Thursday, March 23, 2017

Subject Areas in Industrial Engineering - A New Scheme

I am currently teaching an advanced course in industrial engineering with the following subject scheme.

Industrial engineering principles
Product industrial engineering
Process industrial engineering
   - Technical process industrial engineering
   - Management process industrial engineering
Industrial engineering optimization
Industrial engineering technometrics (Application of statistics in industrial engineering projects and practice).
Industrial engineering economics
Human effort industrial engineering
Measurements in industrial engineering
Productivity management

The course is going smoothly. We are studying the basic content on each topic for two hours based on the notes prepared by our first year masters students based on their class lecture, discussion and study. Then we are examining some recent research papers.

A presentation was done to the prospective masters students based on this scheme and they appreciated the presentation.

What is missing in the scheme is productivity science or industrial engineering science. Under this head we need to discuss scientific method and some of the experiments, research and theory building done in the industrial engineering field. In the textbooks of sociology and psychology, scientific enquiry is described as one chapter.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Water Productivity - Why Waste Water? - Eliminate The Water Waste

"Why Waste Water?" is the theme of World Water Day 2017.

The theme is relevant to industrial engineers? What is the water consumption in industry? Is the consumption efficient? Are industrial engineers doing analysis of water consumption. Resource use analysis or productivity analysis is the first part of IE study. The second part of coming out with more productive processes.

Industry uses 19% of the global consumption of water.
Iron & Steel industry uses 95,000 to 150,000 liters of water for producing a tonne of steel.

The uses of water

Only 1% of water used by humans (compared to the global sum of all withdrawals) is for drinking, washing and cooking. An additional 10% is calculated for all other domestic uses (toilet flushing etc). Industry uses 19% and the rest, a massive 70%, is used by agriculture for irrigation, drawing water from rivers, lakes and underground water strata.

The  concept  of  water  productivity  (WP) in Agriculture

The  concept  of  water  productivity  (WP)  is  offered  by  Molden  et  al. (2003)  as  a  robust
measure of the ability of agricultural systems to convert water into food. While it has been
used  principally  to  evaluate  the  function  of  irrigation  systems  as  the  amount  of  ‘crop  per
drop’, it seems reasonable to extend the concept toinclude other types of livelihood support,
such as mixed cropping, pasture, fisheries or forests.
WATER PRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT: Measuring and Mapping Methodologies
Basin Focal Project
Working Paper no. 2

World Water Productivity: Current Situation and Future Options

Ximing Cai and Mark W. Rosegrant
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA;
International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
2003. Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and
Opportunities for Improvement (eds J.W. Kijne, R. Barker and D. Molden)

The Water Productivity term plays a crucial role in modern agriculture which aims to
increase yield production per unit of water used, both under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
This can be achieved either by 1)increasing the marketable yield of the crops for each unit of
water transpired, 2) reducing the outflows/ losses, or 3) enhancing the effective use of
rainfall, of the water stored in the soil, and of the marginal quality water.

A note on Water use efficiency and water productivity

Ragab Ragab – WP3 - W4C
This note is based on a number of discussions that took place in Bari and Bangalore and as
the W4C project carries in its title the term “water use efficiency” and WP3 is dedicated to
Water Use Efficiency

India Initiatives

Prime Minister Narendra Modi  - More Crop per Drop

More GDP per Drop - More Value per Drop

Individual Company Initiatives

Between the years 2005 and 2010, Toyota was able to reduce water consumption at all global facilities by 35 percent.

Toyota set a target of reducing water usage to 0.98 kgal / vehicle and achieved the target.
GM: Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing - MIT, 2009,%20report.pdf

Thank God. Somebody used the word science along with productivity.

Irrigation Science

Volume 25, Issue 3, March 2007

Special Issue: Water productivity: science and practice

ISSN: 0342-7188 (Print) 1432-1319 (Online)
In this issue (8 articles)

Water productivity: science and practice—introduction
A. H. Kassam, D. Molden, E. Fereres, J. Doorenbos Pages 185-188

On the conservative behavior of biomass water productivity
Pasquale Steduto, Theodore C. Hsiao, Elìas Fereres Pages 189-207
Download PDF (417KB)  View Article

A systematic and quantitative approach to improve water use efficiency in agriculture
Theodore C. Hsiao, Pasquale Steduto, Elias Fereres Pages 209-231

Causes of the differences in efficiency in each step, going from water delivery to soil water
extraction, transpiration, photosynthesis, and conversion to crop biomass and yield, and to animal product are discussed in the paper. Based on an equation quantifying the impact of changes in efficiency of component steps on the overall efficiency, it is concluded that generally, it is
more effective to make modest improvements in as many steps as possible than to concentrate efforts to improve one or two steps.

Beyond irrigation efficiency
Marvin E. Jensen Pages 233-245

This paper describes how efficient management of water for irrigation requires a full understanding of water balance for the field, irrigation project, or river basin under consideration. Development of the classic term irrigation efficiency is summarized along with recent modifications such as effective irrigation efficiency which reflects the efficiency of the system in terms of the amount of water effectively consumed by the system, taking into account outflows water as not wholly “wasted” or “lost” from river basins and that can be recovered and made available for use in the context of the water balance of the river basin. This makes it possible to develop accounting procedures for water use, or water accounting based on the water balance approach for a water basin and analyzing the uses, depletion, and productivity of water.

Water uses and productivity of irrigation systems
A. J. Clemmens, D. J. Molden Pages 247-261

Measuring and enhancing the value of agricultural water in irrigated river basins
Intizar Hussain, Hugh Turral, David Molden, Mobin-ud-Din Ahmad Pages 263-282

Economics, adoption determinants, and impacts of micro-irrigation technologies: empirical results from India

R. E. Namara, R. K. Nagar, B. Upadhyay Pages 283-297

The study by Namara et al. (analyses of micro-irrigation adoption and impacts in selected localities of Maharashtra and Gujarat states in India) indicates that micro-irrigation technologies result in significant productivity improvement and hence economic gain over the traditional method of surface irrigation.  The most important
determinants of micro-irrigation adoption identified by the study include access to groundwater, the prevailing cropping pattern (proportion of staples vs. high value crops), level of education, availability of cash, the social stratum of the household, and the wealth or poverty status of the
farmer. The majority of the current adopters of low-cost micro-irrigation systems are the richer section of the farming population. Thus, reducing the cost alone is not yet effective to improve
the outreach of micro-irrigation technologies.

Water productivity in rainfed systems: overview of challenges and analysis of opportunities in water scarcity prone savannahs
Johan Rockström, Jennie Barron Pages 299-311

World Water Day - 22nd March

Monday, March 20, 2017

Histories of Industrial Engineering Departments and Institutes

Penn State Univerisity
Department History

1908 – The industrial engineering program at Penn State is founded by Hugo Diemer, a pioneer in the field. Diemer coined the term “industrial engineering” in 1900 to describe the fusion of engineering and business disciplines. Diemer is named the first head of the department.

1909 – The Department of Industrial Engineering is officially established.

1910 – The department graduates its first two industrial engineering students.

1919 – Edward Kunze becomes head of the department.

1921 – J. Orvise Keller is named head of the department.

1926 – Charles William Beeese is named head of the department.

1930 – Clarence E. Bullinger is named head of the department.

1937 – The department receives the first ever accreditation for industrial engineering education by The Engineers’ Council for Professional Development.

1955 – Benjamin Niebel is appointed department head. Neibel is honored by the then-Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE) with the prestigious Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Award, the highest honor from IIE that recognizes individuals for their contributions to the welfare of mankind in the field of industrial engineering.

1963 – Professor Inyong Ham returns to Penn State from Korea and becomes a pioneer in group technology. During his 37-year career with the department, he received international and national acclaim for his discoveries.

1967 – The doctoral program is permanently established in the department.

1973 – The department is renamed the Department of Industrial and Management Systems Engineering to reflect the increased offerings in management science and operations research.

1979 – William Biles is named head of the department.

1981 – Alan Soyster is named head of the department.

1986 – Penn State is the first and only industrial engineering department in the United States to install a full-scale automated Flexible Manufacturing System.

