Thursday, July 9, 2020

North Carolina State University - Raleigh - Industrial Engineering Programs

14) North Carolina State University at Raleigh,  Raleigh, North Carolina
BS Curriculum: -

Louis Martin-Vega (Dean of Engineering)

"Industrial and systems engineers improve quality and productivity while at the same time cutting waste like time, materials, money, and energy."

Productivity Management: - Not in Curriculum.

Yahya Fathi
Professor and Director of the Graduate Program

Steve Jackson
Director of Graduate Programs, IMSEI

Louis Martin-Vega
Dean of Engineering

Julie Swann
Department Head

NCSU-ISC Curriculum -  Productivity Management: - Not in Curriculum.

Updated on 9 July 2020

Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Machining Cutting Tools - Industrial Engineering and Productivity Aspects

Lesson 52 of Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course

Lesson 9 of Process Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course (Module)

When Taylor started his productivity improvement studies and research, only carbon steel is the tool material. Taylor, developed high speed steel and did number of experiments to find the maximum cutting speed, feed and depth of cut combinations for various machining jobs.  This productivity improvement of machining by Taylor is the foundation for industrial engineering. Industrial engineering is engineering with productivity focus.

In the area of cutting tools, number of new materials were discovered and invented increasing the cutting speed, feed and depth of cut combinations to give very high material removal rate. Industrial engineers have to know the application of each tool materials and its best use in a machining job. They need industrial engineering knowledge base to guide them in this area of productivity improvement. They need to examine productivity aspect of each and every cutting tool element and develop ways to use the productivity potential in their process plans. Some aspects are covered in this note at the moment. They will be updated.

Cutting-Tool Materials

High-Speed Steel (HSS) and Related Materials
Sintered Tungsten Carbide (WC).
Polycrystalline Tools
Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN)
Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD)

Tool Coatings

Coating Methods
Conventional Coating Materials
Diamond and CBN Coatings

Tool  Geometry

Cutting Tool Materials

Ceramics - Ceramic Tools

Ceramic cutting tools can be divided into four categories

1. Alumina and Alumina mixed with zirconium oxide
2. Alumina-titanium carbide composites
3. Reaction-bonded silicon nitride (Si3N4, RB)

Si3N4 is the most appropriate ceramic tool material for machining cast iron at a speed up to 1200 m/min.

 4. Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina, [SiCw-Al2O3]

Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD)

PCD, the hardest of all tool materials, exhibits excellent wear resistance, holds an extremely sharp edge, generates little friction in the cut, provides high fracture strength, and has good thermal conductivity. These properties contribute to PCD tooling’s long life in conventional and high speed machining of soft, nonferrous materials (aluminum, magnesium, copper, and brass alloys), advanced composites and metal-matrix composites, superalloys, and nonmetallic materials. PCD is particularly well suited for abrasive materials (i.e., drilling and reaming metal-matrix composites)
where it can provide significantly better tool life than carbide.

PCD is not usually recommended for ferrous materials due to the high solubility of diamond (carbon) in iron. However, they can be used to machine some of these materials under special conditions; for example, light milling cuts can be made in gray cast iron at speeds below 200 m/min.

PCD tooling requires a rigid machining system because PCD tools are very sensitive to vibration.

In mass production operations, the attainable tool life may be over 1 million parts (e.g., for diamond-tipped drills or PCD milling cutters machining soft aluminum alloys). However,  tooling breaks due to vibration or rough handling might occur before wear becomes significant.

Grades of PCD  vary  between 1 and 100 μm.  Grades are grouped in several categories with average grain sizes of 1–4, 5–10, and 20–50 μm. The abrasive wear resistance, thermal conductivity, and impact resistance increase with increasing grain size, but finer grained tools produce smoother machined surface finishes. A coarse-grained PCD tool may provide 50% better abrasive wear resistance than a fine-grained tool, but produce a surface with 50% higher roughness. New laser-honing methods can reduce edge radii for coarse grained PCD and produce finer finishes with these grades. Because of their increased impact and abrasive wear resistance, coarse grades are preferred for milling and for machining high-silicon aluminum alloys and metal-matrix composites.

