Sunday, August 1, 2021

Productivity Management Course Lessons

 Module of Industrial Engineering FREE ONLINE Course. 1000 persons accessed in the first year (2020-2021). Second time daily sharing (2021-2022) Started on 1 June 2021. 




1. Why Productivity Management?

2. Productivity - Basic Concepts

3. The Evolution of Productivity Management

4. Total Productivity Management

5. Functions of Productivity Management

6. Promoting Productivity Management

7. Industrial Engineering - Its Role in Productivity Improvement

8. Success Stories - Industrial Engineering, Productivity Improvement and Productivity Management


Review of the Concept and Importance of Productivity 

Evolution of Productivity Management

Productivity Management - Improving Productivity - Stevenson in Operations Management Book

Productivity Planning

Manufacturing Cost Reduction Policy Deployment - Introduction.


Productivity Success Story - Coca Cola

Motorola Participative Productivity Management







Manufacturing Cost Reduction Policy Deployment - Introduction


Know-how to reduce waste and losses. Do you have it? If not acquire it. 
Go Through Industrial Engineering FREE ONLINE Course. 1000 persons accessed in the first year 2020-2021.


Manufacturing Cost Reduction Policy Deployment - Manufacturing Cost Reduction Planning and Execution System



One of the focus areas of manufacturing management and manufacturing engineering is manufacturing cost reduction. Number of improvement techniques developed in Industrial Engineering (IE), TQM, TPM, JIT etc help in reducing costs. Yamashina and Kubo (Y-K, 2002) came out with a methodology of establishing a cost reduction program for a planning period that takes into account the potential benefits for various improvement techniques and the cost or investment required for implementing those techniques.

The basis for cost reduction in this model called manufacturing cost deployment is waste elimination or loss elimination at various production facilities or work stations in the plant. The losses at various facilities are identified in the model using the concepts developed in TPM literature.

The losses at the facilities are categorized as causal losses and resultant losses. Causal losses cause losses further down the line at other facilities. Eliminating causal losses eliminate resultant losses also. So one should not make efforts to eliminate resultant losses but has to focus on causal losses. The other point of emphasis is that the losses in the facilities have to identified with components of manufacturing cost (cost factor). This will ensure that when the loss is eliminated, there is definite reduction in manufacturing cost.

In the paper published by them in International Journal of Production Research, Y-K gave formulas for calculating each type of loss and associating the loss with the cost factor.

For each loss identified at each facility, techniques that eliminate the loss are identified if they exist and the period it takes to implement them and cost or investment required in each period to implement them are estimated. At this stage, the cost associated with improvement activity and the benefit are available.

Y-K formulated the problem as an integer programming problem, but concluded that it can't be solved analytically. They proposed an heuristic that first calculates benefit-cost ratio for each loss type and based on this ratio selects the improvement techniques to be undertaken in each sub period (for example each month in an annual plan).

For a list of different types of losses - Manufacturing System Losses Idenfied in TPM Literature


The details of the project undertaken by Yamashina and Kobo with funding from Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(KAKENHI) Program. Information from the database:  Kaken, Japan.

https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-12490021/

The cost deployment aspect in WCM and TPM was discussed in a recent conference paper 2012
http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2012/CambridgeUSA/MATHCC/MATHCC-59.pdf


 


Speed-Based Target Profit: Planning and Developing Synchronous Profitable Operations

Alin Posteucă

CRC Press, 19-Nov-2020 - Business & Economics - 346 pages

Profitable production planning is and will remain an eternal challenge to ensuring the prosperity and dignity of companies in a global market. There are different approaches to improve productivity. But an approach to achieve  the target profitability through productivity in the production planning stage is not available so far.  Alin Posteucă, a researcher and consultant working in the area of manufacturing cost policy, now presents the system called speed-based target profit (SBTP) that will provide the method for planning profit along with production for the year.

SBTP is the profitable production management and manufacturing improvement system that approaches production planning to achieve unit speed of target profit for target products through manufacturing cost improvement and bottleneck profitability control for required takt time. Managers and practitioners within manufacturing companies will discover a practical approach for cost down and cash up by applying a powerful operational profitable production planning formula to meet profitability expectations through productivity based on strong leadership with the help of a specific system for feedforward, concurrent, and feedback control. 

The uniqueness of the book is reinforced by a detailed presentation of the successful application of the SBTP system in two case studies, as a way of life and a unit speed of target profit improvement ethos at all hierarchical levels, in two multinational manufacturing companies operating in highly competitive markets in order to address the synchronous profitable operations.

By adopting the SBTP system, your company will be able to consistently achieve unit speed of target profit in the bottleneck process for fulfilling annual and multiannual target profit as a unique and effective way through a new profitable production planning paradigm.




Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD) and Methods Design Concept (MDC): The Path to Competitiveness


Alin Posteuca, Shigeyasu Sakamoto

CRC Press, 27-Mar-2017 - Business & Economics - 434 pages


Providing a reasonable level of profitability through productivity is - and will remain - one of the fundamental tasks of the management teams of any production company.

Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD) and Methods Design Concept (MDC): The Path to Competitiveness contains two new methodologies to improving the productivity and profitability of production systems that continuously increase competitiveness: Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD) and Methods Design Concept (MDC). Both MCPD and MDC are the result of long-time synthesis and distillation, being implemented successfully, totally or partially, in many companies. The MCPD system, developed by Alin Posteuc?, is a manufacturing cost policy aimed at continuous cost improvement through a systemic and systematic approach. The MCPD is a methodology that improves the production flow driven by the need for Manufacturing Cost Improvement (MCI) for both existing and future products through setting targets and means to continuously improve production process productivity for each product family cost. The MDC, developed by Shigeyasu Sakamoto, design the effective manufacturing methods using a tool of engineering steps identifying ideas for increasing productivity called KAIZENSHIRO (improvable value as a target). The MDC results on production methods lead to effectiveness of work measurement for performance (P) and to knowledge and improvement of production control and planning as utilization (U), in order to achieve labor target costs.

The combination of MCPD and MDC methodologies can provide a unique approach for the managers who are seeking new ways for increasing productivity and profitability to increase the competitive level of their manufacturing company.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=r0WEDgAAQBAJ

Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD) Transformation: Uncovering Hidden Reserves of Profitability

Alin Posteuca
CRC Press, 31-Jan-2018 - Business & Economics - 314 pages

Achieving a long-term acceptable level of manufacturing profitability through productivity requires the total commitment of management teams and all staff in any manufacturing company and beyond.

Awareness and continuous improvement of manufacturing costs behind losses and waste is the core goal of the Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD). Achieving this goal will continually uncover the hidden reserves of profitability through a harmonious transformation of the manufacturing flow, coordinated by the continuous need to improve manufacturing costs. Setting annual targets and means for manufacturing costs improvement (more exactly for costs of losses and waste, and the exact fulfillment of these) requires mobilization of all people in the company to carry out systematic improvement activities (kaizen) and systemic improvement actions (kaikaku) of the processes of each product family cost. The MCPD system was born out of careful observation of the challenges, principles, and phenomena of manufacturing companies and the profound discussions with the people in these companies at all levels.

Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD) Transformation: Uncovering Hidden Reserves of Profitability is organized in three sections. The first section presents the concept and the need for an MCPD system from a managerial perspective. In the second section, the transformation of manufacturing companies through the MCPD system is presented, more precisely the details of the initial steps of the implementation of the MCPD, the three phases and the seven steps of the MCPD, and the elements necessary for a constant and consistent application of the MCPD. In the last section, there are two examples of the MCPD implementation in two different types of industries, namely, manufacturing and assembly industry and process industry, and two case studies for the improvement of manufacturing costs for each (cost of equipment setup loss, using kaizenshiro; replacement of bottleneck equipment and associated costs of losses, using kaikaku; cost of quality losses with improving operators’ skills to sustain quality, using kaizen; and cost problem solving with the consumption of lubricants for one of the equipment, using A3).

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=6jcPEAAAQBAJ


Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD) Profitability Scenarios: Systematic and Systemic Improvement of Manufacturing Costs

Alin Posteuca

CRC Press, 09-Oct-2018 - Business & Economics - 328 pages

This book shows how to consistently obtain annual and multiannual manufacturing target profit regardless of the evolution of sales volumes, increasing or decreasing, using the Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD) system. Managers and practitioners within the manufacturing companies will discover a practical approach within the MCPD system that will help them develop and support their long-term, medium-term, and short-term profitability and productivity strategy. The book presents both the basic concepts of MCPD and the key elements of transforming manufacturing companies through MCPD system, as well as supporting the consistent growth of external and internal profit by directing all systematic and systemic improvements based on meeting the annual and multiannual Manufacturing Cost Improvement (MCI) targets and means for each Product-Family Cost (PFC).

This book is unique because it presents two types of systematic and systemic improvement projects for MCI that have been applied over the years in various multinational manufacturing companies operating in highly competitive markets, in order to address the consistent reduction of unit manufacturing costs by improving the Cost of Losses and Waste (CLW).

Readers will discover the practical approach of MCI based on a structured approach to MCPD system beyond the traditional approach to manufacturing improvements based mainly on improved time and quality. Therefore, from the perspective of the MCPD system, the multiannual manufacturing target profits are met while the annual and multiannual manufacturing target costs are a predetermined stake and not a result of the improvements already made.



Paper

MANUFACTURING COST POLICY DEPLOYMENT 

Abstract. It is obvious that the gap between the need to reduce manufacturing costs and the level that manufacturing companies can achieve is large and often companies do not know how to cope with this situation.  Moreover, this gap is widening for many companies. There are  different pathways such as: Industrial Engineering (IE), Total Quality Management (TQM), Total Productive Maintenance (TPM),  Just-In-Time (JIT), Lean Manufacturing (LM), Six Sigma and World Class Manufacturing (WCM). However, these approaches have to be combined as an improvement portfolio to derive the benefit of targeted manufacturing cost reduction.  Publications on the Manufacturing Cost Policy Deployment (MCPD) system by Alin Posteuca provide a methodology for setting targets and means of reducing unit costs.  MCPD system establishes competitive cost targets and expected profit targets, breaks down cost improvement targets at the level of products, processes, departments and individuals and aligns systematic and systemic improvement activities accordingly. The three phases and the seven steps of the MCPD system and an example of applying the MCPD system are provided in the paper. 

Ro. J. Techn. Sci. - Appl. Mechanics, Vol. 65, No 1, P. 136-150, Bucharest, 2020

https://rjts-am.utcluj.ro/journal/rev2020-2/RJTS-AM_2020_65_2_a3_Posteuca.pdf


Cost Deployment Tool for Technological Innovation of World Class Manufacturing

Luan Carlos Santos Silva, João Luiz Kovaleski, Silvia Gaia, Manon Garcia, Pedro Paulo de Andrade Júnior

Department of Production Engineering and Technology Transfer Research Group, Federal University of Technology—Paraná (UTFPR), Ponta Grossa, Brazil
Journal of Transportation Technologies
Vol.3 No.1(2013)
http://file.scirp.org/Html/2-3500094_27019.htm

The model of Fiat Group Automobiles Production System (FAPS) is a structured set of methodologies and tools whose application spread across the enterprise through the involvement of all employees. It is based on Yamashina's WCM approach. It promises  a radical improvement for the performance of the production system, optimizing all production processes and logistics with focus on the key factors: Quality, Productivity, Security and Upkeep of the equipment, and Delivery. The implementation support is done by a system of Audits and it is structured by goals whose achievement is measured by performance indicators

It has 10 pillars and two of them are directly related to cost reduction and productivity improvement. WCM advocates total industrial engineering which promises total productivity management and total cost management. Total industrial engineering involves the efforts of industrial engineers and operations managers, engineers, supervisors and operators and it also implies all methods of industrial engineering - product IE, process IE, IE optimization, IE Statistics, IE Economic Analysis, Human Effort IE, IE Measurements, Productivity Management.  Total productivity management focuses on productivity of all resources used in the production - logistics or production - distribution system. Total cost management focuses on rational planned cost for the total enterprise as well as each product giving optimum unit cost for all products produced and sold by a company.

The following two pillars are directly related to Total IE, Total PMgmt, and TCM.

2) Cost Deployment—aims to identify problems that increase costs; Approves projects to decrease costs.

3) Focused Improvement—aims to develop the know how to reduce costs by using appropriate methods; Proposes projects to reduce costs.

The concept of technological innovation can be understood as the expansion of production capacity (more machines) and the increase of new products. The company may  think about producing products which are being produced by other manufacturers or competitors. Innovation also includes creation of new products and improving products or processes that are currently in use to make more profits. Innovation is to produce and distribute products and services, which  the company did not deliver before. Innovation is  generally understood as expanding capacity installing more machines, and  to install more modern machines to produce more quantity of products. Many times innovation increase in  productivity and decrease in costs, which result in increase of the production and sale.

(A. Caron, “Technological Innovations in Small and Medium Industrial Enterprises in Times of Globalization: The Case of Paraná,” Thesis (Doctoral in Production Engineering), Curitiba, 2003.)


Cost Deployment allows defining improvement programs that have an impact in reducing losses, everything that can be classified as wastes or non-value added in a systematic way.

 This is accomplished through:

1) The study of relations between the cost factors, the processes that generate wastes and losses in its various ways

2) The evaluation of know-how to reduce waste and losses: Is it already available with the organization or it should be acquired;

3. Making an estimate of costs and benefits of cost reduction projects and establishing a priority of projects to reduce waste and losses.

4. Monitoring of progress and results of improvement projects.



https://michelbaudin.com/2015/10/26/unilevers-new-program-for-wcm-business-improvement-eu-jan-van-ede/

WCM Software

What Does World Class Manufacturing Look Like in a Connected Worker World?

Jaime Urquidi

December 18, 2019
https://parsable.com/quality/what-does-world-class-manufacturing-look-like-in-a-connected-worker-world/

Parsable for Connected Work in Production
A smarter strategy for driving productivity.

Good information in
https://alfraleanadvisors.com/wcm-cost-deployment/

Data Science with Cost Deployment
Kevin Joinson
Mar 2, 2020 


https://better-operations.com/2016/09/15/manufacturing-cost-deployment/

https://parsable.com/quality/what-does-world-class-manufacturing-look-like-in-a-connected-worker-world/



Updated 17 July 2021, 4 Feb 2021,  11 July 2020,  19 February 2017,  20 April 2012


Original Knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/manufacturing-cost-deployment/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 3364









High Speed Machining - Industrial Engineering and Productivity Aspects

Lesson  of Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course.

