Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

New:  Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course

Value Analysis and Engineering - Online Book

Industrial engineers have to take every idea that can give cost reduction, evaluate it for technical and economic feasibility and develop it for practical implementation in their product design and manufacturing activities.

This activity of industrial engineering can be termed technology efficiency engineering.
Value engineering is a technique focusing on product designs.
Methods efficiency engineering, especially operation analysis explained by H.B. Maynard is an IE technique with focus on manufacturing processes

Database for Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineers have to develop a data base of low cost materials and low cost processes and update continuously to keep abreast of developments. They have to welcome all vendors who are offering low cost materials and processes. Like medical representatives visit doctors, there has to be an arrangement for meeting between productivity solutions, components, processes and materials seller and industrial engineers in companies and academic institutions.

A Compendium of Information on Selected Low-cost Building Materials
UN-HABITAT, 1988 - Building materials - 106 pages



WBDG Engineering And Construction Bulletins (ECB)

No. 2019-6 Issuing Office: CECW-EC Issued: 01 Apr 19 Expires: 01 Apr 21
SUBJECT: Publication of Technote 30: Nail Laminated Timber (NLT)

Nail Laminated Timber (NLT) is a mass timber product created by turning dimensional lumber
on edge and mechanically fastening the laminations together with nails.


How to Design & Build Ultra-Low Cost Truss Structures

Low-Cost Way to 3D-Print Microfluidic Devices Developed
The work from researchers at Singapore University of Technology and Design paves the way for faster prototyping and thus more accessibility to these devices
by: Elizabeth Montalbano, Materials & Assembly, 3D Printing. September 26, 2019

Novel low-cost material can harness solar energy efficiently: Study
The efficiency of the new solar cell is about 23 per cent, according to the researchers including those from the US Department of Energy.
May 17, 2019
Yanfa Yan,  professor at University of Toledo in the US
Perovskite — a compound material with specific crystal structure - efficiency of the new solar cell is about 23 per cent.
In comparison, silicon solar panels on the market today have an efficiency rating of about 18 per cent.

10 innovative construction materials that could revolutionise the industry – Infographic

July 2019

Tooth Brush Value Engineering

Sensodyne brand created a challenge  to create a toothbrush that would retail at an affordable price of no more than 30 rupees.

The new design has overall weight of just 9.4 grams is  less than the industry standard by  more than seven grams. Thus there is material savings.

The minimal and constant thickness of the plastic handle makes it cool more quickly in the mould.  The manufacturing cycle 37 per cent faster than that of a typical toothbrush.

Fastest High Precision Thread Rolling

LA Machines upload

Low-cost, high-speed near infrared reflectance confocal microscope
We have developed a low-cost, near-infrared (NIR) reflectance confocal microscope (RCM) to overcome challenges in the imaging depth and speed found in our previously-reported smartphone confocal microscope.
The material cost of the NIR RCM device was still low, ~$5,200.
Biomedical Optics Express Vol. 10, Issue 7, pp. 3497-3505 (2019)

Fraunhofer researchers develop new low-cost dry-film electrode production process
07 June 2019
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS in Dresden have developed a new battery cell production process that coats the electrodes of the energy storage cells with a dry film instead of liquid chemicals. This simplified process saves energy and eliminates toxic solvents.

The Finnish battery company BroadBit Batteries, together with IWS, has commissioned a pilot plant in its Espoo factory, which coats electrodes with dry electrode material instead of wet pastes, as has been common in industry up to now. BroadBit uses it to produce new types of sodium-ion batteries.
On a laboratory scale, the IWS can already coat electrode foil with a remarkable production speed of several meters per minute.

Low Pressure Low Cost (LPLC) Drip Irrigation System
10 June 2019

The developed system has payback period of one season only, benefit to cost (B/C) ratio ranges from 1.52 to 5.31 without subsidy and 4.28 to 8.30 with subsidy. Thus, appropriate, affordable, accessible, low operation and maintenance cost, users friendly LPLC drip irrigation system is better alternative for small land holders.

The present drip irrigation system technologies are expensive and fit for use only in large fields. International Development Enterprises-India (IDEI) embarked upon the innovative adaptations of low cost drip irrigation systems catering to the needs of the small farmers, bringing in more flexibility, simplicity and affordability. IDEI promoted drip kits cost almost 80 per cent cheaper than the conventional kits.

June 2019

Novel low-cost material can harness solar energy efficiently: Study
The efficiency of the new solar cell is about 23 per cent. The study, published in the journal Science, describes the new material called a tandem perovskite solar cell which could be used in full-sized solar panels in the near future. We are producing higher-efficiency, lower-cost solar cells that show great promise.

Researchers develop low-cost catalyst for hydrogen gas production; new material cost is over 200% less 
May 10, 2019 | 
The researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have developed a low-cost catalyst that can speed up splitting of water to produce hydrogen gas. The material cost is over two hundred times lesser.

A low-cost, sustainable option for food packaging
Purdue University researchers have developed a large-scale manufacturing process that may change the way some grocery store foods are packaged.
The Purdue Office of Technology Commercialization helped secure a patent for the technology. It is available for licensing.

Low-Cost Treatment of Flexible Materials with Excellent Efficiency
Nordson MARCH's FlexVIA™ Plasma System is a full self-contained vacuum plasma system that delivers an economical treatment of flexible materials with superior efficiency.
The FlexVIA System is mainly used for the surface treatment of an inner layer flex prior to lamination, providing enhanced adhesion and reliability.

3D printed building at relatively low cost 

Due to the speed, material, and low labor requirements, the cost of a 3D printed building is relatively low compared to standard constructed buildings.

BOD2 is an upgraded and improved version of the printer which
was used to 3D print the first building in Europe, The BOD.
Modular construction printer
BOD2 is developed to fit any project. Decide the size of BOD2 by its modules – add modules to fit the projects specifications.

Print speed
BOD2 is 3x faster than the first generation, with a 18 meter/minute print speed.