Multimodal PCD grades (made with bimodal, trimodal, or quadimodal distributions of PCD particles) provide the high abrasion resistance of coarse-grained unimodal grade with the high toughness and superior edge sharpness of medium-size grain tools. The PCD density increases with multiple particles sizes. Multimodal grades are less prone to chipping than unimodal grades.

Laser structuring has recently been applied to flat-topped PCD inserts to produce 3-D chipbreaking grooves and similar features, which have proven effective in ductile material applications where chip control has traditionally been an issue.

PCD-tipped HSS or carbide rotary tools (e.g., reamers, end mills, drills, etc.) are available in a limited range of geometries due to difficulties in grinding complex geometries, particularly on small diameter tools. More complex geometries can be used on carbide rotary tools by sintering the diamond into slots (veins) located at the point and/or along the flutes.

Issues to be resolved include identifying the optimal cutting edge geometry for the diamond tip and the best method of pocketing the polycrystalline blank for strength and manufacturability. The methods of brazing the polycrystalline/carbide substrate tip to the main tool body have been improving steadily, but one of the major failure modes is still the detachment of the polycrystalline tip or the wear and erosion of the braze joints intersecting the cutting edge. Wear and erosion of brazed joints is avoided when the diamond is sintered into veins within the carbide tool.

The point geometry, flute geometry, and web thickness have not been refined sufficiently to allow use of polycrystalline brazed drills at penetration rates comparable to the feed rates attainable in turning and milling. (Stephenson-agapiou)

The six basic types of cutting tools are solid tools, welded or brazed tip tools, brazed head tools,
sintered tools, inserted blade tools, and indexable tools

Case Studies

Production Machining - Cutting Tool Case Studies

Systems Approach to Tooling

Advanced Turning Insert Selection - Mitsubishi Course

Pocketing with high speed router RAL 90

The RAL90 aluminium milling cutter is designed for extremely high metal removal rates. The extra robust cutter body with optimized insert seats sets the standard for a new level of process stability in high speed milling - ideal for heavy roughing to semi-finishing pocketing of aerospace frames in aluminium alloys.

In applications requiring even higher metal removal rates, the new RAL90 Super MRR milling cutter can reach extra high spindle rotation, e.g. up to 33000 RPM for DC 50 mm compared to 23500 RPM for RAL90. This means a 40% productivity increase.

Machining aluminium for lighter and better recyclable vehicles

Options, Benefits and Applications of Machining with Ceramic Turning or Milling Inserts


Kennametal’s KBH10B and KBH20B grades are designed for hard turning. They are available in double-sided inserts for materials as hard as 65 HRC.  The inserts are  for “high-volume production of hardened gears, shafts, bearings, housings and other drivetrain components. A ceramic binder structure and TiN/TiAlN/TiN coating provide extreme wear resistance even at elevated cutting speeds.  A gold PVD coating makes it easier to identify when an insert needs indexing, while the numbered corners ensure that a machine operator does not inadvertently switch to a used edge. Edge preparation in a “trumpet-style” hone, is  for heavier and interrupted cuts. 

A light hone edge inserts are for continuous turning. Both inserts give extending tool life and generate surface finish values as low as 0.2 Ra.

2014-07-29 (Reg Ral 90)
An optimally designed, high-precision insert seat with seat numbering ensures a maximum runout accuracy of 20 microns axially and 15 microns radially, a feed rate of 0.3 mm/tooth and cutting depths of up to 14 mm.

Sandvik Coromant 2020 catalogues

Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course

Industrial Engineering ONLINE FREE Course

Course started on 19 May 2020 (You can start any time and read the lessons you choose instead of following the sequence recommended.You can always read earlier lessons as needed)

Bookmark the Page - Visit Every Day - Read the Note on a New Topic and an Example on Practice.  You can subscribe to the blog to get email notification each time the new essay and case study/practice illustration are added to the course (plan is to add one daily).

