank-b.html

Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/motion-study-human-effort-engineering.html

Principles of Motion Economy
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/12/principles-of-motion-economy.html

Principles of Motion Economy - Some More Details - R.M. Barnes
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/02/principles-of-motion-economy-some-more.html

Ergonomics - Introduction
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/ergonomics-introduction.html

Human Effort Engineering - Bulletin Board
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/human-effort-engineering-bulletin-board.html


Ergonomics Chapter in ILO OSH Handbook
http://www.ilocis.org/documents/chpt29e.htm


Measurements for Industrial Engineering


Work Measurement
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/work-measurement.html

Time Study Equipment
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/04/time-study-equipment.html

Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/04/predetermined-motion-time-systems-pmts.html

MOST - Maynard Operation Sequence Technique - Chapter Contents
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/04/most-maynard-operation-sequence.html

Productivity Measurement
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/02/productivity-measurement.html


Productivity Management


Review of Total Productivity Management
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/03/review-of-total-productivity-management.html

Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/organizing-for-industrial-engineering.html

Work Simplification
Active involvement of operators in improving work under industrial engineering
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/irle/ucb/text/ir00044.pdf

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTIVITY
Mason Haire .68

HOW INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS AND MANAGEMENT ALIENATE WORK
E.P. Degarmo

THE PLACE OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ON THE MANAGEMENT TEAM
All three articles in UCAL,Berkeley, conference on IE, 1951
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/irle/ucb/text/ir00032.pdf

The organization and use of industrial engineering techniques in
Hong Kong industry, 1979
http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/32842/1/FullText.pdf?accept=1

STIMULATING AND MAINTAINING ENTHUSIASM FOR METHODS IMPROVEMENT
John V. Valenteen
UCAL, IE workshop 1956
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/irle/ucb/text/ir00028.pdf


Industrial Engineering - Current Issues


Engineering Economic Analysis of New Technologies - Robots, 3D Printing, IoT, Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources, Electric Cars, Driverless Cars,
Digital Transformation of Engineering Activities, Guidelines for Efficient Implementation.
Specialization in Industrial Engineering with Focus on Engineering Branches
Value Creation and Awareness Enhancement
Ethics of Industrial Engineers
Emphasis on System Level Industrial Engineering (D. Scott Sink)
Total Cost Industrial Engineering and Total Productivity Management
Analytics and Industrial Engineering
Digital Tools and Industrial Engineering (Virtual Reality, Online Training of IE Tasks)
Augmented Activities of IE.



Ethics

_______________

_______________


Updated 31 July 2016,  14 July 2016,  23 June 2016,  12 June 2016

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Design for Assembly (DFA)

Design for Manufacturing






Basic DFA Guidelines




Minimise part count by incorporating multiple functions into single parts
Modularise multiple parts into single subassemblies
Assemble in open space, not in confined spaces; never bury important components
Make parts such that it is easy to identify how they should be oriented for insertion
Prefer self-locating parts
Standardise to reduce part variety
Maximise part symmetry
Design in geometric or weight polar properties if nonsymmetric
Eliminate tangly parts
Color code parts that are different but shaped similarly
Prevent nesting of parts; prefer stacked assemblies
Provide orienting features on nonsymmetries
Design the mating features for easy insertion
Provide alignment features
Insert new parts into an assembly from above
Eliminate re-orientation of both parts and assemblies
Eliminate fasteners
Place fasteners away from obstructions; design in fastener access
Deep channels should be sufficiently wide to provide access to fastening tools; eliminate channels if possible
Provide flats for uniform fastening and fastening ease
Ensure sufficient space between fasteners and other features for a fastening tool
Prefer easily handled parts

http://deed.ryerson.ca/~fil/t/dfmdfa.html

http://homepages.cae.wisc.edu/~me349/lecture_notes/me349_dfa_lecture_notes.pdf




Case Studies

http://www.dfma.com/resources/studies.htm

Motorola University Teaches Smarter, Faster Product Designs - Laptop DFA
http://www.dfma.com/news/motorola.htm


Boothroyd and Dewhurst’s DFA Software Drives Cost Savings for Motorola's DS9208 Scanner
Presented by: Chris Foley
At the International Forum on Design For Manufacture and Assembly
June 13-15, 2011, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
http://www.dfma.com/resources/motorola.htm

Simplifying Veterinary Device Relieves Maturing Product Symptoms
DFMA guides IDEXX subassembly redesign, radically reducing parts, weight, assembly time, and cost
http://www.dfma.com/resources/idexx.htm


