Saturday, July 31, 2021

#ProfNRao - The Last Six Months at NITIE as Professor - Industrial Engineering & Management - February to July 2021

19 May 2021


6500+ views in 4 years. (6745 views on 24 July 2021)


Taylor - Gilbreth - Emerson - Diemer - Going - Maynard - Barnes - Mogensen - Shingo - Narayana Rao

Narayana Rao - PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING - IISE Pittsburgh 2017 Annual Conference Presentation - YouTube Video.

Professor (Finance, Industrial Engineering and Manufacturing Systems), National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Mumbai

Former Senior Professor (Finance & Investments), ICFAI Business School, Mumbai (2004 to 2006)

Former Professor (Finance & Investments), SPJIMR, Mumbai (2001 to 2004)

Professor (Finance & Industrial Engineering), NITIE (1997 to 2000)

The formal service tenure will be completed by July 2021.

It is time to remember students of PG programmes, Training programmes, Fellowship scholars, and colleagues & administrators who provided opportunities and support in the required activities. I am very happy with the positive outcomes in both personal and professional areas. Can easily forget the negative events that are part and parcel of life and interactions.

I am going to rearrange my files and documents (1994 to 2021) to do 5S for the future and in the process access details of various programmes conducted by me and try to say "hello and thank you" to the students, participants, colleagues and guest faculty. It is possible to do so in this social networking time made possible by social media.

I can feel good about the two global top blogs that I created. Management Theory Review and Industrial Engineering Knowledge Center.  They are used by students, executives and faculty members of all countries. Happy to share that Industrial Engineering Blog was visited more than 106,000 unique visitors. Earlier there were visitors for the content on Knol. It is content that was appreciated by Global community of industrial engineers.

In this last term of teaching, thanks to Prof. Manoj Kumar Tiwari, Current Director, NITIE, I am learning additional things in the area of supply chain management from Prof. David Simchi Levi, Professor, MIT. I am teaching the subject, Manufacturing Strategy. The key areas in the subject, Technology and Process Strategy, Process Improvement Strategy, Capacity decisions for Internal Manufacturing and Supply chain manufacturing are of special interest to me from industrial engineering perspective also. I started my career in 1979 in the purchasing department of a manufacturing company and then shifted to production planning and production management of all ancillary departments of the company. In my first five years of teaching, I taught subjects related to manufacturing management and operations research. Hence completing the formal tenure by teaching "Manufacturing Strategy" is appropriate goal reaching effort. Only, recently, the fellow scholar, I guided in supply chain management got his doctoral diploma, fellowship of NITIE.

I did diversify into security analysis and investment management. My doctoral degree in that area is from IIT Bombay. I worked in stockbroking company as vice president (training) and supported the company during derivatives introduction year. I developed ways of implementing Graham's analysis method (Graham - Rao Method) [ 2006 ] and Markowitz portfolio analysis method to get model portfolios of broking companies.

The urge to strengthen the industrial engineering discipline as an alumni and faculty member of NITIE made me to focus on industrial engineering afresh. The effort helped in developing "Principles of Industrial Engineering," "Functions and Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering," "Industrial Engineering 4.0 Implementation Steps," and more papers highlighting the need for changes in industrial engineering discipline, academic curriculums and professional practice. Productivity management is a very important area, which is still underdeveloped in the management and industrial engineering disciplines. Productivity Science, Productivity Engineering and Productivity Management is the framework proposed by me to develop productivity management area in more depth and detail.

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation in 2017 IISE Annual Conference



31 July

Why do You require Resiliency as an Innovator or Industrial Engineer or as Good Change Manager?

Success is not easy. Even if you develop a prototype of a device or an artifact based on your idea, people will be indifferent to your ideas. You need to believe in your passion, the logic behind it and the reasons you think people have to use it for their benefit.

30 July2021

Farewell Function in NITIE

Reply by Narayana Rao in the farewell function

I thank all my colleagues both teaching and and administration. My best wishes to them.

I thank all my students. They did all things I asked them to do as assignments and helped me also in the process to better understand theories, applications and case studies. My best wishes to them.



Updated the lesson 60 and Case Study 60 of the Industrial Engineering Online Course. Circulated in the social media also.

Lesson 60 of Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course. Productivity Improvement Through Machining Time Reduction - Machining Cost Reduction - Industrial Engineering of Machining Operations

Case 60 - Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course. Toyota Way - Become Better and Better - Better Design and Further Industrial Engineering Changes 

24 July 2021

Biomechanics in Industrial Engineering Curriculum.

(The topic was included in this blog in April 2012. It was posted on Knol much earlier. The subject was suggested for inclusion in the IE curriculum at that time.

The above suggestion made during 2010-2012 was incorporated into principles of industrial engineering.

Human resources employed in engineering systems have their own needs. Industrial engineers are unique in engineering disciplines in taking up the engineering of human effort. They have to synthesize the theories of human sciences, some of which are developed by industrial engineering also, to design human work for an optimal combination of productivity, income, comfort, health, safety and satisfaction of the employed.

Human Effort Industrial  Engineering for Increasing Productivity - Principle of Industrial Engineering

23 July 2021

Engineering Knowledge Based Industrial Engineering 

Creativity, Passion and Resiliency. Passion to solve a problem will make one creative. But knowledge is required to become creative. If knowledge is zero, no creativity despite passion to solve a problem.

Why Resiliency?

Success is not easy. Even if you develop a prototype of a device or an artifact, people will be indifferent to your ideas. You need to believe in your passion, the logic behind it and the reasons you think people have to use it for their benefit.