High speed machining is use of higher spindle speed of more than 20000 rpm and higher feed rates compared to conventional machining and material removal is carried out using small size cutting tools by giving faster and lighter cuts.


High Speed Machining (HSM) - High Efficiency Milling (HEM)


There were advancements in the metalworking industry that resulted in  new, innovative ways of increasing productivity.

High Speed Machining

High speed machining is  an umbrella term for all high productivity machining methods. In HSM, a very high spindle speed paired with much lighter axial depths of cut results in a much higher allowable feed rate. This is also often referred to as feed milling. Depths of cut involve a very low axial and high radial components.

High Efficiency Milling

Many new, high-productivity toolpaths were discovered or invented.. Terms like trochoidal milling,  adaptive milling, feed milling, and High Efficiency Milling are a handful of the names given to these cutting-edge techniques.

HEM has evolved from a philosophy that takes advantage of the maximum amount of work that a tool can perform. Considerations for chip thinning and feed rate adjustment are used so that each cutting edge of a tool takes a consistent chip thickness with each rotation, even at varying radial depths of cut and while interpolating around curves. This allows machinists the opportunity to utilize a radial depth of cut that more effectively uses the full potential of a given tool. Utilizing the entire available length of cut allows tool wear to be spread over a greater area, prolonging tool life and lowering production costs. Effectively, HEM uses small depths of cut used in  traditional finishing operation but boosts speeds and feeds, resulting in much higher material removal rates (MRR) in roughing applications.

Both HSM and HEM can achieve increased MRR and higher productivity when compared to traditional methods. While HSM is an umbrella term for all high efficiency cutting methods,  HEM is now considered as distinct from HSM.
https://www.harveyperformance.com/in-the-loupe/high-efficiency-milling-vs-high-speed-machining/

Incrementally Improving to High Speed

In general, 8,000 rpm is considered a minimum  for the rotational aspect of high speed machining.

Auxiliary spindles may be  used to do high speed machining. For a reasonable amount of money, installing an auxiliary high speed spindle on an existing machine is possible. The original machine tool spindle is kept as it is and additional spindle is simply bolt-on for high rpm capacity.

There is another secondary spindle option It is termed a fixed center line auxiliary spindle. Speeds for these units go up to 50,000 rpm, and up to 17 hp is available on some models. The unit mounts in the machine tool spindle but has its own power source and control. Because it operates off the same center line as the main spindle, programming is transferable with only the need to adjust Z-axis depths to compensate for the addition of the unit in the main spindle. 
https://www.makino.com/resources/content-library/article/archive/ramping-up-to-high-speed-machining/204

July 2010
https://www.ctemag.com/news/articles/what-high-speed-machining

High Speed Machining Case Studies
https://www.mmsonline.com/zones/browse/hsm/9

Sections in Stephenson - Agapiou Book

1. Introduction
2. High Throughput Machining
3. High Speed Machining
4. Tooling and Fixturing
5. Materials Handling Systems

2008

Categorize aircraft parts into two broad categories of ‘thin-plate’ and ‘thick-plate’. What defines HSM for parts up to 50-mm thick are spindle rotations of 30,000 rpm and spindle ratings to 80 hp (60 kW). High speed for thick plates (greater than 50 mm thick) is 18,000 rpm and spindle ratings to 135 hp (100 kW).  “For either, acceleration/deceleration should be about 0.5 g, and you should offer as rapid a [noncutting] traverse as possible, at least 1500 ipm [38 m/min].” The acceleration/deceleration (acc/dec) significantly influences the cutting time in complicated pocketed parts, where the tool has to make many direction changes.

The MAG Cincinnati HyperMach profiler offers  a spindle speed of 24,000 rpm with 4000 ipm (101 m/min) rapid traverses. The traverse time affects cutting time, within that especially ‘parasitic’ time, which can be as high as 20% of total cycle time in cutting aluminum. Parasitic time includes positioning the tool for a new cut or moving to a tool changer.  HyperMach Vertical series of profilers  have a rapid-traverse rate of 4000 ipm [101 m/min].  


High-Speed Machining

1st Edition
Editors: Kapil Gupta J. Paulo Davim
Academic Press
Published Date: 4th February 2020
Page Count: 318


Preface
Chapter 1. Introduction to high-speed machining (HSM)
Chapter 2. Performance of Sialon/Si3N4 graded ceramic tools at high speed machining
Chapter 3. High speed machining of composite materials
Chapter 4. Advances in cooling and lubrication for high speed machining
Chapter 5. Cooling and machining strategies for high speed milling of titanium and nickel super alloys
Chapter 6. Virtual CNC machine tool modeling and machining simulation in high speed milling
Chapter 7. Modeling and analysis of high speed milling process stability for industry applications
Chapter 8. Cryogenic cooling-based sustainable machining
Chapter 9. Laser-assisted high speed machining of Inconel 718 alloy
Chapter 10. High speed machining of magnesium and its alloys
Chapter 11. Variants of high speed machining
Index
https://www.elsevier.com/books/high-speed-machining/gupta/978-0-12-815020-7

Chapter 1 - Introduction to high-speed machining (HSM)
Ankit Jain Vivek Bajpai
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128150207000011
Ch-2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128150207000023 see for details of more chapters

Oct 2019
High speed machining is use of higher spindle speed of more than 20000 rpm and higher feed rates compared to conventional machining and material removal is carried out using small size cutting tools by giving faster and lighter cuts.
https://www.manufacturingtodayindia.com/sectors/5187-machine-matters-for-high-speed-machining

CUTTING TOOLS -  EFFECTIVE APPROACH TO HIGH-SPEED MACHINING
 May 27, 2019
https://www.industr.com/en/effective-approach-to-high-speed-machining-2376475

Thread: High speed machining aluminum... An open discussion.
2018
https://www.practicalmachinist.com/vb/cnc-machining/high-speed-machining-aluminum-open-discussion-363234/

https://hsmadvisor.com/

Cimskil — High Throughput Manufacturing


DOD Contract Award - High Throughput Manufacturing Manufacturing Programs.
We were awarded Phase III of the DOD High Throughput Manufacturing Program for automation of manufacturing processes for titanium parts.

This contract, valued at $700,000.00 to our company, after cost-sharing with the Department of Defense, follows on from the Hithru Program Phases I and II.

Hithru Phases I and II addressed two major areas:

Automation of manufacturing engineering tasks for machining 5-axis aerospace parts, based upon the recognition of manufacturing features on the as-designed part with subsequent automated processing of all work required to produce the first good part. Implementation of a means for end-users to easily program their manufacturing practices for use in automated processing. For details of the highly encouraging results of Hithru to date, please see Hithru Program.

Team Members for Phases I and II, who were also in Phase III:

National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (Program Management)
Warner Robins Air Logistics Center
Sikorsky Aircraft
Cincinnati Machine
Technology Answers
It is appropriate here to record our thanks to the team members who provided us with so much advice and guidance - and criticism when necessary!

New Team Members for Phase III were:

Boeing Defense & Space
Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point
Project Objectives for Phase III

The objective of HITHRU phase III is to develop and capture in CimskilTM best manufacturing practices for titanium components, and apply that knowledge to productivity improvement.