May 2019

New micro/mesoporous nanocomposite material from low-cost sources for the efficient removal of aromatic and pathogenic pollutants from water
Emmanuel I. Unuabonah,  Robert Nöske,  Jens Weber,  Christina Günter  and  Andreas Taubert
Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2019, 10, 119–131

Alternate and Low Cost Construction Material and Techniques - IJSTE

Materials perspectives for next-generation low-cost tandem solar cells
Teodor K.Todorov, Douglas M.Bishop, Yun Seog Lee
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume 180, 15 June 2018, Pages 350-357

LCM: Low-Cost House Casting Technology
Innovated by Alex Liew Chung Meng, Lightweight Concrete Methodology (LCM) is an economical, durable, sustainable and speedier way of construction being used in over 40 countries, including India.

A Low-Cost Temperature-Controlled Chamber Fabricated for Materials Testing
Sabastine Chinedu Ezike , Aderemi Babatunde Alabi, Amarachukwu Nneka Ossai and Adebayo Olaniyi Aina
Designs 2018, 2(3), 25;

Modified desktop inkjet printer as low-cost material deposition device
Author(s) J D Retief ; P R Fourie ; W J Perold


Kaolin: A Natural Low-Cost Material as Catalyst for Isomerization of Glucose to Fructose
ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2018,  6, 7, 8782-8789

Article | OPEN | Published: 13 August 2018
A Low-Cost Non-explosive Synthesis of Graphene Oxide for Scalable Applications
Scientific Reports 8, Article number: 12007 (2018)

Liquid and solid material detection through electrodes with low-cost MCU
April 23, 2019 //By Julien Happich

5 December 2018
Portable, low-cost multispectral imaging system: design, development, validation, and utilization
J. of Biomedical Optics, 23(12), 121612 (2018).

Low cost, energy-saving radiative cooling system ready for real-world applications
Date: October 26, 2018
Development Scaled up. An innovative water-cooling system capable of providing continuous day-and-night radiative cooling for structures. The advance could lead to more efficient, environmentally-friendly temperature control for homes, businesses, utilities and industries.

Development of Low-cost Solder Paste Material - denso ten

July 2018

ACMZ Cast Aluminum Alloys

Fiat Chrysler Creates New Aluminum Alloy for Engines
Matthew Greenwood posted on July 11, 2018

ORNL-developed ACMZ aluminum alloy promises better fuel economy
04 July 2018
Researchers at ORNL, in partnership with FCA US and Nemak USA, have developed a new suite of aluminum-based alloys that could give automakers a boost in achieving ambitious fuel economy goals. The aluminum-copper-manganese-zirconium alloys—ACMZ—were developed in just under four years, lightning speed when it comes to developing a complex alloy.

ACMZ Cast Aluminum Alloys are a new class of cast aluminum alloys that boast improved castability and mechanical property superiority at elevated temperatures. The principal application for this product is for automobile engines, particularly the engine’s cylinder head.

ACMZ alloys have castability comparable to or better than existing commercial alloys and provide a nearly 100°C advantage in withstanding higher temperatures

July 2017

Thin, low-cost material acts as air conditioner for structures
The new material could provide an eco-friendly means of supplementary cooling for thermoelectric power plants,
July 4, 2017
Jun 2017
TURKU, Finland, June 13, 2017
Researchers at the University of Turku in Finland have developed a low-cost synthetic material that emits luminescence closer to sunlight than that of the currently used lanthanides.

November 2014

24 November 2014

General Motors developed a low cost aluminum welding process

New Clean, Low Cost Aluminum Production Technology from Infinium

Key advantages of the technology: 1) virtually eliminating CO2 emissions, which currently create 7-10 lb CO2 for every lb of aluminum produced, 2) enabling 3x-5x higher production output per footprint, and 3) reducing the cost by halving the energy required and eliminating the need for consumable graphite anodes.

ARPA-E declared the technology as winner of its Light Metals Systems program on September 19, 2013 for the Aluminum category.  The objective of ARPA-E's METALS program is to find cost-effective and energy-efficient manufacturing techniques to process and recycle metals domestically.

For aluminum, Infinium says, it can reduce processing costs by 30 to 50 percent. Making these metals much cheaper could, for one thing, transform car-making. The process will be commercially available in 2016

Low Cost Stainless Steel for Corrosion Resistance - AK Steel 400

Typical applications include heat exchangers, display racks, gas range burner rings, office furniture and other uses where corrosion resistance at minimum cost is important.
AK Steel Corporation, West Chester, OH 45069

September 2014

Mini 3D Printer Offers Multiple Materials at Low Cost

Among consumer 3D printers, the upcoming Lulzbot Mini will be slightly more expensive than its competitors (it aims to retail for about $1400), but it promises to print in a range of materials. In addition to the ABS plastic and PLA plastic that are most common consumer 3D printing materials, the Lulzbot Mini will also be able to print in nylon, heavy plastics and polycarbonates. The Lulzbot Mini is still in development, but at Maker Faire 2014 in Queens, New York a prototype of the upcoming printer, nicknamed "Begonia." was displayed. The final Lulzbot Mini is scheduled to go on sale later this year.,news-19593.html

20 August 2014
eMemory Provides Tailor-Made MTP Solutions in Low-Cost Green Process Platforms,

Hsinchu, Taiwan -- Aug. 20, 2014 – eMemory is  an embedded non-volatile memory (eNVM) industry leader,  For bulk consumer micro-controller unit (MCU) applications, it focuses on low-cost, low power consumption and high flexibility for circuit designs, eMemory applies its technical advantages to eliminate redundant cells and assists foundry partners to simplify manufacturing processes and design tailor-made green process platforms.

eMemory, by removing redundant on-chip cells,  is able to help customers to simply process and reduce mask layers from 27, as typically required, down to less than 15 mask layers  creating a 30% or greater cost savings.