12 July 2021

More creativity, effort, and frankly, time are required turn new technologies bought into profitable investments. Industrial Engineers have to lead.
Focusing on technologies that augment workers instead of replace them to maintain social harmony and progress of society with peace and happiness. 
-  Stanford University professor Erik Brynjolfsson.
How to prepare for the AI productivity boom
12 July 2021

Industrial engineers have to take active part in automation centers of excellence.
Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - Bulletin Board #IndustrialEngineering #Productivity 

Industrial Engineers have to drive technology adoption.

11 July 2021

VERY HAPPY. Blog Book accessed 1000 times by 860 unique users. 

Industrial Engineering 4.0 - IE in the Era of Industry 4.0 - #BlogBook by K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao (#ProfNRao)  #IndustrialEngineering #Productivity #CostReduction #ContinuousImprovement

It is very early work on Industrial Engineering 4.0 initiated by me immediately after a seminar on the topic in Germany. Two international conference papers were published by me in this area.

9 July 2021

Thank you for Birthday Greetings, Wishes and Blessings.

I am overwhelmed by the affection shown by you in June and July 2021 congratulating me and blessing me on various events. I have to respond personally to you. First let me thank you all. I am retiring by this month end - normal superannuation age. Shall have time to correspond with you on more personal basis. Thank you once again.

6 July 2021

Passionate about Productivity, Industrial Engineering and Cost Reduction  - Why?

Because productivity increases world's prosperity. 

Creating new products that satisfy and provide utility to people is one dimension. Then producing them in large quantities at lower and lower costs is another dimension. Both dimensions are important and are to be promoted and supported in organizations. Inventions reach large section of the population through cost reductions made possible by productivity improvement through industrial engineering.

The output of industrial engineers every day contributes to the prosperity of the people of the world.

I sent a mail to participants of a UBP from Exide.

I keep corresponding with participants of a UBP from BEL.

1 June 2021

Industrial Engineering FREE ONLINE Course

I started circulating the Industrial Engineering Online Lessons for the second time after an year. In the last one year, 1000 persons accessed the course index page. This year, I shall be able to revise content of some of these lessons.

15 May 2021

Things did not go smoothly in the last three months. There was covid infection also to bear with. Any extra active work results in fatigue for good length of subsequent days due to age. But still, there is enthusiasm at some point in time to do something extra.

This month, I am participating in the Annual IISE Conference in virtual mode. I uploaded my presentation of the paper. I am presenting the paper advocating the practice of Computer Aided Industrial Engineering.

Prof. Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. NITIE@IISE Annual Conference 2021 - Computer Aided Industrial Engineering

My paper on Computer Aided Industrial Engineering was well received. There were 11 likes.

I liked the interview with Tim Cook in the conference.

PGP Subjects

2010 - PGDIE - Industrial Engineering Concepts -  21 June 2010 to 10 September 2010

Updated on 9 July 2021,  7 July 2021, 12 June 2021.  19 May 2021 15 May 2021

First posted and published  on 1 February 2021

Surface Finish - Industrial Engineering and Productivity Aspects

Lesson 57 of Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course

Lesson 14 of Process Industrial Engineering FREE ONLINE Course (Module)

Surface Finish - An Area of Inquiry for Industrial Engineers

Industrial engineers have to find alternative ways that reliably produce to the specification of the design but give productivity. They have to first know alternatives to produce to specification.

Industrial engineers have to examine, whether cutting conditions are being kept substantially below the maximum cutting parameters recommended in theory or best practice by shop personnel because of the intention to reach the surface finish specified. They have to understand the theory behind surface finish achievement and the theory of cutting conditions that give maximum material removal rate and then come out with the best cutting conditions. They they have to organize the experiment to do most productive combination and if any problem persists, they have to find out whether any improvement in other machine variables is going to eliminate the problem. It is the industrial engineer's job not to give up utilizing the best cutting variables and achieve maximum productivity while achieving the specified surface finish. Hence, industrial engineers have to be aware of various solutions to improve surface finish.

Surface Finish, Integrity and Flatness

Many parts are machined to produce surfaces with specified finishes for locating, sealing, or similar applications. In finishing cuts,  surface flatness, and finish requirements restrict the range of tool sizes, geometries, and feed rates that can be used. Understanding the surface finish issues, can help in increasing the productivity of machining operations.


The surface finish  is most commonly measured with a stylus-type profile meter or profilometer, an instrument similar to a phonograph that amplifies the vertical motion of a stylus as it is drawn across the surface.

Types of measurements

For nominally flat surfaces, the shape is referred to as the slope or lay of the surface.

Waviness refers to variations in the surface with relatively long wavelengths or, equivalently, lower frequencies. Waviness may result from clamping errors, errors in the tool or cutter geometry, or vibrations of the system. Spindle tilt in face-milling operations also produces a waviness or shape error.

Roughness is the term for surface profile variations with wavelengths shorter than those characteristic of waviness.  Roughness has a geometric component dependent on the feed rate, tool nose radius, tool lead angle, and cutting speed, as well as a natural component resulting from tool wear, inhomogeneities in the work material, higher frequency vibrations of the machining system, and damage to the surface caused by chip contact.

The commonly used roughness measurements for machined surfaces: the average roughness Ra, maximum peak height Rp, maximum valley depth Rv, peak to valley height Rt, average maximum profile height Rz, maximum roughness depth Rmax, and bearing ratio tp.

The parameters Ra, Rv, Rp, and Rt  are all defined with respect to a centerline of a filtered stylus trace. Filtering is performed to remove the slope and waviness components of the trace. Once filtering is performed, the centerline is determined as the mean line of the surface profile.

The average roughness Ra is defined as the average absolute deviation of the workpiece from the centerline:

Rp is the maximum deviation of a peak above the centerline encountered within the sampling length

Similarly, Rv, the maximum depth of valley below the centerline,

Rt, the maximum peak to valley deviation or total profile height, is equal to
 Rt =  Rp  + Rv

The average maximum profile height Rz and maximum roughness depth Rmax  are  defined in ASME B46.1  as the average and maximum values of the profile heights over five successive sampling intervals:

The bearing ratio tp  is a function of the depth p below the highest peak and is
defined as the ratio of the total length of the profile below the depth p to the total trace length L:

Ra is the most commonly specified roughness parameter and is well suited for monitoring the
consistency of a machining process.