DESIGN FOR ASSEMBLY: A CRITICAL METHODOLOGY FOR PRODUCT
REENGINEERING AND NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
MOHAN V . TATIKONDA, CFPIM
Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
PRODUCTION AND INVENTORY MANAGEMENT JOURNAL-First Quarter, 1994


http://nptel.ac.in/courses/112101005/20


Product Design Efficiency Engineering - Component of Industrial Engineering


Updated  13 August 2016, 27 June 2016

Productivity, Industrial Engineering and Cost Reduction in Automobiles


Value Engineering of Automobiles



2012
https://www.atkearney.com/automotive/ideas-insights/article/-/asset_publisher/LCcgOeS4t85g/content/frugal-re-engineering-innovatively-cutting-product-costs/10192?_101_INSTANCE_LCcgOeS4t85g_redirect=%2Fautomotive%2Fideas-insights


Cost-effective continual re-engineering (or continuous improvement in manufacturing parlance) of a product is the essence of frugal re-engineering.

For example, plastic parts can be redesigned to be made of polypropylene instead of costlier fiber-reinforced plastic, and low-temperature specs can be relaxed for window-channel grease in temperate regions that don't have harsh winters.



2003

NISSAN CONTINUED TO LEAD THE INDUSTRY IN PRODUCTIVITY IN FISCAL
YEAR 2003. ITS PLANTS ARE CONSISTENTLY THE MOST PRODUCTIVE IN
JAPAN, THE US, AND EUROPE. WITH NISSAN PRODUCTION WAY,

The Nissan Smyrna Plant set a new benchmark for productivity in fiscal year 2003, according to Harbour Report North America. The Report noted that the plant, located in Tennessee state and which
produces the Altima, reached the figure of 15.74 labor hours per vehicle—the highest ever in the history of the Report.

In a remarkable seventh year running, Nissan’s Sunderland, UK plant was ranked number
one in Europe, according to the World Markets Research Centre. And Nissan remains the productivity leader at home in Japan.

Productivity alone is not the goal, of course. Through Nissan Production Way (NPW) , the company continues to work towards true Douki-Seisan—a build-to-order system schedule that is synchronized
with the customer’s needs, to provide a higher level of service, more individualized choice, and swifter product production and delivery. The NPW sets out two “never ending” goals: to continuously work for the synchronization of Nissan’s manufacturing with customer needs, and an ongoing
quest to identify problems in the manufacturing process and to put solutions in place.

http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/DOCUMENT/PDF/AR/2003/ar2003_10.pdf


Updated 13 August 2016,  17 June 2015

Supply Chain Industrial Engineering and Cost Reduction/Management Ideas



2016
Increasing Productivity Through Your Supply Chain
http://www.columbusglobal.com/nn-NO/Retail/Supply-Chain-Solutions/Fra-virkeligheten/~/media/9F67956F34EE42F9B0973380438A18E4.pdf

Boosting Innovation and Productivity through Supply Chain Management in Highway Construction
http://www.cpf16.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/DAVID-ONEIL.pdf



2013

LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries to Master Today's VUCA World


Josef Packowski
CRC Press, 26-Nov-2013 - Business & Economics - 493 pages

Delivering excellent service to all customers is the key imperative for many sustainable businesses. So why do so many supply chains struggle to fulfill customer requirements at competitive costs? The answer is simple: traditional supply chain planning, which was tailored to a predominantly stable and predictable business environment, cannot handle the new challenges in the world of variability, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity—the VUCA world.

Companies can either accept the drawbacks that often result in high inventories, poor asset utilization, and unsatisfactory customer service or, they can change their view of the fundamental approach to supply chain management. LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries to Master Today’s VUCA World introduces a new paradigm and a new approach to managing variability, uncertainty, and complexity in today’s planning processes and systems.

Introducing a cutting-edge supply chain management concept that addresses current problems in the process industry's supply chains, the book presents powerful methods developed by leading research institutes, process industry champions, and supply chain experts. It explains how readers can change their approach to the fundamental planning paradigms in a manner that will help their organizations achieve higher levels of responsiveness, improved levels of customer service, and substantial increases in cost-efficiencies.

This holistic practitioner’s guide describes how to establish the right accountabilities for performance management and also provides a set of meaningful metrics to help measure your progress. Supplying detailed guidelines for transforming your supply chain, it includes first-hand reports of leading organizations that have already adopted some of the facets of this paradigm and used the relevant instruments to achieve unprecedented improvements to customer service, supply chain agility, and overall equipment effectiveness.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=PXDOBQAAQBAJ



5 Ways to Increase Productivity and Performance in Your Supply Chain


Focusing on tactics that will increase a supply chain’s productivity is essential to earn adequate profits through achieving positive customer satisfaction. Apart from improving products and processes, there are some other very effective ways to do this.


