Tuesday, June 28, 2016

July First Week - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision

Scientific Management of Taylor

Taylor's book is a must reading for industrial engineers. The book emphasizes the development of scientific laws relating to use of machines, tools, related resources and men. This is development of science. Once science is developed, industrial engineers use that science to develop productive machines, productivity improvement devices and methods and that improve productivity.  Taylor also examines some management methods that are sources for low productivity. He suggests management methods that improve productivity. Then Taylor, discusses issues relating to implementing productivity improvement methods. Industrial engineers have no other comparable book on philosophy in their discipline. Hence it has to be read and reread till a new book is authored by a modern day Taylor by incorporating all that has happened in the discipline over the last 100 to 120 years.

First Week

1 July

1. Importance of National Efficiency

2. Foundation of Scientific Management

2 July 

3. Soldiering and Its Causes

4. Underlying Philosophy for the Old Systems of Management

3 July

5. Scientific Management - Introduction


4 July

7. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - - Pig Iron Handling

8. Background for Development of Scientific Management - -Midvale Steel Company Machine Shop

5 July

9. Elaborate Planning Organization - Need and Utility

10. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - Bricklaying Improvement by Gilbreth

Your comments are welcome on each article

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Internet of Things - Productivity Applications



Physical infrastructure electronic devices that are able to sense, generate, and transmit data have been around for nearly 50 years. In 1968 Schneider Electric invented the first Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). But the change now in 2015 is the fact that  the cost of IP enablement is now so low and therefore all sorts of devices can be connected to internet to participate in the more open IP-style network and transmit data and receive instructions form various computers anywhere in the world.

Thus IoT allows plants to now monitor new variables that, in the past, were cost prohibitive. Measurement of vibration on machinery and power consumption on all branches of the power system are some examples of how IoT can be cost effectively used in manufacturing and service systems. These lower entry costs are leading to the explosion of the network and generating  a more granular level of data on the existing assets of the firms.

The free-flowing yet structured management of the new data allows managers  within organisations to improve real-time energy and automation tracking in order to cut costs, and operate more safety, reliably, and efficiently.

Leading analysts such as McKinsey & Company are predicting that IoT-enabled business will grow to $10 trillion annually by 2025. IoT will enable higher levels of collaboration and will change the way goods are produced.

Michael Porter is a Harvard economist  expects Internet of Things will deliver "tremendous" efficiency gains.

The Internet of Things will help individual companies to limit the waste factor in global economies in more effective ways. Products which are connected to the web can communicate on their usage patter. This data will be used to schedule maintenance when it's really needed, increasing efficiency. The data will also be used in predictive analytics to reduce failures and improve product design. In sum, all those functionalities will boost the efficiency of production systems.


Updated  27 June 2016, 19 Apr 2016, 6 Apr 2016
10 Dec 2015

Friday, June 24, 2016

Success Stories of Industrial Engineers

Success Story of Industrial Engineer
24 June 2016
Isaac Mitchell, Director, Lean Continuous Improvement, East Tennessee Children’s Hospital. Bachelor of Science, Industrial Engineering, University of Tennessee


Industry Week Updates on Manufacturing Technology, Management and Productivity

System and Human Dimensions of Industrial Engineering - H. Harold Bass

Definition of Industrial Engineering by Narayana Rao KVSS: Industrial Engineering is System Efficiency Engineering and Human Effort Engineering.

Excerpts From

H. Harold Bass
Supervisor Research and Development Group
Industrial Engineering Division
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York
1963, University of California

The publishers have given permission to all to include the articles as needed provided reference is given.

 It has seemed to me that industrial engineers tend to get smothered in their growing body of techniques and perhaps lose sight of the ends towhichthese techniques should be directed.

If there is anyone theme which has persisted throughout the history of industrial engineering it
is the theme of improving Organization Performance.

There are a number of dimensions along which breadth of industrial engineering practice could be
discussed. I should like to emphasize two dimensions which I shall call the ''Systems Dimension''
and the ''Human Dimension."

I. The Systems Dimension

It seems that there has been one characteristic of traditional industrial engineering practice. Our
approach for many years assumed that we should concentrate on unit operations. Despite admonitions
such as ''look at the preceding and succeeding operation" we have by and large tended to optimize Organizational Performance piece by piece.

 The Systems' concept teaches that the sum of optimal parts is not necessarily equal to an optimal whole. Interactions between units or sub-systems and environmental variables can affect the performance of a system. The effects of this are only obvious when we grasp the system as a total system.

Linear Programming has enabled us to assess the total system of products and machines,
take into account the many inter-relationships of production rates and costs and arrive at a machine
loading program that is within the specified restrictions and is optimal for the total system.
Problems involving a large number of products and machines rapidly tax the capacities of the
most modern computers; however, efficient algorithms are capable of solving problems with as many as 300 products and 18 machines.

The linear programming approach has proven useful not only as a control in assigning products
on a weekly basis, but for long range planning of machine requirements such as;
1. Determining where to place development effort to overcome technological restrictions
which limit the capability of products to be produced on certain machines.
2. Determining the economics of adding additional capacity which is generally
more efficient than present equipment.
3. Determining the best allocation of products for special situations such as extended
periods of machine downtime for maintenance or design changes. This is just one example of work done in the Systems Dimension. Actually, the technology in this area has developed rapidly and can have significant influence on our goal of improving .Organization Performance.

II. The Human Dimension
For the Human Dimension, I'd like to cover two areas; Work Physiology and Organizational
Behavior.  Let's take Work Physiology, first.

A. Work Physiology

In the year 1903, Frederick W. Taylor in his book Shop Management stated, "One of the
most difficult pieces of work which must be faced by the man who is to set the daily tasks is
to decide just how hard it is for him to make the task." (end of quote) This, then, at the
time of Taylor was a decision under conditions of uncertainty and not a measurement. And,
judging by the labor disputes which arise over this question, we seem to be no nearer the point
of being definitive about this question than was Taylor.

What is work effort? Is there an objective way of measuring this effort? Effort can be defined
as an exertion of power or energy and this can be measured and quantified. Energy cannot
be measured by measuring time, but it can be measured by measuring such physiological
phenomena as heart rate, oxygen comsumption and respiratory volume.

The industrial engineer has implied consideration of these physiological phenomena in his concern with fatigue allowances and rest pauses, but even these allowances have generally been based upon time criterion rather than physiological measurements.

Today the industrial engineer has available to him, thru his own and other disciplines, the knowledge
and capability necessary for making quantitative determinations of many of these factors involved
in studying man at work. In the future, to successfully fulfill our role of studying man at work and to integrate him into the organizational system, we need to know the real demands which are being placed upon people. In a sense, we need to know their tolerance to physical and psychological loading.

While as engineers, we wouldn't think of regularly exceeding the design capacity of a production
machine, neither should we exceed the design capacity of the human operator. Knowing this
design capacity has definite humanitarian and economic value.

The optimum work situation is when the work capacities of an individual are compatible
to the work demands of the job. If we underload the individual, the situation is obviously inefficient
and costly. Although it is less obvious, the reverse is also very costly. The resolution of
grievances over work rate, working conditions, and the costs of on-plant medical care, as well
as compensation, do not come cheaply.

While I have earlier singled out the area of effort determination, I don't wish to imply that
this is the only area in which knowledge of human capacities and capabilities is needed. Some other
work situations in which such knowledge is needed are; tasks involving maintenance of a performance level during monitoring and vigilance tasks, frequent decision-making associated with
rapid paced operations, and the integration of an aging industrial population into an increasingly
complex and rapid paced industrial enviornment.

To define and approach these problems requires an understanding and application of physiological
knowledge. engineers. If they are to be solved, we must seek the assistance of other professions
and disciplines. No one discipline is sufficient within itself to bring to bear all of the effort
that is needed. This, then, dictates the need for the team approach. Our work physiology studies at Kodak Park, which started about five years ago, developed from a common need of the Medical Department and the Industrial Engineering Division to better understand the physiological limitations and capabilities of people. The understanding of common problems that has developed between
these two divisions, in itself, almost justifies the effort which has been expended on these
studies. The real reward, of course, is in our growing ability to evaluate and quantify situations
which heretofore, from a job design standpoint, had to remain unknown.

Initially, our investigations were confined solely to the ''effort" or "energy expenditures"
aspect of work. This was natural for several reasons, namely:
1. High effort is more obvious to the observer of the industrial scene and,
therefore, demands more attention.
2. While it is fractionated and scattered, much work has been done and reported by other investigators relative to "'energy expenditure", which is a measure of effort.
3. Instrumentation has been developed such that it is now practical to measure this variable of "energy expenditure" on the industrial scene.
Energy expenditure is measured by the indirect calorimetry method; that is, respiration
and oxygen consumption are the variables which are measured and converted to energy. Combined
with heart rate, these represent the physiological responses which we feel are necessary for accurately assessing high effort industrial jobs.