18 August 2014

Cheaper Solar Cells Using Recycled Lead from Car Batteries

In recent years, researchers have worked on solar cells that use a compound called perovskite. The cells have quickly achieved over 19 percent efficiency in converting sunlight to usable electricity,
A study, published in Energy and Environmental Science, shows that these solar cells can be built  using recycled lead. The solar cells only need thin sheets of perovskite (about half a micrometer thick), and the lead from just one car battery could make enough solar panels to power 30 households.

These cell are. definitely cheaper,  study co-author and W.M. Keck Professor of Energy at MIT Angela Belcher said. “And the efficiencies right now are at almost 20 percent, which is competing with the 20 to 25 percent in silicon.” This increase from single-digit efficiency has only taken a couple of years, she said, while silicon took a decade to reach its peak efficiency.

23 June 2014
Eliminating Use of Rare Metals for Cracking of Ammonia to produce Hydrogen for Cars

Researchers at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK are proposing a new type of process that is an alternative to the use of rare or transition metal catalysts for the cracking of ammonia (NH3) to produce hydrogen. A paper on the process appears in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The new process decomposes ammonia using the concurrent stoichiometric decomposition and regeneration of sodium amide (NaNH2) via sodium metal (Na).

May 2014

LTGS Brick, low cost construction material
Compared to a traditional brick fired at 1000°C in a kiln, the LTGS brick needs about eight times less energy for an equivalent strength.

April 2014
Houses costing less than $5,000 in China - 3D Printing
A Chinese company has demonstrated the capabilities of its giant 3D printer by rapidly constructing 10 houses in less than 24 hours. Built from predominantly recycled materials, these homes cost less than US$5,000 and could be rolled out en masse to ease housing crises in developing countries.

Low Cost Process to Produce MEG from Carbon Dioxide

A new process to convert carbon dioxide to chemicals has been unveiled by New Jersey-based Liquid Light Corp, a startup co-founded by Princeton University chemistry professor, Andrew Bocarsly, and a former graduate student, Emily Cole.

Its initial focus has been on ethylene glycol (MEG) which has a $27 billion market.
Whereas other processes to manufacture MEG require $617 to $1,113 of feedstocks derived from natural gas, oil or corn, Liquid Light says its process requires $125 or less of CO2 to make a ton of MEG  that will sell for $700 to $1,400 per ton.


12-year-old builds low-cost Lego braille printer

Shubham Banerjee, a California seventh grader, developed for a science fair project, $350 braille printers. The commercial ones can cost upwards of $2,000.
The better way he came up with involved the clever use of a $350 Lego Mindstorms EV3 kit along with a few bucks worth of hardware from Home Depot. He calls his creation the Braigo.
The Braigo Facebook page is constantly updated with details of the project.

Solar Power at 11 cents per kWh

Target  6 cents per kWh
Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced that the SunShot Initiative program is already 60 percent of the way toward its goal of bringing the average price for a utility-scale solar power plant down to the target price of six cents per kilowatt-hour.
It means it is now available at 11 cents by the end of 2013. That’s now less than the average price of electricity in the U.S., which is about 12 cents per kWh, according to the Energy Information Administration.

Blood Sugar Test at Rs. 2 Cost in India

A low cost testing device which promises to be a boon for diabetic patients by detecting their sugar level in less than a minute with much lesser amount of blood will be available in the next six to 12 months.
Indian Council for Medical-supported research in IIT, Mumbai, and Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, had developed two devices and testing strips for the estimation of blood glucose.
Testing blood sugar levels from this device will take just about a minute and may cost less than Rs 2 and require 1,000 times less blood than what glucose meters currently use.

Microsoft said to cut Windows price 70% to push low-cost devices
Manufacturers will be charged $15 to license Windows 8.1 and preinstall it on devices that retail for less than $250, instead of the usual fee of $50

HyperSolar makes further progress in Low Cost Solar Powered Hydrogen Production
Its artificial photosynthesis technology is now capable of producing 1.2 volt open circuit voltage for use in direct solar hydrogen production.
The theoretical voltage for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen is 1.23 volts, and approximately 1.5 volts in real-world systems. 

Texas Instruments CC2500
Low-Cost Low-Power 2.4 GHz RF Transceiver

Nvidia launches low-cost, low-power Maxwell GPU
Nvidia has unveiled its new Maxwell GPU architecture, promising high-performance and Full HD gaming at a reasonable cost and with low power consumption.

Low-Cost, Acid/Alkaline-Resistant, and Fluorine-Free Superhydrophobic Fabric Coating from Onionlike Carbon Microspheres Converted from Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate

Carrier iQ brings low-cost Big Data analytics to telecommunications market
Carrier iQ, a pioneer in mobile intelligence, today announced the worldwide availability of iQ xPlore SmartStart. iQ xPlore SmartStart provides mobile network operators (MNOs) with a no-hassle path to understanding the customers' experience using device-sourced big data analytics.

Stratasys Introduces 3D Printer to Provide Low Cost Entry to Advanced Digital Dentistry
the Objet Eden260V Dental Advantage 3D Printer produces surgical guides and dental models in-house directly from intraoral scanner output.

A Low Cost Cardiovascular Diagnostic Instrument For Rural Healthcare

A Low-Cost, 3D Wireless Sensor Network Testbed

The Windfreak SynthNV is a 34.4MHz to 4.4GHz software tunable RF signal generator controlled and powered by a PC running Windows XP, Windows 7, or Android via its USB port. It includes an on board RF power detector which can be used with the sweep function as a basic RF network analyzer.

Low-Cost Earth-Imaging Micro-Satellites

Low-Cost Robots from Indian Manufacturers for use by  Indian SMEs

5 Feb 2014
SUST students invent low-cost method to purify seawater
Two students of Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST) have invented a method to purify seawater using local technology.

Citroen C4 Cactus Ushers In A New Kind Of Low Cost Car

Karton Group Brings Low-Cost Cardboard Furniture to the Masses


A simple, low-cost CVD route to thin films of BiFeO3 for efficient water photo-oxidation!divAbstract

Moss Bay EDA, Intercept unleash low-cost EMC sol'n
ntercept Technology has joined forces with Moss Bay EDA to release what they say is a low cost electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) solution.