1992 – Funding from the Ben Franklin Partnership leads to the development of the Metal Casting Center of Excellence. Directed by Professor Robert Voigt, the center was a multi-year collaboration between the IME department, the civil engineering department, and forty-five Pennsylvania foundries.

1997 – A. Ravi Ravindran is named the department head.

2000 – Leading machine tool builder, Haas Automation, partners with the department to establish the largest Haas technical center in existence. Located in the Factory for Advanced Manufacturing Education Lab, the Haas technical center contains eleven CNC machining centers and turning centers for teaching and research.

2001 – Richard Koubek is named head of the deparment.

2007 – The Center for Service Enterprise Engineering is created due in part from a $1 million gift from Harold and Inge Marcus. The center, directed by Professor Terry Friesz, is the first U.S. academic center devoted solely to the study and practice of service engineering.

2009 – The department celebrates its centennial and 100 years of continuing innovation in industrial engineering.

2009 – Paul Griffin is named the Peter and Angela Dal Pezzo Chair and Head of the Department.

2009 – The Center for Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems is created. Director Harriet Black Nembhard establishes Penn State’s first collaborative center focused on solving the problems of access and quality in healthcare.

2010 – The Global Learning Lab is established though a generous gift from Peter and Angela Dal Pezzo. The lab is a modern 1,000-square-foot facility that allows Penn State students and faculty to have access to colleagues, partners and corporate sponsors worldwide through the use of advanced video and teleconferencing technology.

2015 – Janis Terpenny is appointed the Peter and Angela Dal Pezzo Chair and Head of the department.

Georgia Tech.

1924: Industrial Engineering first appears as the "Industrial Option" in the mechanical engineering curriculum.
1945: Georgia Tech President Blake Van Leer oversees creation of a Department of Industrial Engineering housing 15 students and three professors working in two borrowed rooms in the Swann Building. Frank Groseclose, who will later become known as the “father of industrial engineering” at Georgia Tech, becomes the first professor.
1946: Groseclose becomes the first director of the Department. The Department awards its first Bachelors of Industrial Engineering.
1947: The department begins its graduate program offering a Master in Industrial Engineering.

Biographies of F.W. Taylor - Collection

Father of Industrial Engineering - Frederick Winslow (F.W.) Taylor

Frederick Taylor, is generally regarded as the father of industrial engineering  -  in page 20 of Handbook of Industrial Engineering: Technology and Operations Management

F.W. Taylor, is often known as the father of industrial engineering - in page 48 of Mechanical Engineering Education ed. by. J. Paulo Davim

Sunday, March 19, 2017

Product Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems of men, materials, and equipment on the dimensions of efficiency, productivity and cost. The basic purpose of industrial engineering is cost reduction. This can be achieved by following several methods at different steps of product or process engineering. The industrial engineering done on product design to reduce the unit cost of the product at the end of production and distribution stage (extended in recent days to life cycle cost) is termed product industrial engineering.

Examining product design to suggest some simple and obvious changes in external features and tolerances was part of early industrial engineering proposed by Taylor, Gilbreth, Maynard, Barnes, Currie and Mundel. But value engineering proposed by L.D. Miles advocated radical redesign of the components and products to reduce the unit cost of a product. Today, value engineering is to be described as the main method in value engineering. Design for manufacturing and design for assembly were developed subsequently as methods to examine and redesign products to reduce cost by making manufacturing and assembly easy and less costly.

Redesign of a product that is accepted by the market by identifying waste and eliminating it is product industrial engineering.

Value engineering is the best method developed for doing product industrial engineering.

Industrial engineers recognized the need to evaluate the design of the product to reduce cost of production very early in the development of industrial engineering discipline.

But early industrial engineering articles were very conservative and they hinted at some specific features only for redesign.

But value engineering made a frontal attack on original design and showed that there is substantial cost savings potential in redesign based on the combined attack by design, manufacturing and purchase department people with value analysis and engineering methodology. Thus we can say product industrial engineering emerged as an important area in industrial engineering with the emergence of value analysis and engineering approach.

Subsequently design for manufacture and assembly came up as an additional method in product industrial engineering.

Japanese brought in fresh thought in reducing costs of product development.

The idea is liked by IISE in this FaceBook link.

Related Posts

Process Industrial Engineering

Management Process Industrial Engineering

Manufacturing Process Industrial Engineering

Inspection Process Industrial Engineering

Maintenance Process Industrial Engineering

Updated on 21 March 2017,

A to Z of Top Management Activities, Functions and Challenges - A to Z Blogging 2017 Challenge Theme

Implementing Japanese Industrial Engineering Developments in India - UNIDO ACMA Approach

Lean is Japanese industrial engineering practice.

Journal of Industrial Engineering International
June 2015, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 179–198
Roadmap for Lean implementation in Indian automotive component manufacturing industry: comparative study of UNIDO Model and ISM Model

The article by Jadhav, J.R., Mantha, S.S. & Rane, S.B describes UNIDO-ACMA model and also ISM model proposed by them.


Productivity Improvement
Inventory Management
Quality Management
Employee Involvement

Steps suggested by authors

Human resource management practice bundle
Creativity and innovation practice bundle
Health and safety practice bundle
Waste elimination practice bundle
Conformance quality practice bundle
Volume flexibility practice bundle
Delivery reliability practice bundle
Low-cost practice bundle
Sustenance and perfection

An Explanation of Industrial Engineering - 19 March 2017

Came across this explanation of industrial engineering today in  MM Industrial Spectrum Special Issue of 2015.  The title of the article is Machinery and Industrial Engineering.

The ambition of industrial engineering is to prepare specialists who are able to search and
implement system solutions of manufacturing and supply problems, to increase efficiency
of enterprise processes, who are able to plan and project manufacturing processes and
systems, to provide their high productivity and reliability and to eliminate all sorts of losses
and costs which do not create value added.

Industrial engineering is a multidisciplinary branch combining knowledge of the engineering  field and  experience  of enterprise management.

This branch should use all available sources inside the company as effectively as possible, which are e. g. information itself, financial sources, human work,  knowledge  and  abilities  of  people etc. Therefore, its main task is to rationalize, optimize and improve manufacturing and
non  manufacturing  processes.

Changes are applied at practice through projects which shall eliminate all losses and to provide the highest possible productivity. 

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Management Process Industrial Engineering - Management Process Productivity Reengineering - Management Process Productivity Redesign

Industrial engineers  redesign processes to improve their productivity. Productivity improvement most of the times happens in that process only. But sometimes a change in the process can improve productivity in a downstream processes.

Industrial engineers evaluate management processes also for their productivity implications. Many times the management process may be negatively affecting productivity in the operations that are being carried out according to the plans and procedures prescribed by the management process. In such a case, industrial engineers may suggest a change in the process. The process change can be defined and developed by industrial engineers or managers themselves may do it. Industrial engineers from the time of F.W. Taylor (Father of Industrial Engineering) have suggested and implemented management process changes.

In the first full length work of Taylor, Shop Management, number of management changes were proposed and described with examples of implementation.

The management process or procedure changes suggested by F.W. Taylor are described below. This content is excerpted from Origin of Industrial Engineering - Shop Management

1. Definition of Management 

The art of management has been defined, "as knowing exactly what you want men to do, and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.'"

What the workmen want from their employers beyond anything else is high wages, and what employers want from their workmen most of all is a low labor cost of manufacture.

These two conditions are not diametrically opposed to one another as would appear at first glance. On the contrary, they can be made to go together in all classes of work, without exception

This book is written mainly with the object of advocating high wages and low labor cost as the foundation of the best management, of pointing out the general principles which render it possible to maintain these conditions even under the most trying circumstances, and of indicating the various steps which the writer thinks should be taken in changing from a poor system to a better type of management.

The possibility of coupling high wages with a low labor cost rests mainly upon the enormous difference between the amount of work which a first-class man can do under favorable circumstances and the work which is actually done by the average man.