Titanium machining is more complex than aluminum machining. The material is much harder, making the selection of tools, inserts, and coatings a critical factor in determining machining parameters such as axial and radial depth of cut, feed rate and spindle RPM. It is also more expensive than aluminum, resulting in a greater need for efficiency in shop cutting tests. Titanium components with long machining cycles, for a given feature, will require a tool change (to overcome tool dulling) before the feature is completed. That means that the machining system must compensate for any inaccuracy introduced via a tool change. The issue is further complicated by the fact that program participants use a mixture of slab and forging stocks. Slab stock can use the fixturing methods developed in HITHRU phase I, but forging stock will require new fixturing strategies.
http://www.cimskil.com/News.htm



Innovations in Advanced Manufacturing - Papers of Seminars
NIST, USA - 2009
http://www.nist.gov/el/upload/whitepapers.pdf

Guide to Hard Milling and High Speed Machining
Dale Mickelson
Industrial Press, Oct 11, 2006 - 400 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=88OjBgAAQBAJ


News Related to High Speed Machining

2021



High-Speed Machining of Malleable Cast Iron by Various Cutting Tools Coated by Physical Vapor Deposition
Suyang Li, Haisheng Lin, Tingjie Zhang, Jianbo Sui & Chengyong Wang 
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering volume 34, Article number: 46 (2021)

Cylindrical turning experiments were performed on a CAK3665NJ NC lathe made by China Shenyang Machine Tool CNC Co., Ltd.
The cutting parameters of MCI were constant and set to v =150 m/min, f = 0.15 mm/rev and ap = 0.9 mm. 

The nc-TiAlSiN coated tool minimized the cutting force, specific cutting energy, surface roughness, and tool wear, and maximized the tool life. Therefore, the nc-TiAlSiN coated tool is the best choice for dry cutting of MCI.


HIGH SPEED MILLING
Our most recent purchase is a high speed  machining center – type GF Mill600S.

High speed milling centers are 10 times faster than conventional milling machines in terms of cutting speed. Greater accuracy and a better surface finish are also achieved.

Analysis of tool wear and surface roughness in high-speed milling process of aluminum alloy Al6061
Nguyen, N.-T., Tien, D. H., Tung, N. T., & Luan, N. D. (2021). Analysis of tool wear and surface roughness in high-speed milling process of aluminum alloy Al6061. EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, (3), 71-84.
https://journal.eu-jr.eu/engineering/article/view/1824

In this study, the influence of cutting parameters and machining time on the tool wear and surface roughness was investigated in high-speed milling process of Al6061 using face carbide inserts. Taguchi experimental matrix (L9) was chosen to design and conduct the experimental research with three input parameters (feed rate, cutting speed, and axial depth of cut). Tool wear (VB) and surface roughness (Ra) after different machining strokes (after 10, 30, and 50 machining strokes) were selected as the output parameters.


2020

High-Speed Machining of Large Aluminum and Composite Parts
posted on DECEMBER 2, 2020

Multi-objective optimization of high-speed end milling on Al6061/ 3% RHA/ 6% TiC reinforced hybrid composite using Taguchi coupled GRA
2020 International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Smart Power System and Sustainable Energy (CISPSSE)
Date of Conference: 29-31 July 2020
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9212295

Finite Element Analysis and Parameter Optimization Selection of High Speed Milling GH4169
Guosheng Geng, Liang Zhang, Maohua Xiao, Xiayun Dong, Kailin Chen
College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, No.40, Dianjiangtai Road, Pukou Distinct, Nanjing 210031. China
Manufacturing Technology 2020, 20(3):300-306 | DOI: 10.21062/mft.2020.054

We used ABAQUS finite element analysis software to simulate the 3D milling of GH4169 nickel base superalloy. The variation of milling force during milling was studied. The influences of milling speed, feed per tooth and radial depth on milling force were analyzed and the results of the simulation were compared with those obtained by orthogonal experiment. The variation of milling force was verified. Finally, we obtained the reasonable milling parameters.



High Speed Machining Cuts Moldmaking Cycle Time
15,000 rpm
http://www.mmsonline.com/articles/high-speed-machining-cuts-moldmaking-cycle-time



Patent 2014 - High Performance Milling


















2021 Machine Shop Engineering & Technology - Productivity Improvement & Cost Reduction News

Say YES to Knowledge Based Industrial Engineering. 

Use recent developments in engineering & technologies in process improvement for productivity.

Forward Thinking About Productivity: Assess each engineering and technology develop about its productivity benefit for the processes of your organization.
 

Machine Shop Cost Reduction News - 2020 - 2019 - 2018 - 2017 - 2016 - 2015 - Up to 2014







2021


2021
PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT IN METAL-CUTTING TECHNOLOGIES - CONVENTIONAL & UNCONVENTIONAL
Dr Nageswara Rao Posinasetti, Professor, Department of Technology, University of Northern Iowa, USA

Robot Cell for Flexible Machine Tool Tending
LoadMate Plus aims to increase throughput in high-mix, low-volume machine shops, using automation to free operators for other tasks.
MAY 06, 2021

A combination universal horizontal/vertical machining center with flexibility and accuracy.
KHV-400 combination universal horizontal/vertical machining center from Kent USA.
MAY 17, 2021



May  (7 May 2021)

Machining
CASE STUDY: INCREASING QUALITY ON TIME MACHINING’S PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE HAIMER SHRINK FIT SYSTEM
Brought To You by Haimer  May 04, 2021


Makino - Case Studies

Haimer Shrink Fit Toolholders Raise Boulevard's Feed Rates
Haimer’s Inductive Shrink Fit technology provides efficiency benefits over side-lock and collet holders, with Boulevard Machine & Gear seeing its feed rates more than double on certain materials. - Case Study

TXM LEAN CASE STUDY – RONSON GEARS – LEAN IN A MACHINE SHOP


Tungaloy has revealed T505, a CVD embed grade that conveys expanded wear obstruction for turning ISO-K cast iron parts

OB7 - Seventh axis cobot increases production time per week. 


The M&T Conference is purposefully designed to help manufacturing executives and leaders improve their operational efficiency, achieve greater quality, and thrive in an industry that demands constant change.

New Modular Drill for Faster Aerospace Machining
The patented FBX drill delivers superior stability and up to 200% higher metal removal rates when machining high temperature alloys, stainless steel, and other materials.

APR 29, 2021


KENNAMETAL introduced the FBX drill for flat-bottom drilling of structural aerospace parts. The patented FBX drill delivers superior stability and up to 200% higher metal removal rates when machining high temperature alloys, stainless steel, and other materials.

Collet Adapter Speeds Turning Center Changeovers
APR 29, 2021

In PRECI-FLEX modular tooling system, EXSYS AUTOMATION INC. offers the Type 01 ER collet chuck standard adapter. This precision made tooling allows shops to changeover tools in turning center turrets quickly, accurately, and economically.

High-Precision 4th Axis Machining in a Compact Footprint
The microARC 4 reduces operator workload and cycle times with a high-quality, low-maintenance harmonic drive that provides precise motion control, coupled with much higher rapid speeds than a worm-drive unit.
APR 29, 2021

TORMACH INC. is offering the microARC 4, a device that allows high-precision fourth-axis machining in a compact footprint. 

Chip vacuum cleaning device
https://www.exair.com/index.php/products/industrial-housekeeping/chip-vac/cv-sys.html

METHODS MACHINE TOOLS unveiled the MB 650U Automatic Manufacturing Package (MB 650U AMP) and the Plus Big-K.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/automation-and-robotics/article/21161324/standard-automation-extraordinary-results-methods-machine-tools

New CAD/CAM Software Release
The latest version of EnRoute 7 includes a 64-bit engine, improving speed and productivity, and a new user-interface to make workflows simpler.