Shark Bot India's cheapest 3D printer to be launched by  Kunhar Peripherals.

Digigram Lowers Barriers to Live Video Streaming With Low-Cost AQILIM *FIT/LE Broadcast-Quality Encoder
New Encoder Enables Use of Live Streaming in Growing Array of applications
DMN Newswire--2014-2-3--
Digigram announced the release of the AQILIM *FIT/LE professional video encoder, an intuitive and cost-effective solution for high-quality live event broadcasting over an IPTV network or multiscreen video distribution over the Internet.

APS Elastomers Compounds Low Cost TPUs For Shoe Heels And Wheel Applications

In addition to thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), APS Elastomers offers other thermoplastic elastomer raw materials (TPEs) such as styrenic-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE-S), thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), thermoplastic polyester elastomers (COPE) and fluoropolymers (PVDF).
For information contact: Marketing Department, APS Elastomers, 30735 Cypress Road, Suite 400, Romulus, MI 48174. Email:, Web:

New Low-Cost Anti-Soiling Solar Panel Coating Can Optimize Efficiency
New coating for solar panels developed by researchers from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has shown the remarkable ability to repel various types of liquids, including water, as well as solid particles, which are known to reduce energy efficiency

Pegasus Touch Laser SLA 3D Printer: Low cost, High Quality
by Full Spectrum Laser
383 backers $819,535 pledged of $100,000 goal

Bajaj Auto unveils low cost car RE 60

Manufacturing relocating from China to cheaper locales like Southeast Asia.
China is losing its competitive edge as a low-cost manufacturing base, new data suggest, with makers of everything from handbags to shirts to basic electronic components relocating to cheaper locales like Southeast Asia. FDI is showing decline.

BeetleCopter, the low-cost alternative for wildlife photography
A British photographer and entrepreneur has developed drone technology for shooting documentary-quality wildlife footage at extremely low cost.


Fujitsu Laboratories and Furukawa Electric Develop Low-Cost Multi-Fiber Optical Connector

The conventional method of connecting optical fibers requires high-precision polishing that aligns the tips of the fibers, making the cost of this process considerable. Fujitsu Laboratories and Furukawa Electric have developed a connector  with a spring mechanism that obviates the need for this polishing process, slashing by more than half the cost required to connect optical fibers.

Bubble CPAP, a Low Cost Alternative for Treating Neonates with Severe Respiratory Illness developed Rice University Engineering Students

Frugally Engineered Car - Success in European Markets also
Euro 7,700 car Logan of Renault is a success.


LT1097 Low Cost, Low Power Precision Op Amp


British women to have £1,000 'no-frills' IVF: Budget procedure inspired by Alka-Seltzer to be available within weeks.
Newly developed method economises on expensive drugs and incubators
Instead it uses cheap test-tube set and reaction inspired by hangover pills

China Seeks Low-Cost Production... In the US (Pt. 2)

New Low-Cost Design of Staircase Climbing Wheelchair

Large Aperture at Low Cost Three-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Range Sensor Using Scanning MEMS Micromirrors and Synchronous Detector Switching

New low-cost gas sensor technology from TTP uses speed of sound
TTP’s SonicSense delivers accurate gas sensing at a fraction of the cost of existing methods.
Drawing on TTP’s expertise in nonlinear acoustics and piezoelectric technology, the new SonicSense devices will cost between £3 and £6 each in volume production. TTP is investigating a wide range of industrial and medical applications, from gas safety and process control to respiratory monitoring and anaesthesia

Low-Cost High-Volume Scale Up of CVD Films and Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications

Low Cost Hearing Aid

Rishikesh Kumar, a B.Sc student developed a hearing aid for just Rs 80. He used a micro-receptor along with a transistor mounted on a small box which catches sound. Through an earphone, the set-up sent it to the person's ear. A rechargeable battery was also added to the box which provided power to the device and gave a back-up of 12-13 hours.

P2084A: Low Cost Frequency Multiplier

Development of a Low-Cost, Portable, 12-Lead ECG Machine

 for Health- Care Centres Across Rural India
Citation: Mehta P, Sudheer KM (2013) Development of a Low-Cost, Portable, 12- Lead ECG Machine for Health-Care Centres Across Rural India. J Med Diagn Meth 2:120. doi: 10.4172/2168-9784.1000120
Pourus Mehta
Electronics Division
Bhabha Atomic Research CentreM
OD Lab, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India
E-mail: pdmehta @

Frugal Engineering: The Mantra To Design Resource-efficient Embedded Systems and Chips
Optimization in designing embedded systems

JATCO,a Nissan subsidiary.  the world’s leading manufacturer of continuously variable transmissions,is developing a standard automatic transmission to compete in lower-cost countries such as India.

Low Cost 3D Depth and Thermal Sensors


Snom Introduces Low Cost Gigabit Ethernet VoIP Phone
 “Gigabit Ethernet is typically a hallmark of more expensive phones, but Snom is delivering that capability at $139 (MSRP)."

28.1 2014

Low Cost 3D Printing Book for Free Download

Low Cost 3D Printing for Science
Low Cost 3D Printing for Education
Low Cost 3D Printing for Sustainable Development

low-cost irrigation systems for rural farmers
KB Drip system, provides low cost micro-irrigation technology that helps small farmers increase their yields by as much as 50%.  The company selling the system estimates that each system increases net additional income for user farmer households by $400 US per year.

Low-cost preparation of high-k expanded graphite/carbon nanotube/cyanate ester composites with low dielectric loss and low percolation threshold

PulsedLight Develops Low-Cost New Optical Ranging Sensor Technology for Drones and Robots

Inert Low Cost Flow Meter for OEM Applications

The Low-Cost High-Flow Exhaust - Part Two for Car


The ADXL185B z-axis sensor and the ADXL189B x-axis sensor are g range configurable, integrated single-axis satellite sensors, compliant with the PSI5 Version 1.3 specification. The ADXL185B/ADXL189B enable low cost solutions for front and side impact airbag satellite sensor applications.