6. Task Management

The writer has found, through an experience of thirty years, covering a large variety in manufactures, as well as in the building trades, structural and engineering work, that it is not only practicable but
comparatively easy to obtain, through a systematic and scientific time study, exact information as to how much of any given kind of work either a first-class or an average man can do in a day, and with this information as a foundation, he has over and over again seen the fact demonstrated that workmen of all classes are not only willing, but glad to give up all idea of soldiering, and devote all of their energies to turning out the maximum work possible, providing they are sure of a suitable permanent reward.

With accurate time knowledge as a basis, surprisingly large results can be obtained under any scheme of management from day work up; there is no question that even ordinary day work resting upon this foundation will give greater satisfaction than any of the systems in common use, standing as they do upon soldiering as a basis.

The writer chooses from among a large variety of trades to which these principles have been applied, the yard labor handling raw materials in the works of the Bethlehem Steel Company at South Bethlehem, Pa.,

The first step was to place an intelligent, college-educated man in charge of progress in this line. This man had not before handled this class of labor, although he understood managing workmen. He was not familiar with the methods pursued by the writer, but was soon taught the art of determining how much work a first-class man can do in a day. This was done by timing with a stop watch a first-class man while he was working fast. The best way to do this, in fact almost the only way in which the timing can be done with certainty, is to divide the man's work into its elements and time each element separately. For example, in the case of a man loading pig-iron on to a car, the elements should be: (a)
picking up the pig from the ground or pile (time in hundredths of a minute); (b) walking with it on a level (time per foot walked); (c) walking with it up an incline to car (time per foot walked); (d)
throwing the pig down (time in hundredths of a minute), or laying it on a pile (time in hundredths of a minute); (e) walking back empty to get a load (time per foot walked).

The most difficult elements to time and decide upon in this, as in most cases, are the percentage of the day required for rest, and the time to allow for accidental or unavoidable delays.

Example of 400% increase in work output

Between twelve and thirteen tons of pig-iron per man had been carried from a pile on the ground, up an inclined plank, and loaded on to a gondola car by the average pig-iron handler while working by the day.

A man was selected from persons doing this task  to make the first start under the writer's system. He was trained in a new way of working as developed by Taylor and his associates and supervised. He loaded on piece work from forty-five to forty-eight tons (2,240 lbs. each) per day.

He regarded this task as an entirely fair one, and earned on an average, from the start, $1.85 per day, which was 60 per cent more than he had been paid by the day.

As the first man started on the work earned steadily $1.85 per day, this object lesson gradually wore out the opposition to the new arrangement, which ceased rather suddenly after about two months. From this time on there was no difficulty in getting plenty of good men who were anxious to start on piece work under the new method in various jobs, and the difficulty lay in making with sufficient rapidity the accurate time study of the elementary operations or "unit times" which forms the foundation of this kind of piece work.

Throughout the introduction of piece work, which was done after a thorough time study, for each new section of the work, one man only was put on each new job, until he had demonstrated that the task set was a fair one by earning an average of $1.85 per day. After a few sections of the work had been
started in this way, the complaint on the part of the better workmen was that they were not allowed to go on to piece work fast enough. It required about two years to transfer practically all of the yard labor from day to piece work. And the larger part of the transfer was made during the last six months of this time.

The study of "unit times" for the yard labor took practically the time of two trained men for two years. Throughout this time the day and piece workers were under entirely separate and distinct management. The original foremen continued to manage the day work, and day and piece workers were never allowed to work together. Gradually the day work gang was diminished and the piece workers were increased as one section of work after another was transformed from the former to the latter.

Two elements which were important to the success of this work should be noted:

First, on the morning following each day's work, each workman was given a slip of paper informing him in detail just how much work he had done the day before, and the amount he had earned. This enabled him to measure his performance against his earnings while the details were fresh in his mind. Without this there would have been great dissatisfaction among those who failed to climb up to the task asked of them, and many would have gradually fallen off in their performance.

Second, whenever it was practicable, each man's work was measured separately by itself.

What the writer wishes particularly to emphasize is that this whole system rests upon an accurate and scientific study of unit times, which is by far the most important element in scientific management. With it, greater and more permanent results can be attained even under ordinary day work or piece work than can be reached under any of the more elaborate systems without it.

For each job there is the quickest time in which it can be done by a first-class man. This time may be called the "quickest time," or the "standard time" for the job. Under all the ordinary systems, this
"quickest time" is more or less completely shrouded in mist. In most cases, however, the workman is nearer to it and sees it more clearly than the employer.

Under ordinary piece work the management watch every indication given them by the workmen as to what the "quickest time" is for each job, and endeavor continually to force the men toward this "standard time," while the workmen constantly use every effort to prevent this from being done
and to lead the management in the wrong direction. In spite of this conflict, however, the "standard time" is gradually approached.

With accurate time study as a basis, the "quickest time" for each job is at all times in plain sight of both employers and workmen, and is reached with accuracy, precision, and speed, both sides pulling hard in the same direction under the uniform simple and just agreement that whenever a first-class man works his best he will receive from 30 to 100 per cent more than the average of his trade.

7. Investment for Increasing Productivity or Efficiency

Before starting to make any changes in the organization of a company the following matters should be carefully considered: First, the importance of choosing the general type of management best suited to the particular case. Second, that in all cases money must be spent, and in many cases a great deal of money, before the changes are completed which result in lowering cost. Third, that it takes time to reach any result worth aiming at. Fourth, the importance of making changes in their proper order, and that unless the right steps are taken, and taken in their proper sequence, there is great danger from deterioration in the quality of the output and from serious troubles with the workmen, often
resulting in strikes.

It is not at all generally realized that whatever system may be used, --providing a business is complex in its nature--the building up of an efficient organization is necessarily slow and sometimes very expensive.

Almost all of the directors of manufacturing companies appreciate the economy of a thoroughly modern, up-to-date, and efficient plant, and are willing to pay for it. Very few of them, however, realize that the best organization, whatever its cost may be, is in many cases even more important than the plant; nor do they clearly realize that no kind of an efficient organization can be built up without spending money. The spending of money for good machinery appeals to them because they can see machines after they are bought; but putting money into anything so invisible, intangible, and to the average man so indefinite, as an organization seems almost like throwing it away.

8. Importance of people - organization

The writer feels that management is also destined to become more of an art, and that many of the, elements which are now believed to be outside the field of exact knowledge will soon be standardized tabulated, accepted, and used, as are now many of the elements of engineering. Management will be studied as an art and will rest upon well recognized, clearly defined, and fixed principles instead of depending upon more or less hazy ideas received from a limited observation of the few organizations with which the individual may have come in contact. There will, of course, be various successful types, and the application of the underlying principles must be modified to suit each particular case. The writer has already indicated that he thinks the first object in management is to unite high wages with a low labor cost. He believes that this object can be most easily attained by the application of the
following principles:

(a) A LARGE (specified) DAILY TASK. --Each man in the establishment, high or low, should daily have a clearly defined task laid out before him. This task should not in the least degree be vague nor indefinite, but should be circumscribed carefully and completely, and should not be easy to accomplish (unless the operator works for the full allotted time with adequate speed).

(b) STANDARD CONDITIONS. --Each man's task should call for a full day's work, and at the same time the workman should be given such standardized conditions and appliances as will enable him to accomplish his task with certainty.

(c) HIGH PAY FOR SUCCESS (in completing the task). -- He should be sure of large pay when he accomplishes his task.

(d) LOSS IN CASE OF FAILURE (to complete the task). --When he fails he should be sure that sooner or later he will be the loser by it (because of low wages).

When an establishment has reached an advanced state of organization, in many cases a fifth element should be added, namely: the task should be made so difficult that it can only be accomplished by a first-class man.