APR 14, 2021
CAD/CAM software developer SA INTERNATIONAL announced the newest version of its EnRoute, EnRoute 7
https://www.americanmachinist.com/cad-and-cam/article/21161325/new-cadcam-software-release-sa-international


Simplified Robot and CNC Integration
The Quick and Simple Startup of Robotization platform allows operators and machine tool builders to program robots easily through the CNC in ISO standard G-code format.
APR 14, 2021
For more efficient operations, FANUC CNCs now have the ability to control connected FANUC robots providing machine tending or other assistance through FANUC’s Quick and Simple Startup of Robotization (QSSR.)
https://www.americanmachinist.com/automation-and-robotics/article/21161326/simplified-robot-and-cnc-integration-fanuc-america


Modular Control System for Machine Tools
Real-time process control and monitoring for medium-complexity machines tools, to maximize integration between the measurement system, the machine, and the company network.
APR 14, 2021
MARPOSS, developers of measurement, inspection and test technologies, announced its BLÚ LT modular system for real-time process control and monitoring on machines tools of medium complexity, in terms of sensor quantity and machine dimensions.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/enterprise-data/article/21161327/modular-control-system-for-mediumcomplexity-machine-tools-marposs



Integrating Honing to Machining Brings Flexibility and Efficiency.
By integrating flexible hones to the machining process, complex parts with difficult-to-access features can be deburred, honed or surface finished in-house, at less cost.
APR 14, 2021


HOW KENNAMETAL’S HARVI I TE END MILL IMPROVES PRODUCTIVITY AND TOOL LIFE
Apr 13, 2021
Time was when milling required multiple tools to get the job done. Now Kennametal’s new HARVI I TE series with square and ball nose end mills is setting new performance standards. Here’s what you need to know about the new tool.

Sinumerik One (Siemens) - Digital-Native Machine Tool Control

Both machine tool builders and CNC machine users benefit from a new programming platform, Sinumerik One (Siemens) -- and the universal digital twin for machinery, production processes, and performances that it makes available.
APR 08, 2021


Sinumerik One
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Siemens YT channel
23 Sep 2020
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Merlin Plus gauging software

MARPOSS announced standalone availability of Merlin Plus gauging software, formerly only embedded in Merlin hardware devices but now offered for use on any PC running Windows®7 or Windows®10 operating system


Small-Caliber Gun Barrel Processing
Machines and production cells perform deep drilling, reaming, and rifling for as many as 20,000 small-caliber firearm barrels per month – efficiently.
APR 08, 2021
ABSOLUTE MACHINE TOOLS’ portfolio of machine tools and automation systems includes machines specifically engineered for drilling, reaming, and rifling of small-caliber gun barrels. These Precihole brand machines can be combined into processing cells so a manufacturer can drill, ream, and rifle as many as 20,000 small-caliber firearm barrels per month -- efficiently.


March

Monitoring Coolants Using Intelligent Technology
An IoT-based solution combines a plug-and-play solution and a cloud-based platform with intelligent, automated, and reliable measurement capability – making data collection easy.
MAR 31, 2021
LIQUIDTOOL SYSTEMS introduced an IoT-based solution for monitoring coolants, the first to combine a plug-and-play solution and a cloud-based platform with intelligent, automated, and reliable measurement capability. 

Troubleshooting CNC Breakdowns and Steps to Avoid Them
At a minimum, CNC machine operators should complete the following steps each day:
•  Check fluid levels and top-up;
•  Check all moving parts for dry spots and regrease where necessary;
•  Wipe all surfaces to clear away dust, dirt, and small metal shavings prone to build-up.

https://www.americanmachinist.com/shop-operations/article/21158732/troubleshooting-cnc-breakdowns-and-steps-to-avoid-them-fictiv


Automation Retrofits for Grinding Machines
UNITED GRINDING NORTH AMERICA is offering a “seamless” automation retrofit for Walter Helitronic Power Series tool-grinding machines to replace the original gantry beam-type loaders (now obsolete) with faster, more productive Fanuc LR Mate 200i robots -- the same as are featured on brand new Walter Helitronic machine models.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21159852/automation-retrofits-for-grinding-machines-united-grinding-north-america

New Four-Axis Horizontal Machining Center
METHODS MACHINE TOOLS INC. recently released the KIWA KH-4100kai, a compact, four-axis horizontal with a more modern design compared to its predecessor, and noteworth internal improvements. "New controls, new internal sheet metal placement, and wipers all contribute to improved planning, machining, and chip flow,"
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21159854/new-fouraxis-horizontal-machining-center-methods-machine-tools

Compact Tool Grinder Offers Large Grinding Zone
The STAR CUTTER CO. NXT five-axis tool grinder is a versatile five-axis CNC machine with a small footprint and a large grind zone.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/machining-cutting/article/21158327/compact-tool-grinder-offers-large-grinding-zone-star-cutter-co

Software Makes Robot Programming Easier Than Ever
HYPERTHERM released Robotmaster Version 7.4 CAD/CAM, for seamlessly integrating offline programming, simulation, and code generation, delivering quick, error-free robot programs.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/automation-and-robotics/article/21158326/software-makes-robot-programming-easier-than-ever-hypertherm

Round Tool Grinding Wheels Increase Stability
SAINT-GOBAIN ABRASIVES’ Norton Winter V-PRIME Grinding Wheels are designed to provide edge stability and long life when gashing and clearance-grinding round tools. A more stable grinding process offers greater efficiency and better part quality with less sub-surface damage.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21159219/round-tool-grinding-wheels-increase-stability-saintgobain-abrasives

5-Axis Bridge-Type Machining Center
The new METHODS MACHINE TOOLS MB 650U Automatic Manufacturing Package (MB 650U AMP) blends the precision and speed of Methods’ five-axis MB 650U and the convenience of the six-pallet Indunorm automatic pallet changer (APC). The result is a versatile, high-precision machine capable of unattended, lights-out operation.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21159217/5axis-bridge-type-machining-center-methods-machine-tools


Conversational Programming Software for CNCs
Select machines from OKUMA AMERICA CORP.’s core product line now come equipped with the Advanced One Touch-Interactive Graphics Function (AOT-IGF), a conversational programming software designed for Okuma’s lathes, machining centers, and multitasking machines

https://www.americanmachinist.com/cad-and-cam/article/21158325/conversational-programming-software-for-cncs-okuma-america-corp

Assembling the Jigsaw Puzzle of Special Cutting Tools
Allied Machine’s application engineers study the needs of the application and customize the design of the custom tooling.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/cutting-tools/article/21157618/assembling-the-jigsaw-puzzle-of-special-cutting-tools-allied-machine-engineering


Absolute Angle Encoders Optimize Machine Tools
New-model encoders are useful with fast rotating axes and direct-drive motors because the permissible speeds are up to three times higher than established versions.

THE RIGHT FLAP DISC CAN SAVE TIME & MONEY

in metal grinding or finishing applications 
Mar 30, 2021
Choosing the right product for metal grinding or finishing applications can save time and money.  The best choice can also minimize the risk of removing too much material and ensure the best possible finish. Flap discs, in particular, provide delicate blending and finishing work, while still offering reliable grinding action.