For turning and single-point boring, the geometric roughness is easily calculated from the tool angles and feed.

For a tool with a nose (or corner) radius, the depth of cut is often smaller than the nose radius, especially in finish turning and boring. In this case the geometric roughness is independent of the tool angles κre and k¢re and is determined by the feed per revolution f and nose radius rn:

These equations provide lower bound for the roughness obtained in practice and indicate that smoother surfaces can be generated by using a smaller feed, larger tool nose radius, and larger tool
lead angle. 


When face milling with radiused inserts, the surface finish depends on the insert radius and on the effective feed rate. The geometric component of the average peak to valley cusp height, Rtg, and average roughness, Rag, measured in the feed direction can be calculated approximately using the formulas.

When face milling with radiused inserts, the surface finish depends on the insert radius and on the effective feed rate.


Measured roughness values in cylindrical plunge grinding are usually well characterized by an
equation using

vw: the workpiece velocity
vs: the wheel velocity
a:  the depth of cut

Machined surfaces often exhibit residual stresses  induced both by differential plastic deformation and by surface thermal gradients . Stresses due to plastic deformation are obviously mechanically induced, but those due to thermal gradients may reflect phase transformations or chemical reactions. These stresses increase with tool wear, since both deformation forces and tool–workpiece frictional heating increase. For a sharp tool, significant residual stresses typically do not occur at depths much greater than 50 μm below the surface; for worn tools, however, significant stresses may occur at 5 or 10 times this depth.

White layer formation occurs when cutting ferrous materials, especially steels . The white layer is a surface layer, which has undergone microstructural alterations caused by excessive surface temperatures and air hardening. It is resistant to standard etchings, so that it appears white under an optical microscope (or featureless in a scanning electron microscope.) The white layer has the same chemical composition as the substrate, but due to its different microstructure it has different mechanical properties, and most significantly increased hardness.

Surface burning concerns often limit the maximum wheel speed or stock removal in grinding operations. Surface burning has been studied in detail mainly for carbon and alloy steel workpieces. Burning is accompanied by metallurgical and chemical phenomena such as oxidation (which produced the characteristic burn marks on the surface), tempering, residual stresses, and phase transformations; apart from aesthetic concerns, burning should be avoided because these phenomena lead to a reduction in fatigue life.

Machined surfaces used for sealing or motion control often have a specified flatness tolerance.  Flatness is defined as the minimum separation between two parallel planes containing the entire surface profile. Since the entire profile is not normally measured with high resolution, the sampling method and resolution of individual measurements both influence measured flatness values. Therefore, the flatness and profile/waviness requirements on the part should be considered in the selection of the process even though the proper surface finish can be achieved.

There are several contact and non-contact methods for measuring the flatness or profile of a surface. Automated flexible methods use coordinate measuring machines (CMM). All CMMs have a mechanical or optical probe attached to the third moving axis of the machine. 


Flat surfaces are often machined by face milling.  The standard methods of controlling flatness in these applications include fixture and cutter optimization and the use of multiple passes, including a low DOC finishing pass. Limited feed rate optimization, in which the feed rate is slowed over sections of the tool path with low part stiffness, is also used.

Industrial engineer have to examine, whether cutting conditions are being kept substantially below the maximum cutting parameters recommended in theory or best practice by shop personnel because of the intention to reach the surface finish specified. They have to understand the theory behind surface finish achievement and the theory of cutting conditions that give maximum material removal rate and then come out with the best cutting conditions. They they have to organize the experiment to do most productive combination and if any problem persists, they have to find out whether any improvement in other machine variables is going to eliminate the problem. It is the industrial engineer's job not to give up utilizing the best cutting variables and achieve maximum productivity while achieving the specified surface finish. Hence, industrial engineers have to be aware of various solutions to improve surface finish.

Other compensation methods

Tool Path Direction Compensation
The tool path direction has an important influence on both cycle time and surface flatness when face milling large surfaces. Cutting forces interact with the part and fixture to cause deflections, and due to spatial and directional variations in part and fixture stiffness, applying forces from different direction (by changing the tool path) results in different flatness and profile errors. The milling process, up or down milling, also affects the forces on the part for a similar reason. The removal of residual stress is a progressive process, which is affected by the tool path direction and local DOC. Tool path direction compensation (TPDC) is performed on a macroscale because the face mill cutter diameter is usually large in order to cover as much surface area as possible.

Depth of Cut Compensation
The milling path along a plane can be compensated normal to the plane by cutting shallower on
convex surface sections (high spots) and deeper on concave surface sections (low spots).

Tool Feed Compensation
The tool feed compensation (TFC) method focuses on cutting force–induced errors, which can be directly controlled by the optimization of feed and speed in relation to the cycle time. The feed per tooth can be optimized to improve the surface flatness because cutting forces exerted on the part surface are proportional to feed.

Spindle-Part Tilt Compensation
The spindle-part tilt compensation (SPTC) method is used to prevent contact of the face-milling
cutter trailing edges with the machined surface.

Updated on 31 July 2021, 22 January 2021
First published on 11 July 2020

Friday, July 30, 2021

Technology Focused Engineering - Industry Problems and Opportunities Focused Engineering

 Industrial Engineering is Industry Problems and Opportunities Focused Engineering. The basic design of a product and process is technology focused. The designers bring multiple technologies into evaluation to come out with a process that will make a new engineering device a reality.

