Monday, October 18, 2021

Seven Wastes Model and Flow Process Chart - Industrial Engineering



Seven Wastes - Taiichi Ohno - page 19 - Toyota Production System


   Waste                          -                   Method

Waste of overproduction - One cannot produce without a production Kanban

Waste of time on hand (waiting)  - Multiple machines to an operator, all producing as per tact time.

Waste in transportation - Machines in line or flow placed close together

Waste of processing itself - Standardized Methods (plan the process well - process planning)

Waste of stock on hand (inventories) - JIT system - low inventory

Waste of movement (of workers) - Machine layout changes so that an operator handling multiple machines does not waste movement. Can there be control unit for all the machines at one place only?

Waste of making defective products - Problem solving approach to produce zero defects. 5 Why approach to find where the problem or defect occurred in the earliest stage. Educating and training operators by other team members and management.



Seven Waste Model is also expressed as TIMWOOD

T – Transport – Movement of material, people
I – Inventory – Stock of materials, parts, and finished items
M – Motion – movement of hands and other body parts in operating machines of hand tools
W – Waiting – Men and machines waiting for parts or instructions
O – Over production – Making more than is IMMEDIATELY required
O – Over processing – Tighter tolerances or higher grade materials than are necessary
D – Defects – Items scrapped and rework


Compare the seven waste model with flow process chart


Flow process chart recommends recording and examining 5 items.

Process -   will examine  1.Waste of processing itself,  2. Waste of overproduction

Inspection -  3. Waste of making defective products  - The inspection is only shown as a stage in flow process chart, It needs to be augmented with a record of defects or defectives found during inspection.

Transport - 4. Waste in transportation, 5. Waste of movement (of workers)

Temporary delay - 6. Waste of time on hand (waiting)

Permanent storage - 7. Waste of stock on hand (inventories)

Thus we can see, flow process charts has provided the foundation for analyzing the seven wastes proposed by Taiichi Ohno.

But subsequent persons have indicated Eighth Waste.

Wastage of physical and mental skills of people.

Alan Mogensen identfied this gap in industrial engineering theory and introduced work simplication workshops to involve operators and supervisors in productivity improvement. Subsequently, suggestions scheme became popular. Japanese managers brought more improvements and made operators given large number of suggestions and provided forums for participation.

Please think over this statement of Taylor.

Respect for People - F.W.Taylor -  The Principles of Scientific Management.
Under scientific management the "initiative" of the workmen (their ingenuity) is obtained ...  to a greater extent than is possible under the old system; and in addition to this improvement on the part of the men, the managers assume ... new duties. 



Narayana Rao proposed Ninth waste.

9th Waste - Wastage of Machine Potential, Capability and Power - Wasting Machine's Potential Productivity

Industrial engineering has ignored wastage of potential of machines and equipment even though Taylor has advocated right from his piece rate system paper that for productivity improvement both machine and man are to be analyzed and improved.

Wastage of potential of the machine is recognized in the OEE calculation. Still IEs are yet to develop the area.

9th Waste - Wasting Machine's Potential Productivity -- Elimination - Essential Industrial Engineering Activity


Bibliography

Seven Wastes
http://accountability.wa.gov/leadership/lean/documents/2012_Lean_Conference/Thinking_Tools_Techniques/24/The%207%20Wastes.pdf

Seven Wastes Tool
http://www.gcu.ac.uk/media/gcalwebv2/theuniversity/supportservices/pace/documents/Seven%20Wastes.pdf

Lean for Government: Eliminating the seven wastes
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120016881

Lean in Government
http://www.epa.gov/lean/government/

Seven Wastes in Preventive Maintenanee Programs
http://www.techcorr.com/news/Articles/Article.cfm?ID=2450


Updated 18.10.2021, 23 August 2017, 15 November 2013


THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT - F.W.Taylor

Original Writing of Taylor

The Principles of Scientific Management


Under scientific management the "initiative" of the workmen (that is, their hard work, their good-will, and their ingenuity) is obtained with absolute uniformity and to a greater extent than is possible under the old system; and in addition to this improvement on the part of the men, the managers assume new burdens, new duties, and responsibilities never dreamed of in the past. The managers assume, for instance, the burden of gathering together all of the traditional knowledge which in the past has been possessed by the workmen and then of classifying, tabulating, and reducing this knowledge to rules, laws, and formulae which are immensely helpful to the workmen in doing their daily work. In addition to developing a science in this way, the management take on three other types of duties which involve new and heavy burdens for themselves.

These new duties are grouped under four heads:

First. They develop a science for each element of a man's work, which replaces the old rule-of.-thumb method.

Second. They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could.

Third. They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed.

Fourth. There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen,
while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men.

It is this combination of the initiative of the workmen, coupled with the new types of work done by the management, that makes scientific management so much more efficient than the old plan.

Three of these elements exist in many cases, under the management of "initiative and incentive," in a small and rudimentary way, but they are, under this management, of minor importance, whereas under scientific management they form the very essence of the whole system.

The fourth of these elements, "an almost equal division of the responsibility between the management and the workmen," requires further explanation. The philosophy of the management of initiative and incentive makes it necessary for each workman to bear almost the entire responsibility for the general plan as well as for each detail of his work, and in many cases for his implements as well. In addition to this he must do all of the actual physical labor. The development of a science, on the other hand, involves the establishment of many rules, laws, and formulae which replace the judgment of the individual workman and which can be effectively used only after having been systematically recorded, indexed, etc. The practical use of scientific data also calls for a room in which to keep the books, records*, etc., and a desk for the planner to work at.



