Wednesday, March 21, 2018

Productivity Science - Foundry - Metal Casting



Factors considered and Justificaction:
Improvements in metal quality and productivity.
Additional melting capacity.
Opportunities to reduce fixes operating costs.
In - House recycling of machining chips.
Rapid return on the invesmet.
Impact on foundry environmet.
Compact layout High metal recovery.
Low specific energy consumption.
Continuous melting in molten metal.
Instantaneous Entrainment.
Molten metal temperature uniformity.
Flux less melting.

Prayas - Tata Metaliks Customer Magazine June 2017
Has productivity improvement ideas in various stages of casting process

The noval idea of this research is to investigate the various defects of cast iron foundry and suggest remedies for the defects in a day to day activity and propose a supply chain model to present the necessity of quality in a medium scale industry of cast iron foundry under different delay conditions, rejection rates and also various other factors.

International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa Vol. 20
Pages: 248-258

S. Nallusamy et al., "A Proposed Supply Chain Model for Productivity Enhancement in Medium Scale Foundry Industries", International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, Vol. 20, pp. 248-258, 2016

Simulation tools in enhancing metal casting productivity and quality: A review
Muhammad Azhar Ali Khan, Anwar Khalil Sheikh First Published April 5, 2016 Review Article

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture

Quality and productivity improvement through Six Sigma in foundry industry
Darshak A. Desai

International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 2012, vol. 9, issue 2, 258-280 (text/html)

Belgaum Foundry Cluster: Productivity of firms increases by 60%
By Pramodkumar Vaidya, Feb 24, 2012

Archive:Metal casting statistics - NACE Rev. 1.1
This Statistics Explained article is outdated and has been archived - for recent articles on structural business statistics see here.

Data from January 2009.

Productivity and cost effectiveness in foundry industry a study of foundry industry in Belgaum district
Researcher: Naik, Janardhan G
Guide(s): Kalkundrikar, A B
Karnatak University
Completed Date: 31/12/1995

Energy Productivity - Efficiency Improvement

Institute for Industrial Productivity - Industrial Efficiency Technology Database (IETD)

The IETD aims to catalyse the widespread adoption of technologies and practices in industry that improve productivity and profitability while reducing energy

Energy Efficiency and Productivity Strategy
The Victorian Government 2017


JUNE 13, 2016

ClimateWorks Australia has  published the Energy Productivity Index for Companies, and it  illustrates the importance of energy productivity performance to both profitability and the reduction of industrial greenhouse gas emissions.

The new guide analyses the energy productivity of industrial companies and provides investors’ guide, information about the percentage of profits that could be saved in the different sectors, as well as other useful resources and guides.

The energy productivity is  described or defied as the amount of economic output per unit of energy input.


Improving Eenergy Productivity in Australia

Energy Productivity Management - 3 day course

Energy Productivity Training - Model Factory


11 Organizational Obstacles to Energy Efficiency Investment
Written by Paul Baier on July 27, 2011

Energy Efficiency: A Recipe for Success
World Energy Council
170 page report

Metal Casting Industry Energy Best Practice Guide Book

Pfizer Energy Audit
$1 million annual  savings from $5.4m annual energy cost

Leading By Example: Improving Energy Productivity in Federal Facilities
Pdf file

Related Blog Posts by Me in This Blog

Energy Efficiency Conference - ECEEE

Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events and Examples

Industrial Engineering in Electical Engineering

Cost Reduction Opportunities in Power Plants and Distribution Systems

Economic Analysis - Clean Energy Investment Proposals

Energy Productivity - Efficiency Improvement

Energy Industrial Engineering

National Energy Conservation Day

Updated on 22 March 2018,  8 June 2017,   7 Apr 2016, 26 Nov 2014

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Water Productivity - Why Waste Water? - Eliminate The Water Waste

"Why Waste Water?" is the theme of World Water Day 2017.