Industrial engineering responds on a continuous basis to opportunities and problems that are identified in engineering operations - production, distribution, operation and maintenance. Industrial engineering is more analytical and can focus on elements of products and processes and do piecemeal improvement that contribute to system efficiency.

Machining Time Reduction - Machining Cost Reduction - Industrial Engineering of Machining Operations

IE Research by Taylor - Productivity of Machining  - Part 1 - Part 2  - Part 3  - Part 4 - Part 5 

Machining Time Reduction - Machining Cost Reduction - Machine Productivity Improvement - Taylor - Narayana Rao

Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Industrial Engineering

The first president of ASME in his inaugural presidential address exhorted mechanical engineers to attention to the cost of reduction of machines and items produced through mechanical engineering design and production processes like cars.

The genius in F.W. Taylor resulted in proposing productivity improvement through machining time reduction (machine time reduction) and man time reduction as the core activity which will give cost reduction and income increase (to both employees and companies, this labor and capital).

Machining time reduction can be achieved by improving each of the elements that are used in machining. Taylor investigated each machine element - machine tools for power and rigidity, tool materials and tool geometry, work holding, use of coolant, cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed, depth of cut) and developed data and science for each element and increased productivity of machining. The framework laid by Taylor is followed even today and productivity improvement of machining is occurring.


278 The cutting speed of a tool is directly dependent upon the following elements. The order in which the elements are given indicates their relative effect in modifying the cutting speed, and in order to compare them, we have written in each case figures which represent, broadly speaking, the ratio between the lower and higher limits of speed as affected by each element. These limits will be met with daily in machine shop practice. 

279 (A) The quality of the metal which is to be cut; i.e., its hardness or other qualities which affect the cutting speed.

Proportion is as 1 in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of very soft low carbon steel. 

280 (B) The chemical composition of the steel from which the cutting tool is made, and the heat treatment of the tool.

Proportion is as 1 in tools made from tempered carbon steel to 7 in the best high speed tools. 

281 (C) The thickness of the shaving; or, the thickness of the spiral strip or band of metal which is to be removed by the tool, measured while the metal retains its original density; not the thickness of the actual shaving, the metal of which has become partly disintegrated.

Proportion is as 1 with thickness of shaving 3/16 of an inch to 3.5 with thickness of shaving 1/64 of an inch.  

282 (D) The shape or contour of the cutting edge of the tool, chiefly because of the effect which it has upon the thickness of the shaving.

Proportion is as  1 in a thread tool to 6 in a broad nosed cutting tool. , 

283 (E) Whether a copious stream of water or other cooling medium is used on the tool.

Proportion is as 1 for tool running dry to 1.41 for tool cooled by a copious stream of water. 

284 (F) The depth of the cut; or, one-half of the amount by which the forging or casting is being reduced in diameter in turning.

Proportion is as 1 with 1/2 inch depth of cut to 1.36 with 1/8 inch depth of cut. 

285 (G) The duration of the cut; i. c., the time which a tool must last under pressure of the shaving without being reground.

Proportion is as 1 when tool is to be ground every 1.5 hour to 1.207 when tool is to be ground every 20 minutes.

286 (H) The lip and clearance angles of the tool.

Proportion is as 1 with lip angle of 68 degrees to 1.023 with lip angle of 61 degrees. 

287 (J) The elasticity of the work and of the tool on account of producing chatter.

Proportion is as 1 with tool chattering to 1.15 with tool running smoothly. 

288 A brief recapitulation of these elements is as follows: 
(A) quality of metal to be cut: 1 to 100; 
(B) chemical composition of tool steel: 1 to 7;
 (C) thickness of shaving: 1 to 3.5; 
(D) shape or contour of cutting edge: 1 to 6; 
(E) copious stream of water on the tool: 1 to 1.41; 
(F) depth of cut: 1 with 1/2 inch depth to 1.36 with 1/8 inch depth of cut; 
(G) duration of cut: 1 with 1.5 hour cut to 1.20 with 20-minute cut; 
(H) lip and clearance angles: 1 with lip angle 68 degrees to 1.023 with lip angle of 61 degrees; 
(J) elasticity of the work and of the tool: 1 with tool chattering to 1.15, with tool running smoothly.

Taylor's machining time reduction is given the name "Time Study." Time study became a principal technique of Industrial Engineering. But in the evolution of the discipline and profession, overtime, the s focus on study of man's work increased and time study became a subject or method that develops the standard time prescription for the method developed using method study. Method study also focused on manual work only primarily. A subject named "Work Study," a combination of method study and time study or work measurement became popular. Machine work based industrial engineering slow disappeared from industrial engineering. Professor Narayana Rao, brought the focus on machine back in industrial engineering by proposing "machine work study" as an important area in productivity improvement and industrial engineering. Machine based industrial engineering is part of Toyota Production System and was described by Shigeo Shingo in his book. Jidoka, a pillar of TPS, also is interpreted as machines that do not produce waste which indicates machine based productivity improvement. Machine work study involves evaluating each element of machine work with the current possible best practice, improving it appropriately and integrating all the elements to give the highest productivity, lower cost or lowest time. Element level improvement and integrating elements to get the best system improvement has to occur one after another in industrial engineering. Element level thinking and holistic thinking both have to take place in productivity improvement.

To do machine work study, industrial engineers required the basic knowledge and awareness of periodic developments in machine tool and cutting tool engineering and process planning. Productivity science discovers and codifies variables that have an effect on productivity. Industrial engineers have to combine productivity science with knowledge of machine tools and process planning to do productivity engineering.

Taylor's Contribution to Machining Time Reduction and Machining Science/Productivity Science

The first scientific studies of metal cutting were power requirements for various operations so that steam engines of appropriate size could be selected for tools. A number of researchers constructed crude dynamometers and conducted systematic experiments to measure cutting forces. The best known was E. Hartig, whose 1873 book  was a standard reference on the subject for many years. Development of more advanced dynamometers occupied researchers after Hartig's book was published. In addition, several studies of the mechanism of chip formation were carried out, most notably by Time, Tresca, and Mallock. By carefully examining chips, these researchers recognized that chip formation was a shearing process.