Thus all of the planning which under the old system was done by the workman, as a result of his personal experience, must of necessity under the new system be done by the management in accordance with the laws of the science; because even if the workman was well suited to the development and use of scientific data, it would be physically impossible for him to work at his machine and at a desk at the same time. It is also clear that in most cases one type of man is needed to plan ahead and an entirely different type to execute the work.

The man in the planning room, whose specialty under scientific management is planning ahead, invariably finds that the work can be done better and more economically by a subdivision of the labor; each act of each mechanic, for example, should be preceded by various preparatory acts done by other men. And all of this involves, as we have said, "an almost equal division of the responsibility and the work between the management and the workman."

To summarize: Under the management of "initiative and incentive" practically the whole problem is "up to the workman," while under scientific management fully one-half of the problem is "up to the management."

Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scientific management is the task idea. The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance, and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions, describing in detail the task which he is to accomplish, as well as the means to be used in doing the work. And the work planned in advance in this way constitutes a task which is to be solved, as explained above, not by the workman  alone,   but in almost all cases by the joint effort of the workman and the management. This task specifies not only what is to be done but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. And whenever the workman succeeds in doing his task right, and within the time limit specified, he receives an addition of from 30 per cent to 100 per cent to his ordinary wages. These tasks are carefully planned, so that both good and careful work are called for in their performance, but it should be distinctly understood that in no case is the workman called upon to work at a pace which would be injurious to his health. The task is always so regulated that the man who is well suited to his job will thrive while working at this rate during a long term of years and grow happier and more prosperous, instead of being overworked. Scientific management consists very largely in preparing for and carrying out these tasks.

The writer is fully aware that to perhaps most of the readers of this paper the four elements which differentiate the new management from the old will at first appear to be merely high-sounding phrases; and he would again repeat that he has no idea of convincing the reader of their value merely through announcing their existence. His hope of carrying conviction rests upon demonstrating the tremendous force and effect of these four elements through a series of practical illustrations. It will be shown, first, that they can be applied absolutely to all classes of work, from the most elementary to the most intricate; and second, that when they are applied, the results must of necessity be overwhelmingly greater than those which it is possible to attain under the management of initiative and incentive.

[*Footnote: For example, the records containing the data used under scientific management in an ordinary machine-shop fill thousands of pages.]


F.W. Taylor, Scientific Management

All Chapters
F.W. Taylor Scientific Management - With Appropriate Sections

Next Chapter
Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - - Pig Iron Handling

Industrial Engineering


Industrial engineering discipline was started to implement scientific shop management advocated by Taylor in engineering organizations. It has to be highlighted that much before scientific management, Taylor published a paper on productivity improvement and advocated the starting of a section termed "elementary rate fixing department." This department is given the responsibility of productivity improvement of machines and men and specifying the output possible per hour or day. This department only became industrial engineering department in later years. Taylor worked in the area of machine shop and then as chief engineering of the entire production establishment. Taylor's work is originally presented in ASME conferences. Hence application of IE in mechanical engineering took the lead. But in later years, other branches of engineering also got involved into industrial engineering. 

Prof. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao, developed principles of industrial engineering from principles of scientific management in basic form in 2016 and in detailed form in 2017. The detailed list of principles was presented in the international conference of IISE on 23 May 2017 at Pittsburgh, USA.

Principles of Industrial Engineering


Developed from Principles of Scientific Management


1. Develop science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.
2. Engineer methods, processes and operations to use the laws related to the work of machines, man, materials and other resources.
3. Select or assign workmen based on predefined aptitudes for various types of man - machine work.
4. Train workmen, supervisors, and engineers in the new methods and ensure that expected productivity is achieved in the process.
5. Incorporate suggestions of operators, supervisors and engineers in the methods redesign on a continuous basis.
6. Plan and manage productivity at system level.
(The above subsection - principles of industrial engineering was added on 4 June 2016. Principles developed by Narayana Rao)


Presentation in the International Conference of IISE on 23 May 2017 at Pittsburgh, USA

_________________


_________________

Updated 18.10.2021,  2 July 2017, 4 July 2016

Sunday, October 17, 2021

Fundamentals of Industrial Engineering

Ubiquity of Industrial Engineering Principle of  Industrial Engineering

Illustration: Google's  Engineering Productivity Department - Evolution of the Department through Automation of Testing. Emergence of Software Engineering Productivity Engineer & Specialist. 



Review of the 

Chapter 1.5 Fundamentals of Industrial Engineering 

in Maynard's Handbook of Industrial Enginering, 5th Edition. List of all chapters of the book is available in:
This chapter was written by Philip E. Hicks.


The theoretical basis of industrial engineering is a science of operations. 

To successfully use this science in most applications one must simultaneously consider at least three criteria: (1) quality, (2) timeliness, and (3) cost. 

Almost always, the goal of industrial engineering is to ensure that goods and services are
being produced or provided at the right quality at the right time at the right cost. Effectiveness of a process has to be ensured first. Then industrial engineering that is efficiency improvement can be undertaken.

A practicing industrial engineer has to effectively use “soft” (management) as well as “hard” science (science and engineering). In the final analysis, the industrial engineer’s job is to make both new and existing operations perform well (Effectively and Efficiently).

Industrial engineering techniques have to deal with physical entities (e.g., equipment, buildings, tools) as well as informational entities (e.g., time, space) for an operation, employing what can be thought of as hard science. Management-related factors in the workplace that determine the motivation level of an employee to perform his or her assigned duties well, or actively participate in operational improvement over time, represent the soft science of industrial engineering. 
 

Efficient production system design and efficiency improvement of production systems is the aim of industrial engineering. This fact is brought out by Hicks in the following statement.