They call, however, for a greater departure from the ordinary types of organization than would at first appear. In the case, for instance, of a machine shop doing miscellaneous work, in order to assign daily to each man a carefully measured task, a special planning department is required to lay out all of the work at least one day ahead. All orders must be given to the men in detail in writing; and in order to lay out the next day's work and plan the entire progress of work through the shop, daily returns must be made by the men to the planning department in writing, showing just what has been done. Before
each casting or forging arrives in the shop the exact route which it is to take from machine to machine should be laid out. An instruction card for each operation must be written out stating in detail just how each operation on every piece of work is to be done and the time required to do it, the drawing number, any special tools, jigs, or appliances required, etc. Before the four principles above referred to can be successfully applied it is also necessary in most shops to make important physical changes. All of the small details in the shop, which are usually regarded as of little importance and are left to be regulated according to the individual taste of the workman, or, at best, of the foreman, must be thoroughly and carefully standardized; such. details, for instance, as the care and tightening of the belts; the exact shape and quality of each cutting tool; the establishment of a complete tool room from which properly ground tools, as well as jigs, templates, drawings, etc., are issued under a good check system, etc.; and as a matter of importance (in fact, as the foundation of scientific management) an accurate study of unit times must be made by one or more men connected with the planning department, and each machine tool must be standardized and a table or slide rule constructed for it showing how to run it to the best advantage.

At first view the running of a planning department, together with the other innovations, would appear to involve a large amount of additional work and expense, and the most natural question would be is whether the increased efficiency of the shop more than offsets this outlay? It must be borne in mind, however, that, with the exception of the study of unit times, there is hardly a single item of work done in the planning department which is not already being done in the shop. Establishing a planning department merely concentrates the planning and much other brainwork in a few men especially fitted for their task and trained in their especial lines, instead of having it done, as heretofore, in most
cases by high priced mechanics, well fitted to work at their trades, but poorly trained for work more or less clerical in its nature.

15. Need for Functional Foremanship or Functional Organisation of Foremen

In the writer's experience, almost all shops are under-officered. The foreman has too many duties to fulfill.

His duties may be briefly enumerated in the following way. He must lay out the work for the whole shop, see that each piece of work goes in the proper order to the right machine, and that the man at the machine knows just what is to be done and how he is to do it. He must see that the work is not slighted, and that it is done fast, and all the while he must look ahead a month or so, either to provide more men to do the work or more work for the men to do. He must constantly discipline the men and readjust their wages, and in addition to this must fix piece work prices and supervise the timekeeping. Hence, Taylor advocates functional foremanship.

16. Functional Foremanship

The following is a brief description of the duties of the four types of executive functional bosses which the writer has found it profitable to use in the active work of the shop: (1) gang bosses, (2) speed bosses, (3) inspectors, and (4) repair bosses.

The gang boss has charge of the preparation of all work up to the time that the piece is set in the machine. It is his duty to see that every man under him has at all times at least one piece of work ahead at his machine, with all the jigs, templates, drawings, driving mechanism, sling chains, etc., ready to go into his machine as soon as the piece he is actually working on is done. The gang boss must show his men how to set their work in their machines in the quickest time, and see that they
do it. He is responsible for the work being accurately and quickly set, and should be not only able but willing to pitch in himself and show the men how to set the work in record time.

The speed boss must see that the proper cutting tools are used for each piece of work, that the work is properly driven, that the cuts are started in the right part of the piece, and that the best speeds and
feeds and depth of cut are used. His work begins only after the piece is in the lathe or planer, and ends when the actual machining ends. The speed boss must not only advise his men how best to do this work, but he must see that they do it in the quickest time, and that they use the speeds and feeds and depth of cut as directed on the instruction card In many cases he is called upon to demonstrate that the work can be done in the specified time by doing it himself in the presence of his men.

The inspector is responsible for the quality of the work, and both the workmen and speed bosses must see that the work is all finished to suit him. This man can, of course, do his work best if he is a master of the art of finishing work both well and quickly.

The repair boss sees that each workman keeps his machine clean, free from rust and scratches, and that he oils and treats it properly, and that all of the standards established for the care and maintenance of the machines and their accessories are rigidly maintained, such as care of belts and shifters, cleanliness of floor around machines, and orderly piling and disposition of work.

The following is an outline of the duties of the four functional bosses who are located in the planning room, and who in their various functions represent the department in its connection with the men. The first three of these send their directions to and receive their returns from the men, mainly in writing. These four representatives of the planning department are, the (1) order of work and route clerk, (2) instruction card clerk, (3) time and cost clerk, and (4) shop disciplinarian.

Order of Work and Route Clerk. After the route clerk in the planning department has laid out the exact route which each piece of work is to travel through the shop from machine to machine in order that it may be finished at the time it is needed for assembling, and the work done in the most economical way, the order of work clerk daily writes lists instructing the workmen and also all of the executive shop bosses as to the exact order in which the work is to be done by each class of machines or men, and these lists constitute the chief means for directing the workmen in this particular function.

Instruction Card Clerks. The "instruction card," as its name indicates, is the chief means employed by the planning department for instructing both the executive bosses and the men in all of the details of their work. It tells them briefly the general and detail drawing to refer to, the piece number and the cost order number to charge the work to, the special jigs, fixtures, or tools to use, where to start each cut, the exact depth of each cut, and how many cuts to take, the speed and feed to be used for each cut, and the time within which each operation must be finished. It also informs them as to the piece rate, the differential rate, or the premium to be paid for completing the task within the specified time (according to the system employed); and further, when necessary, refers them by name to the man who will give them especial directions. This instruction card is filled in by one or more members of the planning department, according to the nature and complication of the instructions, and bears the same relation to the planning room that the drawing does to the drafting room. The man who sends it into the shop and who, in case difficulties are met with in carrying out the instructions, sees that the proper man sweeps these difficulties away, is called the instruction card foreman.

Time and Cost Clerk. This man sends to the men through the "time ticket" all the information they need for recording their time and the cost of the work, and secures proper returns from them. He refers these for entry to the cost and time record clerks in the planning room.

Shop Disciplinarian. In case of insubordination or impudence, repeated failure to do their duty, lateness or unexcused absence, the shop disciplinarian takes the workman or bosses in hand and applies the proper remedy. He sees that a complete record of each man's virtues and defects is kept. This man should also have much to do with readjusting the wages of the workmen. At the very least, he should invariably be consulted before any change is made. One of his important functions should be that of peace-maker.

17. Production Planning and Control

The following are the leading functions of the planning department:

(a) The complete analysis of all orders for machines or work taken by the company.

(b) Time study for all work done by hand throughout the works, including that done in setting the work in machines, and all bench, vise work and transportation, etc.

(c) Time study for all operations done by the various machines.

(d) The balance of all materials, raw materials, stores and finished parts, and the balance of the work ahead for each class of machines and workmen.

(e) The analysis of all inquiries for new work received in the sales department and promises for time of delivery.

(f) The cost of all items manufactured with complete expense analysis and complete monthly comparative cost and expense exhibits.

(g) The pay department.

(h) The mnemonic symbol system for identification of parts and for charges.

(i) Information bureau.

(j) Standards.

(k) Maintenance of system and plant, and use of the tickler.

(l) Messenger system and post office delivery.

(m) Employment bureau.

(n) Shop disciplinarian.

(o) A mutual accident insurance association.

(p) Rush order department.

(q) Improvement of system or plant.

18. Role of Top Management in Managing Change to High Productive Shop

Before starting to make any radical changes leading toward an improvement in the system of management, it is desirable, and for ultimate success in most cases necessary, that the directors and the important owners of an enterprise shall be made to understand, at least in a general way, what is involved in the change. They should be informed of the leading objects which the new system aims at, such, for instance, as rendering mutual the interests of employer and employee through "high wages and low labor cost," the gradual selection and development of a body of first class picked workmen who will work extra hard and receive extra high wages and be dealt with individually instead of in masses.