In 1868 Robert Mushet, an English steel maker, developed an improved tool steel. It was a Tungsten alloy which proved to be self hardening. Mushet  took extraordinary measures to prevent the theft of his recipe and the process he used is unknown to this day. The  material was  superior to carbon steel for cutting tools and was widely used in both Europe and America.

The great historical figure in the field of metal cutting, Frederick W. Taylor, was active at the end of the nineteenth century. Taylor became more famous as the founder of scientific management, and many books on scientific management do not mention his work in metal cutting. The metal cutting work, however, was crucial to the implementation of his productivity engineering and management theories. Books on machining still mention Taylor and his contribution to metal cutting theory.

As foreman of the machine shop, Taylor felt that shop productivity could be greatly increased if  a quantitative understanding of the relation between speeds, feeds, tool geometries, and machining performance can be established and the right combination of cutting parameters are specified by managers and used by machinists. Taylor embarked on a series of methodical experiments to gather the data  necessary to develop this understanding. The experiments continued over a number of years at Midvale and the nearby Bethlehem Steel Works, where he worked jointly with metallurgist Maunsel White. As a result of these experiments, Taylor was able to increase machine shop productivity at Midvale by hundred percent even though in certain individual jobs and machines, productivity increases was as much as a factor of five.  One of Taylor's important practical contributions was his invention of high speed steel, a cutting tool material. The material permitted doubling of cutting speed, which in turn permitted doubling spindle speed for the same diameter of the work and thereby increase in feed which reduced machining time.

Taylor also established that the power required to feed the tool could equal the power required to drive the spindle, especially when worn tools were used. Machine tools of the day were underpowered in the feed direction, and he had to modify all the machines at the Midvale plant to eliminate this flaw. He also demonstrated the value of coolants in metal cutting and fitted his machines with recirculating fluid systems fed from a central pump. Finally, he developed a special slide rule for determining feeds and speeds for various materials.

Taylor summarized his research results in the landmark paper On the Art of Cutting Metals, which was  published in the ASME Transactions in 1907. The results were based on 50,000 cutting tests conducted over a period of 26 years. Taylor's also indicated the  importance of tool temperatures in tool life and developed the famous tool life equation.  His writings clearly indicate that he was most interested in efficiency and economy in his experiments and writings.

Machine tools built after 1900 utilized Taylor's discoveries and inventions. They were designed to run at much higher speeds to take advantage of high speed steel tools. This required the use hardened steel gears, improved bearings and improved bearing lubrication systems. They were fitted with more powerful motors and feed drives and with recirculating coolant systems.

The automotive industry had become the largest market for machine tools by World War I and it has consequently had a great influence on machine tool design. Due to accuracy requirements grinding machines were particularly critical, and a number of specialized machines were developed for specific operations. Engine manufacture also required rapid production of flat surfaces, leading to the development of flat milling and broaching machines in place of  shapers and planers. The development of the automobile also greatly improved gear design and manufacture, and machine tools were soon fitted with quick-change gearing systems.  The automotive industry also encouraged the development of dedicated or single purpose tools. Early examples included crankshaft grinding machines and large gear cutting machines. It led to the development of transfer machine. An in-line transfer machine typically consists of roughly thirty highly specialized tools (or stations) connected by an automated materials handling system for moving parts between stations. The first was  built at Henry Ford's Model T plant in Detroit. . Transfer machines required  very large capital investments but the cost per piece was  lower than for general purpose machines for the  production volumes of  hundreds of thousands required in auto industry.

In the 1930's a German company introduced sintered tungsten carbide cutting tools, first in brazed form and later as a detachable insert. This material is superior to high speed steel for general purpose machining and has become the industry standard.

A great deal of research in metal cutting has been conducted since 1900. A bibliography of work published prior to 1943 was compiled by Boston,  Shaw and King.   The shear plane theory of metal cutting was developed by Ernst and Merchant  and provided a physical understanding of cutting processes which was at least qualitatively accurate for many conditions. Trigger and Chao  and Loewen and Shaw  developed accurate steady-state models for cutting temperatures. A number of researchers studied the dynamic stability of machine tools, which had become an issue as cutting speeds had increased. This resulted in the development of a fairly complete linear theory of machine tool vibrations. Research in all of these areas continues to this day, particularly numerical analysis work made possible by advances in computing. All these discoveries and their implementation in machine tools gives higher productivity in machining.

 One of the most important innovations in machine tools was the introduction of numerical control. Today CNC machine tools are the most used ones.

New tool materials were invented. A variety of ceramics are currently used for cutting tools, especially for hardened or difficult-to-machine work materials.  Ceramic and diamond tools have replaced carbides in a number of high volume applications, especially in the automotive industry.  Carbides (often coated with ceramic layers) have remained the tool of choice for general purpose machining. There has been a proliferation of grades and coatings available for all materials, with each grade containing additives to increase chemical stability in a relatively narrow range of operating conditions. For many work materials cutting speeds are currently limited by spindle and material handling limitations rather than tool material considerations. Dozens of insert shapes with hundreds of integral chip breaking patterns are available now.

Chapter 13. Machining Economics and Optimization 

in Metal Cutting Theory and Practice - Stephenson - Agapiou, 2nd Edition

Economic Considerations are important in designing the  machining process of a component. Each operation done on a machine involved number of decisions. There is more than one approach for doing an operation and each approach will have as associated machining time, part quality and cost of machining. An effective and efficient methodology is to be employed to attain the specified quality of the operation with the least cost.

