Sunday, August 27, 2017

TRIZ - Creative Thinking for Inventing and Innovating

New Books and Articles on TRIZ
2016 to

Systematic Innovation Toolkit
March 25, 2016


40 Inventive principles of TRIZ

Described in Part 2-3 of the Book  The Innovation Algorithm

Also See

40 Principles: TRIZ Keys to Innovation

Genrich Altshuller, Lev Shulyak, Steven Rodman
Technical Innovation Center, Inc., 2002 - 135 pages

The book has one page for each principle with pictures illustrating the explanation of the principle.

Principle 1: Segmentation:

Principle 2: Taking out or Extraction:

Principle 3: Local quality: development; local anaesthesia.

Principle 4: Asymmetry:

Principle 5: Merging, Consolidation or combining:

Principle 6: Universality:

Principle 7: Nested doll:

Principle 8: Anti-weight:

Principle 9: Preliminary anti-action:

Principle 10: Preliminary action:

Principle 11: Beforehand cushioning:

Principle 12: Equipotentiality:

Principle 13: The other way round:

Principle 14: Spheroidality – Curvature:

Principle 15: Dynamics:

Principle 16 : Partial or Excessive actions:

Principle 17: Another dimension:

Principle 18: Mechanical vibration:

Principle 19: Periodic action:

Principle 20: Continuity of useful action:

Principle 21: Skipping or Rushing Through:

Principle 22 : Blessing in disguise - Harm into benefit:

Principle 23: Feedback:

Principle 24: Intermediary/Mediator:

Principle 25: Self-Service:

Principle 26: Copying:

Principle 27: Cheap short-living objects:

Principle 28: Mechanics substitution:

Principle 29: Pneumatics and hydraulics:

Principle 30: Flexible shells and thin films:

Principle 31: Porous materials:

Principle 32: Color changes:

Principle 33: Homogeneity:

Principle 34: Rejecting, Discarding – Recovering, Regeneration:

Principle 35: Parameter Changes:

Principle 36 : Phase transitions:

Principle 37: Thermal expansion:

Principle 38 : Accelerated oxidation:

Principle 39 : Inert atmosphere:

Principle 40: Composite materials:

40 Principles - Pdf List

Examples of 40 principles - from automotive sector

TRIZ: Systematic Innovation in Manufacturing

Yeoh Teong San, Yeoh Tay Jin, Song Chi Li
Firstfruits Publishing, 2009 - Engineering - 180 pages

The Ideal Result: What It Is and How to Achieve It

Jack Hipple
Springer Science & Business Media, 26-Jun-2012 -  208 pages

The Ideal Final Result introduces the TRIZ Inventive Problem Solving Process in a way that allows readers to make immediate use of its most basic concepts. The Ideal Final Result reviews the basics of this left brained, but at the same time, very creative process for problem solving that uses a basic algorithm developed through the study of millions of patents. As opposed to psychologically based tools relying on the generation of hundreds of ideas to be sorted through to find the few of value, TRIZ rigorously defines the problem and assists the problem owner in identifying the existing inventive principles that are already known to solve that class of problems. This book reviews the most basic of the TRIZ algorithm tools and provides templates for readers to use in analyzing their difficult problems and provides a mental framework for their solution. It also describes TRIZ techniques for basic strategic planning in a business sense.

TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving

Karen Gadd
John Wiley & Sons, 11-Feb-2011 - 504 pages

TRIZ is a brilliant toolkit for nurturing engineering creativity and innovation. This accessible, colourful and practical guide has been developed from problem-solving workshops run by Oxford Creativity, one of the world's top TRIZ training organizations started by Gadd in 1998. Gadd has successfully introduced TRIZ to many major organisations such as Airbus, Sellafield Sites, Saint-Gobain, DCA, Doosan Babcock, Kraft, Qinetiq, Trelleborg, Rolls Royce and BAE Systems, working on diverse major projects including next generation submarines, chocolate packaging, nuclear clean-up, sustainability and cost reduction.

Engineering companies are increasingly recognising and acting upon the need to encourage successful, practical and systematic innovation at every stage of the engineering process including product development and design. TRIZ enables greater clarity of thought and taps into the creativity innate in all of us, transforming random, ineffective brainstorming into targeted, audited, creative sessions focussed on the problem at hand and unlocking the engineers' knowledge and genius to identify all the relevant solutions.