Online Handbook of Industrial Engineering

Principles of Industrial Engineering


Areas to to be Covered in the Industrial Engineering Online Course 

  • Introduction to Industrial Engineering
  • Contribution of Taylor, Gilbreth, Emerson, Maynard, Barnes, Shigeo Shingo
  • Productivity Science
  • Productivity Engineering - Product Industrial Engineering, Process Industrial Engineering
  • IE Economic Analysis
  • IEOR
  • IE Statistics - Six Sigma Optimization
  • Human Effort Industrial Engineering
  • IE Measurements
  • Productivity Management
  • Applied Industrial Engineering - Industrial Engineering 4.0

For each course day, the idea is to provide an article explaining the concepts and methods and one more article describing practice of industrial engineering methods, techniques and tools.

Please give your feedback.

Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao, Professor,  National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai, India.

Author of Principles of Industrial EngineeringFunctions of Industrial Engineering and Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering.

Industrial Engineering Course Lessons

From 1st July 2020

Visit for Module 3 Process Industrial Engineering Lessons

Day 1 (19 May 2020)

Introduction to Industrial Engineering - Module 1

Day 1 (19 May 2020)

Industrial Engineering - History

Industrial engineers (IE) are employed and productivity improvement and cost reduction are practiced in many companies using IE  philosophy, principles, methods, techniques and tools.
Apple Inc. - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Day 2

Industrial Engineering - Definition and Explanation

IE Continuous Improvement - 3 Years - 50% Cost Reduction - Diplexer Line Case Study

Day 3

Industrial Engineering Introduction

BMW - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Day 4

Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson

Coca-Cola - Cisco Systems - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Day 5

Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques

DuPont - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Day 6

Functions and Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering

Value Engineering - Paddy Transplanter - Case Study

Day 7

Industrial Engineering of Belting - 1893

Ford - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Day 8

Productivity Science

GE going strong on Lean & Kaizen
GlaxoSmithKline - GE - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Day 9

Product Industrial Engineering

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles - Part 1

Day 10

Process Industrial Engineering

Process Industrial Engineering - Illustration: Process Industrial Engineering Using Robo Cylinder

Day 11

Industrial Engineering Economic Analysis

Honda - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Day 12

IE Measurements

Milling - Estimation of Machining Time

Day 13

Value Creation for the Organization by Industrial Engineers - Productivity Engineering

Process Industrial Engineering - Illustration:  Gear Machining Productivity

1st June 2020

Module  2

Contribution of Taylor, Gilbreth, Emerson, Maynard, Barnes, Lehrer, Shigeo Shingo

Day 14

Taylor - Productivity Science and Art of Metal Cutting - Important Points

Process Industrial Engineering - Illustration:    Cryogenic Machining Adoption - Productivity Improvement at Lockheed Martin


Taylor's Industrial Engineering - First Proposal 1895

Process Industrial Engineering - Illustration - Investment in Sliding-Head Lathe with Chipbreaking Feature


Industrial Engineering Described in Shop Management by F.W. Taylor

Process Industrial Engineering - Illustration - Process Improvement via Toolholder Change


Productivity Improvement in Machine Shop - F.W. Taylor

Tool Wear and Temperature Analysis for Process Improvement


Development of Science in Mechanic Arts - F.W. Taylor

Dynamic Control of Circulatory Pumps for Heating Systems Saves 20% of Energy Cost


Time Study for Process Time Reduction - F.W. Taylor

Process Industrial Engineering - Illustration - Additive Manufacturing of Fixtures - Productivity Benefits


Taylor on Quality, Human Relations and Management

Process Industrial Engineering - Illustration -Alternative Lubricants and Productivity - Case Study


Gilbreth's Human Effort Industrial Engineering Motion Study - Part 1

Illustration of Human Effort Productivity Improvement - Bricklaying Improvement by Gilbreth


