Mark S. Sanders and Ernest J. McCormick, in the book Human Factors in Engineering and Design, seventh edition (1993), provide the following definition for human factors. This definition according them is slightly modified version of the definition provided by Chapanis (1985)
'Human factors discovers and applies information about human behavior, abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for productive, safe, comfortable, and effective human use." (Page 5)
Job Design Guidelines for Manual Material Handling (Ayoub and Mital, 1989) (Sanders and McCormick, 1993, Pp. 267-68)
1. Decrease the weight of objects handled (Order supplies in smaller-quantity containers)
2. Use two or more people to move heavy or large objects.
3. Change the way of doing the activity; for example, pull or, better yet, push rathe than carry.
4. Minimize horizontal distance travelled with the load.
5. Stack materials no higher than shoulder height.
6. Keep heavy objects at knuckle height.
7. Reduce frequency of lifting.
8. Incorporate rest periods.
9. Incorporate job rotation to less strenuous jobs.
10. Design containers with handles that can be held close to the body.
Maintain a straight bakc, use leg muscles, keep the load as close to the body as possible, use smooth body motion, avoid jerking, and turn the feet rather than twisting the torso. (Foot note, Sanders and McCormick, 1993, p. 268).