Physiological measurements in conjunction with time study now provide us with an insight
into industrial job design problems which is not obtainable in any other way. Using criterion
relative to energy expenditure, we can now assess jobs prior to the installation of a new work
standard or job design. We are in a better position to determine in terms of time and energy
what the job requires, the frequency of rest breaks, the necessity of providing auxiliary labor
saving equipment or the need for re-engineering the job completely. In situations where
the manufacturing process is not amenable to change, then the same physiological measurements
help us to select persons with the physical capacity demanded by the process. Most preemployment
medical examinations do not completely provide this information.

This new approach to designing industrial jobs has been successfully employed in many
types of jobs ranging from the handling of containers in a darkroom cold storage area to the
loading of box cars. A most rewarding use of it involved the pre-evaluation of a proposed piece
of production equipment. The work physiology studies indicated that additional materials handling
equipment was necessary if we were to obtain the anticipated increased production. The
nature of this materials handling equipment was such that installation at a later time would have
caused an extensive shutdown with the resultant loss of production.

With the measurement of and utilization of energy expenditure as a factor in job design, we
feel we are just beginning our work physiology studies. Energy expenditure is just one facet of
the problem. Other physiological phenomena of people may be studied so that we can integrate
them into job systems which take advantage of their capabilities and do not aggravate their
limitations. The result will be mutually beneficial to the individual and the company. The
second part of our Human Dimension is Organizational Behavior.

B. Organizational Behavior

I am using this term to refer to the behavior of people in an organizational or industrial setting.
As an area of knowledge, among other things, it refers to the reasons why people work or don't work, decide or don't decide to perform so as to achieve the objectives of their organizations.

If the concept of "Organizational Behavior" seems remote from industrial engineering to you, let me say that an incentive system, or any control system for that matter, is primarily designed to direct and influence the behavior of people towards organizational goals. As industrial engineers we are, it seems, in the business of designing systems to influence, direct and control human behavior, but we've never quite faced up to it in these very words.

The famous Western Electric Hawthorne studies of thirty years ago marked the beginning
of organized research into Organization Behavior. Since that time, studies in industry plus general
behavioral research have yielded information which promises utility to industry.

I think I can summarize the results of this research (and its utility to industrial engineers) this way.

You industrial engineers profess, in effect, a theory of management - a theory of how to organize men, machines, and materials so as to get the best results. The part of this theory which deals with men assumes that the performance of people will be best under situations where they are told exactly
what to do and how to do it, and are rewarded with money in proportion to performance.
Your way of doing business rests on certain behavioral assumptions.

''To put it another way, you are hipdeep in designing systems for influencing behavior and you make almost no use of the collective scientific information about the behavior of man. The assumptions which support your practice are not all wrong; they are just not complete nor up to
date. You need, first, to realize that you are deeply involved in influencing people's work attitudes, second, that you do this based upon certain assumptions, and third, that there is a good deal of information available which would alter and improve these assumptions."

You might assume that under the proper conditions, they will actually find personal satisfaction in
working towards your objectives.


In the short time left, I can only outline the manner in which we at Kodak Park are trying to
answer this challenge. In the first place, we have acquainted ourselves with the research
which bears on the problem. We have tried to integrate this to the best of our ability and reduce
it to the probable effect it may have on our practice. The following specifics are indicated:

1. Job Design

Instead of simply designing operations from the point of view of the optimum technical system, we think there are gains to be made in considering the nature of the jobs which people will do.
The usual industrial engineering criteria for job design stress extremes of task specialization. The consequences tend to be meaningless jobs. That is, jobs in which the individual has difficulty
seeing the relationship of his function to a larger whole. A version of what has been called Job Enlargement is called for. This is not just a matter of adding functions to a job, but adding a set of
functions which will comprise a set of activities leading to accomplishment of a visible objective. The activities making up a job should be examined to see if there has been a tendency to
remove the thinking functions and specialize them in other persons. Taken as a whole, we should endeavor to design jobs such that people have a maximum of control of the variables which
lead to end objectives.

2. Goal Orientation - Information Systems

A natural consequence of the over division of labor has been to focus the attention of individuals on very minute goals such as pieces per hour. We believe that industrial engineers should re-examine their approach to the goal setting function which is, after all, what time study has led to all these
years. People, it seems, do not behave on the job as isolated individuals. Many jobs are parts of a system and depend for success upon a high degree of interdependency of people. We are examining the structuring of goals to see what beneficial effect there is in providing the individual a perception
of his contribution to system goals. This takes the form of specifying job goals in terms of end-results and also in terms of the contribution of job level goals to system goals. Individuals are kept informed of system objectives, current progress of the system and any contemplated changes in objectives.
In effect, they are kept "in the know" about objectives and progress of the unit as well as their own job goals. In effect, we are trying to enlarge the focus of the individual relative to end objectives. By giving his more control through Job Design and overall goal orientation, we think his performance
and personal satisfaction will both increase.

III. Compensation or Incentive Systems
For many years, industrial engineering activity has been closely identified with incentives. The classical incentive approach stresses the closest possible relationship between pay and rate-of-output performance. As any of you who have administered an incentive system know, you have to take the bitter with the better. There are a number of practical problems or dysfunctions associated with incentives. I shall not stress these, but will try to describe the more fundamental problems. If we are to believe the results of behavioral research, people work for the satisfaction of a number of human needs. Only some of these can be satisfied by money. The most serious indictment of classical
incentives is that they have pre-occupied us with money to such an extent that we have largely
overlooked other considerations. Such things as achievement, responsibility, recognition and
work, itself, are satisfactions and sources of motivation in themselves. Our problem, here,
is to retain some monetary incentive, some pay/performance relationship, but not to do it
in such a manner that it is seen as the be-all and end-all of motivation. We believe that
closer attention to Job Design and Goal Orientation, previously mentioned, is one way of
providing a basis for satisfaction in the job. There is nothing in motivational research to indicate that relating rewards such as pay to performance is unsound. How this is done seems to be most important, however. We think that money should be looked upon as an after-the-fact reinforcement, not the primary initial motivator of good performance. In contrast to classical wage incentives, which stress close, short term, hour by hour correlation of pay and performance, the shift from "motivator"
to "reinforcement" may be brought about by extending the time over which pay and performance
are related. In addition, by utilizing longer time periods, performance considerations like quality, versatility and dependability can be considered in terms of pay.

We may close by reviewing the official definition of Industrial Engineering as it appears
on the AIIE Journal: "Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems of men, materials and equipment; drawing upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the
principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems."

If we are to believe this definition as a statement of what industrial engineers do, then we must assume that in our practice we do, indeed, draw upon knowledge from the social sciences. (But industrial engineering has not effectively drawn research conclusions or principles from the social or life sciences) . If we are to be designers of integrated systems of "men, materials and equipment," and if the design activity is to be based upon specialized scientific knowledge, then we had better equip ourselves to do so, (this article specifically focuses on)  the social or life sciences.

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Future of Industrial Engineering

The future of industrial engineering / by C.E. Knoeppel. Knoeppel, C. E. (Charles Edward),

Society of industrial engineering, 1920


The Future of Industrial Engineering As An Academic Discipline, J. A. Buzacotta
IIE Transactions
Volume 16, Issue 1, 1984

Thursday, June 16, 2016

Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Volume II, 1907-1912 - Book Information


Human Engineering magazine was mentioned in the book. Winthrop Talbot was an editor of the magazine.