The machining cost of an operation on a component is made of several components. They include machine cost, tool cost, tool change cost (includes set up), handling cost, coolant cost etc. Some of these costs  vary significantly with the cutting speed is different directions. At a certain cutting speed we get the minimum cost and at certain other cutting speed we get the least machining time. There is a need to calculate these minimum point cutting speeds for each work material, tool material and machine tool combinations. F.W. Taylor developed slide rules for this purpose. Now those slide rules are not in place, but machining handbooks and machine tool/cutting tool manufacturers provide guidance. Process planners and industrial engineers need to do the required calculations depending on the trial production within their plans.

Time Estimates Required

Total Production Time for an Operation, TTO =

Tm + (Tm/Tl)Tlul + Tcs + Te + Tr + Tp + Ta + Td + Tx)


TTO = Total Production Time for an Operation
Tm = Cutting time
Tl = Tool life
Tlul = Tool unloading and time
Tcs = Tool interchange time
Te = Magazine travelling time
Tr = Approach time
Tp = Table index time
Ta = Acceleration time
Td = Deceleration time
Tx = Tool rapid travel time

Time study used for machine work study has to determine these time times from formulas as well as time study observations for the existing way and proposed way to validate the time reduced by the operation analysis based on operation study and time data.

Constraints for Minimizing the Machining Time - Cost

Allowable maximum cutting force, cutting temperature, depth of cut, spindle speed, feed, machine power, vibration and chatter limits, and party quality requirement.

Industrial engineers must have knowledge of maximum permissible depth of cut. feed and cutting speed.

Industrial engineers have to monitor research and continuously update their understanding of limit to the constraints. Developments in engineering and industrial engineering keep increasing the quantity of limits in favor of more productivity.

The cutting parameters of various work materials will be covered in  Machinability of Metals - Machine Work Study Topic

Related Articles

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Developments in Manufacturing Processes for Operation Analysis - Value Engineering - Product/Process Industrial Engineering

Manufacturing Processes - Book Information and Important Points - Under Collection

Updated on 30 July 2021,  2 April 2020
26 March 2020

Thursday, July 29, 2021

The Evolution of a Manufacturing System at Toyota - Takahiro Fujimoto - Book Information

 The Evolution of a Manufacturing System at Toyota

Takahiro Fujimoto

Oxford University Press, 12-Aug-1999 - Business & Economics - 400 pages

What is the true source of a firm's long-term competitive advantage in manufacturing? 

Through original field studies, historical research, and statistical analyses, this book shows how Toyota Motor Corporation, one of the world's largest automobile companies, built distinctive capabilities in production, product development, and supplier management. Fujimoto asserts that it is Toyota's evolutionary learning capability that gives the company its advantage and demonstrates how this learning is put to use in daily work.

IIIE India Graduates Salary Information


Indian Institution of industrial Engineering Salaries

Based on 52 verified profiles

Average salary of a senior employee who graduated from Indian Institution of industrial Engineering is ₹19.1lakhs.

Employees who graduated from Indian Institution of industrial Engineering and working after 10 years of experience are earning an average of ₹19.1lakhs, mostly ranging from ₹10.0lakhs to ₹41.5lakhs based on 52 profiles.

Toyota TPS - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Information for IE - Case 59 - Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course.

Toyota production system (TPS) evolved out of Toyota-style Industrial Engineering.

The two eminent persons directly involved in development of TPS - Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo made this statement in their books. Taiichi Ohno first authored a book on TPS for disseminating the concept and practices of TPS to other companies in Japan. Then using that book as the source material and foundation, Shigeo Shingo explained the role of industrial engineering in the development of TPS. Industrial engineers have to read Shingo's book to understand the important role industrial engineering philosophy and methods played in the emergence of work class manufacturing system of that period. Read about birth of TPS in an interview of Taiichi Ohno - How it all began - Taiichi Ohno.

Toyota uses all four. It is a pioneer in JIT.  Workplace organization includes Jidoka and JIT. Jidoka is concerned with developing excellent machine - man system. JIT is concerned with eliminating the waste or cost of work-in-progress or process (WIP) inventories.

Industrial Engineering - Productivity Improvement - Process Improvement - Product Redesign - Continuous Improvement

Industrial engineering is improvement in various elements of engineering operations to increase productivity. Along with engineering elements, industrial engineers evaluate and improve many other elements also as they are responsible for productivity and cost of items produced in a process. Through assignments of improving productivity and efficiency of information technology and software engineering processes, industrial engineers specializing in IT were given responsibility for business processes also. Thus industrial engineers with focus on various branches of engineering provide their services to companies and society to improve various elements of the products and processes on a continuous basis over the product life cycle. They are active in engineering or production-maintenance-service-logistic processes and business processes.

Productivity improvement always focuses on quality and flexibility issues as productivity improvement should not lead to any deterioration in quality or flexibility. Delivery and cost are always at the core of industrial engineering. Thus when QFCD paradigm came, that is attention to quality, flexibility, cost and delivery became prominent, many industrial engineers were given the responsibility of managing this function of continuous improvement.



Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering - Brief Explanation

Productivity Science: Science developed for each element of machine operation and each element of human tasks in industry.
Productivity Science - Determinants of Productivity

Product Industrial Engineering: Redesign of products to reduce cost and increase value keeping the quality intact.
Product Industrial Engineering

Process Industrial Engineering: Redesign of processes to reduce cost and increase value keeping the quality intact.
Process Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering Optimization: Optimizing industrial engineering solutions created in Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering.
Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Industrial Engineering Statistics: Using statistical tools like data description, sampling and design of experiments in industrial engineering activity.
Statistics and Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering Economics: Economic analysis of industrial engineering projects.
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Human Effort Industrial Engineering: Redesign of products and processes to increase satisfaction and reduce discomfort and other negative consequence to operators.
Motion Study - Human Effort Industrial Engineering

Productivity Measurement: Various measurements done by industrial engineers in industrial setting to collect data, analyze data and use the insights in redesign: Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering.
Industrial Engineering Data and Measurements

Productivity Management: Management undertaken by industrial engineers to implement Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering. Management processes industrial engineering is also part of productivity management.
Productivity Management

Applied Industrial Engineering: Application of industrial engineering in new technologies, existing technologies, engineering business and industrial processes and other areas.
Applied Industrial Engineering - Process Steps

How many Industrial Engineers can a Company Employ for Cost Reduction?