Efficient Communication: Communicate with your supply chain partners  in a clear and concise manner that defines supply chain goals and the methods to achieve those goals. This communication is crucial to a supply chain’s operations and productivity. By scheduling meetings devoted to collaborative problem-solving, management is able to make essential changes regarding performance. This diligent problem-solving ensures a unified understanding of productivity and operations that will facilitate open communication between supply chain partners.


Development of Procedure Standards: The development of procedure standards reduces error within the supply chain and saves both time and money. Focus on the reduction of probable variation in areas such as receiving, quality control, shipping, shift scheduling, and facilities management. This is one of the many ways to increase collective productivity and establish procedure standards.

Determination of Importance: Continuous improvement to supply chain productivity depends on the areas where attention is given.  Measuring outcomes in critical areas that drive business, for example: Safety, Service/On-Time Delivery, Inventory Accuracy/Turns, Productivity, Cost per Unit/Total Landed Cost, Product Damage/Claims, Customer Satisfaction

Engage, Align, and Empower Workforce: Encourage supply chain partners to focus on the core skills of employees and empower them. This focus will foster confidence and result in a continuous increase of productivity. Gaining the buyin of workforce makes it possible to create new ways to engage and align, to ultimately increase productivity. Be sure to define supply chain’s goals in a clear and concise method that will allow employees and management of supply chain partners to take advantage of existing and future opportunities for improvement.

Construct a Powerful Training Program: First, formulate a comprehensive plan to increase productivity, reduce costs, and improve customer service and satisfaction levels. Then tie an incentive plan into the supply chain’s core mission, a critical element to building a performance-based approach. Train supply chain partners and their employees in implementing the new plan.  This constructive training will drive a successful organization and improve supply chain productivity.


Increasing productivity within the supply chain is achieved through a top down approach – everything rises and falls on the supply chain leader. Leaders must practice effective communication, create procedure standards, determine a hierarchy of importance, encourage empowerment of  the workforce of supply chain partners, and arrange powerful training programs. Management and employees of the supply chain leader have to first create and establish a performance-based culture within their company and then in its supply chain partner companies.
Adapted from https://legacyscs.com/5-ways-increase-productivity-performance-supply-chain-2/

2011


Labor management systems: Labor is a significant expense item in warehousing costs. A robust warehouse labor management system (LMS) can help you understand this expense. An LMS lets you  examine tasks such as receiving, put-away and processing at the individual level. You can evaluate performance elements more closely, isolate problem areas and make better decisions about training, staffing and management. It also enhances accountability for all employees, which often brings out their best performance.


Picking devices and technologies: Sometimes, the best order-picking alternative is an employee’s hands. At other times, a device that picks a whole layer of cases at a time could be economical  and much faster,  Some of these machines can double or triple picking volumes for the same time.  Hands-free voice picking devices are another fiscally friendly upgrade.

Cut down lighting costs: Warehouse energy bills can exceed $100,000 annually.  Today’s energy-efficient  lighting technologies offer brighter, greener and less expensive electricity alternatives.


A relighting project may demand upfront investment,  but provide saving up to 50 percent as soon as new lights are installed. These projects also could earn tax breaks or incentives from local governments and utilities. They also could reduce the expense of any carbon offset purchases your company plans to make.

Interleaving: In the average warehouse, forklift operators move between a couple of points such as a loading dock and storage racks. On the initial trip, these vehicles usually are full — and fully utilized. But they’re empty while returning, a process known as deadheading. Deadhead journeys can add up to countless empty miles and wasted operator time.

Interleaving rearranges workflow so forklift operators travel in a circular motion or some other route configuration, better using the traveling time between racks and loading docks. Interleaving designs vary significantly from facility to facility. And since most all facilities use forklifts, this growing practice deserves a closer look. Granted, it requires robust systems capacity and cooperative operators who will embrace the change. However, the ultimate payoff can be significant

There are some  more money-saving warehousing investments such as thermal-shrinking machines, financial gainsharing incentives and space utilization tools.

Adopted from

Supply Chain by Rajiv Saxena
Industrial Engineer's quarterly column about supply chain and logistics solutions (July 2011)


Ken Ackerman's Warehousing Fourm
http://www.warehousingforum.com/TheTopShelf/index.html

Supply Chain Industrial Engineering -  Presentation Video
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_______________



Updated  12 August 2016, 8 April 2013

Monday, August 8, 2016

August Second Week - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision

Methods Efficiency Engineering - Analysis of Working Conditions and Method





Work is done most effectively and efficiently under good, comfortable working conditions.

