Sunday, November 30, 2014

Productivity and Industrial Engineering in Bottled Water Manufacturing






Simulation and Control of Bottling Plant using First-order Hybrid Petri Nets


Positive Systems: Theory and Applications: Proceedings of the First Multidisciplinary International Symposium on Positive Systems: Theory and Applications (POSTA 2003), Rome, Italy, August 28-30, 2003.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=jMDXlc-hC4IC&pg=PA79#v=onepage&q&f=false


Energy efficiency in Nestle  bottled water plants


Over the period 2005-2010, our energy use per litre has decreased by 22%.

Nestlé Waters has introduced many initiatives to optimise the energy efficiency of its plants, Including :
increasing line productivity,
investing in more energy-efficient machines,
heat recovery,
sharing expertise among the engineering community,
introducing new bottle blowing technologies.
While our production has increased, our energy use per litre has decreased by 22%.
http://www.nestle-waters.com/environment/bottled-water-manufacturing/energy-efficiency-water-plants





2001-2003


Productivity in Bottle Washing and Cost Reduction


Kolob Water Co. of Cedar City, UT, is a successful marketer of bottled spring water. Kolob’s customers get to have their “own” label on the PET water bottles they give to customers during office visits or at trade shows.

Martin Edgel, company manager,visited Pack Expo Las Vegas 2001 to view the latest technology and acquire it to improve the plant’s productivity. As a result of the show, Edgel purchased a 90-degree transfer turntable, a stainless-steel conveyor, and an automatic bottle washer—all from Accutek Packaging Equipment Co.

The bottle washer operates in a linear fashion. It has 10 rinse nozzles, an automatic bottle-indexing system, and a soft-grip bottle grabber. Photoeyes count the appropriate quantity of PET bottles into the work area. Additional containers are stopped automatically. A gripper arm then inverts the containers over a liquid-recovery basin as sanitizing liquid is sprayed into the bottles to remove any carton dust or particles. A no-clog spray and valve system allows the bottle washer to remain in operation when recycling rinse or sanitizing solution from the recovery basin.

After containers are rinsed and placed back onto the transport conveyor, they’re released from the work area and a new set of containers is indexed in for rinsing. The bottle washer cleans effectively at production rate speeds of up to 45 containers per minute (21,600 containers in 8 hour shift).

Prior to installing Accutek’s bottle washer, Kolob washed all of its bottles by hand.  With the new system installed, Kolob increased productivity by 300%, producing up to 400 cases per day. The manufacturing cost reduced by $1.50 per case.

http://www.packworld.com/machinery/tamper-evidence-machinery/back-vegas-more-gear
http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/Packaging/New-technologies-help-water-company-triple-productivity
http://www.accutekpackaging.com/
http://www.accutekpackaging.com/main.php?page_id=50  - Spring 44 bottling solution


Automatic water bottle washing, filling and capping
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Portable Water Bottle Production Systems - 125 liters per hour
http://www.bluspr.com/bottled_water_production.html
In an eight-hour session, up to 2,000 bottles of 500 ml size can be filled with a crew of two.
water purified by Blue Spring table-top bottled water production system costs as little as 1/8th penny (US$ 0.0013) per liter of product water.



Norland International.


Norland International, Inc. is your complete source for water bottling plants: complete bottled water production lines, water distillation systems; and related equipment for the water bottling industry, such as: commercial water distillers; carbon filters; ozone generating systems; bottle washers, fillers and cappers; case-packers and shrink-wrappers; and blow molding equipment for PET bottles.
In addition to its quality water bottling products, Norland is known worldwide for its industry-leading customer support, including pre-sale consultation and plant design, and after-sale service, including installation and maintenance.
http://www.norlandintl.com/



A project report on mineral water - location at Uruguay - 2011
Pack: 21 months;  IRR: 71.9%
http://www.pcoic.org.cn/uploadfiles/2011/11/15/20111115025258.pdf

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events and Examples





2013

November

Alliance to Save Energy

250 energy experts, leaders and efficiency champions descended on Capitol Hill on November 20 to discuss and advocate for the Energy 2030 goal of doubling energy productivity by 2030.


Partnering with Efficiency Vermont, Grundfos shared how it increased market penetration for its circulator pumps which are over four times as efficient as traditional pumps.

Schneider Electric underscored its partnership with North Carolina State University that successfully saved that institution $1.5 million by reducing energy usage by 10 million kWh.

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power plans to meet 45% of its 2025 power needs through energy efficiency and renewables

Massachusetts continues to lead the country in energy efficiency and to meet their goal to reduce energy use 35% by 2020.  On both coasts and in between, speakers emphasized the ability of governments to drive energy efficiency forward.

http://www.ase.org/events/2013-great-energy-efficiency-day


September

2013 ACEEE National Conference on Energy Efficiency as a Resource

http://www.aceee.org/proceedings


Massachusetts Most Energy-Efficient State in 2013 with California Close Behind at #2, Mississippi is Most Improved
http://www.aceee.org/press/2013/11/massachusetts-most-energy-efficient-




January

Energy Efficiency plans of Japan - Japan's Plans on Energy Conservation
http://eneken.ieej.or.jp/data/4749.pdf

Energy-Efficiency Policies in the Asia-Pacific: Can We Do Better?
Tilak K. Doshi and Nahim Bin Zahur
http://nbr.org/downloads/pdfs/ETA/PES_2013_summitpaper_Doshi_Zahur.pdf





Related Blog Posts by Me in This Blog


Energy Efficiency Conference - ECEEE

Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events and Examples

Industrial Engineering in Electical Engineering

Cost Reduction Opportunities in Power Plants and Distribution Systems

Economic Analysis - Clean Energy Investment Proposals

Energy Productivity - Efficiency Improvement

Energy Industrial Engineering

National Energy Conservation Day 

Economic Analysis - Clean Energy Investment Proposals

Economic and Financial Analysis - An Illustration
The economic analysis presented in the knol Clean Energy 2030,
http://knol.google.com/k/jeffery-greenblatt/clean-energy-2030/15x31uzlqeo5n/1# is very interesting to provide an illustration to economic and financial analysis of investment proposals. I extracted the economic analysis portion from that knol to present it here.