A production system is essentially the sum of its individual operations. 


Therefore, it follows that if one wants a production system to be efficient then its individual operations must be efficient. Working from a bottom-up micro perspective, one approach is to simply review all individual operations to make them the best they can be.  One reason such an approach offers considerable opportunity for improvement today is that it has been often overlooked while the search for the single “silver bullet” macro solution occurs in the front office or the boardroom. In many firms today individual workstation cycle times can be reduced by one-third to one-half of their present average cycle times by implementing a short list of modest improvements in these workstations.

Hicks has given following areas as fundamental areas of industrial engineering

OPERATIONS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
OPERATIONS CONTROL
OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

OPERATIONS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (Process planning and improvement)

He described the following activities

Methods Engineering - Making individual operations efficient. Machine effort has to be efficient. Human effort has to be efficient.

MAYNARD's MACHINE EFFORT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING  - Machine Work Study - Operation Analysis.
Lesson  33. - Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course 

H.B. Maynard - HUMAN EFFORT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING -  Introduction

Material Handling - Once again Machine effort - Human effort

Work Measurement - Measurement of machine work time (calculation using formulae) - Human work time (stop watch time study, PMTS (Most, MTM, Modapts)

Ergonomics - Human effort - Effects on comfort, fatigue, health

Facilities Planning and Design - to minimize transportation of material, movement of people

Simulation

Jidoka is the name given to this activity in Toyota Production System (Improvement of Facilities and Processes).


OPERATIONS CONTROL (Quantity Planning)

He described the following activities

Production
Just-in-Time
Inventory Control
Quality Control

JIT is the name given to this activity in Toyota Production System (Improvement of flow. Reduction of batch quantities and delays.)

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (Organization Structure and Practices)

He described the following activities

Team Based
Continuous Improvement


Operations management has evolved as an independent subject area within the discipline of business management and industrial management. Operations control is a sub-area within operations management.

Industrial engineering has to focus on two areas as its specialty – Human effort engineering and System efficiency engineering. By inserting the term efficiency and writing the first area as OPERATIONS EFFICIENY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN will be make it more clear to the practitioners as well as users the role of industrial engineers. Work measurement is an exclusive area of industrial engineering and we need to recognize that in methods engineering once again functional engineering of the method belongs to production engineers and only human effort and efficiency engineering are the areas of industrial engineering. Ergonomics is the science used by industrial engineering in human effort engineering.

Productivity science, productivity engineering and productivity management are the unique areas of specialization and focus of industrial engineering in the operations science, engineering, flow and management.

Conclusion by Hicks

As this handbook clearly demonstrates, there are numerous tools available both to practicing industrial engineers and anyone else interested in applying industrial engineering techniques and methods.  The concepts of industrial engineering as contained in this handbook, are based on sound principles and  provide a solid basis for both effective problem solving and operational improvement.

Those in our society who are responsible for operational  improvement should be making full use of the many industrial engineering capabilities that exist today. Most operational improvement effort should be performed in a participative environment using employees at all levels in an organization—with industrial engineers guiding their efforts (The knowledge of industrial engineers has to be combined with that of knowledge of all others in the organization). 

The improvement potential in the  existing operations of many organizations is enormous. 

I have to highlight that in manufacturing strategy and operations strategy, improvement is an important task and industrial engineers have to contribute significantly in this task of productivity improvement (cost and time).



A book by Hicks

1. Hicks, Philip E., Industrial Engineering and Management: A New Perspective, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994. (book)
Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/ fundamentals-of-industrial-engineering/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 1116


Updated  17 Oct 2021, 17 July 2021
Pub 20 March 2012

Supply Chain Efficiency - Supply Chain Waste Elimination - Lean Supply Chain



____________________


____________________




Supply Chain Efficiency - Supply Chain Waste Elimination -


Supply chain efficiency framework to improve business performance in a competitive era
Saurav Negi 

Abstract
Purpose
The main aim of this paper is to develop a supply chain efficiency framework to improve overall business performance in the competitive era. This paper offers a critical literature review on supply chain efficiency that aims to reveal the basic research that has been carried out, the problem areas and requirements for the efficiency in the new era of the supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach
The methodology followed during this research involves beginning with a wide base of articles lying at the supply chain intersection, performance measurement topics, and then screening the list to concentrate on supply chain efficiency.

Findings
Findings show that supply chain efficiency in the modern era remains an open research field. This research contributes to the supply chain literature by clarifying the supply chain efficiency definition, defining key measurements and variables for supply chain efficiency and developing a supply chain efficiency framework to improve overall performance.

Management Research Review
Volume 44 Issue 3, 2021



Defining supply chain efficiency


Labs (2010):
Supply chain efficiency must ensure that it upholds the promise to the customer while eliminating
non-value-add or waste in the process. Supply chain efficiency, therefore, is the measure of getting
the right quality product to the right place at the right time at the least cost.

Stephen Halula, CDC Software’s manager-supply chain consulting

Providing the right product in the right quantity to a customer when desired, at a fair price with a
fair margin, adapting to market changes, remaining flexible enough to accommodate problems as
they are encountered, and providing adequate information to all parties (customer, management,
manufacturing).

Jim Stollberg, VP Strategy and Business Development, HK Systems:
 “Supply chain efficiency must ensure that it upholds the promise to the customer while eliminating nonvalue-add or waste in the process”.

Pettersson (2008) 
“The most efficient supply chain has the lowest possible cost and at the same time meets the customer’s expectations on service like delivery precision and lead time.” 

Collin (2003)  “Success of supply chains are composed of customer service, Capital employed, Total cost.” 

Beamon (1999)

“Efficiency is the measure of how well the resources are utilized.” 