They should thoroughly understand that this can only be accomplished through the adoption of precise and exact methods, and having each smallest detail, both as to methods and appliances, carefully selected so as to be the best of its kind. They should understand the general philosophy of the system and should see that, as a whole, the system to be introduced must be in harmony with its few leading ideas,

They should be shown that it pays to employ an especial corps to introduce a new system just as it pays to employ especial designers and workmen to build a new plant; that, while a new system is being introduced, almost twice the number of foremen are required as are needed to run it after it is in; that all of this costs money, but that, unlike a new plant, returns begin to come in almost from the start from improved methods and appliances as they are introduced, and that in most cases the new system more than pays for itself as it goes along; that time, and a great deal of time, is involved in a radical change in management, and that in the case of a large works if they are incapable of looking ahead and patiently waiting for from two to four years, they had better leave things just as they are, since a change of system involves a change in the ideas, point of view and habits of many men with strong convictions and prejudices, and that this can only be brought about slowly and chiefly through a series of object lessons, each of which takes time, and through continued reasoning; and that for this reason, after deciding to adopt a given type, the necessary steps should be taken as fast as possible, one after another, for its introduction. The directors should be convinced that an increase m the proportion of non-producers to producers means increased economy and not red tape, providing the non-producers are kept busy at their respective functions.

They should be prepared to lose some of their valuable men who cannot stand the change and also for the continued indignant protest of many of their old and trusted employees who can see nothing but extravagance in the new ways and ruin ahead.

19. Train Operators in High Productivity One by One and Then in Small Batches

Organizing for Introducing New Methods and Functional Foremenship

Before taking any steps toward changing methods the manager should realize that at no time during the introduction of the system should any broad, sweeping changes be made which seriously affect a large number of the workmen.  Throughout the early stages of organization each change made should affect one workman only, and after the single man affected has become used to the new order of things, then change one man after another from the old system to the new, slowly at first, and rapidly as  public opinion in the shop swings around under the influence of proper object lessons. Throughout a considerable part of the time, then, there will be two distinct systems of management in operation in the same shop; and in many cases it is desirable to have the men working under the new system managed by an entirely different set of foremen, etc., from those under the old.

The first step, after deciding upon the type of organization, should be the selection of a competent man to take charge of the introduction of the new system. The manager should keep himself free as far as possible from all active part in the introduction of the new system. While changes are going on it will require his entire energies to see that there is no falling off in the efficiency of the old system and that the quality and quantity of the output is kept up.

The respective duties of the manager and the man in charge of improvement, and the limits of the authority of the latter should be clearly defined and agreed upon, always bearing in mind that responsibility should invariably be accompanied by its corresponding measure of authority.

The worst mistake that can be made is to refer to any part of the system as being "on trial." Once a given step is decided upon to implement based on various trials, all parties must be made to understand, that now they have to implement.In making changes in system the things that are given a
"fair trial" fail, while the things that "must go," go all right.

Where to begin is a perplexing and bewildering problem. Employees are in general suspicious of change.

The first changes should be such as to allay the suspicions of the men and convince them by actual contact that the reforms are after all rather harmless and are only such as will ultimately be of benefit
to all concerned. Such improvements then as directly affect the workmen least should be started first. At the same time it must be remembered that the whole operation is of necessity so slow that the new system should be started at as many points as possible, and constantly pushed as hard as possible. In the metal working plant which we are using for purposes of illustration a start can be made at once along all of the following lines:

First. The introduction of standards (standard conditions) throughout the works and office.

Second. The scientific study of unit times on several different kinds of work.

Third. A complete analysis of the pulling, feeding power and the proper speeding of the various machine tools throughout the place with a view of making a slide rule for properly running each machine.

Fourth. The work of establishing the system of time cards by means of which ultimately all of the desired information will be conveyed from the men to the planning room.

Fifth. Overhauling the stores issuing and receiving system so as to establish a complete running balance of materials.

Sixth. Ruling and printing the various blanks that will be required for shop returns and reports, time cards, instruction cards, expense sheets, cost sheets, pay sheet, and balance records; storeroom; tickler; and maintenance of standards, system, and plant, etc.; and starting such functions of the planning room as do not directly affect the men.

If the works is a large one, the man in charge of introducing the system should appoint a special assistant in charge of each of the above functions just as an engineer designing a new plant would start a number of draftsmen to work upon the various elements of construction.

Training Functional Foremen 

The most important and difficult task of the organizer will be that of selecting and training the various functional foremen who are to lead and instruct the workmen, and his success will be measured principally by his ability to mold and reach these men. They cannot be found, they must be made. They must be instructed in their new functions largely, in the beginning at least, by the organizer himself; and this instruction, to be effective, should be mainly in actually doing the work. Explanation and theory Will go a little way, but actual doing is needed to carry conviction. To illustrate: For nearly two and one-half years in the large shop of the Bethlehem Steel Company, one speed boss after another was instructed in the art of cutting metals fast on a large motor-driven lathe which was especially fitted to run at any desired speed within a very wide range. The work done in this machine was entirely connected, either with the study of cutting tools or the instruction of speed bosses. It was most interesting to see these men, principally either former gang bosses or the best workmen, gradually change from their attitude of determined and positive opposition to that in most cases of enthusiasm for, and earnest support of, the new methods. It was actually running the lathe themselves according to the new method and under the most positive and definite orders that produced the effect. The writer himself ran the lathe and instructed the first few bosses. It required from three weeks to two months for each man.

Perhaps the most important part of the gang boss's and foreman's education lies in teaching them to promptly obey orders and instructions received not only from the superintendent or some official high in the company, but from any member of the planning room whose especial function it is to direct the rest of the works in his particular line; and it may be accepted as an unquestioned fact that no gang boss is fit to direct his men until after he has learned to promptly obey instructions received from any proper source, whether he likes his instructions and the instructor or not, and even although he may be convinced that he knows a much better way of doing the work. The first step is for each man to learn to obey the laws as they exist, and next, if the laws are wrong, to have them reformed in the proper way.

20. Organizing a Small Workshop for High Productivity

In starting to organize even a comparatively small shop, containing say from 75 to 100 men, it is best to begin by training in the full number of functional foremen, one for each function, since it must be
remembered that about two out of three of those who are taught this work either leave of their own accord or prove unsatisfactory; and in addition, while both the workmen and bosses are adjusting themselves to their new duties, there are needed fully twice the number of bosses as are required to carry on the work after it is fully systematized.

21. Introducing Functional Foremanship

The first of the functional foremen to be brought into actual contact with the men should be the inspector; and the whole system of inspection, with its proper safeguards, should be in smooth and
successful operation before any steps are taken toward stimulating the men to a larger output; otherwise an increase in quantity will probably be accompanied by a falling off in quality.

Next choose for the application of the two principal functional foremen, viz., the speed boss and the gang boss.

It is of the utmost importance that the first combined application of time study, slide rules, instruction cards, functional foremanship, and a premium for a large daily task should prove a success both for the workmen and for the company, and for this reason a simple class of work should be chosen for a start. The entire efforts of the new management should be centered on one point, and continue there until unqualified success has been attained.

When once this gain has been made, a peg should be put in which shall keep it from sliding back in the least; and it is here that the task idea with a time limit for each job will be found most useful.

22. Personal Relations Between Employers and Employed

"No system of management, however good, should be applied in a wooden way. The proper personal relations should always be maintained between the employers and men; and even the prejudices of the workmen should be considered in dealing with them.

"The opportunity which each man should have of airing his mind freely, and having it out with his employers, is a safety-valve; and if the superintendents are reasonable men, and listen to and treat with respect what their men have to say, there is absolutely no reason for labor unions and strikes.

"It is not the large charities (however generous they may be) that are needed or appreciated by workmen so much as small acts of personal kindness and sympathy, which establish a bond of friendly feeling between them and their employers.

"The moral effect of this system on the men is marked. The feeling that substantial justice is being done them renders them on the whole much more manly, straightforward, and truthful. They work more cheerfully, and are more obliging to one another and their employers.

23. Don't be in a hurry - It Takes Time to Manage Change

Time is an important factor in managing the change from current productivity to high productivity. If any one expects large results in six months or a year in a very large works he is looking for the impossible. If any one expects to convert union men to a higher rate of production, coupled with high wages, in six months or a year, he is expecting next to an impossibility. But if he is patient enough to wait for two or three years, he can go among almost any set of workmen in the country and get results.

Other prominent pioneer industrial engineers like Frank Gilbreth, Harrington Emerson, Henry Gantt, H.B. Maynard, R.L. Barnes, Benjamin Niebel, Marvin Mundel, Shigeo Shingo and others did management process industrial engineering redesigned management processes for improving the productivity systems being managed or for reducing the resources involved in running the management process.