Gilbreth's Human Effort Industrial Engineering - Motion Study - Part 2

Illustration of Human Effort Productivity Improvement - Pig Iron Handling by Taylor


Gilbreth's Human Effort Industrial Engineering - Motion Study - Part 3

Illustration of Human Effort Productivity Improvement - Bicycle Balls Inspection Example - Taylor


Gilbreth's Human Effort Industrial Engineering - Motion Study - Part 4

Case Study - Method Study - Cast Iron Housing Loading and Unloading 2014


Gilbreth's Human Effort Industrial Engineering - Productivity Science of Motion Study - Variables Affecting of Motion Time.

Case Study - Method Study - Welding Fixture Redesign - Productivity Improvement 2002


Gilbreth's Human Effort Industrial Engineering - Productivity Science of Motion Study - Future Scope

Case Study: Method and Motion Study in a Printing Company - 2019


Process Charts - Gilbreths - 1921

Case Study - Examining All Operations in a Process


It is important that industrial engineers have to recognize that scientific management was evaluated by Lilian Gilbreth, a psychologist from a human behavior  perspective and a positive opinion was given. Industrial engineering, appeared as a part of the system of management and engineering developed to reduce cost of products made using engineering processes and methods.

Psychology Evaluation of Scientific Management by Lilian Gilbreth - 1914

Implementing Standard Work - Issues


After discussing the contribution of Taylor and Gilbreth in more detail, the contribution of many other industrial engineering researchers, professionals, consultants and authors are provided in a series of notes to introduce more industrial engineering concepts. These concepts and their applications will be discussed in more detail in various focus area modules of the course.

Harrington Emerson - A Pioneer Industrial Engineer - His Principles and Practices

Case Study: New Scheduling Algorithm Substantially Improves Foundry Productivity - 2017


Prof. Hugo Diemer - Taylor's Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering Exercise: Productivity Analysis of a Newly Introduced Machine


Industrial Engineering - The Concept - Developed by Going in 1911

Productivity Improvement Using Alternative Boring Heads


Taylor Society Bulletin

Information for IE: Productivity Improvement Technology in Grinding - 2020


H.B. Maynard - Operation Analysis - Introduction

Operation Analysis and Improvement: Application of Tribos Toolholder for Productivity


H.B. Maynard - Methods Time Measurement (MTM) - Introduction

Operation Improvement:   Rego-Fix ER Collets for Tools - Productivity Improvement Case


Work Simplification - Alan Mogensen

Operation Improvement: Productivity Improvement Through Tool and Toolholder Change - Corogrip


Method Study - Ralph M. Barnes - Important Points of Various Chapters

Collet for Corochuck 930 with Mechanical Locking - Productivity Improvement Use Case


Product Industrial Engineering for Cost Reduction - L.D. Miles

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles - Part 2


L.D. Miles - 13 Techniques of Value Analysis

Unless special effort to know is made, engineers take 10 years to know engineering developments and implement them in their company processes - L.D. MILES.
Prime Turning (TM) - New Turning Process with High Productivity


Yoichi Ueno - Japanese Leader in Efficiency - Productivity Movement

Sandvik PrimeTurning™ Increases Productivity - Case Studies


Toyota style Industrial Engineering - Waste Elimination - Ohno

"We have eliminated waste by examining available resources, rearranging machines, improving machining processes, installing autonomous systems, improving tools, analyzing transportation methods and optimizing the materials at hand for manufacturing. High production efficiency has also been maintained by preventing the recurrence of defective products, operational mistakes, and accidents, and by incorporating workers' ideas." Taiichi Ohno (P. 21)

Taiichi Ohno on Industrial Engineering - Toyota Style Industrial Engineering

Productivity Improvement Using Through-Tool High Pressure Coolant


Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System

3D Printing Multiple Numbers as a Vertical Stack - Significant Productivity Improvement


Taylor's Industrial Engineering in New Framework - Narayana Rao

Seco Jetstream Tooling - Benefit - Case Study


Review of Module 1 - Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course

Industrial Engineering Concepts - Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course Module 2 - Review

Third Module - Process Industrial Engineering 


Introduction to Process Industrial Engineering Module


IE Research by Taylor Part 1 - Productivity of Machining

Visit for Module 3 Process Industrial Engineering for Further Lessons

The Course Page First posted on 19 May 2020

Updated on 6 July 2020

産業工学 - 定義 - Industrial Engineering in Japanese

Industrial Engineering - Definition


Industrial engineering is the engineering of human effort and system efficiency.