Also see


Engineering Economic Analysis - Case Studies

Engineering Economic Analysis - Case Studies

Engineering Economic Analysis - Case Studies


An Engineering-Economic Analysis
of Syngas Storage
The authors examined whether an IGCC facility that operates its gasifier continuously but stores the
syngas and produces electricity only when daily prices are high may be more profitable than an
IGCC facility with no syngas storage.
There are currently eight integrated coal gasification / combined cycle electrical turbine (IGCC)
facilities operating worldwide producing about 1.7 GW of electricity from coal or petcoke
feedstock, and in all of these facilities the syngas is used immediately after it is produced. There
are over one hundred coal gasification facilities producing chemical feedstocks, also without
storage. Without storage capabilities, the gasifier must be sized to fit the syngas end-use (such as
a gas turbine or chemicals process) and the operation of the two systems must be coupled.
Stored syngas may be used to produce electricity in gas turbines during periods of peak demand
when produced electricity is most valuable and prices are highest, while operating the gasifier at
the most efficient sustained production rate. Stored syngas may be a means to enhance the
reliability and availability of IGCC power plants, by increasing the availability of syngas during
planned and unplanned outages. Without storage, the coal gasification facility must be sized to
the gas turbine or other facility that uses the gas. Storage allows the two units to be sized and
run separately, thus gaining valuable flexibility. For IGCC designs where the air separation unit
is not fully integrated with the turbine (Farina 1999; Maurstad 2005), adding the capability to
store syngas can allow the gasifier and turbine to be sized and operated independently, thereby
providing valuable flexibility in the way the facility is configured and operated
The goal of this two year research project was to conduct a detailed study of syngas storage
options. The analysts performed an engineering-economic analysis of storage to inform the design of coal
gasification facilities as well as energy policy. The project collected the relevant syngas data
from gasification processes; explored the technical issues of storage such as hydrogen
embrittlement, leakage and energy loss from syngas storage; and performed an engineeringeconomic
analysis of storage options. In a parallel and complementary approach, they analyzed
the benefits and costs of syngas storage options under a variety of scenarios, sampling the
uncertainties in commodity prices, technical options, and regulatory policies.


Additional parking spaces at both existing and new park and ride facilities across West Yorkshire.

Present Value of Benefits: £32.4 million;
Present Value of Costs: £9.9 million;
Net Present Value: £22.5 million; and
Benefit to Cost Ratio: 3.3:1


Engineering Economic Analysis Guide: Liquid Fuels Technologies


Sustainability and Economic Analysis of Propylene Carbonate and Polypropylene Carbonate Production Processes Using CO2 and Propylene Oxide

Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas

Updated 19 June 2016,  17 Sep 2012

Wednesday, June 15, 2016

Arduino Essentials - IoT Books Information

My First Arduino - Blog Article

Bought from Amazon
UK  Arduino  Starter Kit with UNO - 62 pounds

You get the Arduino UNO microcontroller intself plus a breadboard and wooden base.
The kit also contains various components including DC motor, LED display, servo motor, potentiometer, temperature sensor, and a very generous length of USB power cable; in addition to various diodes, resistors, filters, LED etc.

The starter kit comes with a projects book.  This contains the set-up instructions; how to install the software and connect to your Arduino; a primer in electronics and fifteen projects to try.


Programming the Photon: Getting Started with the Internet of Things

Christopher Rush
McGraw Hill Professional, 08-Apr-2016 - Technology & Engineering - 240 pages

Explore the Internet of Things and build useful, functioning Photon projects

Quickly learn to construct your own electronics devices and control them over the Internet with help from this DIY guide. Programming the Photon: Getting Started with the Internet of Things features clear explanations and step-by-step examples that use inexpensive, easy-to-find components. Discover how to connect to Wi-Fi networks, attach hardware to I/O ports, write custom programs, and work from the cloud. You will learn how to troubleshoot and tweak your Photon creations—even interface with social media sites!

· Set up your Photon board and connect to the Particle cloud

· Start constructing and programming custom IoT projects

· Learn the syntax of both the C and Arduino languages

· Incorporate switches, sensors, and other input devices

· Control hardware through the Photon’s outputs

· Control your creations through the Internet

· Add functions with Particle shields and add-on boards

· Link real-time data to your board via the IFTTT Web Service

· Integrate with websites—Facebook, Twitter, Gmail, and more!

Make: Action: Movement, Light, and Sound with Arduino and Raspberry Pi

Simon Monk
Maker Media, Inc., 04-Feb-2016 - Technology & Engineering - 360 pages

Beginning with the basics and moving gradually to greater challenges, this book takes you step-by-step through experiments and projects that show you how to make your Arduino or Raspberry Pi create and control movement, light, and sound. In other words: action!

The Arduino is a simple microcontroller with an easy-to-learn programming environment, while the Raspberry Pi is a tiny Linux-based computer. This book clearly explains the differences between the Arduino and Raspberry Pi, when to use them, and to which purposes each are best suited.

Using these widely available and inexpensive platforms, you'll learn to control LEDs, motors of various types, solenoids, AC (alternating current) devices, heaters, coolers, displays, and sound. You'll even discover how to monitor and control these devices over the Internet. Working with solderless breadboards, you'll get up and running quickly, learning how to make projects that are as fun as they are informative. In Make: Action, you'll learn to:

Build a can crusher using a linear actuator with your Arduino
Have an Arduino water your plants
Build a personal traffic signal using LEDs
Make a random balloon popper with Arduino
Cool down your beverages with a thermostatic drink cooler you build yourself
Understand and use the PID control algorithm
Use Raspberry Pi to create a puppet dance party that moves to your tweets!

Getting Started with Arduino Wiring for Windows 10 IoT Core

Agus Kurniawan
PE Press, 24-Jan-2016

If you have experiences in Arduino development using Sketch program, your Sketch program can run on Raspberry Pi 2 with Windows 10 IoT Core. This book helps you get started with Arduino Wiring development using Visual Studio 2015. The following is highlight topics in this book:

* Setting Up Development Environment

* Digital I/O

* Serial Communication

* Analog I/O

* Working with I2C/TWI Protocol

* Working with SPI Protocol

Arduino Essentials

Francis Perea
Packt Publishing Ltd, 24-Feb-2015 -  206 pages

If you are a hobbyist who wants to develop projects based on microcontroller platforms, then this book based Arduino platform will be useful. For Internet of Things projects, this platform is being recommended.


Beginning Arduino

Michael McRoberts
Apress, 17-Sep-2013 - Technology & Engineering - 424 pages

Want to light up a display? Control a touch screen? Program a robot? The Arduino is a microcontroller board that can help you do all of these things, plus nearly anything you can dream up. Even better, it's inexpensive and, with the help of Beginning Arduino, Second Edition, easy to learn.

In Beginning Arduino, Second Edition, you will learn all about the popular Arduino by working your way through a set of 50 cool projects. You'll progress from a complete Arduino beginner to intermediate Arduino and electronic skills and the confidence to create your own amazing projects. You'll also learn about the newest Arduino boards like the Uno and the Leonardo along the way. Absolutely no experience in programming or electronics required!

Each project is designed to build upon the knowledge learned in earlier projects and to further your knowledge of Arduino programming and electronics. By the end of the book you will be able to create your own projects confidently and with creativity. You'll learn about:

Controlling LEDs Displaying text and graphics on LCD displays Making a line-following robot Using digital pressure sensors Reading and writing data to SD cards Connecting your Arduino to the Internet

Getting Started with Arduino

Massimo Banzi
Co-founder of the Arduino project
"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 13-Sep-2011 - Computers - 118 pages

Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that’s taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here!

Inside, you’ll learn about:

Interaction design and physical computing
The Arduino hardware and software development environment
Basics of electricity and electronics
Prototyping on a solderless breadboard
Drawing a schematic diagram
Getting started with Arduino is a snap. To use the introductory examples in this guide, all you need an Arduino Uno or earlier model, along with USB A-B cable and an LED. The easy-to-use Arduino development environment is free to download.

Join hundreds of thousands of hobbyists who have discovered this incredible (and educational) platform. Written by the co-founder of the Arduino project, Getting Started with Arduino gets you in on all the fun!

Beginning Arduino Programming

Brian Evans
Apress, 17-Oct-2011 - Computers - 272 pages

Beginning Arduino Programming allows you to quickly and intuitively develop your programming skills through sketching in code. This clear introduction provides you with an understanding of the basic framework for developing Arduino code, including the structure, syntax, functions, and libraries needed to create future projects. You will also learn how to program your Arduino interface board to sense the physical world, to control light, movement, and sound, and to create objects with interesting behavior.
With Beginning Arduino Programming, you'll get the knowledge you need to master the fundamental aspects of writing code on the Arduino platform, even if you have never before written code. It will have you ready to take the next step: to explore new project ideas, new kinds of hardware, contribute back to the open source community, and even take on more programming languages.

What you’ll learn Start programming quickly with Arduino sketches. Write code that interacts with devices, such as LEDs, sensors, and motors. Work with loops, functions, randomness, and delays in your Arduino projects. Develop a style of writing code that reflects your individuality. Use many of the Arduino libraries to control even more devices. Read from RFID readers, write data to SD memory cards, and connect to the Internet using Ethernet. Who this book is for
This book is for all Arduino board users who want to learn to program the Arduino board, regardless of hardware version or which devices are connected to the board. You do not need to have programmed before, but if you have, then you'll learn how to apply core coding features in the Arduino context.