Questions. The industrial engineering, during operation analysis, should consider the following points :

1. Is light ample and sufficient at all times?

2. Are the eyes of the operator protected from glare and from reflections from bright surfaces?

3. Is lighting uniform over the working area?

4. Has lighting been checked by an illumination expert?

5. Is proper temperature for maximum comfort provided at all times?

6. Is plant unduly cold in winter, particularly on Monday mornings ?

7. Is plant unduly warm in summer?

8. Would installation of air-conditioning equipment be justified?

9. Can fans be used to remove heat from solder pots, furnaces, or other heat-producing equipment?

10. Could an air curtain be provided to protect operator from intense heat?

11. Is ventilation good?

12. Are drafts eliminated?

13. Can fumes, smoke, and dust be removed by an exhaust system?

14. Is floor warm and not damp?

15. If concrete floors are used, can mats or platforms be provided to make standing more comfortable?

16. Are drinking fountains located near by?

17. Is water cool, and is there an adequate supply?

18. Are washrooms conveniently located?

19. Are facilities adequate and kept properly clean?

20. Are lockers provided for coats, hats, and personal belongings?

21. Have safety factors received due consideration?

22. Is floor safe, smooth but not slippery?

23. Is wooden equipment, such as work benches, in good condition and not splintery?

24. Are tools and moving drives and parts properly guarded?

25. Is there any way operator can perform operation without using safety devices or guards?

26. Has operator been taught safe working practices?

27. Is clothing of operator proper from safety standpoint?

28. Are workplace and surrounding space kept clear at all times?

29. Do plant, benches, or machines need paint?

30. Does plant present neat, orderly appearance at all times?

A brief discussion of a few of the principal factors:

Light, Heat, and Ventilation. 


Light, heat, and ventilation are matters to be designed by the illumination and heating engineers. But, the industrial engineering can tell by personal observation when these conditions are bad, and he can point out the effect that they have on production. Accurate work, for instance, cannot be done in the dark  and improper lighting conditions have to be corrected. In many communities, the utility companies provide experts who will survey lighting conditions and make recommendations without cost. Advantage should be taken of this service even where lighting to the untrained observer appears fairly good. Eyestrain is a serious matter and can and should be eliminated.

It has been shown conclusively by researchers that good working conditions pay. Although it is often difficult to measure directly and immediately the saving brought about by the installation of a new lighting or heating system, it is a good policy to recommend their provision wherever the present systems are found to be inadequate. Throughout industry, it is found that the plants which provide the best working conditions are those which are leaders in their field. This alone would indicate that the provision of good conditions is a profitable investment.

Safety


Safety engineering and methods engineering are closely related. The methods engineer is interested in labor efficiency and effectiveness. In order to work effectively, the operator must be able to concentrate upon the work at hand. If an accident hazard exists, however, he must divide his attention between doing the job and keeping out of danger. Therefore, the methods engineer is interested in the elimination of accident hazards.

As the result of his detailed study of all aspects of production,  industrial engineering is in an excellent position to discover accident hazards and to make suggestions for their elimination. He studies every move made by the operator, and hence he discovers the moves that carry parts of his body into a danger zone. He "can then either eliminate the moves by changing the motion sequence or take steps to have the danger zone guarded.

A kick press equipped with a safety device  and the operation analyst was informed that the device was foolproof, that it was the best safety device in the department. The analyst observed the operation of this safety device along with all the other factors of the job. In order to operate the kick press, the operator had to place the material in position, grasp the two bars, and swing them to one side. He then stepped on the treadle of the machine and performed the operation.

The operation appeared clumsy and inefficient to the analyst. Because the material could not be held in place by the operator, it tended to slide out of position. Clips were provided to hold it down, but to use them required so much time that the operator preferred not to do so. As a result, the material did slip out of position occasionally, and scrap was produced. The movements necessary to operate the bars carried the hands of the operator out of the danger zone, but they were fatiguing and time-consuming. A further investigation showed that the safety device could be circumvented very easily. If after making a stroke with the press, the operator did not allow the treadle fully to return to the off position, the bars rested in a position and there was plenty of room to draw material through the die. When the treadle was depressed again, the bars slid to the position in which small and inconspicuous block of wood affixed to the treadle of the machine would prevent it from returning to its off position, and hence the operation could be done easily without using the safety device.