Economics

We made the following economic assumptions in calculating the cost of the Clean Energy 2030 proposal:

Efficiency:
  • Efficiency capital cost of 25 cents per kWh annual savings (one-time cost)
  • Savings from efficiency of 10 cents per kWh (average electricity price)
Renewable energy:
  • Renewable electricity capital costs:
    • Onshore wind: $2 per watt (W) falling to $1.5/W in 2030
    • Offshore wind: $2.5/W falling to $2/W in 2030
    • Solar PV: $6/W falling to $2/W in 2030
    • Solar CSP: $3.5/W falling to $2/W in 2030
    • Conventional geothermal: $3.5/W flat through 2030
    • Enhanced geothermal systems: $5/W falling to $3.5/W in 2030      
  • Intermittency cost of $20/MWh (applied to wind and solar)
  • Avoided fossil capital costs (for plants planned in baseline but not built in our proposal because of efficiency and renewables):
    • Coal: $2/W constant
    • Natural gas and oil: $1/W constant
  • Saved fossil fuel cost (that is not already counted as efficiency savings):
    • Coal: $2/MBtu constant
    • Natural gas and oil: $10/MBtu constant
  • No write-down cost for retiring coal plants (all plants assumed to be older than 40 years when retired), no decommissioning cost or salvage value for plants
  • Transmission infrastructure cost: $0.30/W for wind (including offshore) and solar CSP
Vehicles:
  • Plug-in vehicle premiums: $5000 per plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV), $10,000 per pure-electric vehicle (EV), plus $1000 per vehicle for charging infrastructure
  • Higher-efficiency conventional vehicle premium $3000 for 45 mpg (pro-rated for lower mpg, down to zero cost for 22 mpg today)
  • Fuel cost: $4/gallon gasoline today, doubling to $8/gallon by 2030
  • Plug-in electricity cost: 7 cents per kWh (discounted due to flexible smart-charging price)
  • Older vehicle buy-back cost: $5000 per vehicle
Carbon (not counted in net savings):
  • Carbon credit for CO2 not emitted (relative to baseline): $20/ton CO2, doubling to $40/ton in 2030 (applied to both electricity and vehicles)

    Table 1. Economic summary (billions of 2008 US dollars).

    Costs Undiscounted total Net present value*
    Electrical efficiency investment $348 $175
    Renewable capacity investment $1,642 $712
    Transmission capacity investment $133 $59
    Intermittency cost $329 $121
    Coal plant write-down, decommissioning and salvage $0 $0
    Plug-in vehicle premium $1,221 $374
    Plug-in electricity cost $122 $35
    Higher efficiency conventional vehicle premium $325 $146
    Vehicle buyback cost $322 $119
    Subtotal $4,442 $1,742
    Savings

    Electrical efficiency savings $1,599 $620
    Avoided fossil fuel generation capacity savings $267 $117
    Avoided fossil fuel savings $437 $162
    Plug-in fuel savings $2,193 $626
    Conventional fuel savings $939 $368
    Subtotal $5,435 $1,893



    Net savings $994 $151
    Carbon credits $1,134 $397
    Net savings with carbon credits $2,128 $548
    * Discount rate of 7%/year used for net present value calculations.





    Bottom line: undiscounted savings exceed costs by $994 billion over the 22 years of the scenario, or if carbon credits are included, $2,128 billion.

    Economic variants:
    • Making gasoline significantly more or less expensive changes the cost of the scenario relative to the baseline, and here the change can have a sizable impact on net savings. If gasoline rises to $12/gallon in 2030 rather than $8, an additional $1,189 billion in undiscounted savings are realized. If gasoline remains constant at $4/gallon in 2030, an additional cost of $1,317 billion is incurred, changing the balance to a net cost of $323 billion. 


                      References
                    Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/economic-analysis-clean-energy/2utb2lsm2k7a/450



                    Related Blog Posts by Me in This Blog


                    Energy Efficiency Conference - ECEEE

                    Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events and Examples

                    Industrial Engineering in Electical Engineering

                    Cost Reduction Opportunities in Power Plants and Distribution Systems

                    Economic Analysis - Clean Energy Investment Proposals

                    Energy Productivity - Efficiency Improvement

                    Energy Industrial Engineering

                    National Energy Conservation Day 

                    Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity Improvement



                    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.


                    A video

                    http://energy.gov/eere/videos/clean-energy-manufacturing-initiative-industrial-efficiency-and-energy-productivity

                    Energy Efficiency Conference - ECEEE

                    Industrial Engineering is committed to energy efficiency.
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                    Building Regulations in England and Wales which now require a minimum number of fittings that will only accept low energy lamps (e.g. pin based CFLs) to be installed in all new homes. These regulations have made architects and builders reconsider the way they light the homes that they build.


                    2009 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry
                    Timing is Everything: Moving Investment Decisions to Energy-Efficient Solutions
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                    Related Blog Posts by Me in This Blog


                    Energy Efficiency Conference - ECEEE

                    Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events and Examples

                    Industrial Engineering in Electical Engineering

                    Cost Reduction Opportunities in Power Plants and Distribution Systems

                    Economic Analysis - Clean Energy Investment Proposals

                    Energy Productivity - Efficiency Improvement

                    Energy Industrial Engineering

                    National Energy Conservation Day