Table of Contents Getting Started Sketching in Code Working With Variables Making Decisions Digital Ins and Outs Analog in, Analog out Functions, Time, and Interrupts Arrays for Arduino Writing New Functions for Arduino Arduino Libraries Arduino Hardware 10 Where to Go from Here? Appendix A: Common Circuits Appendix B: Arduino Math

Arduino Cookbook

Michael Margolis
"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 24-Mar-2011 - Computers - 662 pages

Create your own toys, remote controllers, alarms, detectors, robots, and many other projects with the Arduino device. This simple microcontroller board lets artists and designers build a variety of amazing objects and prototypes that interact with the physical world. With this cookbook you can dive right in and experiment with more than a hundred tips and techniques, no matter what your skill level is.

The recipes in this book provide solutions for most common problems and questions Arduino users have, including everything from programming fundamentals to working with sensors, motors, lights, and sound, or communicating over wired and wireless networks. You'll find the examples and advice you need to begin, expand, and enhance your projects right away.

Get to know the Arduino development environment
Understand the core elements of the Arduino programming language
Use common output devices for light, motion, and sound
Interact with almost any device that has a remote control
Learn techniques for handling time delays and time measurement
Use simple ways to transfer digital information from sensors to the Arduino device
Create complex projects that incorporate shields and external modules
Use and modify existing Arduino libraries, and learn how to create your own

Make: Arduino Bots and Gadgets: Six Embedded Projects with Open Source Hardware and Software
Tero Karvinen, Kimmo Karvinen

"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 17-Mar-2011 - Computers - 296 pages

Want to build your own robots, turn your ideas into prototypes, control devices with a computer, or make your own cell phone applications? It's a snap with this book and the Arduino open source electronic prototyping platform. Get started with six fun projects and achieve impressive results quickly.

Gain the know-how and experience to invent your own cool gadgets.

With Arduino, building your own embedded gadgets is easy, even for beginners. Embedded systems are everywhere—inside cars, children’s toys, and mobile phones. This book will teach you the basics of embedded systems and help you build your first gadget in just a few days. Each learn-as-you-build project that follows will add to your knowledge and skills.

Experiment with Arduino, the popular microcontroller board
Build robots and electronic projects with easy-to-follow instructions
Turn your ideas into working physical prototypes
Use Android phones as remote controls in your projects
Work with an uncomplicated programming language created for artists, designers, and hobbyists
Get everyone involved, with projects that even beginners can build

Arduino Microcontroller Processing for Everyone!

Steven F. Barrett
Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2010 - Computers - 325 pages

This book is about the Arduino microcontroller and the Arduino concept. The visionary Arduino team of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino, and David Mellis launched a new innovation in microcontroller hardware in 2005, the concept of open source hardware. Their approach was to openly share details of microcontroller-based hardware design platforms to stimulate the sharing of ideas and promote innovation. This concept has been popular in the software world for many years. This book is intended for a wide variety of audiences including students of the fine arts, middle and senior high school students, engineering design students, and practicing scientists and engineers. To meet this wide audience, the book has been divided into sections to satisfy the need of each reader. The book contains many software and hardware examples to assist the reader in developing a wide variety of systems. For the examples, the Arduino Duemilanove and the Atmel ATmega328 is employed as the target processor.Table of Contents: Getting Started / Programming / Embedded Systems Design / Serial Communication Subsystem / Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) / Interrupt Subsystem / Timing Subsystem / Atmel AVR Operating Parameters and Interfacing.

Updated 17 June 2016,  20 April 2016

Monday, June 13, 2016

System Industrial Engineering - Industrial Engineering of Systems

Industrial Engineering Philosophy and Methods

Presentation by Prof K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao
14 June 2016, at NITIE.



Presentation made by Prof K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao, Professor, National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai at GloGift Conference, July 2010, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan


Industrial engineering is redesign of engineering system both products and production system to make them productive and economical. Industrial engineering improves efficiency and reduces cost of production and products. Reduction in costs permits companies to sell products at lower prices and increase sales. Thus industrial engineering provides growth to companies and thus in aggregate provides growth to economy.

The redesign is done immediately after the original designers come out with the design and also many times later during the operation of the production system or production life cycle of the product.

Industrial engineering methods can be classified in these categories

1. Product Design Efficiency Engineering

2. Methods Efficiency Engineering  - Production Methods Efficiency Engineering, Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering, Maintenance Methods Efficiency Engineering,  Business Processes Efficiency Engineering, Management Methods Efficiency Engineering

All resources used in methods are analysed for efficient usage.  Man, Material, Money, Management, Motive Power, Machine,

3. Industrial Engineering Optimization -  Engineering system problems are expressed as mathematical functions and maximum or minimum values as appropriate are ascertained to use as design values.

4. Industrial Engineering Statistics - Issues related to variability in engineering systems are decided using statistical methods - Ex. Statistical quality control, Six sigma methodology to improve process capability to determine the target central value and minimise variation of the process.

5. Industrial Engineering Economics - Use of engineering economics methodology to decide the productivity of capital used in engineering systems

6.Human Effort Engineering - Principles of Motion Economy, Motion Study to improve human effort efficiency, Ergonomics, Job Evaluation and Wage Incentives

7. Work Measurement, Cost Measurement, and Productivity Measurement

8. Management of IE studies, projects and departments

Application Areas for Industrial Engineering in an Organization

1. Production Industrial Engineering

2. Inspection Industrial Engineering

3. Maintenance Industrial Engineering

4. Transportation Industrial Engineering

5. Supply Chain Industrial Engineering

6. Marketing System Industrial Engineering

7. Information System Industrial Engineering

Engineering and Industry Sectors for Industrial Engineering Application

Aeroplane production

Automobile Production

Coal Mining

Electrical Equipment Manufacturing

Electronic Equipment Manufacturing

Thermal Power

Updated  15 June  2016

12 June 2015

Sunday, June 12, 2016

Principles of Motion Economy - Some More Details - R.M. Barnes

Use of the Human Body

1. The two hands should begin as well as complete their motions at the same time.

2. The two hands should not be idle at the same time except during rest periods.

3. Motions of the arms should be made in opposite and symmetrical directions and should be made simultaneously.

Barnes has written that the three principles can be examined or discussed simultaneously. He gave the example of bolt and washer assembly. In the old method bolt is picked up by the left hand and then a lock washer is picked up by the right hand placed on the bolt. Next, the right hand picks up a steel washer and placed on the bolt. Then a rubber washer is picked up the right hand and placed on the bolt. The completed assembly is disposed of in a container placed at the left side of the operator. As we can see two hands are moving simultaneously. One is holding the bolt and the other hand is doing picking and assembling work. In the revised method, a fixture is made that holds two bolts and has recess. The operator has 7 bins before him. He first pickups a rubber washer from bins numbered one on left and right. Actually the bottom of the bins slope toward the work area at a 30 degree angle so that materials are fed onto the work area by gravity. The operator slides the washers into the recesses of the fixture. Then steel washers are slided. The the lock washer is slided into position. Two bolts are picked and dropped into the fixture. Then both bolts are removed and disposed of in bins placed on the right side as well as left side. In the return motion they pick the new rubber washers.
You can visualize how all three principles are applied in the new design.
See video clip easier way produced by General Motors in 1946 illustrating these principles.

4. Hand and body motions should be confined to the lowest classification with which it is possible to perform the work satisfactorily.

Classification of Hand-motions
1. Finger motions
2. Wrist motions
3. Forearm motions
4. Upper arm motions
5. Shoulder motions (This class of motions results in disturbance of the posture)

Barnes highlighted that in one investigation it was found that finger motions were more fatiguing, less accurate, and slower than motions of the forearm. The evidence points out that th forearm is the most desirable member to use for light work, and that in highly repetitive work,motions about the wrist and elbow are superior to those of the fingers or shoulders.

Bending has physiological cost. A study made by Barnes et al. on picking bricks from a platform 5 inches above the floor and another platform 37 inches above the floor to place them on a bench 33 inches high showed that both energy expenditure and heart beat were high when picking up bricks from 5 inch high platform. These sort of experiments are to be conducted by industrial engineers in their motion studies to improve the comfort and health of operators.

5. Momentum should be employed to assist the worker wherever possible, and it should be reduced to a minimum if it must be overcome by muscular effort.

In certain tasks, it is possible to employ momentum of the hand, the tool or the part being moved to do useful work.  Where a forcible stroke is involved, the motions have to be arranged such that the stroke is delivered with the greatest momentum. In the tasks where the momentum must be overcome by the worker's muscles, momentum must be reduced to a minimum by decreasing the weight of the tools and parts because it causes fatigue.