Christopher (1998) “The future market leaders will be the ones that have achieved cost and
service leadership.” 

Dornier (1998) , “The overall objective of any logistics system is to maximize profitability.” 

Bowersox and Closs (1996) “the relationship between customer services level and the cost is important.” 


Supply chain efficiency has to be defined for a given service level. Effectiveness is the first performance dimension for any managerial activity. The performance level has to satisfy the customers of a target segment of a product or service. Then the efficiency dimension related to resource usage comes. If the effectiveness is not there, then sales will not happen in the target segment, the activity is a complete waste. If effectiveness is there, then efficiency engineers, industrial engineers can make efforts to redesign engineering elements to increase efficiency without affecting the current effectiveness.



2020

Cutting costs top operational challenge for manufacturers
Will Green, News editor of Supply Management
31 July 2020

The rising cost of raw materials and components is the main economic challenge for manufacturers in the UK. A report by consultants Delaware said a survey showed a third of firms (33%) identified rising costs as the key challenge, followed by the rising cost of shipping goods (22%). The survey found a quarter (26%) of firms said reducing operating costs was among the top operational challenges they faced in their supply chain, followed by getting products or services to market quicker (22%) and improving product quality (21%). The research took place in January and February, ahead of the full coronavirus pandemic. 

Supply chain challenges - cost reduction remains a high priority

We recently surveyed companies who advised that in both the current time frame and the five-year outlook, the key focus is cost reduction.


The supply chain has a disproportionate influence on product profitability, since sourcing options, handling characteristics and customer behaviours all build to erode gross margin, yielding a far lower net margin than expected. Often the real drivers of cost in the supply chain are not really visible, and true costs not considered within commercial pricing decisions.



Coordinating a Supply Chain When Manufacturer Makes Cost Reduction Investment in Supplier
Shilei Huang, Hong Fu, and Yongkai Ma
School of Management and Economics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 611731, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Hong Fu; hongfu (at) uestc.edu.cn
Accepted 11 May 2016
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, Volume 2016, Article ID 4762397, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4762397


Posted in 2012

Supply Chain Efficiency - Concept and Measures


Exploring Efficiency and Effectiveness in the Supply Chain - Conceptual Analysis
http://impgroup.org/uploads/papers/4670.pdf

Measurement of Efficiency in a Supply Chain'
Doctoral Thesis
http://pure.ltu.se/portal/files/2331159/LTU-LIC-0851-SE.pdf


Supply Chain Responsiveness and Efficiency – Complementing or Contradicting Each Other?
http://www.systemdynamics.org/conferences/2006/proceed/papers/MINNI308.pdf

Measuring Supply Chain Efficiency - DEA Approach
Indian Pharma Industry - 2012 paper
http://www.joscm.com.br/download/JOSCM_VOL5_NUMBER1_4.pdf



Ilsuk Kim, Hokey Min, (2011) "Measuring supply chain efficiency from a green perspective", Management Research Review, Vol. 34 Iss: 11, pp.1169 - 1189
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1959373

Measuring Supply Chain Efficiency and Congestion - DEA approach - Shipping
2003
http://www.engineeringletters.com/issues_v18/issue_4/EL_18_4_08.pdf

How SCOR Model Enhances Global Supply Chain Efficiency and Effectiveness
http://ihome.ust.hk/~al_mtm/files/How_SCOR_Model_Enhance_Global_Supply_Chain_Efficiency_Effectiveness.pdf

An Approach towards Overall Supply Chain Efficiency - MS Thesis 2002
https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/2360/1/gbs_thesis_2002_29.pdf

Lean Supply Chain

Lean supply chain. The aim is to reduce the total cost of the supply chain-removing waste and creating the most value for the customer.


Improving Supply Chain Efficiency


Combining Lean and Agile Supply Chain - 2011 Paper
http://www.academicjournals.org/ajbm/PDF/pdf2011/4Sept/Banihashemi.pdf

Supply Chain Cost Reduction - Book by Amacom
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/11/supply-chain-cost-reduction.html

Lean Supply Chain - Concept, Development and Design


Lean Thinking for the Supply Chain
Tompkins
http://www.tompkinsinc.com/article/2004/lean-thinking-supply-chain/

Seven Steps to Building a Lean Supply Chain
Mandyam M. Srinivasan
Mandyam M. Srinivasan is The Ball Corporation Distinguished Professor of Business at the University of Tennessee. He is the author of the book, Streamlined: 14 Principles for Building and Managing the Lean Supply Chain.
http://www.industryweek.com/planning-amp-forecasting/goal-lean-supply-chain


From Lean Manufacturing to Lean Supply Chain: A Foundation for Change
2004 Paper by Lawson, USA
http://swe.lawson.com/www/resource.nsf/pub/Lawson_Whitepaper_2_A4_LowRes.pdf/$FILE/Lawson_Whitepaper_2_A4_LowRes.pdf

Understanding the Lean Supply Chain - Beginning the Journey
2005 Report on Lean Practices in  Supply Chain
APICS - ORACLE - Georgia Southern University
http://coba.georgiasouthern.edu/centers/lit/oracle_WP_supply_chain_r6.pdf


Lean practices in the supply Chain - 2008 Survey
Jones Long LaSalle Report - with participation of APICS, Georgia Tech, and Supply Chain Visions
http://www.joneslanglasalle.com/Documents/JLL-LeanPracticesInSupplyChain.pdf


Lean in Supply Chain Planning  - 2011 Report
Cap Gemini
http://www.capgemini.com/m/en/tl/Lean_in_Supply_Chain_Planning.pdf