The research journals of industrial engineering still carry many articles in which industrial engineering professors and professionals keep making various suggestions to modify management processes for improving the productivity of systems.

Friday, March 17, 2017

F.W. Taylor - Biography - Book - Some Important Events and Opinions by Others




I. The Taylor and Winslow Families 23

II. Frederick Taylor's Parents 43

III. The Boy Fred 55

IV. How he did not Become a Lawyer 69

V. He Enters Industry 77

VI. His Call to go on in Industry 86


I. The Industrial World in 1878 97

II. Far-Advanced Midvale 106

III. Taylor's Rise at Midvale 116

IV. His Success as a Subordinate 125

V= His Success as a Subordinate (Concluded) 138

VI. His Executive Temperament 148

VII. His Fight with his Men 157

VIII. His Hold upon his Men 165

IX. His Hold upon his Men {Concluded) 178

X. His Work as a Mechanical Engineer 190


I. The " Systematic Soldiering " he had to Overcome . . . 205

II. First Steps in Applying Science to Management 216

III. Origin and Nature of Time Study 223

IV. Beginning his Metal-Cutting Investigation 237

V. Limit of Metal-Cutting Progress at Midvale 246

VI. From Experimentation to Standardization 253

Vll. Leading Features of his Svstemization 263

VIII. Organization Previous to Taylor 274

IX. Taylor's Functional Organization 284

X. The Functional Principle and the General Manager. . 294

XI. Taylor's Wage Principles and Methods 304

XII. Towards Industrial Democracy 314

XIII. Good-bye to Midvale 332


I. The Genius of Taylor's System 345

II. Analysis and Classification as a Basis for Control 351

III. Accounting made Contributory to Control 363

IV. With Mr. Whitney's Company 372

V. He Starts a New Profession 386

VI. His First Statement of his System 397

VII. The Thorny Path of the Reformer 416

VIII. At Cramp's Shipyards 429

IX. Various Work for Various Clients 445

X. In the Simonds Shop 456

R.L. Barnes, in his book Motion and Time Study, in the chapter 3 History of Motion and Time Study had written that it is generally agreed that Time Study had its beginning in the machine shop of the Midvale Steel Company in 1881 originated by F.W. Taylor. That led me to search the internet for this fact and made me come across some interesting articles about Taylor.

Taylor described his time study experience in Piece Rate Paper.

Frederick Taylor, late in the year of 1874, when he was eighteen, seized upon the chance to learn, in the shop of a small Philadelphia pump-manufacturing company whose proprietors were acquainted with his family, the trades of the pattern- maker and the machinist.

THIS Philadelphia concern in whose employ Fred Taylor learned his trades was known as the Enterprise Hydraulic Works, and the firm that owned it while he was there was first Ferrell & Jones and then Ferrell & Muckle. The works were situated in Race Street, down near the Schuylkill River.

In 1881, when the Navy's Ordnance Bureau invited fifteen American steel manufacturers to submit proposals for forgings for six-inch all-steel guns, Midvale was the only plant that could undertake the workj for it alone had developed a complete system of experimentation and of records.

To Brinley must be awarded the main credit, not only for these triumphs in the technic of steel making, but also for the organization of the working force. By 1882, when he left Midvale, and was succeeded as superintendent by Davenport, he had put practically every operation in the works, down to the handling of coal, upon a piece-work basis.

In speaking of Taylor's work at Midvale, Carl Barth says: " He constantly investigated tools and other small appliances that gave minor trouble or fell short of giving entire satisfaction, and in discovering the cause of their shortcomings, was able to effect highly-desirable improvements. Many of
these improvements probably could easily have been made by anyone else who had taken the trouble Taylor did to investigate. The basis of it lay in the fact that it was Taylor's genius to recognize the importance of trifles."

Still, he exerted himself on these trips pretty strenuously also. "As we travelled almost every day," Taylor wrote in 1910, " we were obliged to carry very heavy loads in pack baskets on
our backs. My load averaged over eighty pounds, and in some cases was as high as 125 pounds and I many times carried this load more than eight miles per day over the rough trails in the woods." This despite the fact that he " weighed then only 145 pounds."

The engineering type of man [says J. E. Otterson ] works for the solution of a single technical or engineering problem and is concerned with the determination of the solution rather than the applica-
tion of that solution to practical activities. The true type has the capacity to concentrate continuously on a single problem until the solution has been reached. He is interested in the determination of
cause and effect and of the laws that govern phenomena. He is disposed to be logical, analytical, studious, synthetical and to have an investigating turn of mind. The predominating characteristic that
distinguishes him from the executive is his ability to concentrate on one problem to the exclusion of others for a protracted period, to become absorbed in that problem and to free his mind of the cares
of other problems. He does not submit readily to the routine performance of a given amount of work. He deals with laws and abstract facts. He works from text books and original sources of
information. Such men are Edison, Steinmetz, the Wright Brothers, Curtiss, Bell, Pupine, Fessenden, Browning. These men are the extreme of the engineering type; they have enormous imagination,
initiative, constructive powers. Mr. Taylor was in reality an engineer rather than an executive. He applied his wonderful inventive genius to the invention of management methods.

The executive type takes the conclusions of the engineer and the laws developed by the engineer and applies them to the multitude of practical problems that come before him. His chief characteristic
is that he works with a multitude of constantly changing problems at one time. He concentrates on one problem after another in rapid succession. In many instances he has not the time to obtain all of
the facts and he must arrive at a conclusion or make a decision based upon partial knowledge. He must rapidly assimilate available facts and fill in what is lacking from the ripeness of his own experience, frequently calling on his powers of judgment, and even of intuition. He is a man of action, boldness, ingenuity, force, determination, aggressiveness, courage, decision; he is possessed with the desire to get things done, impatient of delay. He works from a handbook, a news-
paper, or nothing at all. Such men are Schwab, Goethals, Pershing, Farrell, Hindenburg, Hoover.

Even to this day many engineers consider their work done when they have designed and built and demonstrated the possibilities of a piece of apparatus. They seem to feel that the efficient operation of it is not in their province. Mr. Taylor felt otherwise. To him, perfection in design was worthless without efficiency in operation, and at an early date he turned his attention to the efficient utilization of human effort.



 Taylor was a man of intellect. His purpose to get output had its roots in his desire to make the most economical use of his shop's facilities. From the start he was a true engineer in that he was a true
economist,^ with all the economist's hatred of waste and his instinct for conservation.

He himself came to define the problem of the machine shop as that of " removing metal from forgings and castings in the quickest time." " It sounds like the simplest of propositions
that herein is involved the whole economy of such a shop.

He found that his master task or problem of getting metal out in the quickest time naturally divided itself into two principal sets of detail problems j the one having to do with the mechanics of the shop's equipment, and the other with the workers' operation of that equipment.

Right at the outset of his career as an industrial economist he was confronted by the deeply significant fact (which his fellow engineers as a class and industrial folk in general were very slow
in getting a grip on) that as there is no machinery so automatic that it does not have to be cared for and have its work supplied to it by human beings, all other industrial problems are swallowed up in the problem of human relations.

Taylor set out accurately to determine {i.e., on a basis of fact) what his men ought to be able to do with their equipment and materials. It was the course that he himself came to describe as
that of " gathering in on the part of those on the management's side of all the great mass of traditional knowledge which in the past has been in the heads of the workmen and in the physical skill and knack of the workman," and of " recording it, tabulating it, and, in many cases, finally reducing it to
laws, rules, and even to mathematical formulae."

Here, then, aside from his action in clearly defining his  master problem as foreman, was his beginning with the scientific method in connection with management — the beginning
which, because it was the logical one and his qualities were what they were, made it inevitable that he should extend the scientific method to all of the elements of management and so bring into existence all of the phenomena of Scientific Management or of that coherent and logical whole destined to become known as the Taylor System.