The theme is relevant to industrial engineers? What is the water consumption in industry? Is the consumption efficient? Are industrial engineers doing analysis of water consumption. Resource use analysis or productivity analysis is the first part of IE study. The second part of coming out with more productive processes.

Industry uses 19% of the global consumption of water.
Iron & Steel industry uses 95,000 to 150,000 liters of water for producing a tonne of steel.

The uses of water

Only 1% of water used by humans (compared to the global sum of all withdrawals) is for drinking, washing and cooking. An additional 10% is calculated for all other domestic uses (toilet flushing etc). Industry uses 19% and the rest, a massive 70%, is used by agriculture for irrigation, drawing water from rivers, lakes and underground water strata.


UN World Water Report 2018

Available online

Challenge of Raising Water Productivity
By Peter Debaere- December 15, 2017
Every dollar of manufacturing uses three times as much water as a dollar of services. Every dollar of agriculture uses 700 times as much water as a dollar of services.

Water consumption, grain yield, and water productivity in response to field water management in double rice systems in China
Xiao Hong Wu, Wei Wang , Chun Mei Yin, Hai Jun Hou, Ke Jun Xie, Xiao Li Xie
Published: December 7, 2017

Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska
Tony Carr, Haishun Yang, Chittaranjan Ray
Published: August 30, 2016

The  concept  of  water  productivity  (WP) in Agriculture

The  concept  of  water  productivity  (WP)  is  offered  by  Molden  et  al. (2003)  as  a  robust
measure of the ability of agricultural systems to convert water into food. While it has been
used  principally  to  evaluate  the  function  of  irrigation  systems  as  the  amount  of  ‘crop  per
drop’, it seems reasonable to extend the concept toinclude other types of livelihood support,
such as mixed cropping, pasture, fisheries or forests.
WATER PRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT: Measuring and Mapping Methodologies
Basin Focal Project
Working Paper no. 2

World Water Productivity: Current Situation and Future Options

Ximing Cai and Mark W. Rosegrant
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA;
International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
2003. Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and
Opportunities for Improvement (eds J.W. Kijne, R. Barker and D. Molden)

The Water Productivity term plays a crucial role in modern agriculture which aims to
increase yield production per unit of water used, both under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
This can be achieved either by 1)increasing the marketable yield of the crops for each unit of
water transpired, 2) reducing the outflows/ losses, or 3) enhancing the effective use of
rainfall, of the water stored in the soil, and of the marginal quality water.

A note on Water use efficiency and water productivity

Ragab Ragab – WP3 - W4C
This note is based on a number of discussions that took place in Bari and Bangalore and as
the W4C project carries in its title the term “water use efficiency” and WP3 is dedicated to
Water Use Efficiency

India Initiatives

Prime Minister Narendra Modi  - More Crop per Drop

More GDP per Drop - More Value per Drop

Individual Company Initiatives

Between the years 2005 and 2010, Toyota was able to reduce water consumption at all global facilities by 35 percent.

Toyota set a target of reducing water usage to 0.98 kgal / vehicle and achieved the target.
GM: Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing - MIT, 2009,%20report.pdf

Thank God. Somebody used the word science along with productivity.

Irrigation Science

Volume 25, Issue 3, March 2007

Special Issue: Water productivity: science and practice

ISSN: 0342-7188 (Print) 1432-1319 (Online)
In this issue (8 articles)

Water productivity: science and practice—introduction
A. H. Kassam, D. Molden, E. Fereres, J. Doorenbos Pages 185-188

On the conservative behavior of biomass water productivity
Pasquale Steduto, Theodore C. Hsiao, Elìas Fereres Pages 189-207
Download PDF (417KB)  View Article

A systematic and quantitative approach to improve water use efficiency in agriculture
Theodore C. Hsiao, Pasquale Steduto, Elias Fereres Pages 209-231

Causes of the differences in efficiency in each step, going from water delivery to soil water
extraction, transpiration, photosynthesis, and conversion to crop biomass and yield, and to animal product are discussed in the paper. Based on an equation quantifying the impact of changes in efficiency of component steps on the overall efficiency, it is concluded that generally, it is
more effective to make modest improvements in as many steps as possible than to concentrate efforts to improve one or two steps.