Barnes quoted Gilbreth's motion study. In laying a brick wall, if the bricks are conveyed from the stock platform to the wall with no stops, the momentum can be made to do valuable work by assisting to shove the joints full of mortar. If instead of being utilized, the momentum must be overcome by the muscles of the bricklayer, fatigue will result. The idea case is to move the brick in a straight path and make the contact with the wall to overcome the momentum.

Barnes quoted another example of candy dipping. He pointed out that  the piece tobe dipped was submerged under the surface of the melted sugar by the right hand at the end of a long return stroke of the hand and the momentum developed in the movement of the hand was employed in doing useful work instead of being dissipated by the muscles of the dipper's arm.

6. Smooth continuous curved motions of the hands are preferable to straight-line motions involving sudden and sharp changes in direction.

Barnes has given the examples of paper holding and dipping of candy to illustrate this point.

7. Ballistic movements are faster, easier, and more accurate than restricted or fixation or controlled movements.

Voluntary movements of the members of the human body may be divided into two general classes or groups: fixation movements and ballistic movements.

In the fixation or controlled movements, opposing groups of muscles are contracted, one group against the other. .

The ballistic movement is a fast, easy motion caused by a single contraction of a positive muscle group with no antagonistic muscle group contracting to oppose it.

The ballistic movement is initiated by an impulse given through the contraction of a muscle, once underway the muscles are relaxed and the course of the movement can not be changed.

The skilled carpenter swinging a hammer in driving a nail illustrates a ballistic movement.

It is not difficult to develop the free, loose, easy movements of the wrist and forearm.

8. Work should be arranged to permit an easy and natural rhythm wherever possible.

Rhythm can refer to the regular repetition of a certain cycle of motions by an individual.
Rhythm which is a proper sequence of motions, assists in making the operation practically an automatic performance - there is no mental effort on the part of the operator.

9. Eye fixations should be as few and as close together as possible.

The work place should be so laid out that the eye fixations are as few and as close together as possible. In one example given in Barnes, the author comments that, had the containers been placed directly in front of the operator, the head movements would have been eliminated entirely and he eye movements would have been greatly reduced.

In another example, Barnes highlights that with practice eye fixations come down and the time required also comes down accordingly. This example is related to the punch-press operation wherein, a part has to be placed in the die using a tweezer. Initially, three eye fixations are used. One for placing the parts in the die, one for taking the part from the left hand with the tweezer and one for taking the part in left hand from the plate having the parts. After 10,000  cycles, only 44 per cent of the time. eye fixation is used pick up the part from the plate having the parts. 56 per cent of the time, the part is being picked up by the left hand without an eye fixation.  The average time for the operation has come down to 0.0258 minutes from 0.0584 minutes. One of the reasons was the decrease in number of eye fixations.

Principles Related to the Work Place

10. There should be a definite and fixed places for all tools and materials.

Definite and fixed places for materials and tools aid the operators in habit formation. This helps in the development of automaticity. It is advantage when operators can perform the operations with the least conscious mental direction. When materials and tools are at fixed places, the hand automatically finds them without support of eyes and the eyes may be kept fixed on the point where the tools and materials are used.

11. Tools, materials, and controls should be located close to the point of use.

For an operators , sitting or standing, the comfortable working place is bounded by lines which are arcs of circles.
The maximum working area for each hand is determined by an arc drawn with a sweep of the hand across the table, with the arm pivoted at the shoulder. In the overlapping area work involving both hands can be done comfortably.

Each hand has its normal working area in the vertical plane as well.

Those tools and parts that must be handled several times during an operation should be located closer to the fixture or working position than tools or parts that are handled but once. For example  if an operation consists of assembling a number of screws into a metal switch plate, the containers for the screws should be placed closer to the fixture than container for the plates as only one plate is to be transported and several screws have to be transported in a cycle.

It is also important to emphasize that parts must be arranged in such a way as to permit the shortest eye movements, the fewest eye fixations, and the best sequence of motions, and to aid the operator in rapidly developing automatic and rhythmic movements.

Interesting example: A radio assembly consists of 260 separate parts/subassemblies. Moving the parts closer by 6 inches saved 34,000 hours per year. which means saving of 17 mandays.

Corollary: The machines, process apparatus, and equipment should be arranged so as to require the least movement on the part of the operator.

When worker operates several machines and when they are located in line along an aise, considerable walking between machines is required. A better arrangement is to have those machines located close together in a group so that the operator can load and unload each of the machines with little or no travel.

12. Gravity feed bins and containers should be used to deliver material close to the point of use.

Bins with sloping bottoms provide the parts at the bottom tray of the bin and operator need not dip into the bin to pick up the part. To provide many different parts, nested bins one above the other are used.
Bins and hopper for process shops - http://www.processsolutions.net/bins.html

13. Drop deliveries should be used wherever possible.

Arrangements are to be done to release the finished units from the position is was completed and deliver them to their destination by gravity.
There is significant amount of time involved in manually disposing the finished items. A study of disposing gauging small pins was conducted in this context. The study involed disposing of the pins into a tote box kept as 3 inches behind a fixture, 10 inches behind a fixture and 20 inches behind a fixture.
The time was least when the pins were tossed into the bin 3 inches near the fixture. The therbligs involved were transport loaded and release load. Eighteen percent more time was used when the bin was at 10 inches and 34 per cent more time was spent when the bin was kept at 20 inches distance.

14. Materials and tools should be located to permit the best sequence of motions.

The material required at the beginning of a task cycle should be place next to the point of release of the finished piece in the preceding task cycle.

In the example of assembly of the bolt and washers (points 1,2 and 3) the rubber washers were in bins located nearest to the chute into which assemblies were disposed in the last motion of the previous cycle.

The time for a motion changes based on the preceding or succeeding motion. For example, the time for the motion transport empty is likely to be longer when it is followed by the motion select than when it is followed a well defined motion such as a grasp of a pre-positioned part.

When the motion transport loaded is follwed by a position motion, it is slowed by the mental preparation for the position.

15. Provisions should be made for adequate conditions for seeing. Good illumination is the first requirement for satisfactory visual perception.

Adequate illumination means:
(1) light of sufficient intensity for the particular task,
(2) light of the proper color and without glare, and
(3) light coming from the right direction.

The visibility of an object is determined by the following variables.

# Brightness of the object
# Its contrast with its background
# The size of the object
# The time available for seeing
# The distance of the object from the eye and
# Other factors such as distractions, fatigue, reaction time, and  glare.

All of these factors must be above a limiting value and then a deficiency in one may be compensated by an augmentation of one or more of the others.

 16. The height of the work place and the chair should preferably arranged so that alternate sitting and standing at work are easily possible.

17. A chair of the type and height to permit good posture should be provided for every worker.
Design of tools and equipment

Principles of Motion Economy As Related to the Design of Tools and Equipment

18. The hands should be relieved of all work that can be done more advantageously by a jig, a fixture, or a foot-operated device.

Barnes has written that foot operated equipment is not utilized adequately in methods and tool design (p.223). He also mentions that one company saved 50 percent time on the operation of soldering a wire to the end of flat metal electric static shield by the use of a foot-operated soldering iron. The brief description of foot operated soldering iron was given in the book by Barnes. 

Procter and Gamble designed and built foot control units which rotate the pipe or tube when welder is cutting and welding pipes.

It is also possible to use two foot pedals to actuate different parts of a jig, fixture, or machine by the operator. This arrangement will be similar to the automobile where there are pedals for accelerator, brake and clutch.

19. Two or more tools should be combined wherever possible.

Develop and use two ended tools. It is usually quicker to turn a small two-ended tool end-for-end that it is to lay one tool down and pick up another.  Tack hammer and tack puller, two-ended wrench, and pencila and erasure are good examples. The designer of telephone handset used this idea only when in one unit he arranged both the transmitter and receiver.

At a mid-western electric company two combination tools were developed. One the screw driver and tweezers. The other is a wrench and screw driver.

The multiple-spinder air-operator nut runner for automobile wheels is another good example of combination tool.

20. Tools and materials should be prepositioned whenever possible.

Pre-positioning refers to placing an object in a predetermined place in such a way that when next needed it may be grasped in the position in which it will be used.

Tools are kept in specified holders in the form of socket, compartment, bracket or hanger all the time when there are not in use. They are returned or kept in the same position by the operator after they are used. The design of the holder is to be such that the tool is quickly released into its place. Also, it should facilitate quick grasping for use.

It is important to state again that, the holder of the tool should be designed in such a way that, the tool can  be grasped in the same manner in which will be held while being used.

21. Where each finger performs some specific movement, such as in typewriting, the load should be distributed in accordance with the inherent capacities of the fingers.

22. Levers, hand wheels and other controls should be located in such positions that the operator can manipulate them with the least change in body position and with the greatest speed and ease.