Lemken offers a low-cost four-furrow plough
 It needs a tractor up to about 170hp and the four-furrow model costs £16,411.

Low Cost Price Gps Vehicle Tracking System Rs: 3999

IIT students developed low cost water filter
The laboratory prototype uses 120 gm of filtering material based on composite nano-materials, which is enough to produce 3,600 litres of completely clean drinking water. Assuming daily use of 10 litres of drinking water, the filter is good enough for an entire year for the family. Going by the estimate of inventors, the filter will cost Rs 500 whereas the cost of the cartridge will be Rs 150.

One step closer to low cost solar cells
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology - OIST
 An OIST research team led by Yabing Qi is investigating solar cells based on organic materials that have electrodes both flexible and transparent, enabling the fabrication of these solar cells at a low cost.
The main component for fabricating Flextrodes is PET, the same inexpensive and readily available plastic that comprises disposable drink bottles.  The possibility of this technology being available for widespread public use may be just around the corner. Perhaps the next window decoration you put up will be one composed of organic solar cells, providing not just nice aesthetics, but clean energy as well.

Google Search Link for Low Cost Material  - All results of this search were included in this post.

28.1 2014

Low Cost 3D Printing Book for Free Download

Low Cost 3D Printing for Science
Low Cost 3D Printing for Education
Low Cost 3D Printing for Sustainable Development

ORNL makes low-cost carbon fibre available to US companies

Low Cost, Net Shape Fabrication of Rhenium and High Temperature Materials for Rocket
Engine Components

Vacuum Plasma Spray techniques (VPS) have been developed to reduce the cost and fabrication
time of metal and ceramic rocket engine components. Refractory metals and ceramics such as
Re, Hf, W, W/Re, HfC, and HfN are being used for their high melting temperatures and chemical
stability. However, the difficulty of forming these materials into complex shapes has limited
their application in the past. The VPS technique involves spraying material onto a mandrel of the
desired shape and subsequently removing the mandrel. A primary advantage of VPS forming
over other powder metallurgy techniques is that near-net-shape spray forming of components
significantly simplifies and reduces the cost of fabrication due to the high material utilization and
reduction of laborious machining.

Moving towards lowest cost fish production
S.K.Retting Presentation

Reduce the energy required by existing hydraulic injection moulding machines by up to 50 %

ENGEL's new retrofit solution ecodriveR is reasonably priced, can be fitted with little hassle and reduces the energy required by existing hydraulic injec-tion moulding machines by up to 50 %, increasing their cost-effectiveness sig-nificantly as a result. ENGEL has been a leading developer of energy-efficient drive concepts for many years now


Lightweight Steel Twist Beam Achieves 30 Percent Mass Reduction At Lower Cost Than Alternative Materials in Automobiles

"U-Beam" design – based on a tubular shape using advanced steels – achieves a 30 percent mass reduction relative to the baseline assembly, at a modest 15 percent cost increase, considerably less than the cost of similar weight savings from materials like aluminum.

Pilot-Scale Evaluation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Adsorption Using Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials for Removal of Pesticides and Organic Matter in Drinking Water Production

Low Cost Beers from Cassava

NRL Develops Low Cost, High Efficiency Solar Sensor

Research scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Electronics Science and Technology Division have developed a novel low cost, highly efficient spectral sensor for field analysis of solar cell irradiance performance and spectral distribution.

3-Year Project for Low-Cost OLEDs in Germany

Conventional OLEDs are manufactured using expensive vacuum processes, but a collaboration of researchers from cynora GmbH, Novaled AG and the University of Regensburg aim to explore new functional soluble materials for inexpensive OLED production under the cyCESH project, which began June 1, 2013


Inkjet Catalyst Printing and Electroless Copper Deposition for Low-Cost
Patterned Microwave Passive Devices on Paper
Benjamin S. Cook,1† Yunnan Fang,2† Sangkil Kim,1  Taoran Le,1  W. Brandon Goodwin,2
Kenneth H. Sandhage,2,3,* and Manos M. Tentzeris1,*
1 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA

A scalable, low-cost process for fabricating copper-based microwave components on flexible, paper-based
substrates is demonstrated. This low-cost copper patterning process is readily scalable and may be used to generate a variety of copper-based microwave devices on flexible, paper-based substrates.
Electronic Materials Letters, Vol. 0, No. 0 (0000), pp. 1-8

High Performance and Low Cost PVC Composited Material

Low Cost Asymmetric Thin Film as Accelerating Wound Healing Material

Indium tin oxide synthesized by a low cost route as SEGFET pH sensor

Indium tin oxide (ITO) has emerged as important engineering materials, since their versatile optical and electronic properties have found application in many fields including optoelectronics and photonics

Low Cost Precision Cleaving of Semiconductor Wafers and Other Materials
Researchers  have developed a high-throughput, low cost method for precise cleavage of silicon, germanium and virtually any material. This approach harnesses electromagnetic forces for cleaving standard cylindrical ingots and wafers along certain crystallographic planes. The process results in nearly zero material loss and can be scaled for high throughput on low-cost equipment that is easy to maintain. This invention could be used for kerfless cleaving of silicon and has general industrial applications for almost any material that requires precise cleaving. The inventors have built a prototype processing chamber and are testing its performance in cleaving 100 mm diameter silicon and germanium.
AUTM Association of University Technology Managers

Coconut shells as low cost filling material for anaerobic filters in rural areas

Low-Cost Bricks From Recycled Paper Mill Waste
Made from 90% recycled paper mill waste (RPMW) and 10% cement, the mixture is mechanically mixed and pressed into molds and then cured in the sun.
Blocks made from these cast-off materials are half the cost of normal bricks and much lighter.

Japan has now found large deposits of rare earth materials in the ocean. The find was made by professor Yasuhiro Kato and his team from Tokyo University in Japan's Exclusive Economic Zone around the island of Minami-Torishima. This can lead to reduction of price rare earth materials by China once Japan starts mining from the ocean.