Narayana Rao
NITIE, Mumbai, India

Economics Engineering -

Production Efficiency Engineering - Industrial Engineering  - article

Manufacturing ideation method course [cost reduction course] that changes common sense

What is Real IE (Industrial Engineering)?

I liked this passage in the above post

(2) The optimal combination is the lowest cost
 As described above, the IE is a science dealing with the design, improvement, and implementation of a system integrating all production factors. However, the IE has been developed from the science of human beings, and the analysis of "human" in the production factor is the IE method, the analysis of equipment is the TPM (Total Production Management) method, the "material" There is a misunderstanding that the analysis targeting uses the TPS (Toyota Production System) method. (I would say IE is first engineering. It is practice of engineering with focus on productivity right from its birth. TPM has more focus on equipment and it is extension of IE with special focus on equipment. TPS is primarily IE with focus on material that is inventory that is delay reduction.)

However, an optimal production system cannot be obtained even if only the efficiency of one production factor is pursued. *The aim of improving the efficiency of one production factor is contrary to the intent of the IE (Additional explanation: IE is for reducing the total cost of the product being produced or service rendered. So one should not increase the productivity of one factor and increase the cost of another factor much more such that total cost increases).

Some factories are running state-of-the-art capital investment for the purpose of automation, but the decision to replace equipment with humans is whether there is a cost merit. Again, the combination changes between high and low paying countries. On the other hand, it is meaningless to reduce labor productivity by increasing the number of people in the equipment to improve the equipment productivity.

If there are no shortages, it is desirable to have a small inventory, but it is meaningless to aim for zero inventory and increase setup and reduce labor productivity. It is meaningless if the production volume fluctuates due to lack of inventory, resulting in excessive capital investment. You can compare the advantage of inventory and equipment adjustment with money.

As described above, the determination as to whether or not the optimal combination of production factors is made is made with money (cost). Therefore, cost calculation is indispensable for IE.

In Original (Japanese)

 このように、IEはすべての生産要素を総合したシステムの設計、改善、および実施に関することを扱う科学である。しかし、IEは人の科学から発展した経緯もあって、生産要素の中で「人」を対象にした分析はIE手法、設備を対象にした分析はTPM(Total Production Management)手法、「資材」を対象にした分析はTPS(Toyota Production System)手法を用いるかのような誤解がある。ところが、ひとつの生産要素の効率だけを追求しても最適生産システムは得られない。ひとつの生産要素の効率化をねらうやり方はIEの趣旨に反するのだ。

Interesting from the same site
IE and the basics of the production system: Principles for considering improvement and ideas
IE and the basics of the production system ③: Continuation of the two aspects of productivity improvement and cost reduction .

産業工学の原則  Industrial engineering principles

Principles  of  Industrial engineering

Sangyō kōgaku no gensoku

Japanese for Productivity     生産性   "Shōsansei"  productiveness, productivity, fecundity

About improving Process Efficiency/Productivity and Reducing Cost of Production/Process.  #IndustrialEngineering

Process Industrial Engineering 

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


Industrial engineering is Gemba based (現場)  continuous engineering of products and processes to increase productivity/efficiency/cost reduction
80 - 20 Rule in Industrial Engineering - 80% Engineering - 20% Human Motions and Movements

Industrial Engineering in Top Global Manufacturing Companies - Top 100

For each 100 million dollars cost of production, there can be one MS IE and 6 BSIEs.