For $100 million cost, there can be one MS IE and 6 BSIEs.

Industrial Engineering - Lean Manufacturing - Parent - Child Relationship

Toyota Motors - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Toyota Motors is the pioneer in JIT. Just in Time production that eliminates long term storage and short term delays in flow.

Toyota Motors enriched industrial engineering immensely. ASME standardized the process flow chart with two categories focusing on temporary delays on the shop floor and storage in stores or warehouses. It is the Toyota executives who reasoned that these two stages are costing money, but not adding any special value to the transformation of input materials into required product. They focused on this aspect to develop a flow production system that does not require inventory in the store or on the shop floor. Their quest led them to make improvements in the basic transformation operation/process, inspection operation, and material handling/transport operation. The improvements made to these three steps in process flow chart gave a competitive edge to Japanese production systems and they are appreciated with the term "World Class Manufacturing."

Toyota reports its cost improvement activities in its annual reports and investor presentations. Shigeo Shingo explained the role of industrial engineering in Toyota Motors and Toyota Production System in a book.

Industrial engineering is profit engineering - Taiichi Ohno

Development of Toyota’s unique IE-based kaizen method (T. Ohno, Toyota Production System, p. 71):

“IE [industrial engineering] is a system and the Toyota production system may be regarded as Toyota-style IE… Unless IE results in cost reductions and profit increases, I think it is meaningless.”

2018-19 Annual Report Presentation
TPS/Cost Reduction
Cost Reduction Efforts:  +80
Decrease in Expenses:   -165

Labor Costs -45.0
Depreciation -20.0
R&D Expenses +15.0
Other Expenses, etc. -115.0

Latest article on TPS

Ishigame K. (2020) Enhancing Learning Through Continuous Improvement: Case Studies of the Toyota Production System in the Automotive Industry in South Africa. In: Hosono A., Page J., Shimada G. (eds) Workers, Managers, Productivity. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore

Steps in Assistance to Suppliers
[1st Stage: 5S and Understanding Current Conditions]
1. Understanding material and information flows - Transport, delays and storage in Process flow chart.
Understanding production systems - Operations of machines, men and maintenance of machines
Finding problems and outstanding issues
2. Thorough 5S
3. First in, first out (FIFO)

[2nd Stage: Making Production Management Tool]
1. Prepare operation standards

  • Operation manuals  - Process - Machine operation, man operation
  • Quality check standards - Inspection operation
  • Machine maintenance manuals 

2. Prepare abnormality management tools

  • Operator placement map - Record abnormalities - Improve
  • Production performance board - Record abnormalities - Improve
  • Defect parts control  - Record abnormalities - Improve

3.Prepare key performance indicators (KPI)

[3rd Stage: Kaizen Activity]
Focus on improving

1. One-piece flow, SEIRYUKA (rectification of production flow)
2. Pull system, Fill-up system (Kanban system)
3. Heijunka production
4. Standardized work - Improvement of operations included in operation manual
5. Motion Kaizen, multi-skilled operator - Improvement in man's operations

Taiichi Ohno on Industrial Engineering - Toyota Style Industrial Engineering

A Study of the Toyota Production System from an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint - Shigeo Shingo

Shigeo Shingo - Toyota Production System (TPS) - Industrial Engineering Principles and Practices

Toyota Production System - Use of  Industrial Engineering Principles and Methods - Shigeo Shingo



Toyota’s new $80 million engineering center in Kentucky
OCTOBER 30, 2017
Lexington Herald-Leader
100 Midland Avenue
Lexington, KY 40508-1999

Toyota -  Industrial Engineers

Petro Nkosi
Industrial Engineer at Toyota South Africa
Johannesburg Area, South Africa

Mohale Mashatola
Senior industrial engineer at Toyota motor manufacuring South Africa
Durban Area, South Africa

Thifhelimbil Victor
Junior industrial Engineer at Toyota South Africa
Johannesburg Area, South Africa

Industrial engineer at Toyota SA Motors
Durban Area, South Africa

Lucky Velile Mhlongo
Industrial Engineer at Toyota Motor Manufacturing South Africa
Johannesburg Area, South Africa

Salisha Naidoo
Industrial Engineer, Business Process Analyst at Toyota Industrial Equipment
Johannesburg Area, South Africa

Mariz Bicongco
Industrial Engineer at Toyota Motor Philippines Corporation
Laguna, Calabarzon, Philippines

Akpo A.
Industrial Engineer at Toyota Motor North America
Plano, Texas

Janelle Bedessy
Human Resources Business Partner at Toyota South Africa (Industrial Engineering and Post Grad BA Degree)
Durban Area, South Africa

Kwanele Buthelezi
Industrial Engineer at Toyota SA
Durban Area, South Africa

João Ferreira
Toyota Caetano Portugal, S.A.
Company Name: Toyota Caetano Portugal, S.A
Industrial Engineer
Porto Area, Portugal

09/02/2009 08:58
Author 3744  Ronald Turkett
Fujio Cho, Toyota's Chairman, noted that TPS was applied industrial engineering and common sense. For many years I have thought about his comments at the Georgetown, KY site and it still makes sense today. As an adjunct faculty member at the U of Michigan department of IOE I taught TPS in a class called Manufacturing Strategies.