PCB Surface Finishes & Cost Effective Pb Free Assembly Materials

Low-cost all solid-state rechargeable batteries for Electric Vehicles.

Solid Power is developing ultra high energy, inherently safe and low-cost all solid-state rechargeable batteries. Our technology enables batteries that run considerably longer on a single charge as compared to current Li-ion batteries. Further, our battery material's inherent safety eliminates the need for the various safety features commonly associated with lithium-ion batteries, thus resulting in considerably lighter, less complex and less costly battery systems. Finally, our battery materials are made from exceptionally cost-effective and Earth-abundant materials resulting in further cost reductions. Specific attributes of our battery technology includes:
A specific energy (Wh/kg) that is nearly 3-times greater than current Li-ion batteries
Low-cost ceramic ceramic precursor materials
Materials that are inherently non-volatile and non-flammable

A Low Cost and Efficient Solar-Thermal System (2013)
A recyclable copper piping system was used for the indirect heating part of the system so as to keep costs low. Phase change materials were utilized for the storage tank to ensure the water kept its heat even when not being heated with solar energy. Finally, a Fresnel lens was used for the solar tracking device, which helps the system collect the full potential of solar energy.

Wonder nanomaterial created from low-cost chemical
It is named the Multi-use Titanium Dioxide (TiO2). The material is formed by turning titanium dioxide crystals into patented nanofibres, which can then be easily fabricated into patented flexible filter membranes which include a combination of carbon, copper, zinc or tin, depending on the specific end product needed.
The material is capable of concurrently producing both hydrogen and clean water when exposed to sunlight, desalinating water as a high flux forward osmosis membrane, being made into a low-cost flexible solar cell to generate electricity and doubling battery life when used as the anode in lithium ion batteries.

“HBLED Grade AlN A New Low Cost Ceramic Material for High Power Semiconductor Applications based on Aluminum Nitride
The new HBLED grade AlN has a thermal conductivity of 100 W/m-K.
AlN (95%) has a thermal conductivity of  170 W/m-K

Low-cost LEDs for saving energy and improving health
Gallium nitride has been described as “the most important semiconductor since silicon” and is used in energy-saving LED lighting. A new £1million growth facility will allow Cambridge researchers to further reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of LEDs, with potentially huge cost-saving implications.

Large-Area Low-Cost Gold Nanostructures through Colloidal

Isis3D creates low-cost, high-quality desktop 3D Printer for everyone

The Isis3D features 20 Micron positional accuracy and "easy to use and remove" support material.
The Isis One desktop 3D printer is available for pre-order for US$2,199 (EUR1,659 / GBP1,407).

Lower-cost graphene-like material developed by Queen's University chemists

Researchers at Queen's University have discovered a cheaper method for making a substance similar to graphene, a wonder material discovered in 2004. Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms, arranged in a lattice pattern, with a wide range of applications including mobile device screens, solar cells, aircraft components, hydrogen fuel cells, and fast-charging lithium-ion batteries.

Low-Cost & High Performance Silicon Interposers and Packages (LSIP)

The Low-Cost Silicon Interposer (LSIP) industry consortium at Georgia Tech is addressing the limitations of current organic packages as well as wafer-based silicon interposers that are being produced in wafer fabs.


Lowering the Weight, Volume and Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries with High Rate Separators
The cell using the Dreamweaver separator is 19% lighter, has 25% less volume, has 40% lower foil costs and 58% lower separator costs, resulting in 27% lower total material costs. For higher power cells, the savings could be up to 27% of material costs. For common automotive batteries, the savings could be 21 – 110 kg and $880 - $4,675/automobile.

Low Cost Graphene & 2D Layered Material Inks for Printed Electronics
Cambridge Graphene Platform's inks are composed of chemically pristine graphene (or other 2D materials), are produced with a scalable production process, require no post-processing and are suitable for many coating techniques.

New material could lower cost and improve organic photovoltaics
UK start-up Oxford Photovoltaics is working to commercialise a new material which could lead to low-cost organic photovoltaic (OPV) panels. Peroskite could lead to cheaper, more efficient OPV cells. Recent efficiency increases up to 15%  indicate that it could be used in OPVs to improve the cost, and the efficiency of the panel.

How to Build a Low-Cost High-Efficiency Inverter

Low cost polymer LEDs and solar cells
The new plasmonic material, can be applied to both polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs), with world-record high performance, through a simple and cheap process.

Low-Cost Housing for the Urban Poor in Akure, Nigeria: Materials and Techniques of Construction

Cost Reduction of 3D Printing Raw Material Plastic filament

$250 Filament Extruder that turns plastic pellets into filament for 3D printing process.
Use: Producing 392 chess pieces in a particular color requires one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of plastic. One spool of commercially available filament costs  about $50. A kilogram of pellets can be converted into filament for a cost of  $10. Buying 25 kilograms of pellets in bulk means one kg of filament can be had at cost of just $5.

Read more: How an 83-Year-Old Inventor Beat the High Cost of 3D Printing |

Arsenic bioremediation by low cost materials derived from Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana) and Walnut (Juglans regia)more by Amir Habib
Ecological Engineering 51 (2013) 88–94

Water-based chemical synthesis of low cost CIGS thin films

Currently, the conversion efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) based solar cells is exceeding 20%. However, conventional vacuum based fabrication of thin film is expensive and not easy for mass production. In order to produce CIGS thin film solar cells in a cost effective way, a solution based synthetic method, which employs water as a solvent was developed.

Perovskites: The Emergence of a New Era for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells

The adsorption technique is effective and economical to application level. But the regular commercial activated carbon is expensive. Low cost adsorbent prepared from Neem leaves. From the experimental finding it has been observed that the adsorbent material can be used successfully for removal of color. The maximum removal efficiency was observed up to 80% for prepared Neem leaves at optimum value of parameter.

The natural fibre is an effective adsorbent for cationic pollutants, it can be equally effective for anionic pollutant following surface modification.