For good design engineers and technical directors across all industries, as well as students of engineering, entrepreneurship and innovation, TRIZ for Engineers will help unlock and realise the potential of TRIZ. The individual tools are straightforward, the problem-solving process is systematic and repeatable, and the results will speak for themselves.
This highly innovative book:

Satisfies the need for concise, clearly presented information together with practical advice on TRIZ and problem solving algorithms
Employs explanatory techniques, processes and examples that have been used to train thousands of engineers to use TRIZ successfully
Contains real, relevant and recent case studies from major blue chip companies
Is illustrated throughout with specially commissioned full-colour cartoons that illustrate the various concepts and techniques and bring the theory to life
Turns good engineers into great engineers.

TRIZ - Systematic Innovation in Business & Management

Yeoh Teong San
First Fruits Sdn. Bhd., 01-Oct-2014 - Business & Economics - 238 pages

TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) is a powerful methodology which is able to improve a company's top-line and bottom-line. The top-line refers to a company's gross sales or revenues, whereas the bottom-line is a company's net earnings or net profits. The uniqueness of TRIZ is its ability to provide a structured and systematic approach, coupled with a suite of tools to enhance both top-line and bottom-line results. TRIZ can be used for creating new products to generate sales or making processes more efficient and effective to reduce operating costs and expenses.

TRIZ also enhances management capabilities by transforming a good manager to a great manager by acquiring tools to recognize contradictions when they arise and solve them without compromise.

In summary, TRIZ is a philosophy, process, and suite of tools. A total of 11 TRIZ tools (Function Analysis, Cause & Effect Chain Analysis, Perception Mapping, Ideality, S-curve, Trends of Engineering System Evolution, Trimming, Feature Transfer, Function Oriented Search, 9-Windows, and Engineering Contradiction) are discussed in detail.

Numerous examples and case studies are used to illustrate TRIZ applications in accelerating the ability to predict product, process, and service trends; identify unique value propositions for new products or services; circumvent patents of competitors; and solve age-old or chronic problems in both business and management fields.

Innovation Management System - Presentation - Simon Tong
Hong Kong Society for Quality

Updated on  28 August 2017,  17 February 2017,  22 October 2016

Saturday, August 26, 2017

Productivity Science - Some Hypothesis like Statements

"When large companies get Agile right, the results can be stunning. Productivity can improve by a factor of three. Employee engagement, measured in quantitative surveys, increases dramatically too. New product features can be released within weeks or months rather than quarters or years. Rates of innovation rise, while the number of defects and do-overs declines. In the first year after going Agile, one bank’s development team increased the value delivered per dollar spent by 50%, simultaneously cutting development time in half and improving employee engagement by one-third."

Five Secrets to Scaling Up Agile
FEBRUARY 19, 2016 by Kaj Burchardi, Peter Hildebrandt, Erik Lenhard, Jérôme Moreau, and Benjamin Rehberg

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

Behavioral Approach to Productivity - Behavioral Variables and Productivity

"Behavioral strategies to improve productivity"
Gary P.Latham, Larry L.Cummings, and Terence R.Mitchell,
Organizational Dynamics
Volume 9, Issue 3, Winter 1981, Pages 5-23

Hum Resour Manage. 1983 Jan-Feb;13(1):1-5.
"Behavioral science approaches to improving productivity."

Shortell SM.

We have suggested that improving the productivity of an individual or of one group of workers is not the same thing as improving the productivity of the organization overall. Further, because work units in hospitals are interdependent, attempts to improve productivity ultimately involve a reexamination of the organization's values and culture. Until this fundamental realization occurs, little can be done to improve the organization's productivity. As such, productivity is not simply a day-to-day managerial issue as a long-term leadership issue. Thus, we ought to begin mapping out productivity strategies for the long run. Some of the elements of such a strategy have been highlighted.

Aubrey C. Daniels "Performance management: The behavioral approach to productivity improvement"
Global Business and Organizational Excellence
Volume 4, Issue 3, Summer 1985, Pages 225–236

S.K. Srivastava & Kailash Chandra Barmola
SMS Varanasi,  Vol. VII, No. 1; June, 2011

Evidence-Based Productivity Improvement: A Practical Guide to the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES)
Robert D. Pritchard, Sallie J. Weaver, Elissa Ashwood
Routledge, 04-May-2012 - Psychology - 316 pages
This new book explains the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement system (ProMES) and how it meets the criteria for an optimal measurement and feedback system. It summarizes all the research that has been done on productivity, mentioning other measurement systems, and gives detailed information on how to implement this one in organizations. This book will be of interest to behavioral science researchers and professionals who wish to learn more about the practical methods of measuring and improving organizational productivity.