MAR 10, 2021
HEIDENHAIN CORP. introduced smarter and faster versions of the RCN absolute angle encoders series for use in machine tools.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21157622/absolute-angle-encoders-optimize-machine-tools

Inserts for Versatility in Stainless Steel Milling
A double-positive 45-deg. milling cutter (S450E) allows the same cutter body to be used for face milling and for face/copy milling – and supports internal coolant delivery.

MAR 10, 2021
DORMER PRAMET’s Pramet stainless steel milling range offers versatility and productivity. Insert styles include OEHT (octagonal), REHT (round), and XEHT (wiper).
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21157621/versatility-for-stainless-steel-milling-dormer-pramet

High-Precision VMC for Reliable Processing
GF MACHINING SOLUTIONS’ new The MILL P 500 holds part tolerances to +/- 4 microns and maintains positioning accuracy over extended machining times, deviating no more than 5 microns during a 24-hour span.
MAR 03, 2021
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21156943/highprecision-vmc-for-reliable-processing-gf-machining-solutions

Hybrid VMC for 5-Axis Additive or Subtractive Machining
The DCM 620-5X Hybrid machine combines millesimal angular positioning with high rigidity for very precise machining of highly complex parts.
MAR 03, 2021
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21156940/hybrid-vmc-for-5axis-additive-or-subtractive-machining-romi-usa


February 


Four Ways to Reduce CNC Machining Costs
1. Choose the right CNC machine.
2. Reduce design complexity.
3. Design for easier machining.
4. Use easy-to-machine and cost-effective materials.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/shop-operations/article/21156229/four-ways-to-reduce-cnc-machining-costs-getting-started


Braking Distance Simulator for Robotic Cells
ABB ROBOTICS' RobotStudio® offline programming and simulation software has been upgraded with a new, virtual robot braking-distance function designed to create an exact simulation of the real-world stopping distance of a robot.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21156239/braking-distance-simulator-for-robotic-cells-abb-robotics


For Honeycutt Manufacturing, a GROB five-axis machining center with Siemens CNC onboard has reduced cycle time by 50% and tooling costs by 60%.

FEB 10, 2021
https://www.americanmachinist.com/machining-cutting/media-gallery/21154836/cutting-machining-steps-draws-more-aerospace-business-grob-systems-inc


Mate Precision Technologies 52/96 workholding system helps increase machining productivity
 February 18, 2021 

Mate Precision Technologies has launched the 52/96 line of workholding technology for CNC machining operations. This line of vises, bases, and mounting systems maximizes holding power in a compact, quick-change modular design that helps reduce setup time and process variability. It is designed for 3-, 4-, and 5-axis machining centres.


High Efficiency Aluminum Machining: Kennametal unveils new Line of PCD Tools
12-Feb-2021
Kennametal claims the new PCD Round Tools are 10 times superior than Carbide Cutting Tools.
The new PCD round tools line from Kennametal enables its customers to machine aluminium significantly faster, for greater productivity on the shop floor. In drilling and reaming operations, these tools consistently function at cutting speeds of up to 900 m/min (3,000 SFM). Milling operations can be performed at an incredible 6.000 m/min (20,000 SFM)—far higher than non-PCD tooling.

Siemens CNC Shopfloor Management Software

How much will the workpiece cost me? How long will it occupy my machine?
Whether you use SinuTrain, virtual NCK, or our new SINUMERIK ONE, with a digital twin of your entire machine-tool fleet, you can test NC programs against the background of the machines' specific kinematics – as part of production planning, directly during job preparation and without disturbing ongoing production. Say goodbye to expensive sample workpieces and time-consuming tests at the machine. Simulation on the digital twin gives you planning confidence and increases your productivity – and additionally furnishes you with a solid basis for transparent, reliable calculations for your quotations. 


Matics provides industry-leading shop floor control software that is often used for CNC machine monitoring purposes by customers.
CNC Production Monitoring: What Is It and How to Improve Efficiency?

High-Performance, Solid-Ceramic End Mills  offers ten times higher productivity and significant cost savings.
The strength of the material allows users to apply chip loads similar to solid-carbide end mills, with higher speeds common to ceramic machining.
FEB 10, 2021
GREENLEAF CORP. is offering a new line of high-performance solid-ceramic end mills -- XSYTIN®-360 -- that combine its phase-toughened XSYTIN®-1 substrate with a novel cutting geometry that offers ten times higher productivity and significant cost savings over current solid-carbide or ceramic products. The strength of the material allows users to apply chip loads similar to solid-carbide end mills with higher speeds common to ceramic machining.  




Honeycutt Manufacturing:  a GROB five-axis machining center with Siemens CNC onboard has reduced cycle time by 50% and tooling costs by 60%.

FEB 10, 2021
A GROB G550T five-axis universal machining center.
The machining set-up operations from six to two with the GROB,”  “cutting cycle times cut by 50% and reduction in  tooling costs about 60-70%.”

Within 30 days, the shop was ready to buy a second GROB with Siemens CNC. Now planning a building addition to house three or four more machines.

On jobs involving Inconel and titanium, the power of the machine plus the 0.0006-in. typical accuracies and 32-Ra finishes they were able to achieve, won the machine shop even more work





Vibration-Dampening Devices for Milling
Vibration risk is high in milling operations requiring long tool assemblies. The Silent Tools™ series includes CoroMill® 390 cutters and arbor milling adaptors designed for long reach face milling, deep shoulder and side milling, cavity milling, and slot milling.

Vibration-dampening control yields productivity gains of at least 50% for the shortest adapter lengths, and up to 300% for longer adapters in milling operations.

Vibration-Dampening Devices for Boring
Vibration is a frequent problem in boring operations, especially when machining with long overhangs. Sandvik Coromant’s vibration-dampening adaptors include a dedicated bridge-adaptor interface and internal coolant through the assembly. Devices are available for both rough boring and fine boring.

Greater vibration dampening control can boost productivity in boring operations by 50-200%.




Mitsubishi's  Gear Skiving Machines - MSS300

Mitsubishi's unique super skiving achieves higher productivity and longer tool life than conventional pinion skiving

Why Darmark trusts the reliability and support of Doosan and Ellison Technologies?

Darmark’s 5-Axis Milling Supervisor, Kyle Christensen, discusses increased productivity, performance and reliability, and the service and support from Ellison Technologies.

FEBRUARY 11, 2021

Productivity Improvement of CNC Machines with Robots
  • Robots also help speed up the production process of CNC machines. 
  • Robots and automation help reduce production losses by 25%; Automation saves the shop owner from procuring new machines every year and therefore saves expenses. 
  • In situations where 3 to 4 people were required to monitor the CNC machines, only a single person can easily monitor them after automation with robot. 
  • Therefore there is increase in machine productivity and operator productivity.


CNC gantry milling machining productivity is much higher than that of ordinary milling machines


CNC gantry milling machine can effectively reduce the time required for machining parts with high production efficiency, including motor time and auxiliary time, so the machining productivity is much higher than that of ordinary milling machines. It can realize the precision movement of the machine and reduces the labor intensity of the operator. The CNC gantry milling machine automatically completes the processing of the parts according to the pre-programmed program

WALTER DELIVERS THREAD CUTTING PRODUCTIVITY 
Walter is extending the concept of its multiple-row thread-milling cutters for producing shorter threads. Thanks to small spaces between insert rows, the T2710 offers the highly productive processing of thread depths up to 1.5xD.