Unless a machine is fully automatic, the amount of work that it will produce depends to some extent upon the performance of the operator. The time taken by the operator to handle levers, hand wheels and other controls has an impact on production quantity.  

The operator should not be required to leave his normal working position to operate his machine. The controls of machines should be placed in such a way that he need not bend over or twist his body in an uncomfortable manner when manipulating  them.

Exhaustive studies were done to indicate good location for levers and hand wheels.

Example: Barnes have given the example of Jones and Lamson CNC Lathe. It was provided with a small control center, located at the front of the machine with an alpha numeric keyboard for instant on-line commands and editing, plus a CRT display. The operator has a greater access to all working areas.

(Source: Ralph M. Barnes, Motion and Time Study Measurment of Work, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980, pp.174-236)

All these motion economy principles are included in the book Toyota Kaizen Methods: Six Steps to Improvement  By Isao Kato, Art Smalle in page numbers 93 - 94

Remarks on Textbooks

Marvin Mundel (Motion and Time Study) did not discuss the principles of motion economy exclusively in his book.
In Work Study of ILO, a simple listing of principles as given Barnes is given. But no special discussion was given.
In Nadler, Motion and Time Study, list of 15 principles of motion economy (given by Gilbreth) were given in Table 12-2 by not much discussion was there.


Principles of Motion Economy - Videos

More Detailed Coverage of Variable of Motion Study

A research paper on Principles of Motion Economy
Arm Motions in the Horizontal Plane
A I I E Transactions
Volume 1, Issue 4, 1969
Stephan A. Konza, Carl E. Jeansb & Ranveer S. Rathorec
pages 359-370
From Papers of Gilbreth Library Purdue - Principles and Accompanying Material - 77 pages

Motion Reductions in a Paper Mill

 Workstation Improvements in a paper mill

    *       A machine feeder reduced arm motions from 5000 per day to zero, and output increased from 5000 pieces per day to about 15,000 (300% increase).
    *       Improvements in a paper counting task reduced finger motions from 45,000 per day to near zero, and productivity doubled.
    *       A unique device to tie ribbons eliminated much fastidious hand motions and sustained pinch grips, plus increased output over 30%.
    *       Unconventional tables for a precise, hand-intensive task enabled employees to alternate between sitting and standing, plus eliminated reaches and motions. Modifications in hand tools reduced grasping force.
    *       Mechanical changes and automation in a packing operation reduced hand motions from approximately 32,000 per day to 3200.



Additional Sources

(presentation slides in pdf format of various examples of Barnes)

Classification of human motions by Gavriel Salvendy, 2004 published paper. but was made 35 years back.

Interesting abstract

Contrasting approaches to the analysis of skilled movements.
Hartson, L. D.
Journal of General Psychology, 20, 1939, 263-293.

It is a literature review. In the paper there is a section entitled "Principles of motion economy in the light of movement analysis." Here postural factors, the speed and precision of ballistic movements, the use of gravity and momentum, the advantages of cursive over angular movements and of rhythmical over arhythmical forms, and the importance of emphasizing form in training are discussed. A bibliography of 118 titles is included in the paper.

See the discussion regarding motion economy in http://books.google.co.in/books?id=MtOsqZg3p34C (Cabinet making: Start to Finish)

Software for Motion Economy

Generating Economic Motion Plans for Manual Operations - Masters Thesis (Computer Engineering)

Originally Posted by me on Knol http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/principles-of-motion-economy-some-more/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2364

Updated  12 June 2016,  26 Nov 2013

Motion Study - Explanation by Frank B. Gilbreth - Index

MOTION STUDY - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 1



MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 2

I. Variables of the Worker.
II. Variables of the Surroundings, Equipment, and Tools
III. Variables of the Motion.


MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 3

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 4

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 5

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 6


Updated  12 June 2016,  19 Aug 2015

Examples - Methods Efficiency Improvement - Maynard

1. A bench operation:  A job originally was done on daywork.  Study of the  past production records showed that the time taken per part was 0.0140 hour (slightly less than 1 minute). The job was time-studied and put on an incentive basis with an allowance of 0.0082 hour. After the operation had been set up for 6 months, a suggestion for improvement was advanced. The suggestion was the result of inspiration. The suggestion was put into effect; and when the job was restudied, an allowance of 0.0062 hour was set. This last method was followed for 6 months more, when another suggestion, also of the inspirational type, was advanced. It was adopted, and a new time value of 0.0044 hour was established. The job is an important.. The thought was advanced that  it might be possible to do more improvement through detailed motion study. The operation was carefully analyzed by a trained methods engineer, with the result that a completely new method was devised which followed the principles of correct motion practices. When the new method was time-studied, an allowance of 0.0013 hour was set. (MO, page 19)

2. Operation of removing the outer insulation from the ends of a 49-inch electric-battery cable.
This battery cable is made by molding a heavy rubber covering around two rubber-covered leads which are twisted tightly together.The operation consisted of removing the heavy outer insulation from the ends of the cable so that the inner wires could be straightened and used for making an electrical connection. The steps of the study that was made of the operation were as follows.

Existing Method and Conditions:  All operations performed on the cable were done at the same bench.  The operation of removing the outer insulation as it was then being performed was a hand operation. A wooden gage located on the top of the bench was used to measure the point at which the heavy rubber insulation should first be scored. The scoring was done with a pair of scissors by rotating them about the cable. It was desirable to avoid nicking the inner insulation that covered the two leads, but investigation showed that on 90 per cent of the cables the inner insulation was cut through. The thickness of the outer insulation varied because of the shape of the twisted leads, and it was apparently impossible for the operator to judge the depth of scoring sufficiently to avoid this damage.

After scoring, a 1/8-ineh slit was cut in the heavy outer insulation at the point of scoring. This was done for the purpose of obtaining a gripping point for the pliers with which the insulation was pulled off. The rubber curled up slightly after slitting; and by grasping it with the pliers, it could be removed with a peeling motion.

The method obviously was not good, and a number of initial investigations and experiments were made in an attempt to improve it. Various types of stripping machines then in existence were investigated, but because of the peculiar construction of the battery cable none would do the job. A scoring fixture using razor blades was tried, but it did not work satisfactorily.

Intensive study was given to ways and means of improving the method. It was seen that improvement could not be made merely by rearranging the layout or the motion sequence but that an entirely different method which might call for the invention of a hitherto undeveloped type of skinning fixture might be required. While seeking a different method for doing the job, the methods engineer examined a piece of the heavy outer insulation that had been removed. He saw that the inside of this insulation was deeply corrugated as the result of being molded around the twisted wires. It was these corrugations which made it so difficult to remove the insulation with a straight pull and necessitated the peeling operation that was being used.

Further examination disclosed the fact that the corrugation resembled a molded thread. This suggested that instead of being pulled off the insulation should be removed with a twisting or unscrewing motion. A few trials by hand showed that this would probably work. It was then a simple matter to determine the practicability of the idea by experimenting with a chuck held in a drill press. A cable was lightly scored. It was then clamped in the chuck of the drill press. The drill press was started, and the cable was given a steady pull. The insulation unscrewed, as expected, leaving the leads undamaged. , The plant tool designer was next approached and asked to design a fixture that would perform the operation of unscrewing the insulation after scoring. He suggested combining a scoring tool with the fixture, a suggestion that was at once adopted.

After the tool was built, the new operation, was as follows. The tool was mounted on the shaft of a 1/4-horsepower electric motor. With the motor shut off, the end of the cable was inserted in the fixture, a funnel-shaped guide minimizing positioning during this operation. With the cable in position, the operator stepped on a foot treadle and, after a pause, pulled the cable. As the treadle was depressed, the motor started.

Further depression of the treadle brought the scoring tool into operation, lightly scoring the cable. Still further depression of the treadle caused tliree jaws to grasp the insulation. The rotar motion of the motor coupled with the pulling on the cable by the operator unscrewed the insulation from the cable. When the treadle was released, the motor stopped, and a spring within the tool ejected the scrap insulation. With this method, it was a simple matter to arrange for two-handed operation. Two motors and tools were placed side by side on the workbench.

In making the workplace layout, the matter of motion times was carefully considered. The tools and the cables were arranged so that the operation could be done principally with short fourth class motions, the most practical for this job. When the job was developed, an operator was carefully trained to do the work with no unnecessary motions. When she became proficient, a motion picture was taken and was subsequently used to train, other operators who performed the same work.