Taylor, started in the i88o's, led the work of scientifically studying the speeds at which the ma-
chines should be run in the shop, thereby bringing about, as one feature of his work — and it was a feature that deeply wounded the pride of the English — the development of excellence, as by shaping and heat treatment, in metal-cutting tools themselves.

Mention has been made of the fact that Sellers as early as 1876 attempted to have the cutting tools used in his plant issued to the workmen ready ground to shapes and angles adopted as standard after some investigating. This may be taken as illustrating that all along Taylor had contemporaries
who approached and grappled with problems of management in a truly scientific spirit. However, it also illustrates that the work of these other men was unsystematic and confined to a single element or only a few of the elements of management} so that, as Taylor came to express it, there was " great unevenness or lack of uniformity shown, even in our best run works, in the development of the several elements which together constitute what is called the management."

Taylor was the only one who started at the beginning both in his thinking and in his action j which
is to say that he was the only one who, seeing that it is the task of management to bring about the most economical use of labor and equipment entering into production, and seeing also that to fulfill this task the management must determine what the output of the labor aided by the equipment should be, resolutely set out to do this and stuck to it.

This man for two years and a half, I think, spent his entire time in analyzing the motions of the workmen in the machine shop in relation to all the machine work going on in the shop — all the operations, for example, which were performed while putting work into and taking work out from the machines were analyzed and timed. I refer to the details of all such motions as are repeated over and
over again in machine shops. I dare say you gentlemen realize that while the actual work done in the machine shops of this country is infinite in its variety, and that while there are millions and millions of different operations that take place, yet these millions of complicated or composite operations can be analyzed intelligently and readily resolved into a comparatively small number of simple elementary operations, each of which is repeated over and over again in every machine shop. As a sample of these elementary operations which occur in all machine shops, I would cite picking up a bolt and clamp and putting the bolt head into the slot of a machine, then placing a distance piece under the back end of the clamp and tightening down the bolt. Now, this is one of the series of simple operations that take place in every machine shop hundreds of times a day. It is clear that a series of motions such as this can be analyzed, and the best method of making each of these motions can be found out, and then a time study can be made to determine the exact time which a man should take for each job when he does his work right, without any hurry and yet who does not waste time. This was the general line of one of the investigations which we started at that time.

Time study was begun in the machine shop of the Midvale Steel Company in, 1881, and was used during the next two years sufficiently to prove its success. In 1883, Mr. Emlen Hare Miller was
employed to devote his whole time to " time study," and he worked steadily at this job for two years, using blanks similar to that shown in Par. 367 of " Shop Management." He was the first man to
make " time study " his profession.

" Time study," as its name implies, involves a careful study of the time in which work ought to be done. In but very few cases is it the time in which the work actually was done.

The Midvale Steel Works started the " profession of time study."

Time study " consists of two broad divisions, first, analytical work, and second, constructive work.

The analytical work of time study is as follows:

a. Divide the work of a man performing any job into simple elementary movements.
b. Pick out all useless movements and discard them.
c. Study, one after another, just how each of several skilled workmen makes each elementary movement, and with the aid of a stop watch select the quickest and best method of making each elementary movement known in the trade.
d. Describe, record and index each elementary movement, with its proper time, so that it can be quickly found.
e. Study and record the percentage which must be added to the actual working time of a good workman to cover unavoidable delays, interruptions, and minor accidents, etc.
f. Study and record the percentage which must be added to cover the newness of a good workmen to a job, the first few times that he does it. (This percentage is quite large on jobs made up of a large number of different elements composing a long sequence infrequently repeated. This factor grows smaller, however, as the work consists of a smaller number of different elements in a sequence that is more frequently repeated.)
g Study and record the percentage of time that must be allowed for rest, and the intervals at which the rest must be taken, in order to offset physical fatigue.

The constructive work of time study is as follows:

h Add together into various groups such combinations of elementary movements as are frequently used in the same sequence in the trade, and record and index these groups so that
they can be readily found.
i. From these several records, it is comparatively easy to select the proper series of motions which should be used by a workman in making any particular article, and by summing the
times of these movements, and adding proper percentage allowances, to find the proper time for doing almost any class of work.
j. The analysis of a piece of work into its elements almost always reveals the fact that many of the conditions surrounding and accompanying the work are defective; for instance, that improper tools are used, that the machines used in connection with it need perfecting, that the sanitary conditions
are bad, etc. And knowledge so obtained leads frequently to constructive work of a high order, to the standardization of tools and conditions, to the invention of superior methods and machines.

It is unusual to make a study such as this of the elementary movements of the workmen in a trade. The instances in which this has been done are still rare. Most of the men who have made what they
call " time study " have been contented with getting the gross time of a whole cycle of operations necessary to do a particular piece of work, and at best they have thrown out the time when the workman was idle, or evidently purposely going slow.

When he was at Phillips Exeter, he was profoundly impressed by his observation of the way
his professor of mathematics, " Bull " Wentworth, had timed the work of the students in solving various problems, and so was able to give out standard lessons in the sense that he knew
how much time the average boy would take to do them. All the indications are that to the extent Taylor was indebted to him.

Before long he established what one of his associates calls the " unalterable rule that all time study for rate setting must be done not merely with the knowledge but with the co-operation of the worker."

Somewhere along about 1881 it clearly was presented to him that his problem of getting metal cut in the quickest time involved studying both what his men could do and what the machines could do. Hence his two types of experiments and it is highly probable, by the way, that his machine experiments, or those which constituted a " study of the art of cutting metals," were to a large extent inspired by what he observed while developing " accurate motion and time study of men."

The most important discovery of immediate value that Taylor made in the early stage of his experiments on cutting metals  was that " a heavy stream of water poured directly upon the chip at the
point where it is being removed from the steel forging by the tool would permit an increase in cutting speed, and therefore in the amount of work done, of from thirty to forty per cent."

The discovery of Taylor was used by Midvale in a new shop,  which was opened in 1884. In this new shop, each machine was " set in a wrought iron pan in which was collected the water (supersaturated with carbonate of soda to prevent rusting) which was thrown in a heavy stream upon the
tool for the purpose of cooling it. The water from each of these pans was carried through suitable drain pipes beneath the floor to a central well from which it was pumped to an overhead tank from which a system of supply pipes led to each machine." And Taylor added : " Up to that time, so far as
the writer knows, the use of water for cooling tools was confined to small cans or tanks from which only a minute stream was allowed to trickle upon the tool and the work, more for the purpose of obtaining a water finish on the work than with the object of cooling the toolj and, in fact, these small streams of water are utterly inadequate for the latter purpose."

It interesting to note this comment of Taylor. In spite of the fact that the shops of the Midvale Steel Works until recently [1906] have been open to the public since 1884, no other shop was similarly fitted up [with water supply for the machines] until that of the Bethlehem Steel Company in 1899,
with the exception of a small steel works which was an off-shoot in personnel from the Midvale Steel Company."

One of the other great opportunities which the building of the new shop gave him was that of beginning the experiments with belting that, extending over a period of nine years, furnished him with material for a paper which, presented to the A.S.M.E. in 1893, drew from Henry R. Towne, who himself had experimented with belting, this comment:

The present paper is modestly entitled " Notes on Belting," but could be more fittingly described as a treatise on the practical use of belts. Its thirty-four pages contain more new and useful informa-
tion than is found in any other paper that has come to my knowledge.

In his paper On the Art of Cutting Metals (page 32), Taylor listed his variables as follows: "
(a) the quality of the metal which is to be cut}
(b) the diameter of the workj
(c) the depth of the cut;
(d) the thick-ness of the shaving;
(e) the elasticity of the work and of the tool;
(f) the shape or contour of the cutting edge of the tool, together with its clearance
and lip angles;
(g) the chemical composition of the steel from which the tool is made, and the heat treatment of the tool;
(h) whether a copious stream of water or other cooling medium is used on the tool;
(j) the duration of the cut, i.e., the time which a tool must last under pressure of the shaving without
being reground;
(k) the pressure of the chip or shaving upon the tool;
(1) the changes of speed and feed possible in the lathe;
(m) the pulling and feeding power of the lathe."

Barth, who completed these metal-cutting experiments, has made an improved statement of the variables.