Beyond irrigation efficiency
Marvin E. Jensen Pages 233-245

This paper describes how efficient management of water for irrigation requires a full understanding of water balance for the field, irrigation project, or river basin under consideration. Development of the classic term irrigation efficiency is summarized along with recent modifications such as effective irrigation efficiency which reflects the efficiency of the system in terms of the amount of water effectively consumed by the system, taking into account outflows water as not wholly “wasted” or “lost” from river basins and that can be recovered and made available for use in the context of the water balance of the river basin. This makes it possible to develop accounting procedures for water use, or water accounting based on the water balance approach for a water basin and analyzing the uses, depletion, and productivity of water.

Water uses and productivity of irrigation systems
A. J. Clemmens, D. J. Molden Pages 247-261

Measuring and enhancing the value of agricultural water in irrigated river basins
Intizar Hussain, Hugh Turral, David Molden, Mobin-ud-Din Ahmad Pages 263-282

Economics, adoption determinants, and impacts of micro-irrigation technologies: empirical results from India

R. E. Namara, R. K. Nagar, B. Upadhyay Pages 283-297

The study by Namara et al. (analyses of micro-irrigation adoption and impacts in selected localities of Maharashtra and Gujarat states in India) indicates that micro-irrigation technologies result in significant productivity improvement and hence economic gain over the traditional method of surface irrigation.  The most important
determinants of micro-irrigation adoption identified by the study include access to groundwater, the prevailing cropping pattern (proportion of staples vs. high value crops), level of education, availability of cash, the social stratum of the household, and the wealth or poverty status of the
farmer. The majority of the current adopters of low-cost micro-irrigation systems are the richer section of the farming population. Thus, reducing the cost alone is not yet effective to improve
the outreach of micro-irrigation technologies.

Water productivity in rainfed systems: overview of challenges and analysis of opportunities in water scarcity prone savannahs
Johan Rockström, Jennie Barron Pages 299-311

World Water Day - 22nd March

Updated 22 March 2018
22 March 2017

Fluid Intelligence - Productivity - Productivity Science

Total Factor Productivity is an increasing function of ordinary workers’ fluid intelligence.

A Theory of Intelligence and Total Factor Productivity: Value Added Reflects the Fruits of Fluid Intelligence

Taiji Harashima
Kanazawa Seiryo University
7 December 2012

Online at
MPRA Paper No. 43151, posted 7 December 2012

The model of TFP shows that TFP is an increasing function of ordinary workers’ fluid intelligence. It also shows that TFP depends substantially on ordinary workers’ fluid intelligence, and that production is almost impossible without it.

 In this paper, a theory of TFP is proposed, and TFP is suggested to reflect the fruits of human intelligence. That the fluid intelligence of ordinary workers is an important element in TFP is particularly emphasized. Ordinary workers can also create something new (i.e., innovate)  because they have intelligence, just as do researchers and other highly educated or trained employees. Although most innovations of ordinary workers are so minor that they do not become part of the accumulated knowledge of humanity, they are indispensable for production because a large number of minor unexpected problems that ordinary workers must address occur in the process of production.

A model of TFP is formulated on the basis of the finding that ordinary workers’ fluid intelligence is an essential element in TFP. TFP is modeled as a function of fluid intelligence, and item response theory, which is widely used in psychology and psychometrics, is used to specify the functional form. The model of TFP shows that TFP is an increasing function of ordinary workers’ fluid intelligence. It also shows that TFP depends substantially on ordinary workers’ fluid intelligence, and that production is almost impossible without it. Therefore, value added comes from the fruits of humans’ fluid intelligence.

Part of Research Project

Productivity Science - Determinants of Productivity

Please share information of determinants of productivity - propositions, hypotheses, research papers.
Thank you.