Lean Supply Chain Road Map - Book Chapter - McGraw-Hill - 2011
http://www.mhprofessional.com/downloads/products/0071771212/0071771212_ch01.pdf

http://logistics.about.com/od/supplychainintroduction/a/Lean_SCM.htm


Webinars by Georgia Tech
Becoming a Lean Supply Chain Professional - Episode 1
Becoming a Lean Supply Chain Professional - Episode 2
https://www.scl.gatech.edu/resources/whitepapers

https://logistics.gatech.pa/en/education/courses#warehouse-layout




Analytics and Risk Management for Supply Chain Efficiency
http://www.verisk.com/Verisk-Review/Articles/Analytics-and-Risk-Management-for-Supply-Chain-Efficiency.html

From Supply to Demand Chain Management: Efficiency and Customer Satisifaction
2002 - JOM article
http://info.cba.ksu.edu/sheu/MANGT662/MT662_SC%20Reading/Demand%20chain%20Heikkila.pdf


USING SUPPLY CHAIN EFFICIENCY IN PORTFOLIO SELECTION
http://asbbs.org/files/2011/ASBBS2011v1/PDF/F/Farahbod.pdf


___________________

Supply Chain Efficiency - Company News and Reports


Unilever supply chain efficiency, 2009
http://www.logisticsit.com/articles/2009/05/05/4342-unilever-supply-chain



Ud 17.10.2021, 2020
Pub 11.10.2012

Saturday, October 16, 2021

Hardware for Automation - Industrial Engineering 4.0 - IoT CIM

Automation of Operations in Flow Process Chart








Based on Groover's Chapter on  Sensors, Actuators, and Other Control System Components


CHAPTER CONTENTS

Sensors,  Actuators, Analog-to-Digital Conversion,  Digital-to-Analog Conversion, Input/Output Devices for Discrete Data



SENSORS

A wide variety of measuring devices is available for collecting data from the manufacturing process for use in feedback control. In general. a measuring device is composed of two components: a sensor and a transducer. The sensor detects the physical variable of interest (such as temperature. force. or pressure), The transducer converts the physical variable into an alternative form (commonly electrical voltage), quantifying the variable in the conversion.


Measuring Devices Used in Automation

Measuring Device     Description


Accelerometer: It is an analog device used to measure vibration and shock. Various physical phenomena are used.

Ammeter: It is an  analog device. It measures the strength of an electrical current.

Bimetallic switch: It is a switch. It uses bimetallic strip which due to a temperature change can deflect   to open and close electrical contact.  Bimetallic coil consists of two metal strips of different thermal expansion coefficients bonded together.

Bimetallic thermometer: It is an analog temperature measuring device. It  consists  of bimetallic coil  that changes shape in response to temperature change. Shape change of coil can be calibrated to indicate temperature.

DC tachometer: Analog device. It  consists of dc generator that produces electrical voltage proportional to rotational speed

Dynamometer: Analog device. It is  used to measure force. power, or torque. Various physical phenomenon (e.g .,  strain gage, piezoelectric effect) are used.

Float transducer: Float attached to lever arm. Pivoting movement of lever arm is measured first and it is  used to measure liquid level in vessel (analog device) or to activate contact switch (binary device).

Fluid flow sensor: It provides analog measurement of liquid flow. It is usually based on pressure difference between flow in two pipes of different diameter.

Fluid flow switch Binary switch similar to limit switch but activated by increase in fluid pressure rather than by contacting object.

Linear variable differential transformer:  Analog position sensor consisting of primary coil opposite two secondary coils separated by a magnetic core. When primary coil is energized, induced voltage in secondary coil is function of core position. Can also be adapted to measure force or pressure.

Limit switch [mechanical]:  Binary contact sensor in which lever arm or pushbutton closes (or opens) an electrical contact.

Manometer:  Analog device used to measure pressure of gas or liquid. Based on comparison of known and unknown pressure forces. A barometer is a specific type of manometer used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Ohmmeter  Analog device that measures electrical resistance.

Optical encoder:   Digital device used to measure position and/or speed, consisting of a slotted disk separating a light source from a photocell. As disc rotates, photocell senses light through slots as a series of pulses. Number and frequency of pulses are proportional (respectively) to position and speed of shaft connected to disk. Can be adapted for linear as well as rotational measurements.

Photoelectric sensor   Binary noncontact sensor (switch) consisting of emitter (light source) and receiver (photocell) triggered by interruption of light beam. Two common types: (1 ~ transmitted type, in which object blocks light beam between emitter and receiver; and 12~ retrorettecttve type, in which emitter and receiver am located in one device and beam is reflected off remote reflector except when object breaks the reflected light beam.

Photoelectric sensor array    Digital sensor consisting of linear series of photoelectric sensors. Array isdesigned to indicate height or size of object interrupting some but not all of the light beams.

Photometer  Analog sensor that measures illumination and light intensity.

Piezoelectrictransducer  Analog device based on piezoelectric effect of certain materials (e.g" quartz) In which an electrical charge is produced when the material is deformed. Charge can be measured and is proportional to deformation. Can be used to measure force, pressure,and acceleration.

Potentiometer   Analog position sensor consisting of resistor and contact slider. Position of slider on resistor determines measured resistance. Available for both linear and rotational (angular) measurements.

Proximity switch:  Binary noncontact sensor is triggered when nearby object induces changes in electromagnetic field. Two types: (1~ inductive and (2) capacitive.

Radiation pyrometer  Analog temperature-measuring device that senses electromagnetic radiation in the visible and infrared range of spectrum.

Resistance-temperature detector  Analog temperature-measuring device based on increase in electrical resistance of a metallic material as temperature is increased.