Taylor pursued his metal-cutting investigation long after he left Midvale over a period of a quarter of a century. Not until 1906 did he publish anything about it. However, his high-speed steel, which was one of the by-products of this investigation, was exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1900.

I am well within the limit, gentlemen, in saying [he testified in 1912] that not one machine in twenty in the average shop in this country is properly speeded.

Our experiments have been of two kinds: first, the reduction of the control and operation of machines from rule of thumb to science, and, second, the examination and standardization of human actions
and work with relation both to maximum efficiency and maximum speed.

Next study all the elements as they effect the speed and output, whether they are connected with the machine alone or with the man and the machine combined; then find the one or more elements which
limit the speed of output; centre on the most important, and correct them one after another. This generally involves a combination of study of the man with the machine and involves in many
cases minute time observations with the stop watch.

His time study and his metal-cutting investigation were indeed closely connected and interwoven j having for their common purpose the cutting down of time to the minimum consistent with the doing of good work. In like manner his belting experiments, which were an offshoot of his metal-cutting investigation, had mainly for their purpose the saving of time through the avoidance of delays and interruptions.

Incidentally we can see this purpose as the general cause of the outpouring of his ingenuity in mechanical invention. His great steam-hammer was designed to work faster than any other thing of its kind. He built a new chimney on top of an old one to save " a loss of at least one or two months in
time." And here is the machine-tool table he invented early at Midvale, the table being the part of the machine on which work is place to be operated on. It usually takes much time to set the work on the table and secure it by clamping, and Taylor just could not stand the spectacle of the machine standing
idle while this was being done. So what he invented was a " false " table, or one that was separable from the machine j this, of course, permitting new work to be made entirely or nearly ready on a table while the machine continued busy. Then his study of cutting tools led him to invent a new tool
holder further to expedite the work. This, roughly described, enabled a tool to be held in various positions to correspond to various surfaces, and thus made it possible for one tool to take the place of several of different shapes.

He hastened the establishment among tools of a beautiful order. Not only a place for everything and everything in its place, but also everything in proper variety, suffident quantity, and the pink o£ condition. And withal a beautiful economy of storage space and facility of finding just what was wanted.

Another high development Taylor brought about at Midvale was his system of oiling machines. This device for maintaining things in standard condition created no end of amusement among Taylor's fellow officers, and the wonder of it still is talked about. All we can do here is to indicate its
general nature.

To begin with, he had a man go over every machine and the moving parts connected with it and chalk every oil hole and every surface that required oiling. Then he had another man cover the same ground to make sure that nothing had escaped the first. This done, he had a high-grade mechanic study the best order in which holes and surfaces should be oiled, and these places then were consecutively numbered by stamping.

For the oil holes he had made two sets of wooden plugs, one set with round heads and the other with square, and each set was numbered to correspond to the numbers of the oil holes. While one set was in the oil holes, the other set was kept in a box bored with holes to correspond to the oil holes.
In like manner he had made for the surfaces to be oiled two sets of small hooks, one with round and the other with square tags.

In the morning, the operator of a machine found the oil holes fitted with square-headed plugs, and at the surfaces to be oiled hung the hooks with the square tags. Before starting his machine he was required to replace the " square " objects with the " round " ones, and as he did this to oil the
hole or surface} and at noon, when another oiling was called for, he was required to replace the " round " plugs and hooks with the " square." The object, of course, was to make him give attention to each and every hole and surface, and do this in the proper order j and at any time it could be seen whether all his " square " or " round " plugs and hooks were in place as might be called for. Incidentally the plugs, which were cylindrical and made a neat fit in the holes, kept dust from getting in and cutting the bearings.

Lists were made out of all the oil holes and surfaces to be oiled} these stating to what parts of the machines the holes conducted the oil, and the kind of oil to be used in each case. Duplicates of these lists were filed in the office j and here we can see an early development of the principle of reducing
all recurrent procedure to standard practice and recording it. The ordinary way is to leave such procedure entirely to some individual, who in the course of time may work out for it a pretty good method. All of this knowledge, however, he carries in his head} so that if he falls ill, the procedure suffers, and if he quits the business, some one else must work it out all over again. Taylor not only required the management to determine right at the start the best method, but by his records he made the business independent of the comings and goings of individuals, and his records served as insurance against mistakes, failures of memory, and human fallibility in general.

 Looking at it from this angle, we see that Taylor assumes the aspect simply of a manager of such thoroughness and force that he leaped from a quarter to a half century ahead of the crowd of managers, and did more than any other one individual to wake management up and blaze a trail for it to follow.

The term general manager indeed implies one having an outlook upon all the steps in the accomplishment of an organization's task.

The shop, and indeed the whole works, should be managed, not by the manager, superintendent, or foreman, but by the planning department. The daily routine of running the entire works should be car-
ried on by the various functional elements of this department, so that, in theory at least, the works could run smoothly even if the manager, superintendent and their assistants outside the planning room were all to be away for a month at a time.

Proper extra pay for the extra effort called for by a scientifically set task will induce the worker to make the extra effort continuously.

It undoubtedly was because of this as well as of the high wages he paid that Taylor never again had any trouble with working people after his early experience at Midvale.

Says H. L. Gantt in Industrial Leadership : " The authority to issue an order involves the respon-
sibility to see that it is properly executed. The system of management which we advocate is based on this principle, which eliminates bluff as a feature of management, for a man can only assume the responsibility for doing a thing properly when he not only knows how to do it, but can also teach somebody else to do it." It should not be difficult for anyone to understand why working people, apart from any question of wages, found it a satisfaction to work for men who could show them as well as tell them, and who incidentally assumed the responsibility for the implements and all the conditions upon which the fulfillment of the tasks depended.

There also was the fact that through his development of standard practice for the care of machinery
and belting and his instruction-card and tickler system, he had cut down the repair force of the works about a third.

Three years later, when he became a consulting engineer, he apparently foresaw that unless he had an impartial critic of the efficiency of his methods in the form of a proper cost-keeping system, he
would be at a disadvantage in dealing with the opposition that his experience had taught him would be sure to arise wherever he tried to introduce his methods. Thus his approach to the scientific study of accounting was mainly from the particular angle of cost accounting. And to say that when he turned his attention to this subject there was no general recognition of the importance of accurately determining, on a basis of ascertained and recorded fact, the group and unit costs of products is to put it mildly — how mildly will be appreciated when it is pointed out that as late as the year 1921 the
Federal Trade Commission reported that about ninety per cent of industrial and commercial firms did not know what their costs were.

Mr. Towne said among other things:

To ensure the best resuhs, the organization of productive labor must be directed and controlled by persons having not only good executive ability, and possessing the practical familiarity of a mechanic or engineer with the goods produced and the processes employed, but having also, and equally, a practical knowledge of how to observe, record, analyze, and compare essential facts in relation to wages, supplies, expense accounts, and all else that enters into or affects the economy of production and the cost of the product.

The fact that Taylor called his paper of 1895 simply A Piece-Rate System, with the cautious subtitle A Step Toward Partial Solution of the Labor Problem, signifies not merely that he yet was unconscious that involved in his work was the development of a comprehensive system and that he himself was deeply interested in the " labor end."

Taylor said in the address he made in Cleveland just before his death:

I have before me something which has been gathering in for about fourteen years, the time or motion study of the machine shop. It will take probably four or five years more before the first book will be
ready to publish on that subject. There is a collection of sixty or seventy thousand elements affecting machine shop work. After a few years — say three, four or five years more — some one will be ready to publish the first book giving the laws of the movements of men in the machine shop — all the laws, not only a few of them. Let me predict, gentlemen, just as sure as the sun shines that is going to come in every trade. Why? Because it pays, and for no other reason. Any device which results in an increased output is bound to come in spite of all opposition; whether we want it or not, it comes automatically.

In Taylor's lifetime these studies resulted in the publication of two books: Concrete Plain and Reinforced (1905), and Concrete Costs (1912).

Updated 20 March 2017 - Birthday of Taylor (Taylor Birth Year 1856)

First published on 20 June 2015