Enhancing Strategies to Improve Workplace Performance
Thesis by Francine Williams Richardson
Walden University

Nudge management: applying behavioural science to increase knowledge worker productivity
Philip Ebert and Wolfgang Freibichler
Journal of Organization Design2017  6:4
Published: 21 March 2017


Culture and Productivity - Bibliography

Seven Wastes Model

Seven Wastes - Taiichi Ohno - page 19 - Toyota Production System

   Waste                          -                   Method

Waste of overproduction - One cannot produce without a production Kanban

Waste of time on hand (waiting)  - Multiple machines to an operator, all producing as per tact time.

Waste in transportation - Machines in line or flow placed close together

Waste of processing itself - Standardized Methods

Waste of stock on hand (inventories) - JIT system - low inventory

Waste of movement (of workers) - Machine layout changes so that an operator handling multiple machines does not waste movement. Can there be control unit for all the machines at one place only?

Waste of making defective products - Problem solving approach to produce zero defects. 5 Why approach to find where the problem or defect occurred in the earliest stage. Educating and training operators by other team members and management.

Seven Waste Model is also expressed as TIMWOOD

T – Transport – Movement of material, people
I – Inventory – Stock of materials, parts, and finished items
M – Motion – movement of hands and other body parts in operating machines of hand tools
W – Waiting – Men and machines waiting for parts or instructions
O – Over production – Making more than is IMMEDIATELY required
O – Over processing – Tighter tolerances or higher grade materials than are necessary
D – Defects – Items scrapped and rework

Compare the seven waste model with flow process chart

Flow process chart recommends recording and examining 5 items.

Process -   will examine  1.Waste of processing itself,  2. Waste of overproduction

Inspection -  3. Waste of making defective products  - The inspection is only shown as a stage in flow process chart, It needs to be augmented with a record of defects or defectives found during inspection.

Transport - 4. Waste in transportation, 5. Waste of movement (of workers)

Temporary delay - 6. Waste of time on hand (waiting)

Permanent storage - 7. Waste of stock on hand (inventories)

Thus we can see, flow process charts has provided the foundation for analyzing the seven wastes proposed by Taiichi Ohno.

But subsequent persons have indicated Eighth Waste.

Wastage of physical and mental skills of people.

Alan Mogensen identfied this gap in industrial engineering theory and introduced work simplication workshops to involve operators and supervisors in productivity improvement. Subsequently, suggestions scheme became popular. Japanese managers brought more improvements and made operators given large number of suggestions and provided forums for participation.

Narayana Rao proposed Ninth waste.

9th Waste - Wastage of Machine Potential, Capability and Power - Wasting Machine's Potential Productivity

Industrial engineering has ignored wastage of potential of machines and equipment even though Taylor has advocated right from his piece rate system paper that for productivity improvement both machine and man are to be analyzed and improved.

9th Waste - Wasting Machine's Potential Productivity -- Elimination - Essential Industrial Engineering Activity


Seven Wastes

Seven Wastes Tool

Lean for Government: Eliminating the seven wastes

Lean in Government

Seven Wastes in Preventive Maintenanee Programs

Updated 23 August 2017, 15 November 2013

Friday, August 18, 2017

UK Productivity


The UK currently lags behind its G7 competitors’ average productivity levels by an average of 18% - and 35% behind Germany. Poor management is estimated to cost the UK £84bn in lost productivity a year.

Chartered Management Institute (CMI) proposed a management manifesto to improve management in UK and reclaim the 84 billion pounds lost in productivity due to poor management.

You can download the manifesto document from:

Monday, August 14, 2017

Process Analysis - Questions/Check List

Book: Productivity Through Process Analysis by Jinichi Ishiwata
Four basic principles for process improvements
1. Eliminate processes whenever possible.
2. Simplify them. (Operations analysis)
3. Combine them
4. Change the sequence
1. Eliminate  - Can this be eliminated? What will happen if we eliminate it?
2. Simplify - Can this made simpler?  - the task of operations analysis
3. Combine - Can two or more processes be consolidated into one?
4. Change sequence - Can this operation be switched with another one?
Big three problems in process: waste, irrationality, and inconsistency
5W1 Analysis for Product Process Analysis
Operation - Why - Who is doing it - Which machine - where - when - How
Can the layout be changed to reduce the transportation?
Can number of inspections be reduced?
Are any inspections unnecessary?
Can necessary inspections be done while the product is being processed?
Can number of delays be reduced?
Book: Motion and Time Study - Improving Productivity by Marvin E. Mundel
Checklist for Process Chart - Product Analysis
basic principles
1. Reduce number of steps.
2. Arrange steps in best order.
3. Make steps as economical as possible (operation analysis).
4. Reduce handling.
5. Combine steps if economical.
6. Shorten moves.
7. Provide most economical means for moving (operation analysis)
8. Cut in-process inventory to workable minimum
9. Use minimum number of control points at most advantageous places
1. Can any step be eliminated?

a. as unnecessary. (Ask: Why is it done?)
b. By new equipment (Ask: Why is present equipment used?)
c. By changing the place where it is done or kept. (Ask: Why is it done there?)
d. By changing the order of work. (Ask: Why is it done in its present order?)
e. By changing the product design. (Ask: Why is it made as it is?)
f. By changing the specifications of the incoming supply. (Ask:  Why is it ordered in its present form or used at all)
2. Can any step be combined with another?

a. By changing the specifications of supplies, or of any raw material?
b. By changing the design of the product, even if only the tolerances?
c. By changing the order of the steps of production, or doing inspection at any operation station so as to avoid an inventory of faulty product?
d. By changing the equipment used (e.g., using a multifunction machine, or creating a multimachine work cell served by a single person or by a robot)/
e. By redesigning one or more work places?
3. Can steps be rearranged so as to make any shorter or easier?
4. Can any step be made easier?
Book: Motion and Time Study: Design and Measurement of Work by Ralph M. Barnes
Following approaches should be considered in developing preferred work method
A. Eliminate all unnecessary work.
B. Combine operations or elements.
C. Change the sequence of operations
D. Simplify the necessary operations

Process Analysis, Process Improvement, and Cost Reduction


Updated  15 August 2017, 10 February 2012

Saturday, August 5, 2017

Cloud Computing - Productivity Science

Ozdemir A, Asil H (2017)
The Optimization of Query Processing in Sea Base Cloud Databases Based on CCEVP Model.
Ind Eng Manage 6:208. doi:10.4172/2169-0316.1000208

The increase in data volume in many applications and the need for their calculations are the database challenges. Cloud computing and the use of Sea Base databases are a solution to integrate a variety of DBMSs and integrated access to tables in databases. The study tried to optimize query processing in the Sea Base cloud database and reduce query processing time. The method used adaptability for optimization. The purpose of this method is to make adaptive the execution plans of high-traffic queries sent to the Sea Base. For adaptability, the method uses three parts: separator, similarity detector and replacement policy.  The results show that the system optimizes query processing in the database and reduces response time by one percent. The response time can be further decreased by changing the replacement policy.

Productivity - Journals

Journal of Productivity Analysis

International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management
ISSN: 1741-0401
Previously published as: Work Study

Journal of Productivity Analysis

International Journal of Productivity Management and Assessment Technologies (IJPMAT)

Industrial Engineering Journals

Ranking of Journals in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Journal of Industrial Engineering International

Journal of Industrial Engineering International  is a peer-reviewed open access journal published under the brand SpringerOpen, covering all aspects of industrial engineering. It is fully supported by the Islamic Azad University, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in.

Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering

Official Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers
Volume 32, Issue 2, 2015

International Journal of Applied Industrial Engineering (IJAIE)

Editor-in-Chief: Lanndon Ocampo (University of the Philippines Cebu, Philippines)
Indexed In: INSPEC and 10 more indices
Published: Semi-Annually |Established: 2012

Topics Covered
Business and strategy
Case studies in industry and services
Decision analysis
Engineering economy and cost estimation
Enterprise resource planning and ERPII
Facility location, layout, design, and materials handling
Forecasting, production planning, and control
Human factors, ergonomics, and safety
Industrial engineering education
Information and communication technology and systems
Innovation, knowledge management, and organizational learning
Inventory, logistics, and transportation
Knowledge and technology transfers in a globalized network
Manufacturing, control, and automation
Operations management
Performance analysis
Product and process design and management
Project Management
Purchasing and procurement
Reliability and maintenance engineering
Scheduling in industry and service
Service systems and service management
Supply chain management
Systems and service modeling and simulation
Technology transfer and management
Third party/fourth party logistics
Total quality management and quality engineering