Strain gage  Widely used analog sensor to measure force, torque, or pressure. Based on change in electrical resistance resulting from strain of a conducting material.

Thermistor  Analog temperature-measuring device based on decrease in electrical resistance of a semiconductor material as temperature is increased.

Thermocouple:  Analog temperature-measuring device based on thermoelectric affect, in which the junction of two dissimilar metal wires emits a small voltage that is a function of the temperature of the junction. Common standard thermocouples include: chromel-alumel, iron-constantan, and chrornet-constantan.

Ultrasonic range sensor Time lapse between emission and refieetton (from object) of high-frequency sound pluses is measured. Can be used to measure distance or simply to indicate presence of object


Course Notes: 

http://www.just.edu.jo/~haalshraideh/Courses/IE431/Lecture_slides/ch6%20sensors_and_actuators.pdf




 

































Toyota Machine Work Study - Machine Improvement in Toyota Production System (TPS)

Prof. KV.S.S. Narayana Rao, NITIE

Jidoka (A Pillar of TPS) = Automation - Machine Work Study - Machine Improvement in Toyota Production System (TPS) - Improvement of Men and Machines



The Toyota Production System (TPS) is a global benchmark for operational excellence. In Toyota plants, workers constantly squeeze out waste and boost productivity. The famed standard work chart displayed near the machine  is strictly audited and regularly updated as each process is improved. It is industrial engineering. It is continuous engineering improvement based on the experience and data generated in the operations. In Toyota Production System industrial engineering is done by the work groups also on the shop floor and it is they who own the standard work.  The work of industrial engineers and production engineers is not highlighted by the US and Western Scholars who studied the special nature of TPS. Significant inputs from industrial engineers form part of the TPS improvement. Shigeo Shingo is the most prominent industrial engineer who contributed to the development of TPS.

Industrial Engineering of Machines by Toyota


Shigeo Shingo specially highlighted equipment planning, purchase and improvement practices of Toyota. There are thousands of machines at Toyota and each one has been improved to suit the specific needs of the company. Expensive, special-purpose equipment or robotics are not considered good investments. Less expensive machines are bought and further improved inside Toyota to meet the special needs of the plant. Thus industrial engineering of machines, redesigning the machines based on the present industry data of shop floor data is practiced in Toyota.

What is Toyota Doing now in Automation?


Toyota’s TPS gurus preach a cautious approach to automation. But, Toyota is not afraid of automation. One of its pillars, Jidoka is based on automation only.  In paint shop, robots are everywhere. In  the body shop  robots weld steel panels together. The shop that stamps those steel panels is also heavily automated. Engines and transmissions are full of machined parts produced by banks of CNC machines, with automation moving parts from one station to the next. 

One Toyota mantra is simple, slim and flexible: It is their vision for manufacturing processes. It has an army of production engineers who design and build its own automated systems. Toyota had its version of too much  automation decades ago. Built in 1979, Toyota’s plant in Tajara, Japan,  But when the vehicles did not sell that well due to the high cost of automation, the plant lost money. The high fixed cost resulted in too little flexibility to adjust to market demand. This lesson was painfully learned  The countermeasure is a policy that new plants must have the break-even of 70 percent of planned capacity. If a plant was running at full capacity at some time and sales dropped by 30 percent, the plant should at least break even. Simple, slim and flexible mantra gave a  formal directive for the company's production system designers.

Ohno’s teaching always started with a challenge to accomplish something that at first seemed impossible. The student was asked to go to the shop and observe the machine and the process  to study the current method  and develop a deep understanding under Ohno’s watchful eye. When the understanding was deep enough, the student was asked to come with a change and try it. The student has to come with an engineering idea that can be implemented quickly and the result can be assessed and he can learn from the experiment. Ohno relentlessly challenged the student to continue to experiment and more deeply understand the process.The student thus is engaged in thinking deeply and experiment again and again, until the challenge was met with appropriate guidance from Ohno.

Managers, engineers and operators need to learn how to use the machine and the materials and their five senses to create a good part at a reasonable price according to Ohno. Then intelligent automation has to be developed to decrease the cost of changing the shape or form of the material and also to reduce as much as possible any transportation or movement. This means managers, engineers, and operators have to get inside the equipment and redesign it to eliminate waste and this  work has to be done by people in the plant. 


Mitsuru Kawai is a board member of Toyota now. He joined as a blue collar worker. . He spent most of his career in Toyota’s Honsha (headquarters) plant, which machined and forged metal transmission parts. He got personal guidance from Taiichi Ohno, father of the Toyota Production System, in creating good methods change (kaizen).  

Kawai became expert at improving the equipment. There is a problem now.  The younger people had not experienced the way automation evolved from manual work that transition. They know only that if  you push a red button and  part comes out. Kawai has to make managers and engineers with  skills to get inside the machine and learn how to see waste inside automated processes and machines. His proposition is that  managers, engineers and production operators have  develop four skills: Visualize production; develop explicit knowledge of the process; standardize the knowledge; and develop intelligent automation through improvement of machines .To learn the four skills, engineers had to learn to do the actual processes manually. To develop people with these skills, Kawai directed that all team members, engineers and managers to perform the forging and machining jobs manually till they learn the skills to the adequate level. A manual assembly line was also created so that each employee still experiences the traditional method of improving manual work further and engineering new tools and work holding fixtures and improve the process further and further.  A real manual assembly is in place for it and it produces saleable items of products that are selling small volumes. This is called it the “TPS basic learning line.” 

As a part of  learning to improve the automated processes and the machine, each learner is given  one piece of  equipment. He has  to hand-draw in detail everything that happened to the part, second by second, as it was moved, oriented and transformed. The managers and engineers with knowledge of the machine are there as mentors to ask the tough questions as well as answer questions by equipment learners. 