The GLOBAL S coordinate measuring machine (CMM) provides superior measurement performance and enhanced productivity for your specific production needs.

Machine Tool Search Engine

CL5® 5-Axis Workholding

Jig & Fixture Bases,CL5® 5-Axis Workholding

The CL5® 5-axis workholding system is a quick-change tooling system specifically designed for 5-axis workholding. CL5® 5-axis workholding fixtures include a wide range of solutions for all sizes of rotary tables. CL5® 5-axis workholding solutions can be classified into three general areas, making use of either a fixture plate mounted on a rotary table, a Quintus quick-change riser mounted on a rotary table or subplate mounted on a rotary table. CL5® 5-axis workholding accessories, including locating keys and bolt sets are also available in this section of the Carr Lane catalog. 

Modular fixturing systems

Partner with Bluco for modular fixturing systems designed to increase accuracy and productivity.

The American Precision Museum

28 Jan (AM)
Productive Robotics and its OB7 cobot. Easy to Set up and Operate. Swiss Productions in Ventura, California Case

New CAD/CAM Release Optimizes Programming for Tools, Molds, More
hyperMILL 2021.1 offers new and enhanced features for 3D, 5-axis, and mill/turn machining, including an “Interactive Edit Toolpath” for toolpath editing after initial toolpath generation.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/cad-and-cam/article/21152902/new-cadcam-release-optimizes-programming-for-tools-molds-more-open-mind-technologies

Chuck Jaw Maximizes Flexibility for Mill/Turn Machining
A patent-pending 2+2 design increases set-up options for clampable workpiece geometries and provides a long compensation stroke -- 5.1 mm up to 10 mm per jaw – more than other available four -jaw chucks.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/new-products/article/21152916/chuck-jaw-maximizes-flexibility-for-millturn-machining-schunk

Customized Deep-Hole Drilling

Systems capable of drilling diameters up to 12 mm and depths up to 100x the diameter can be integrated directly into transfer machines, special purpose machines or conventional machine centers, like turning machines.
JAN 27, 2021

CAD/CAM Options for Increased Shop Productivity
January 27, 2021
CAD/CAM is always rapidly developing. Manufacturing technology continues to evolve to increase productivity.
Mastercam’s Dynamic Motion toolpath engine has been expanded to include more machining situations, including 2D milling, 3D milling, and turning. We’ve also upgraded both the “basic” and “advanced” ends of the CAM spectrum with smarter drilling and more automatic multiaxis cutting. Mastercam’s Accelerated Finishing toolpath strategy is also closely tied to next-generation tool forms being released.

With regard to tool forms, our relationships with tooling manufacturers yield direct benefits to Mastercam users. The ability to import tool libraries and use strategies for an expanding range of tool shapes saves programming time in addition to time on the machine.
https://www.sme.org/technologies/articles/2021/february/cadcam-options-for-increased-shop-productivity/


1/27/2021 | 
WORKHOLDING

Mitee-Bite Fixtures Facilitate Large-Part Vertical Machining
Mitee-Bite Products’ fixtures demonstrated their powerful clamping support in a project with Akron Gear & Engineering to vertically hold a 1-ton ring during machining.
#casestudy

Download article collection on AI and Manufacturing

Reviewing the Possibilities with Live Tooling
JAN 13, 2021
Live tooling, as a component on a lathe, is specifically manipulated by the CNC to perform various milling, drilling and other operations while the workpiece is being held in position by the main or sub spindle. These components, whether BMT or VDI, are also called driven tools (as opposed to static tools) that are used during turning operations.
https://www.americanmachinist.com/machining-cutting/media-gallery/21152344/reviewing-the-possibilities-with-live-tooling-platinum-tooling-technologies

CNC Machining vs Manual Machining - Part 1

1 Jan 2021

PracticalMachinist 

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Kzxx8k5gcY

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Business of Machining - 2020 Year in Review - Podcast - Saunders Machine Works - NYC CNC

https://podcasts.apple.com/fm/podcast/2020-year-in-review/id1206942864?i=1000504037287

https://businessofmachining.libsyn.com/2020-year-in-review


Simulation of CNC Machining to validate the machining feasibility of a part design

Protolabs

Rotork Case

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaSCVzF6vTg

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Books

1st Edition

Machining Processes and Machines

Fundamentals, Analysis, and Calculations

By Zainul Huda

Copyright Year 2021

https://www.routledge.com/Machining-Processes-and-Machines-Fundamentals-Analysis-and-Calculations/Huda/p/book/9780367532697

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Machine Shop Engineering & Technology - Research Papers -  2021


Machining Science and Technology, Volume 25

https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/lmst20/current


International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture

Design, Research & Application

https://www.journals.elsevier.com/international-journal-of-machine-tools-and-manufacture



Research trends in abrasive flow machining: A systematic review

NitinDixit, VarunSharma,PradeepKumar

Journal of Manufacturing Processes

Volume 64, April 2021, Pages 1434-1461

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1526612521001754


On the Effect of Multiple Passes on Kerf Characteristics and Efficiency of Abrasive Waterjet Cutting

Panagiotis Karmiris-Obrata´nski  , Nikolaos E. Karkalos , Rafał Kudelski, Emmanouil L. Papazoglou  and Angelos P. Markopoulos 

Metals 2021, 11, 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11010074

Published: 1 January 2021

https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4701/11/1/74/pdf


Important Points

At increased values of waterjet pressure, there is a clear increase of the MRR at higher numbers of passes, meaning that the material removal process becomes more efficient when multiple passes at higher traverse speed are preferred than single machining passes at lower traverse speeds. 

For calculation of the cutting efficiency, in the  literature, the concept is defined as the amount of material removed per unit mass of abrasive consumed. 

For different abrasive mass flow rate values, the increase of machining passes leads usually to higher cutting efficiency in comparison to the efficiency of the single pass machining case, and the same is observed for increasing jet pressure, especially for the highest value of jet pressure where the efficiency for the case with eight passes is almost 1.5 times higher than that of the single pass case.

The authors conclusion: "it can be deduced that a correct combination of process parameters and number of passes can lead to an increase of cutting efficiency, and it was shown that the use of multiple passes is more effective at higher abrasive mass flow rate and jet pressure values."

So there is scope for productivity engineering to determine the right combination of process parameters for a job, machine and tool combinations.


Open Access

Published: 04 January 2021

Face Grinding Surface Quality of High Volume Fraction SiCp/Al Composite Materials

Xu Zhao, Yadong Gong, Guiqiang Liang, Ming Cai & Bing Han 

Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering volume 34, Article number: 3 (2021) Cite this article

Lower feeding amount, lower grinding depth and appropriately higher spindle speed should be chosen to obtain better surface quality. Lower feeding amount, higher grinding depth and spindle speed should be chosen to balance grind efficiently and surface quality. 


            Spindle             Feeding                    Grinding

          speed (r/min)     amount (mm/min)     depth (μm)

1    2000                   50                            5

2    4000                  100                         20

3    6000                                         40

4    8000                                         80





04.01.2021  Research Article

Multi-objective optimization of machining factors on surface roughness, material removal rate and cutting force on end-milling using MWCNTs nano-lubricant
https://www.springerprofessional.de/multi-objective-optimization-of-machining-factors-on-surface-rou/18722564



















Process Charts, Maps, Diagrams and Operation Analysis Sheet

Lesson 75 of Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course.