Value Creation Model for Industrial Engineering - Productivity Engineering #IndustrialEngineering  #Productivity

Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course

The contribution of three Japanese stalwarts is included as lessons in the course.

Yoichi Ueno - Japanese Leader in Efficiency - Productivity Movement

Toyota style Industrial Engineering - Waste Elimination - Ohno

"We have eliminated waste by examining available resources, rearranging machines, improving machining processes, installing autonomous systems, improving tools, analyzing transportation methods and optimizing the materials at hand for manufacturing. High production efficiency has also been maintained by preventing the recurrence of defective products, operational mistakes, and accidents, and by incorporating workers' ideas." Taiichi Ohno (P. 21)

Taiichi Ohno on Industrial Engineering - Toyota Style Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System

Updated on 8 July 2020,  20 May 2020,  18 March 2020,  29 November 2019,  18 July 2019, 6 June 2012

University of Michigan-Ann Arbor - Industrial Engineering Programs

University of Michigan:-

BSE  Curriculum:-

MS Curriculum:-

Productivity Management:- Not in Curriculum.

Mark Daskin (Chair of the Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering)
Email:-  msdaskin @  (connected)

Current as of: 2017
Industrial & Operations Engineering  University of Michigan
Courses of interest for students in Engineering Management

IOE 551 Benchmarking, Productivity Analysis, and Performance Measurement

Undergraduate program courses

Yili Liu
Arthur F. Thurnau Professor, Industrial & Operations Engineering,
IOE Undergraduate Program Advisor

Brian Denton
Professor and Chair, Industrial & Operations Engineering


Larry Seiford
Professor, Industrial and Operations Engineering; Goff Smith Co-Director, Tauber Institute for Global Operations
Prof Seiford taught IOE 551 Benchmarking, Productivity Analysis, and Performance Measurement

Katta Murty
Professor Emeritus, Industrial & Operations Engineering

Industrial & Operations Engineering
  BSE Programs & Curriculum

Computer and Information Processing
Management Engineering
Manufacturing Engineering
Operations Research
Quality Engineering
Minors, Concentrations and Programs

Management Engineering
In the design and implementation of integrated systems, industrial engineers must be able to master the technology of new systems, to understand the technical change process, and to achieve the benefits of such systems. Management engineering courses emphasize the role of people acting as individuals, and in groups, in operating systems. Theories of administration, group dynamics, and human motivation are applied to specific managerial problems related to the establishment, clarification and modification of an organization’s objectives. They also cover the design, evaluation, and improvement of human–machine systems for accomplishing these objectives

Manufacturing Engineering
Manufacturing engineering is concerned with determining how to manufacture engineered products with minimal capital investments and operating costs in facilities safe to both workers and the environment. Students study methods for evaluating production and inventory systems, facility layout, and material handling systems and are prepared to aid in the daily operation of a manufacturing facility while evaluating operations for the future.

Industrial & Operations Engineering
MS/MSE Programs & Curriculum

Occupational Safety Engineering and Ergonomics
Production, Distribution and Logistics
Quality Engineering and Applied Statistics
Financial Engineering
Operations Research
Engineering Management
Concentration in Healthcare Engineering

Production, Distribution & Logistics (PDL) Option
Courses in this group focus on methods and techniques for optimal PDL, including simulation, inventory analysis, scheduling and manufacturing systems.


Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. It is the principal city of the Ann Arbor Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Washtenaw County. Ann Arbor is also included in the larger Greater Detroit Combined Statistical Area.

Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michigan. The university significantly shapes Ann Arbor's economy as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. The city's economy is also centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development infrastructure.,_Michigan

Updated on   8 July 2020,  22 September 2019, 1 September 2019

Intel - Industrial Engineering Activities and Jobs

Industrial Engineering - Productivity Improvement - Process Improvement - Product Redesign - Continuous Improvement

Industrial engineering is improvement in various elements of engineering operations to increase productivity. Along with engineering elements, industrial engineers evaluate and improve many other elements also as they are responsible for productivity and cost of items produced in a process. Through assignments of improving productivity and efficiency of information technology and software engineering processes, industrial engineers specializing in IT were given responsibility for business processes also. Thus industrial engineers with focus on various branches of engineering provide their services to companies and society to improve various elements of the products and processes on a continuous basis over the product life cycle. They are active in engineering or production-maintenance-service-logistic processes and business processes.

Productivity improvement always focuses on quality and flexibility issues as productivity improvement should not lead to any deterioration in quality or flexibility. Delivery and cost are always at the core of industrial engineering. Thus when QFCD paradigm came, that is attention to quality, flexibility, cost and delivery became prominent, many industrial engineers were given the responsibility of managing this function of continuous improvement.



Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering - Brief Explanation

Productivity Science: Science developed for each element of machine operation and each element of human tasks in industry.
Productivity Science - Determinants of Productivity

Product Industrial Engineering: Redesign of products to reduce cost and increase value keeping the quality intact.
Product Industrial Engineering

Process Industrial Engineering: Redesign of processes to reduce cost and increase value keeping the quality intact.
Process Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering Optimization: Optimizing industrial engineering solutions created in Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering.
Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Industrial Engineering Statistics: Using statistical tools like data description, sampling and design of experiments in industrial engineering activity.
Statistics and Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering Economics: Economic analysis of industrial engineering projects.
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Human Effort Industrial Engineering: Redesign of products and processes to increase satisfaction and reduce discomfort and other negative consequence to operators.
Motion Study - Human Effort Industrial Engineering

Productivity Measurement: Various measurements done by industrial engineers in industrial setting to collect data, analyze data and use the insights in redesign: Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering.
Industrial Engineering Data and Measurements

Productivity Management: Management undertaken by industrial engineers to implement Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering. Management processes industrial engineering is also part of productivity management.
Productivity Management

Applied Industrial Engineering: Application of industrial engineering in new technologies, existing technologies, engineering business and industrial processes and other areas.
Applied Industrial Engineering - Process Steps

How many Industrial Engineers can a Company Employ for Cost Reduction?

For $100 million cost, there can be one MS IE and 6 BSIEs.

Industrial Engineering - Lean Manufacturing - Parent - Child Relationship


Intel Purpose

Our Purpose
We create world-changing technology that enriches the lives of every person on earth.
We are inspired to:

Drive innovation that makes the world safer, builds healthy and vibrant communities, and increases productivity.
Harness our reach around the globe to better society, business, and the planet.
Push ourselves and our industry peers to be more responsible, inclusive, and sustainable.
We have big ambitions, and a growing sense of urgency to work with others and address world challenges no one can tackle alone.

Note: Productivity is a strategic objective for Intel.

Intel’s Data Center Industrial Engineering - USD 2.8 Billion in Savings - Productivity and Continuous Cost Reduction Strategy

Shesha Krishnapura | September 25, 2019

Technologies, solutions, and processes are applied to optimally serve Intel’s business through the following metrics: best-in-class quality of service (QoS), lowest unit cost, and resource utilization efficiency.

Continual improvement is done in each of these three metrics. The potential for improvement is first  defined as a “Model of Record” (MOR). This term represents a data center environment with an unconstrained budget ro buy the latest and greatest technology, develop new solutions, and update or develop new processes. In this MOR environment,   the lowest unit cost, best QoS, and maximum utilization are calculated. The MOR improves every year, because technology and processes improve every year. (Industrial engineers to note especially. IEs have to learn about new technologies and developments in existing technologies on a continuous basis.)

But in reality, every IT shop has a limited budget. Within that limited budget only, investments in improvement are done. This real world environment is called the “Plan of Record” (POR). Year over year, the goal is to improve the POR at a faster rate of change than the MOR changes, so that actual results get  closer to the MOR every year. Intel's seemingly simple MOR/POR data center transformation strategy has created unprecedented business value: a cost savings exceeding USD 2.8 billion (over 9 years) compared to public cloud infrastructure as a service (IaaS).