A similar learning organization is created called "super-skill line." Its purpose  is to make automation better. it. This pilot line creates a smooth flow of work, which then informs automation team. The super-skill line rapidly tests ideas without using inexpensive automation elements or mechanism. This  manual line makes it clear where automation can help.  Ideas migrate from the manual 
line to the plant’s high-speed lines. 



Toyota considers  three questions regarding automation:

1a. Are our plants without new, fancy automation working in the direction of one-piece flow and continually solving problems every day?
1b. Does inventory build up? Do defects, equipment problems and bottlenecks interrupt production and can they be solved using new automation possibilities and equipment?

2. Have we developed our people to be highly skilled in improving the present automated equipment and give ideas regarding future automation?

3. Do we have a disciplined workforce and the internal capability to maintain and improve the  equipment we bring into the factory?

Industry 4.0 can be  a wonderful excuse to ignore difficult and  entrenched problems by simply spending money on new equipment. But the problems will come back and make investments a burden. Viewing new technology as the solution ignoring existing process problems comes with 
serious problems.


Installing new equipment with fancy sensors tied to the internet happens because it is the latest craze, without identification of specific opportunities where specific technologies will add value. If the capability of the current  process is not understood,  the business case compares an automated factory to a mediocre operation with older technology.


The internet world was created by information technology lovers who  see the world through computerization view point and design. Some features  work, and others don’t and productivity effects are uneven. They need to be carefully designed, maintained and, at  Toyota, they need to be continually improved by people who understand how things work and how to make them work better. Ohno’s key concept of working at the shop floor, understanding the process and improving it by eliminating waste  kept Toyota's operations managers and industrial engineers  knee deep in reality. Industry 4.0, if not analyzed thoughtfully from manufacturing and industrial engineering point of view, threatens to add waste to the systems being designed and sold by the new enthusiasts and  take us further and further away from reality of the current shop floor.

.
The cost of upkeep and maintenance are to be understood.  Maintenance cannot be automated.  Maintenance,  preventative and or even predictive, requires people to use all their senses to deeply understand the equipment. In Toyota, people say their equipment's worst shape is when it was first bought and installed.  . Excellent maintenance and improvement will make the equipment better over a period of time. The lessons of Toyota Production System have taught us that there is no end to human creativity, and even operators unleash their creativity to achieve increasing levels of operational performance in manual work as well as machine work. The new technology set of industry 4.0 provides us an the opportunity for designing amazing systems and make human life more comfortable for all and especially make things more better for poor and extremely poor persons in the society. Industrial managers, industrial engineers and operators have to become  disciplined, understanding the process thoroughly and become  creative people living on the shop floor to maintain and improve the equipment. They have to be more adaptable than machines to work them for maximum productivity and improve them further.


References

Jidoka of machinery - From History of Toyota

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=7WfSBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA183#v=onepage&q&f=false

Don’t count humans out, Jeffrey K. Liker, ISE Magazine, 2018.

Ud 16.10.2021
Pub 14.11.2019

Value Stream Mapping, Process Mapping and Process Flow Charts



Process Mapping is "the process of putting on a map, using specialized symbols, the process that you what to talk about".

Process Flow Chart is one of the many tools you can use to map your process.

Different diagramming tools that you can use to map your process.
You have to use the right one according to your purpose for mapping the process.

Charts developed in industrial engineering


Operation Process Chart
Flow Process Chart
Operator Process Chart


Charts that were subsequently developed in other disciplines and techniques.


- Basic Flowchart
- Highlight Flowchart
- Audit Flow Diagram
- Operation Process Chart
- Process Flowchart
- SDL Diagram
- Data Flow Diagram
- Relationship Diagram
- Workflow Diagram
- IDEF0 Flowcharts
- SIPOC Diagram
- Mind Map
- Business Process
- Cycle Diagram
- Hierarchy Diagram
- Marketing Chart and Diagram
- Matrix Diagram
- Value Stream Mapping
- Material Process Flow Analysis
- Flow_Planner

From an answer given by Jacques Pineault, Himansu in a Linkedin Community Discussion

Value Stream Mapping


I want to portray value stream mapping as process wide diagram of delays in flows. It means the temporary delays shown in the flow process charts of various parts, sub-assembly and assembly are visualized in more detail in value stream map. In flow process charts or operation process charts, I want to bring in the data block used in VSMs in a data column. Presently there is remarks column in the process charts. We need to add data column. The flow process chart clearly tells industrial engineers to learn more about production processes, inspection processes, material handling processes and warehousing processes. I would say none is covered in my NITIE syllabus when I studied. Today also in industrial engineering curriculums, there is no adequate content in these areas. That is how we give degrees to weak IEs who do imaginary engineering - that is zero engineering.


Search term:  value stream mapping flow process chart

Value stream mapping vs. process mapping to drive process innovation

What's the difference between value stream mapping vs. process mapping? One is focused on making an existing process more efficient, while the other dissects the value of each step
2019
https://searchcio.techtarget.com/feature/Value-stream-mapping-vs-process-mapping-to-drive-process-innovation

The Origin of Value Stream Mapping
 “Material and information flows” chart is a technique of visual mapping the Toyota Motor Corporation used to understand the material and information flow within the organization.

The term ‘value stream’ was first coined by James Womack, Daniel Jones and Daniel Roos in their book, The Machine that Changed the World in 1990. It was further popularized in Lean Thinking by James Womack and Daniel Jones in 1996. 
In Learning to See (1998) Mike Rother and John Shook explained in detail the application of the method in manufacturing. Then in 2004, Beau Keyte and Drew Locher discussed the extended application of value stream mapping in office and administrative processes.