Pages 9 to 11

Low-Cost Permanent Magnet Material in PM Synchronous Machines

Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) are considered a viable option in various types of applications.
But,  the main reason for the high price of PMSMs is the use of expensive neodymium or samarium-cobalt magnets.  Many parties are seeking for opportunities to use ferrites instead. In the case of multiple pole machines using ferrites in the outer rotor approach, with its low rotor yoke height, offers an interesting alternative. The air gap diameter of these machines can be made larger than in conventional inner rotor type motors without increasing the machine outer dimensions. In this paper, an outer rotor PMSM with ferrite magnets is analyzed and tested.

High Efficient  Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal System (CSP) with low cost materials

Low Cost Photobioreactor for Algae cultivation

DIY Plywood Flooring for High Gloss, Low Cost

The right type of wood and ply can make plywood a very practical flooring choice. It made for an affordable, clean and warm floor for their master bedroom.

Project: Plywood flooring for a bedroom; Size: 160 square feet; Budget: $700; about $4.35 per square foot

Graphene-like MoS2 as a low-cost counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on asprepared
MoS2 as the counter electrode material provided overall energy conversion efficiencies of 2.9% (100 mW cm-2), while
analogous DSCs based on a platinum counter electrode provided efficiencies of 5.2%. Considering that the Pt-free catalytic layer was
prepared by drying at 120 ºC, this material opens up an alternative to low-cost, less energy-intensive Pt-free counter electrodes.

New Low-Cost, Transparent Electrodes
researchers report creating a sturdy, transparent, and indium-free electrode from silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) that could replace indium-based electrodes in some applications.
"Silver and titanium are much more abundant than indium in the earth's crust, and so we anticipate that electronic devices based on silver and titanium dioxide would be a more sustainable materials system and be manufactured at a low cost,"

Low-cost Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts Rival Platinum for Hydrogen Evolution
Published: 12 March 2013

The electrocatalytic production of hydrogen from water is a key process that may lead to the feasibility of hydrogen-powered energy production devices.  The most efficient catalyst for this process is currently platinum; however,its cost is high. In their paper published in Energy & Environmental Science, researchers at Brookhaven National Lab have examined a new, inexpensive molybdenum carbide catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes that is easy to produce and has superior hydrogen evolution properties.

Google search results page 8

An inexpensive new way to grow thin films of a material prized in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries

Engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed an inexpensive new way to grow thin films of a material prized in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries
The UC Berkeley researchers demonstrated that indium phosphide, a III-V compound, could be grown on thin sheets of metal foil in a process that is faster and cheaper than traditional methods, yet still comparable in opto-electronic characteristics.

Automotive Parts 3D Printed Using Low-Cost Titanium Powders

 3D printing with metal has been prohibitively expensive because titanium powders currently sell for $200 - $400 per kilogram, until now. Metalysis has developed a new way of producing low-cost titanium powder.
The Metalysis process could reduce the price of titanium by as much as 75%, making titanium almost as cheap as specialty steels. We believe that titanium made by the Metalysis process could replace the current use of aluminium and steel in many products.
In addition to titanium, Metalysis is developing tantalum powder and will use its technology to produce a wide range of specialist metals (including rare earths).

Effective enhancement of electrochemical performance for low-cost cathode material Li1.231Mn0.615Ni0.154O2 via a novel facile hydrothermal modification

Journal of Power Sources, Volume 246, 15 January 2014, Pages 569–573

Engineered Material Systems Introduces Low-Cost Conductive Adhesive for Die Attach Applications
DELAWARE, OH ― October 2013 ― Engineered Material Systems, a leading global supplier of electronic materials for circuit assembly applications, debuts its CA-165 Low-Cost Conductive Adhesive designed for chip-on-board or general die attach applications in circuit assembly, photonics or camera modules.

ECM CA-165 is approximately half the cost of a pure silver-filled die attach adhesive

Preparation of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using Coal Tar Pitch, a Low-Cost Material, for Printable Devices

We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules.

Page 7

Sustainable Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment by Sorption Using Low-cost Materials
The research showed that coconut shell (CS) can be an important low-cost sorbent for copper removal from inorganic wastewater. However, arsenic removal was only possible with iron-oxide-coated sand (IOCS).

New low-cost, high-energy batteries could be powered by rhubarb, plants
Rhubarb and other simple green plants could be the source of materials for a new generation of batteries with the potential to transform energy systems, according to new research by Harvard University.

Scientists create a low-cost, long-lasting water splitter made of silicon and nickel
Stanford University scientists have created a silicon-based water splitter that is both low-cost and corrosion-free. that could help pave the way for large-scale production of clean hydrogen fuel from sunlight.

Novel materials and system designs for low cost, efficient and durable PEM electrolysers
The electrolyser will demonstrate a capability to produce hydrogen with an efficiency of at least 75% (LHV) at rated capacity with a stack cost below €2,500/Nm3h-1 and a target lifetime in excess of 40,000 hours (< 15 μVh-1 voltage increase at constant load).

A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors
we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term ‘carbomorph’ and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer. 

Oxford Photovoltaics, an Oxford University spin-out, has reported a new high of 15.4% efficiency for its perovskite solar cells.
The improved efficiency represents a significant step forward in the scale-up and commercialisation of low-cost, efficient, flat-junction perovskite solar cells that can be readily incorporated into glass building facades.

Scientists develop low-cost techniques for 'earthquake-proofing' homes
Researchers at Imperial are developing techniques for improving traditional construction methods used by people in rural communities in Latin America, so that they are more able to withstand earthquakes. The aim of the project is to show people how they can build homes more robustly while still using traditional materials in a sustainable and low cost way.

Page 6
Using Earthbags for Low Cost, Disaster Resistant Housing

A low cost, controllable method for accurately polishing (semi)conducting materials

R&D on Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Composites for Energy Applications

Low-cost  titanium for 3D printing

Taking the ore material - the titanium oxide - and bunging it into a salt bath that's a mix of calcium salts and other chemicals at a very high temperature and  passing  electricity through it and it makes the titanium straight from the ore. This way, the researchers found  a way to convert rutile sand into titanium directly. at very low cost. You're then left with the powder you need to consolidate the material and  probably one of the best of ways converting this power into solid objects is 3D printing.