European Journal of Industrial Engineering

International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations

International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering

Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management

International Journal of Industrial Engineering : Theory Applications and Practice

South African Journal of Industrial Engineering

Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management

Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association

Engineering Optimization

Updated  5 August 2017, 18 June 2017, 9 April 2015

Friday, August 4, 2017

General - System Level Productivity Science


FEBRUARY 16, 2017 by Jaap Backx, Christoph Hilberath, Reinhard Messenböck, Yves Morieux, and Henning Streubel
BCG Perspectives

Businesses compete in a world that is growing ever more complex. Disruptive technologies emerge with increasing frequency. Customers’ needs and demands change at breakneck speed. New competitors are always entering the fray.

In their attempts to reduce uncertainty and reestablish control amid this new complexity, companies tend to introduce new reports, new rules, and new processes. Such reactions, however, simply translate external complexity into internal “complicatedness”—the counterproductive proliferation of cumbersome structures, processes, and systems. Complicatedness hinders productivity by creating a work environment that leaves employees disengaged and unmotivated.

Knowledge Worker Productivity - Productivity Science


Margaret Moussa, Mathew Bright, Maria Estela Varua, (2017) "Investigating knowledge workers’ productivity using work design theory", International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 66 Issue: 6, pp.822-834.

The paper concludes by offering suggestions for a model suitable for examining the drivers of knowledge work productivity.

Survey instruments based on the recommended model potentially provide a valuable means for understanding and enhancing productivity in a variety of knowledge intensive service industries. The pronounced benefit of this model is that it is applicable in cross-industry and cross-occupational contexts, unlike many existing knowledge worker productivity models.


Peter F. Drucker gave a call for knowledge worker productivity.

Can IEs do some things in that area?

Raise the productivity of interaction workers—high-skill knowledge workers, including managers and professionals—by 20 to 25 percent by using social technologies internally and externally.

Updated 5 August 2017, 6 August 2013

Robots and Cost Reduction


ABB Frosinone - Collaborative Robotics: more products, more work
2017-07-20 - A textbook example of how Industry 4.0 at an ABB plant in Italy has brought greater employment and production.

What Is the Real Cost of an Industrial Robot Arm?
Ken Thayer
27 April 2017
Labor cost savings due to Robot use is given for many countries in the year 2025.

The Robotmakers – Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
by Tanya M. Anandan, Contributing Editor
Robotic Industries Association
POSTED 04/28/2017


Reduction of Robot Price

The cost to purchase and implement a robotic spot welder has plummeted from $183,000 in 2005 to $132,000 in 2014, with the price forecasted to drop another 22% by 2025, according to Technavio’s lead industrial automation analysts.

In computer electronics manufacturing, it costs $4 per hour to use a robot for a routine assembly task compared to $24 for an average worker. In the US, industrial robots in auto manufacturing are already operating at a cost of $7.25 hourly wage after the cost of the robot is recovered. For example: the Baxter collaborative robot from Rethink Robotics, which works alongside the human workforce on the factory floor, only costs $22,000.

At Ford's factory in Cologne, Germany,  collaborative robots, or co-bots are working side by side with 4,000 Ford factory workers.

Automakers are leading the way in the adoption of co-bots, which they say are more cost-effective than industrial robots. The average selling price of a co-bot is close to $30,000, a number expected to drop to $18,500 by 2020. Automakers prefer the flexibility that comes with co-bots, which can work without safety cages and therefore can be rolled around to different parts of the factory.

Robotics systems are becoming an economically viable alternative to human labor in more and more industries. A human welder today earns around $25 per hour (including benefits), while the equivalent operating cost per hour for a robot is around $8 when installation, maintenance, and the operating costs of all hardware, software, and peripherals are amortized over a five-year depreciation period. In 15 years (by 2030), that gap will widen even more dramatically. The operating cost per hour for a robot doing similar welding tasks could plunge to as little as $2 when improvements in its performance are factored in.

Justifying the Cost of a Robotic Welding System
Robots in packaging: It’s all about cost savings


Robotics and Energy Cost Reduction
by Bennett Brumson , Contributing Editor
Robotic Industries Association
Posted 08/02/2006

Robotic systems employed in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) applications offer potential benefits in terms of decreased personnel radiation exposure and decreased personnel costs. Robotic systems seem particularly suited to the repetitive nature of the gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process building designs.
Google Search Link for Robots Cost Reduction

Updated 5 August 2017, 30 Jan 2014