Toyota Industrial Engineering Job Advertisements

Industrial Engineer

Toyota Bacoor Cavite, Inc.

Posted August 14, 2020

Job Description

The Job Controller’s / Industrial Engineer's general responsibility is to assist the foreman in the job loading and monitoring of technicians.
Functional Description of Position Responsibility:
Assist the foreman in updating and monitoring of the job with the use of the Job Progress Control Board,
Under a computerized set-up, the Job Coordinator also functions as the data encoder on the computer,
Updates the Daily Work Control Sheet, where the units received are logged and,
Accomplishes reports related to workshop operations
Determine daily available manpower capacity based on the total hours of the available Technicians
Record all repair orders onto dispatch log and determine the repair time required.
Distribute repair orders to the most appropriately skilled technician based on priority and completion time
Distribute repair orders with expected job completion time
Monitor and follow-up on work progress for each technician to insure completion on time
Indicate and record the incidences and cause of job stoppages
Record number of and causes of repeat repairs
Record number of and causes of carry overs
Prioritize waiting customers, repeat repairs and carry over work
Keep Service Advisors inform when no more work can be taken base on available hours.
Maintain accurate time keeping records by ensuring all technicians clock on and off all repair orders and day cards
Keep Service Advisors informed of job delays and any additional work required
Control the distribution of all sublet repairs
Coordinate with the parts department in preparing parts for the next repair orders to be worked
Efficient distribution of all repair orders
Authorized to dispute and monitor all repair work to the Technicians
Works in cooperation with the Foreman and Service Advisors to ensure full utilization of department capacity
Minimum Qualifications
Candidate must be a graduate of Industrial Engineering


Hiring Company
Toyota Bacoor Cavite, Inc.
Toyota Bacoor Cavite, Inc. was established on January 21, 2015 as a franchised dealer of automobile products and services distributed by Toyota Motor Philippines Corporation.

Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada  (Accepting applications on 14 December 2020)

Engineering Analyst
Title: Engineering Analyst
ID: 1029B
Employment Group: Engineering
Location: Cambridge and Woodstock, ON

Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada is committed to providing accommodations for applicants with disabilities; please advise us if you require an accommodation during the recruitment process.
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada (TMMC) is a world-class automotive facility with manufacturing plants located in Cambridge and Woodstock, Ontario. Our plants currently manufacture the best-selling Toyota RAV4, RAV4 Hybrid and the Lexus RX 350 and RX 450h vehicles, and will also soon be building the popular Lexus NX and Lexus NX Hybrid models. Recognized year after year on the global stage for manufacturing quality by our customers, we are also recognized as one of Canada’s Top 100 Employers.

The world famous Toyota Production System, a philosophy of continuous improvement and on-going training, enables each Team Member to work towards their highest potential. The success of our company stems from hiring results-driven, self-motivated individuals, with the ability to work together to achieve team goals.

To promote a comfortable, safe and productive work environment, as well as to comply with all federal, provincial and/or local laws, TMMC is a smoke free property.

What we Offer:
Competitive salary, shift premiums and over-time pay rates, on top of base rate.
Exceptional Total Rewards Package
Training, development, and growth opportunities
Tuition Reimbursement Program
Free onsite fitness facility
Employee and family vehicle discounts
Social and team sport events 
Full service cafeterias including Tim Horton’s and Panago
Positions Available:
We are looking for Junior, Intermediate and Senior level Engineers candidates for multiple Engineering openings within various shops in our plants: Weld, Press, Assembly, and Paint/Plastics.

Overview of Engineering at TMMC:
Application of the Toyota Production System (TPS) to resolve production issues and help production achieve KPIs
Hands-on problem solving and critical thinking
Provide Technical Leadership for Project Management & Implementation
Use of engineering tools for Root Cause Analysis
Focus on Continuous Improvement
Work and collaborate with cross functional groups (quality, production, maintenance, contractors, suppliers, and management) 
Lead and perform root cause analysis on production, engineering, equipment and maintenance issues
Lead daily troubleshooting activities, provide solutions and support for process concerns or improvement
Coordinate and implement quality control objectives, activities and procedures to resolve production problems, maximize reliability and minimize costs
Perform Kaizen projects to improve safety, quality, productivity, efficiency and cost
Automation troubleshooting, new equipment installation and modifications
Process equipment evaluation, specifications, procurement and implementation
Ensure equipment and systems comply with relevant standards and legislation to ensure equipment safety and compliance
Co-ordination of external skilled trades / supplier /activities
Budget setting, forecasting and control
Desired Skills and Experience:
Engineering Degree. Mechanical, Manufacturing, Mechatronics, Electrical, Industrial backgrounds considered, P. Eng eligible
Minimum of 1 - 3 years of experience (co-op experience considered)
High volume manufacturing environment
Multi-disciplinary experience in process or equipment engineering
Experience in assembly plant manufacturing (automotive preferred)
Emphasis on manufacturing process and equipment
Automation experience is an asset
Knowledge and experience in the application of SPC (Statistical Process Control)
Technical experience/knowledge of torque control, production line control systems
Strong data analysis experience required
Must be proficient with MS Office, AutoCAD, 3D imaging software – SolidWorks or CATIA preferred and SAP is an asset
Excellent verbal and written communication skills
Strong leadership and technical skills
TMMC is an equal opportunity employer committed to building a diverse workforce. We believe in enabling people of different ages, sexes, sexual orientations, gender identities, gender expressions, colours, races, ancestries, citizenships, ethnic origins, places of origin, and creeds to work together and realize their full potential. TMMC is committed to compliance with all applicable legislation including providing accommodation for applicants with disabilities. Please advise us at any point during the recruitment and selection process if you require accommodation.

Updated on 29 July 2021,  14.12.2020,  15 July 2020
23 April 2020