The job just described gives a good indication of the detailed work required when making some studies. The operation itself was comparatively simple, but the methods engineer spent the equivalent of several days on it. The saving, however, justified this work since the job was highly repetitive. By the old method, the time for skinning one end was 0.0034 hour and that for skinning the other end 0.0036 hour, a total of 0.0070 hour per cable. By the new method, the time for the complete job was 0.0007 hour, a production increase of 900 per cent.  (Pages 37-47)

3. In a plant manufacturing frames for automobiles, the last operation before painting consisted of reaming certain holes which had previously been punched in the frame. Two operators equipped with air-driven reamers stood at the end of the assembly line and reamed the holes as the frames passed them on a chain conveyer. It was a full-time job for both men and had been for several months.

During the course of a study of frame-manufacturing methods, the purpose of this operation was questioned. The thought at first was that it might be possible to punch the holes sufficiently closely to size to eliminate the reaming operation. Reference to the drawing, however, showed that the customer demanded reamed holes.

It would have been natural, perhaps, to consider that the question "Is the operation necessary? " was satisfactorily answered by the drawing. One of the methods efficiency engineers in the plant, however, realized the danger of accepting the first answer that came to hand and decided to investigate more thoroughly. He went out on the plant parking lot and located a car of the model that used the frame in question. To find the ultimate purpose of the reaming operation, he crawled underneath the car to see what the holes were used for and discovered that they were not used at all. Obviously, then, not only the reaming but also the punching of the holes was unnecessary.

Subsequent investigation showed that at one time an engineering change in the construction of the frame had been made which eliminated the use of the holes. Through an oversight, the drawing was not changed, and the reaming operation continued until the time of the investigation.

4. For many years, it was the practice to polish the edges of the glass windows that go in the doors of automobiles. The reason given was that a good appearance was desired. It is true that edge polishing improves the appearance of a window glass, but only when it is outside the car. When it is assembled, as it is when the customer sees it, only the top edge shows in most designs of window. Hence, three-quarters of the edge-polishing operation is unnecessary. A smooth edge is required so that the window will not mar the channels in which it runs, but a polished edge is a refinement that is in no way justified. This fact was obvious as soon as it was pointed out, but until that time thousands of dollars were spent unnecessarily by a large manufacturer of automobile glass.

5. In the manufacture of an electric-clock motor, four small pinion shafts were pressed into a bakelite housing. For some days, the shafts received from a supplier went in nicely. On subsequent shipments, however, difficulty was encountered. The shafts had a small burr on the end formed by the cutting-off tool. In order to use the shafts, an operation "grind burrs" had to be done inside the shop.

This problem was taken up with the supplier, but the supplier expressed his inability to supply without burrs. Hence, the grinding of the burrs was being done inside the shop. A methods efficiency study questioned the purpose of the operation and this brought out the above-mentioned story. The analyst, however knows that a similar shaft used for the rotor of the motor was received from a different supplier without burrs. The first supplier was again asked if he could not furnish shafts without burrs, but he again answered in the negative. The analyst then suggested a change of suppliers. This was made, and shafts free from burrs were received thereafter. The first supplier had been too indifferent to attempt to improve his product. The easiest thing to do was to correct the supplier's shortcomings by adding an extra operation. The correct procedure, however, was to persist until satisfactory material was obtained.

6. A certain metal article manufactured in large quantities required a label of directions. This label was stuck onto the outside of the article. During the course of a study of the product, it was learned that the label was pasted on with flour paste. Several labels were placed face down on a cloth. Paste was applied with a brush, after which the labels were stuck in place. The analyst questioned the use of paste. He was told that gummed labels had been suggested and undoubtedly would be supplied in the future. He examined the labels being used at the time and found that they were coated with gum. Seven operators were engaged in applying paste to gummed labels.

This case illustrates the strength of habit and inertia. The original labels were ungummed. Therefore, paste had to be used. A suggestion was made that gummed labels be substituted. They w^ere accordingly ordered and when the supply of ungummed labels was exhausted the gummed labels were issued. No one but the operators realized, probably, that the new labels had arrived, and they proceeded to apply paste as before either without thinking or in order to appear busy in a department that was facing part-time operation.

7. A  stamping,  was made, was formed in a series of punch-press operations. On a certain order, the first two operations were performed on about 5,000 pieces. A rush order for another part was then worked on. The 5,000 partly completed pieces remained in temporary storage in the punch-press department and during that time picked up considerable dirt, including particles from the rush job which was made of metal screen.

As a result, when the job was put back in work again, considerable difficulty was experienced on the third operation. The operator had to wipe each blank clean with a rag before he could put it in his press and, of course, could not meet the regular time allowance. He complained to the time-study engineer who arranged to have a boy wipe the parts clean. The operator could then go ahead without interruption.

About two months later, the time-study engineer found that the parts were still being wiped off between the second and third operations, although the particular dirty lot had long since been completed. When he asked why the operation was being performed, he was informed that he himself had authorized it. The operation was, of course, absolutely unnecessary on subsequent lots, but so strong is the reluctance to abandon an operation after it has once been performed that it was necessary for the time-study engineer specifically to authorize its discontinuance.

8. Occasionally , a consideration of a better way of accomplishing a certain purpose leads to a major design change. For example, the coils used in large turbo generators are made up of a number of turns of heavy strap copper. These are formed on a bending machine and form rectangles some 30 or 40 feet in perimeter. The last three turns of each coil have to be about -^ inch narrower than the other turns to fulfill insulation requirements. Formerly, it was the practice to remove the J-g inch of metal from the last three turns by hand filing, the equivalent of filing a strip of copper 120 feet long for each large coil. Thousands of hours were consumed on this work in the department making the coils. During the course of a methods study, the question was asked, " Can the purpose of the operation be accomplished better in any other way?" The operation was at length eliminated by a design change. The last three turns were made of narrower strap copper and joined to the heavier turns of the coil by a single brazed joint.

9. A battery cable by a firm was being  purchased in 200-foot lengths. The first operation consisted of cutting the cable into 49-inch lengths. The suggestion was made in the methods efficiency study that the manufacturer of the wire might have a better cutting-off method and give 49-inch lengths. Enquiry revealed that the wire-making machine could be set to cut off the wire in 49-inch lengths. The wire was obtained in 49-inch lengths at no additional cost and the first operation was eliminated.

10. For example, a time-study engineer was requested to place a certain salvaging operation upon an incentive basis. The quantity involved was deemed sufficient to justify a time study. The salvage operation consisted of removing a nut from a threaded casting. The disassembled the nut and threaded casting were placed in separate tote pans. .

The time-study engineer questioned the need for the operation and decided that before making the time study he would investigate the operations subsequently performed on the parts. He found that the tote pans of nuts and the tote pans of threaded castings were trucked to the floor below and both were dumped into the same scrap bin. He further  learned that they were all put into a reclaiming furnace together and melted. It was self evident that the nuts and threaded castings would melt as well assembled as disassembled and that therefore the operation which he was requested to study was entirely unnecessary. He immediately had it discontinued.

11. In a plant manufacturing large electrical apparatus, certain copper segments were required to be bent to a radius. The segments were first rough-bent on a bulldozer and then were formed by hand to the exact radius by a bench operation using  a good many man-hours per each copper segment. A methods efficiency engineer was studying the process to reduce costs. In observing the entire process, he found that the segments with the radii were transported to another department to have six round bars brazed to them. At the start of this operation, the brazer took a mallet and flattened the segments, thereby totally destroying the radius that had just been formed so expensively. After he had brazed the six bars in place, he bent the segments roughly to radius again and shipped them to the assembly floor. There they were assembled to the finished apparatus, and investigation showed that they functioned satisfactorily.

Further investigation showed that the detail man in the engineering department had specified the radius and had recorded it on the drawing to two decimal places.

The copper shop interpreted the decimal places as meaning that an accurate job was required. Hence, they set up the operations that would give this accuracy. When the segments reached the brazer, he had difficulty in holding the six bars in place during brazing. The bars were round and the segments were formed to a small radius; quite naturally, the bars tended to roll out of position. The brazer was an experienced man, and he knew where the segments were used.  He reasoned that  could do his own work easier if the segments were flat. Therefore, without saying anything to anyone, he proceeded to flatten them, braze on the bars, and roughly bend them again. The segments performed their, function satisfactorily in the finished apparatus, and for months the condition existed as described. Owing to the physical separation of the two departments, it required the investigation of methods efficiency engineer to bring the condition to light.

12. Another situation in an automobile-body plant also illustrates the need for study of the full process. The floor mats for a certain model of body were shipped in by an outside supplier. They were unloaded in a sub receiving area and were stacked on the floor. Each day enough floor mats to care for the day's production were removed from the pile and loaded on a truck. They were then trucked 150 feet to an elevator, carried up to the third floor, trucked about 100 feet to the assembly line, and unloaded.

