INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
HUGO DlEMER, B.A., M.E.
Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylvania State College;
Consulting Industrial Engineer; Author of Factory Organization and Administration
La Salle Extension University, Chicago
Process-mapping consists of the charting of the general processes involved in the industry. Naturally, analytic manufacturing would present a different type of process-mapping from that of synthetic manufacturing. Similarly, an industry employing consecutive processes would present an entirely different process-mapping from that of an industry in which simultaneous processes are the rule. For instance, a linseed-oil factory is an extractive or analytic industry and would require an entirely different process-map from the one needed by a cement mill, which is a synthetic industry. Again,, a rail mill is a continuous process and requires entirely different process-maps from those of a sewing-machine factory, which typifies simultaneous processes followed by assembling.
Preliminary general process-maps can be made for a given industry by listing first the general operations. If these are all consecutive, we shall have the list in one column, if some are simultaneous, they will be in several columns. Then we can decide definitely, from our knowledge of the processes, which of them require separate buildings and which can be housed together, also which processes must be on the ground floor and which may be on upper floors. For example, it is easy to decide that painting agricultural machinery by the dipping process should be in a separate building from the machine work on the metal parts, and that assembling large boilers must be done on the ground floor.
We can now roughly sketch a phantom-perspective view of a building or group of buildings devoted to processing, for the present omitting power-plant and all service equipment. We may indicate in colored crayons or colored inks the various principal processes and the paths for the flow of materials; supplies, and work in process, as well as by-products and waste, if any. Figures 10, 11, 12, and 13 are simple forms of preliminary process- maps.
Routing of Individual Parts or Classes of Materials
Routing is different from process-mapping in that it traces the path of a single part. For instance, in making a process-map for an automobile factory, we have before us an entirely different task from that required if we route a crank case to be made in that same factory. To route the crank case, we inspect the blue-print and list the separate operations to be done. Process-mapping is a generalized survey of the whole industry. Routing is a detailed investigation which, when thoroughly built up, may materially modify preliminary process-mapping. A well-organized system of routing and a good stock of routing records covering the product form the very best basis for an intelligent process-map. Of course, in starting an entirely new industry the experience and judgment of the men in charge of the productive end of the enterprise form the only basis for process-mapping. Figure 14 is a typical routing card giving the operations to be performed on an individual part.
In 1921 Gilbreth made the process charts used by him public. The use of process charts became more widespread. ASME standardized process chart nomenclature.
What is process mapping? - IBM Explanation
Process mapping visually represents a workflow, allowing team to understand a process and its components more clearly. There are a variety of process maps.
These visual diagrams are usually a component of a company’s business process management (BPM).
A process map outlines the individual steps within a process, identifying task owners and detailing expected timelines. They are particularly helpful in communicating processes among stakeholders and revealing areas of improvement. Most process maps start at a macro level and then provide more detail as necessary.
Types of process maps
There are several different types of process maps. Some of mapping techniques include:
Basic flowcharts are visual maps, which provides the basic details of a process such as inputs and outputs.
Deployment maps, also known as cross-functional flowcharts, display the relationships between different teams. These maps often use swimlane diagrams to illustrate how a process flows across the company, making it easier to spot bottlenecks or redundancies.
Detailed process maps show a drill-downed version of a process, containing details around any sub-processes.
High-level process maps, also known as value-chain or top-down maps, show a macro view of a process, including key process elements such as a supplier, input, process, output, or customer (SIPOC).
Rendered process maps represent a current state and/or future state processes to show areas for potential process improvement.
A value stream map (VSM) is a lean six sigma technique, which documents the steps required to develop a product or service to an end user.
Process mapping symbols
Most organizations will need to use only a few of the most common symbols to complete a process map. Some of these symbols include:
A rectangle is used to represent a specific process and its activities and functions.
An arrow is used to show both the direction of flow and the connection between steps.
An oval is often used to show the beginning or end points of a process flow.
A diamond is used to indicate a decision point. The process will continue by following a predefined path depending on the decision.
A rectangle with one end rounded is often used as a delay symbol, showing a pause in the process before the flow continues.
Process Mapping and IBM
You can use software programs, like IBM Blueworks Live, which can help customize your process map to your business needs.
IBM Blueworks Live is a cloud-based business process modeling tool that provides a dedicated, collaborative environment to build and improve business processes through process mapping automation. IBM Blueworks Live makes it easy to document, analyze and improve your business processes. Teams can collaborate in real-time through an intuitive and accessible web interface, which enables easy documentation and analysis of processes.
Process Mapping of Warehouse Process
Working with continuous process improvement requires a detailed view of workflows in the organization. By mapping the processes including inputs, activities, outputs and connection between different steps, leadership will become aware of non-conformities and areas of improvement.
Ud. 6.10.2022, 10.4.2022