A primary area of focus in data center industrial engineering is to reduce the cost of  data center facilities. This includes construction costs (measured in $/KW), electricity costs, water costs, and more. Several unique ways are used to reduce construction costs. The  new data centers use recycled water instead of fresh water saving money as well as contributing environment conservation

About Shesha Krishnapura
Shesha Krishnapura is an Intel Fellow and chief technology officer in the Information Technology organization at Intel Corporation. He is responsible for advancing Intel data centers for energy and rack space efficiency, high-performance computing (HPC) for electronic design automation (EDA), and optimized platforms for enterprise computing.


Intel Supply Chain  Design to Cost for Atom

The application of Lean Six Sigma to the configuration control in Intel’s manufacturing R&D environment

Article (PDF Available) · October 2014's_manufacturing_RD_environment

Intel is the world’s largest computer chip maker. Joe Foley, factory manager at Intel Fab Operations in Leixlip, Ireland, said:  “Five years ago, it took us 14 weeks to introduce a new chip to our factory; now it takes 10 days. We were the first Intel factory to achieve these times using Lean principles.”

Lean principles are now being adopted by organisations like Intel and Ryanair to boost business.

Intel Corporation's Fab 23 is committed to implementing lean manufacturing to reduce their production cycle times and cost. This thesis is focused around the development of the principles of lean that are most relevant to Intel's complex manufacturing flow and then the application of these principles to improve the operations in a focused area, the Sorting floor. Direct examination of the work in Sort raises the awareness of inefficiencies from overproduction and inventory; viewing this work as a series of structured activities, customer-supplier connections, and simplified flows further crystallizes the need for a structured approach towards WIP management. A pilot implementation of a CONWIP control of inventory demonstrates reductions in cycle time variability and provides a foundation for further improvements. In conclusion, the challenges experienced with changing the manufacturing systems in Sort were largely organizational and likely to be seen in many other operational areas at Fab 23.


Presenter: Dr. Steven Remsen, Manager, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR, USA

Keywords:Process Mining, Digital Transformation, Process Mapping, Big Data, Automated Process Discovery, BPM
Industry: Manufacturing

Industrial engineers are employed and productivity improvement and cost reduction are practiced in many companies using Industrial engineering philosophy, principles, methods, techniques and tools.

Index to Industrial Engineering Practice in Top Global Manufacturing Companies - Top 100

Online Handbook of Industrial Engineering

Updated on 8 July 2020

Tuesday, July 7, 2020

University of Oklahoma Norman Campus - Industrial Engineering Programs

30. University of Oklahoma Norman Campus
 Norman, Oklahoma

BS Degree –
MS Degree -

Productivity Management Course Offered  -NO

Industrial engineers, to improve, integrate, inform, and innovate.

Industrial engineers are improvement engineers. ISEs help organizations add value by eliminating waste, maximizing quality and productivity, and using resources effectively.

Industrial engineers are integration engineers. ISEs bring people, processes, and technologies together to solve complex problems in all types of organizations.

Industrial engineers are information engineers. ISEs use computer-based tools to collect data, organize and analyze information, and present solutions for decision-making.

Industrial engineers are innovation engineers. ISEs use a holistic approach, combining engineering expertise with a business perspective, to solve modern, often large-scale, problems.

Contact  - Janet Allen
Office: CEC 116-G
Phone: (405) 550-3969
Email: janet.allen

Randa Shehab
Associate Dean, Nettie Vincent Boggs Professor
Office: CEC 107
Phone: (405) 325-4277
Email: rlshehab

Research Interests
Engineering education, cognitive ergonomics, human-system integration

Shivakumar Raman
Director of ISE; David Ross Boyd Professor; Morris Pittman Professor; Samual Roberts Noble Foundation Presidential Professor (Connected)

Updated on 7 July 2020, 2 Sep 2019