What is Value Stream Mapping?
A value stream map, t helps identify non-value adding steps that should be eliminated and areas in the process that should be improved to achieve better and faster outcomes.

A value stream map can be divided into 3 segments,

Production or process flow
In this section,  the flow of the process is drawn from left to right. 

Information or communication flow
In this section (at the top portion of the map) all the communication, both formal and informal, that occurs within the value stream is shown.  

Timelines and travel distances
Timelines appear at the bottom of the value stream map.  While the top line indicates the invetory  time, the bottom line indicates the cycle time. Another line, placed at the bottom of the map shows the travel distance (of the product or work or of the people moving) through the process.
https://creately.com/blog/diagrams/value-stream-mapping-guide/




Can somebody tell me the difference between the flow chart - process mapping - value stream mapping?

Answers

1
These are the typical differences, but some may use them interchangeably:
Flow chart - typically a basic, unadorned graphical representation of the process using boxes as process steps and connecting arrows
Process Mapping - starts with a flow chart, and typically adds detail such as inputs and outputs of each process step (used in Six Sigma)
Value Stream Mapping - Starts with a flow chart and adds time for each process step as well as the delay between process steps, including transportation. Also identifies each step as Value-add or Non-value-add (used in Lean)

2
Value-Stream Mapping is both material and information flow. So, not only does it show process flow (usually horizontally, not vertically as in a flow chart), but it includes data associated with each process, inventory between processes, the method by which material moves from one process to another, and information flows between and among Production Control, the processes, suppliers, and customer. It also includes (most importantly) customer demand.

3.
Further more.........

a flow chart tends to represent the 'logic' behind the process, as in the original application of flow charts, which is computer programming. It assumes 100% yield from the process which is 'logical'.:yes:

A process map, if done effectively, will show the actual process, including non-value added steps, and can be used to identify the waste in a process. For example, process mapping the purchasing process might show that 50 requisitions are handled (per week) but 10% do not complete the process due to a lack of information. These can 'sit' in the process (on a buyers desk) so the 'yield' from the requisition process isn't 100%. That 10% still need to be completed, so the next week, the volume goes up to 55. During each subsequent week, the volume increases, until at the end of the month, the buyer has to work overtime to clear outstanding incomplete requisitions. In the meantime, the people who wanted the buyers to pace an order are still waiting for their delivery!! This issues wouldn't necessarily be revealed by a flow chart.....:nope:

It can be used to identify increased costs such as overtime when 'standardized work' isn't being done.

A value stream map can do the same, but for 'product' rather than 'data'

4.
a flow chart tends to represent the 'logic' behind the process, as in the original application of flow charts, which is computer programming. It assumes 100% yield from the process which is 'logical'
https://elsmar.com/elsmarqualityforum/threads/flow-chart-vs-process-map-vs-value-stream-map-what-are-the-differences.14331/

MORE VALUE: VALUE STREAM OR DETAILED PROCESS MAPPING? Discussion

https://www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/process-mapping/more-value-value-stream-or-detailed-process-mapping/

Waste Identification Diagram and Value Stream Mapping - PDF  (downloaded)
by J Dinis-Carvalho · 2019 · Cited by 31 — Main graphical tools for representation of production units. Tool. Types of waste represented. Flow Process Chart (ASME, 1947).
https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/71510/3/IJLSS_submission_WIDxVSM-Revised-blind.pdf


Extending Value Stream Maps with Waste Identification
PDF
by RM Sousa · Cited by 8 — Keywords: Value Stream Mapping; Waste Identification Diagrams; ... Flow Diagram” created by Toyota, and is used to map the value chain.
http://www.mas.bg.ac.rs/_media/istrazivanje/fme/vol43/4/03_carvalho_et_al.pdf


Value Stream vs. Process Improvement - International Quality  IQF2014_2199 PDF
The core tools to document processes are process maps, process flow charts and process level swimlane diagrams.
http://www.iqf.org/IQF2014_2199.pdf

Introduction to value stream mapping - Asian Productivity apo-tokyo.org 
PDF
By analyzing the value stream map, we can identify continued ... by William Lee the process flow to derive the future-state map.

https://www.apo-tokyo.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/APO-News-MarApr-p-Tools.pdf



Utilizing Process Value Mapping In Lieu Of Value Stream ...ASEE  PDF
by M Mehta · 2007 · Cited by 2

https://peer.asee.org/utilizing-process-value-mapping-in-lieu-of-value-stream-mapping-for-elimination-of-waste-in-business-and-information-processes.pdf


Automated Value Stream Mapping in Excel (AVSM)
Create value stream maps in seconds using QI Macros add-in
https://www.qimacros.com/quality-tools/value-stream-map/


The Strategos Guide to Value Stream & Process Mapping

Quarterman Lee, Brad Snyder
Enna Products Corporation, 2007 - Business & Economics - 159 pages

At last, this much anticipated book has been published and provides a much needed breath of fresh air. The Strategos Guide to Value Stream and Process Mapping has helpful tips on facilitating group VSM exercises and helps put VSM in the greater Lean context. With photos and examples of related Lean practices, the book focuses on implementing VSM, not just on drawing diagrams and graphs. This is the most comprehensive and practical book on the subject to date.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=vshUVrKdS90C

Operations Management in Supply Chain - Decision and Cases

SCHROEDER
Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2013

Contents

5 Parts

Product Design
Process Design
Quality
Capacity and Scheduling
Inventory













Ud 16.10.2021, 28 Sep 2021
Pub 18.4.2016