As bodies came down the line, the floor mats were unpacked and placed in position in the bodies. . As each body came off the line, it was taken over to the elevator, sent down to the first floor, and pushed about 150 feet to the point where it was to be packed for export shipment. The first operation consisted of bolting two skids to the body. In order to do this, the floor mats had to be removed. They were taken out of the body and placed on the floor beside the stock of floor mats from which they had been taken only a short time previously.

After this condition was pointed out, it was obvious that the floor mats should never have been sent to the assembly line, and the procedure was at once changed. The incident caused a search for similar conditions, and it was discovered that in order to attach the shipping skids the front seat also had to be removed. The seat was bolted in place on the assembly line only to be removed again shortly afterward in the shipping department. This procedure was also corrected.

13. The last operation of a certain manufacturing process consisted of stamping the number of the operator who made the final assembly. The purpose of the operation was to enable the foreman or the inspector to trace defective work back to the operator responsible. The operation was necessary because several operators worked on the assembly operation, although it was only a part-time job for each of them. The operation of stamping was eliminated by arranging the work so that only one operator performed the assembly operation. She was thus automatically responsible for all defective work, and there was no need of marking the parts.

14. One of the outstanding cases of substitution that has occurred in recent years was originally initiated by a methods efficiency engineer. In investigating the cost of certain large metal rotors, he suggested that instead of being made out of cast steel, as was then the practice, they should be made up of a bar-stock center, bar-stock spokes, and a forged rim all welded together. This was tried and proved so successful and so economical that other applications for welding were sought. In the course of a comparatively brief time, welded or fabricated parts almost entirely replaced steel castings in this particular plant, and an impetus was given to the use of welded parts throughout industry.

15. In a plant making a nickel-plated product, the methods engineer was requested to authorize and establish an incentive rate on the operation "prepare casting for plating." Investigation showed that this preparation consisted of grinding rough spots on the castings. The methods efficiency engineer, having had foundry experience, realized that this roughness should have been removed in the foundry. Further, he realized that it was not removed because the roughness was excessive owing to a pattern defect. He had the pattern corrected and showed the foundry exactly what was required in the way of finishing. He arranged with the inspector of incoming material to return to the foundry any improperly finished castings. As a result, the necessity for the "prepare casting for plating" operation was eliminated.

16. A good example of the effective utilization of material occurs in the making of electric-motor stator and rotor laminations. Round blanks are first blanked out (A). The blanks in adjacent rows are staggered so that the minimum amount of waste occurs on this operation.

The blank is then put through another press operation where the stator lamination B results. A number of these laminations are built up to form the stator core. The scrap resulting from the stator punching operation is trimmed in another press operation to give the blank C. The blank in turn may then be made into any of the three styles of rotor lamination.

17. In an automobile company, many of the purchased parts were used in fixed quantities per body ranging from 1 or 2 to 64 or more. The parts were received in dozen, hundred, or gross lots and had to be counted out and repacked. The suggestion was made that it might be possible to get the suppliers to pack the parts in the correct quantities for one body so that this unpacking, counting, and repacking could be eliminated. Investigation showed that in many cases the suppliers were glad to do this at no additional cost, handling cost in the store was saved.

18. A piece of upholstery material was attached to a backing board by 65 tacks. Investigation showed that paste would hold the material in place satisfactorily. Thus,  65 tacks per job saved and also the labor of driving them was eliminated.

19. Another and perhaps even more striking example of the use of conveyers on miscellaneous work occurred in a machine shop doing milling and drilling operations on small quantities of metal parts. Horizontal milling machines, vertical milling machines, and sensitive, radial, and multiple spindle drill presses were used, and there was a total of 51 machines in the department. Because of the small lot sizes, each machine worked on several different jobs each day. The order in which operations were performed was by no means fixed, for some jobs required drilling before milling, others milling before drilling, and others were milled, drilled, and milled again.

The former layout is shown in the upper half of Fig. 62. Material was moved about by laborers. They brought unfinished material to the various work stations and removed finished material. Material was piled about the machines and, besides occupying floor space, was decidedly unsightly. In addition to the material-handling problems, the matter of proper production control presented difficulties. In every shop, there are always certain jobs that are undesirable from the worker's viewpoint. When a number of jobs are available, the operators will choose the most desirable and will put off doing the least desirable as long as possible. Therefore, the production department has to be continually on the alert to prevent jobs being neglected until they become overdue.

A conveyer installation eliminated the move men and overcame production-control difficulties.  All material is sent out from the central dispatch station, The dispatcher has a set of records which show when each job is wanted and what the operations are that must be performed. At the proper time,, he places material on the outgoing conveyer and by means of a control apparatus shunts it off on the proper lateral conveyer which takes it to the machines.  When the operation has been completed, the material is put on a return conveyer located directly below the outgoing conveyer. The job returns to the dispatcher who sends it out to the next operation. In this way, a definite control of the order in which jobs are to be done is obtained. A definite check on the production of each man is available, and certain phases of the clerical routine are simplified.

20. A lathe operator was engaged in turning shafts in an engine lathe. Each shaft had to be stamped with a number. The operator would remove a finished shaft from his lathe, turn to a bench, stamp the number, set aside the shaft, pick up another, and return to his machine. The turning required a long cut under power feed. A much better method is as follows: While a cut is being taken, the operator gets the next shaft to be machined; he places it on the machine ways in a convenient position; as soon as the cut is taken, he removes the finished shaft and inserts the other; he starts the cut and then while the machine is running, stamps and lays aside the finished shaft and then gets next shaft to be machined. Thus, the machine runs nearly continuously, and idle time on the part of both the operator and the machine is reduced.

21.  Changes suggested in analyzing a man machine chart.

The elements of the milling-machine operation and the allowed time for each are as follows: 

Element Description             Allowed Time,  Hr. 

Pick up small part from table . 0007 

Place in vise                 0.0009 

Tighten vise                  0.0020 

Start machine                  .0003 

Run table forward 4 in .      0.0012 

Engage feed                   0.0003 

Mill slot                     0.0080 

Stop machine                  0.0015 

Return table 6 in             0.0017 

Release vise                  0.0013 

Lay part aside in tote pan     .0009 

Brush vise                    0.0009 

Preliminary analysis of the man machine charts, showed  that the machine works 0.0080 hour and the man 0.0117 hour. If two machines were provided, the man could work continuously. It would then require 0.0117 hour per piece plus 0.0008 hour to turn from one machine to the other, or a total of 
0.0125 hour to produce each piece. This is an improvement over the first method with its  time of 0.0197 hour per piece, but each machine would be idle 0.0125 - 0.0080 = 0.0045 hour per piece. Thus, 
some improvements  were uncovered during the course of the analysis.  

A vise with a quick-acting cam-actuated clamp is provided, thereby reducing the time to tighten and 
release vise to a total of 0.0006 hour. The machine is allowed to run until the clamp has been returned past the cutter and is then stopped while the table is being run still farther back so that the vise is out of the way of the cutter. A trial shows that this does not affect the finish of the slot enough to spoil it 
for the purpose for which it is to be used, and the " stop-machine"  element is thus eliminated, 
reducing the operator's time by 0.0015 hour. An ejector is provided which kicks the part out of the 
vise as it opens, and the part slides down a chute to the tote pan. Thus, the "lay aside part in tote pan" element is eliminated, and 0.0009 hour is saved. 

These changes reduce the operator's time by 0.0051 hour, or to 0.0125 - 0.0051 = 0.0074 hour. Thus, 
under the new setup, the machines operate continuously, and the operator has 0.0006 hour idle per 
piece or can work at a slower pace with less fatigue.  The "brush-vise element" could be eliminated 
by attaching an air hose to the machine and arranging a foot control on the floor. The operator would 
step on the control as he opened the vise, and the chips would be blown out while he was picking up 
the next piece. Since the machines are working continuously, however, this change would only 
increase the idle time of the operator, and as his fatigue is not great on this operation, the change wasnot be made. 

     Individual Steps in Operation Analysis

     Analysis of Purpose of Operation

    Analysis of All Operations of a Process as a Step of Each Operation Analysis

    Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Standards

    Analysis of Material in Operation Analysis

    Tool Related Operation Analysis

    Material Handling Analysis in Operations

    Operation Analysis of Setups

    Operation Analysis - Man and Machine Activity Charts

    Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis

    Operation Analysis - Analysis of Working Conditions and Method

    Operation Analysis - Common Possibilities for Operation Improvement

Full Notes on Operations Analysis and Method Study by Maynard and Stegemerten

Updated 12 Jun 2016, 4 July 2015
First posted  29 Nov 2011