The industrial engineers and the safety engineer,  then proceeded to devise a new  guard . This guard really is foolproof. The operator cannot get his fingers under the die in any way, but he has complete control of the operation at all times. As a result, the operation is safer and much faster than it was before.


Other Working Conditions


Space is provided on the analysis sheet for comments about any factors that affect the operation that have not previously been considered. The following list of questions will indicate the kind of items that should be considered at this point:

1. How is the amount of finished material counted?

2. Is there a definite check between pieces completed and pieces paid for?

3. Can automatic counters be used?

4. Is pay-roll procedure understandable?

5. Is the design of the part suitable to good manufacturing ' practices?

6. What clerical work is required from the operator to fill out time cards, material requisitions, and the like?

7. Can this work be delegated to a clerk?

8. What sort of delay is likely to be encountered by the operator, and how can it be avoided?

9. How is defective work handled?

10. Should operator grind his own tools, or should this be done in toolroom?

11. Should order department be requested to place fewer orders for larger quantities?

12. What is the economic lot size for the job being analyzed?

13. Are adequate performance records maintained?

14. Are new men properly introduced to their surroundings, and are sufficient instructions given them?

15. Are failures to meet standard performance requirements investigated?

16. Are suggestions from workers encouraged?

17. Do workers understand the incentive plan under which they work?

18. Is a real interest developed in the workers in the product on which they are working?

19. Are working hours suitable for efficient operation?

20. Is the utilization of costly supply materials checked?

It will be seen from the general nature of the questions listed above that the methods engineer recognizes his responsibility toward everything connected with the job he is analyzing. It will not satisfy him to say that the designs are made by the engineering department or that the shop routine is set up by the management. He realizes that his own intimate knowledge of shop methods and conditions gives him an advantage which many other members of the organization do not possess, and he therefore feels it his duty to question all phases of manufacture in the hope of revealing possibilities for improvement.

For example, a designer who is making a drawing of a steel shaft, having in its length several different diameters, knows how to lay out the shaft, taking into consideration strength, size, and suitability of purpose. He probably knows in a general way that the shaft will be turned on a lathe and that at the junction of two sections of different diameters it is better from the standpoint of ease of machining to call for a fillet with radius r as ia (a), Fig. 105, rather than to specify a squared-out corner as shown in (&) of the same figure. What he may not realize, however, is that for reasons of manufacturing economy, the fillet is machined with a specially ground tool, known as a "radius tool" which is the exact size of the radius to be turned. Therefore, if there are several fillets to be turned on the same shaft, he may call for, say one 1/4-inch radius, two 3/8-inch radii, and one  1/2-inch radius, being governed largely by the difference in the diameters of the adjacent sections.

If this incorrect and unnecessary feature of design is allowed to pass unchallenged, it means that three radius tools must be used instead of one. When the shaft is turned on an engine lathe, time for two extra " change tool " operations must be allowed. This is unnecessary and wasteful, and the design should be changed.

From the nature of the many examples of operation improvements that have been given throughout this book, it will be seen that if the analyst is to do his work so as to bring about maximum manufacturing economy, he must concern himself with every detail connected with every job he studies. Common sense, of course, must be used in interpreting this statement. In practical work, it means that the analyst should consider, at least briefly, every detail that is likely to affect operation time.

Method. 


All analysis work is done for the purpose of improving the method by which the operation is done. The various factors that affect method directly or indirectly are considered in detail, and improvements are made wherever possible. As a result, many economies are made that eliminate motions and reduce costs.

Before the study can be considered complete, however, the motions that remain and that appear to be necessary must themselves be studied in considerable detail. It is not enough to say that a part is to be obtained by picking it out of the gravity delivery chute. The location of the end of the chute should be such that the hand can move between it and the point where the material is worked upon with the shortest and lowest class motion. The height of the chute should be such that the transport motions can be made without a change of direction. The motions used for grasping must be worked out so that the fewest possible are employed. If two parts are required, it must  be decided whether they are to be grasped and transported together or separately. The best position of the hand and of the material in the hand must be determined so that no time is lost in positioning the material at the place of work.

In short, every motion must be analyzed in detail for the purpose of shortening it and making it as effective as possible. This, a secondary form of analysis, is known as motion study. Motion study is itself a detailed procedure which will require as lengthy a discussion as the subject of operation analysis. Therefore, it will merely be mentioned here that motion study is the next logical step in the methods study after operation analysis.

Full Knol Book - Method Study: Methods Efficiency Engineering - Knol Book



Modified and unpdated on 10 August 2016
Updated 4 July 2015, First published 24 Nov 2011