Maynard & Stegemerten (1939)



Process Charts. A process chart may be broadly defined as any charted presentation of information connected with a manufacturing process or any other engineering process or business process.

Process charts, however, were originally designed by Frank B. Gilbreth for industrial use.

The information that is presented in the  process charts along with the steps in the process can include any or all of such factors as time for  operations performed, machine time,  motions used, operator time,  working and idle time of machines, cost, production data, time allowances, distance moved, and other similar data.

Use of Process Charts. The process chart forms a convenient means of presenting in a limited space information about a process. It shows operations performed in a process. It can be used to show the relation among operations, the steps of a process, and several sets of data. It permits the quick visualization of a problem so that improvement can be undertaken systematically and in logical sequence. it is a means of preparing data for study so that those who are making the study can grasp the problem at a glance and proceed toward its solution without wasted effort in each observing and understanding the process. If  a process chart is first prepared and every member of the group is given a copy to study, the discussion will start at the beginning and proceed systematically toward the end.
Progress is rapid, and little time is wasted by the discussion going off at a tangent.

The detail of the process study depends entirely upon the job under consideration. There is no fixed form of process chart that is rigidly adhered to by all methods engineers, or even by any one engineer. The chart is varied to suit the nature of the study that is being made and the data that it is desired to present.

There are, however, certain major types of charts that,  are widely used for methods-study work.

1. Operation process charts.
2. Flow process charts.
3. Man and machine process charts.
4. Operator process charts.
5. Progress process charts.
6. Miscellaneous types.

Operation Process Chart

On the operation process chart are usually shown:
1. The input materials.
2. The operations.
3. The inspections.
4. The time allowances for both operations and inspections.

Other information such as machine or work-station identification, male or female labor, pieces per hour, and the like, can be given if desired. The four items listed above are practically always required for any methods study and should always be recorded upon the chart as a matter of standard practice.  It is to be noted that as part of method study first time study of each operation/inspection needs to be done. Then productivity improvement implies reduction of the time taken. It is a simple matter to add other information to the chart if it is desired (More information needed has to be added. For example what are defects found after inspection. Why is it important? To eliminate waste. Defects are waste and if inspection activity identifies more defects, operation has to be improved to increase productivity).

Operation process charts are drawn on plain paper of sufficient size to accommodate the information that must be recorded. Two steps and  two standard symbols (Operation and Inspection) are used. The symbols are useful for distinguishing at a glance between operations and inspections without the necessity of reading the detailed information given on the chart.

If an operation process chart is drawn up as the first step of a methods study, it insures that the study will begin at the right point which is the first operation and proceed systematically to the last operation.

The flow process chart

When it is necessary to show in detail the exact manner in which a process is performed, describing what happens between operations as well as the operations themselves, the flow process chart is more suitable. This is desirable on certain types of studies, but on others the mass of detail would be too great for ready interpretation. The operation process chart shows the problem more clearly. If after a preliminary study more detailed information is desired, flow charts can be made for the various parts that make up the complete assembly.

The flow chart shows the different steps of a process such as operations, inspections, distance traveled, cessations of travel. The material of which a product is made is more commonly the item that is studied by flow charts;

Symbols Used for Flow-chart Construction. The earlier flow charts used about 40 different symbols to indicate the nature of the steps portrayed. Experience has shown, however, that too many different symbols detract from the clearness of the chart besides adding to the mechanical difficulties of chart construction, and modern practice therefore calls for the use of but six symbols. Sixth one, Denotes movement or operation outside the control of the investigator.

Time estimates for operation step is normally available. Time consumed by transportations may be determined by brief time study. lIn certain studies, time spent in temporary storage is one of the most important factors, for these studies are made primarily to decrease the time required to complete the process. Hence, it is important to have correct temporary storage data if improvement is to be made.

Operation- and flow-process-chart construction need not be limited to methods engineers. The charts can be constructed by anyone who has a problem to solve and who is willing to take the time to understand and apply the comparatively simple principles of process-chart preparation. Certain more progressive plants have given courses in methods engineering to their key supervisors and they are using them.

After process level analysis, a refined analysis needs to be performed upon the operations themselves. With the general nature of the problem understood and with the major inefficiencies either recognized or eliminated, the analyst is in a position to begin a study of each operation involved in the process with the idea of improving upon the operations themselves. This analysis requires more information and operation analysis sheet needs to be used.  Two other types of process charts  (Man and machine process charts and  Operator process charts)  are usually constructed only after a detailed analysis of the factors that surround a given operation have shown that they are needed.

Operations Analysis

Process charts show operations involved in a process. Operations are to be improved individually after process level improvements like eliminating waste or non value added operations are removed and sequence of operations is altered to derive productivity benefits. For doing operation improvement, more detailed information about the operation has to be collected and recorded. Maynard and Stegemerten descried the complete procedure of operation analysis and operator information sheet.

Operation analysis was already covered in an earlier lesson.





Process Charts and Other Recording Devices - R.L. Barnes (1931).


“Process charts are used to record in a simple, compact form and to visualize the elements of a process in sequence and in relation to the entire process. They record present practice for the purpose of studying and analyzing the present practice and also serve in visualizing possibility processes which improve the present practice by (1) changing the sequence of elements, (2) eliminating elements, (3) combining elements, and (4) substituting or changing elements. “As a record of standard practice, the process chart serves as an authoritative and complete picture of the entire process. It is particularly useful as a teaching device and as a means of maintenance.

After the initial pioneers, Maynard and Barnes contributed significantly in process industrial engineering area. Studying their books is important for industrial engineers, especially post-graduates in industrial engineering.






Important points in the Lesson

Maynard & Stegemerten (1939)

Process Charts. A process chart may be broadly defined as any charted presentation of information connected with a manufacturing process or any other engineering process or business process.

The information that is presented in the  process charts along with the steps in the process can include any or all of such factors as time for  operations performed, machine time,  motions used, operator time,  working and idle time of machines, cost, production data, time allowances, distance moved, and other similar data.

If  a process chart is first prepared and every member of the group is given a copy to study, the discussion will start at the beginning and proceed systematically toward the end. Progress is rapid, and little time is wasted by the discussion going off at a tangent.

There are certain major types of charts that,  are widely used for methods-study work.

1. Operation process charts.
2. Flow process charts.
3. Man and machine process charts.
4. Operator process charts.
5. Progress process charts.
6. Miscellaneous types.

If an operation process chart is drawn up as the first step of a methods study, it insures that the study will begin at the right point which is the first operation and proceed systematically to the last operation.

When it is necessary to show in detail the exact manner in which a process is performed, describing what happens between operations as well as the operations themselves, the flow process chart is more suitable.

The operation process chart shows the problem more clearly. If after a preliminary study more detailed information is desired, flow charts can be made for the various parts that make up the complete assembly.

Time estimates for processing operation step is normally available. Time for other operations may be determined by brief time study.

After process level analysis, a refined analysis needs to be performed upon the operations themselves.

This analysis requires more information and operation analysis sheet needs to be used.

Process Charts and Other Recording Devices - R.L. Barnes (1931).


“Process charts are used to record in a simple, compact form and to visualize the elements of a process in sequence and in relation to the entire process.


Updated on  1 August 2021,  3 August 2020
First published on 31 July 2020