High-quality, lower-cost nanofibers

 Using a small amount of well-placed double-walled carbon nanotubes, provided by collaborator MER Corp., to guide the formation and orientation of the nanocrystalline graphitic structure, they found they can use UNL-developed nanomanufacturing processes to create high-quality continuous carbon nanofibers.
The new fabrication process creates the greatest structural improvements at low temperatures, contributing to its potential low cost and ease in manufacturing.,+lower-cost+nanofibers+

Pages 3 to 5

Development of Sustainable, Ultra-Low Cost Construction Materials
The combination of internally cured RCA and integration of natural reinforcement materials allows for the production of concrete that is comparable to virgin aggregate as a construction material.

Using Trap Grease as a Low Cost Material for Biodiesel Feedstock Production

Hemp fiber used to develop low-cost graphene-like nanomaterial.

Researchers from the University of Alberta developed a new low-cost process to turn hemp bast fibers into graphene-like materials that can be used in energy storage electronics. A part of the hemp plant called the bast, which is usually thrown away during industrial hemp production as a waste product is used. It is a nanocomposite made up of layers of lignin, hemicellulose, and crystalline cellulose. If you process it the right way, it separates into sheets similar to graphene.

Low-cost, open-source 3D metal printer in development

Joshua Pearce and his team at Michigan Tech developed a 3D metal printer as work in process and raw. However it is ‘low-cost’ with a parts list price totalling under $1,500 worth of materials.

Quinones - Low Cost Material for Energy Storage Batteries

Vanadium, the material typically used now, in energy storage battery costs about $80 per kilowatt-hour. Michael Aziz, a professor of materials and energy technologies at Harvard University, says the quinones will cut the energy storage material costs down to just $27 per kilowatt-hour.

Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Low Cost Materials

International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)
Volume 2, Issue 11, May 2013

Low-Cost Snap Cure Conductive Adhesive For Photovoltaic Stringing And Bussing Applications
Engineered Material Systems (EMS), a leading global supplier of electronic materials for photovoltaic applications, is pleased to debut its CA-175 Snap Cure Conductive Adhesive for ribbon stringing and bussing in photovoltaic applications

Consistent blast furnace operation whilst using low cost raw materials 

(Consistent BF)
The industrial experience with regard to using nut coke, ferrous fines and injected coals as important low cost raw materials was raised from test campaigns and operational modifications at five blast furnace plants.

Alternative Walling System for Low Cost Housing by Using Bamboo
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE)
ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-6, May 2013

Low-cost Solutions For Dynamic Window Materials

The cost of AZO (aluminum-doped zinc oxide) is about 25% of ITO

Silicide Nanopowders as Low-Cost and High-Performance Thermoelectric Materials

Google search pages 1 and 2
Rather than using custom laminates here, 3XA uses low cost press board and plywood, which not only reduce fabrication and building costs,

Engineers at Oregon State University have determined that ethylene glycol, commonly used in antifreeze products, can be a low-cost solvent that functions well in a “continuous flow” reactor – an approach to making thin-film solar cells that is easily scaled up for mass production at industrial levels.

Low Cost Bricks
Seth Eyeru, a builder with Eco-Construct Uganda Limited says earth blocks are also known as compressed stabilised earth block (CSEB), stabilised soil blocks (SSB), stabilised earth blocks (SEB) and are produced from stabilised soil which is slightly moistened, poured into a press and then compressed either with a manual or motorised press.

Asian Scientist (Jul. 24, 2013) – Korean researchers have developed a new plasmonic material for low cost polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) and polymer solar cell (PSC) applications. The new material, synthesized through a simple and cheap process, offers significantly enhanced performance over materials currently used in optoelectronic devices (OEDs).

Sand as a low-cost support for titanium dioxide photocatalysts
the deposition of TiO2 as coatings on grains of sand presents an effective low-cost approach to providing enhanced levels of available catalyst surface area while maintaining easy material recoverability from treated water for titanium dioxide photocatalysts for environmental remediation.

Low cost Indigenous raw materials for making sanitary napkins
Innovator: Mr Jaydeep Mandal, Aakar Innovations Pvt. Ltd.
Proposal Description
The technology is raw material for making Biodegradable Sanitary Napkins from indigenous pulps
(Bagasse (Sugarcane waste), Bamboo stem, Knit-wear waste, banana stem, Water Hyacinth etc.)
as an absorbent material and bio-degradable & compostable plastic.

Low Cost Environmental Remediation Catalyst
Innovator: Mr Bharat Lodha, Battelle Science and Technology India Pvt Ltd.
Proposal Description
The technology is a catalyst material for environmental remediation application. The technology
utilizes an engineered mixture of natural-protein (novel catalyst) with zero valent iron, which
improves the degradation of recalcitrant contaminants in soil and water. The cost of the developed
catalyst material is very low as compared to existing catalysts (Pd, Pt, Ni, Co etc.).

Low Cost Composites for Cars
 These cars are expected to be built on a new kind of material called poly-diallyl-phthalate (PDP), which is used for industrial applications.  Tata

LTGS Brick, low cost construction material
This brick uses a very cheap material available in great quantity: lateritic clay earth. This special and abundant earth, mixed with a simple geopolymer binder is compressed to give the shape of a brick then heated in a furnace. Heated at 85°C, LTGS brick is water stable and has enough compressive strength to build a wall. Heated at 250°C, it resists to freezing. At 450°C, its strength increases more, so that it is possible to manufacture structural elements like beams for doors and windows.

Interesting Sites to Keep Track of   - Electronics Design and Engineering Technology -
18,898 articles

Updated  9 January 2020,  7 December 2019,  3 July 2019, 1 June 2019, 15 May 2019,   15 July 2018,  24 July 2017, 29 November 2014


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