Tuesday, June 28, 2016

July First Week - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision

Scientific Management of Taylor

Taylor's book is a must reading for industrial engineers. The book emphasizes the development of scientific laws relating to use of machines, tools, related resources and men. This is development of science. Once science is developed, industrial engineers use that science to develop productive machines, productivity improvement devices and methods and that improve productivity.  Taylor also examines some management methods that are sources for low productivity. He suggests management methods that improve productivity. Then Taylor, discusses issues relating to implementing productivity improvement methods. Industrial engineers have no other comparable book on philosophy in their discipline. Hence it has to be read and reread till a new book is authored by a modern day Taylor by incorporating all that has happened in the discipline over the last 100 to 120 years.

First Week

1 July

1. Importance of National Efficiency

2. Foundation of Scientific Management

2 July 

3. Soldiering and Its Causes

4. Underlying Philosophy for the Old Systems of Management

3 July

5. Scientific Management - Introduction


4 July

7. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - - Pig Iron Handling

8. Background for Development of Scientific Management - -Midvale Steel Company Machine Shop

5 July

9. Elaborate Planning Organization - Need and Utility

10. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - Bricklaying Improvement by Gilbreth

Your comments are welcome on each article

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Internet of Things - Productivity Applications



Physical infrastructure electronic devices that are able to sense, generate, and transmit data have been around for nearly 50 years. In 1968 Schneider Electric invented the first Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). But the change now in 2015 is the fact that  the cost of IP enablement is now so low and therefore all sorts of devices can be connected to internet to participate in the more open IP-style network and transmit data and receive instructions form various computers anywhere in the world.

Thus IoT allows plants to now monitor new variables that, in the past, were cost prohibitive. Measurement of vibration on machinery and power consumption on all branches of the power system are some examples of how IoT can be cost effectively used in manufacturing and service systems. These lower entry costs are leading to the explosion of the network and generating  a more granular level of data on the existing assets of the firms.

The free-flowing yet structured management of the new data allows managers  within organisations to improve real-time energy and automation tracking in order to cut costs, and operate more safety, reliably, and efficiently.

Leading analysts such as McKinsey & Company are predicting that IoT-enabled business will grow to $10 trillion annually by 2025. IoT will enable higher levels of collaboration and will change the way goods are produced.

Michael Porter is a Harvard economist  expects Internet of Things will deliver "tremendous" efficiency gains.

The Internet of Things will help individual companies to limit the waste factor in global economies in more effective ways. Products which are connected to the web can communicate on their usage patter. This data will be used to schedule maintenance when it's really needed, increasing efficiency. The data will also be used in predictive analytics to reduce failures and improve product design. In sum, all those functionalities will boost the efficiency of production systems.


Updated  27 June 2016, 19 Apr 2016, 6 Apr 2016
10 Dec 2015

Friday, June 24, 2016

Success Stories of Industrial Engineers

Success Story of Industrial Engineer
24 June 2016
Isaac Mitchell, Director, Lean Continuous Improvement, East Tennessee Children’s Hospital. Bachelor of Science, Industrial Engineering, University of Tennessee


Industrial Engineering - Definition, Explanation, History, and Programs

"Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineeering."

Japanese companies used industrial engineering extensively and improved the understanding of industrial engineering methods among their workmen and achieved unprecedented increase in the productivity of their industrial enterprises.




Industrial engineering directs the efficient conduct of manufacturing, construction, transportation, or even commercial enterprises of any undertaking, indeed in which human labor is directed to accomplishing any kind of work . Industrial engineering has drawn upon mechanical engineering, upon economics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, accountancy, to fuse from these older sciences a distinct body of science of its own . It is the inclusion of the economic and the human elements especially that differentiates industrial engineering from the older established branches of the profession (Going, 1911) [1].

“Industrial engineering is the engineering approach applied to all factors, including the human factor, involved in the production and distribution of products or services.” (Maynard, 1953) [2]
“Industrial engineering is the design of situations for the useful coordination of men, materials and machines in order to achieve desired results in an optimum manner. The unique characteristics of Industrial Engineering center about the consideration of the human factor as it is related to the technical aspects of a situation, and the integration of all factors that influence the overall situation.” (Lehrer, 1954) [3]
“Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems of men, materials, and equipment. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.” (AIIE, 1955). [4]

"Industrial engineering may be defined as the art of utilizing scientific principles, psychological data, and physiological information for designing, improving, and integrating industrial, management, and human operating procedures." (Nadler, 1955) [5]

“Industrial engineering is that branch of engineering knowledge and practice which
 1. Analyzes, measures, and improves the method of performing the tasks assigned to individuals,
2. Designs and installs better systems of integrating tasks assigned to a group,
3. Specifies, predicts, and evaluates the results obtained.
 It does so by applying to materials, equipment and work specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical and physical sciences and the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design. Since, however, work has to be carried out by people; engineering knowledge needs to be supplemented by knowledge derived from the biological and social sciences.” (Lyndall Urwick, 1963) [6]

Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. [7]
“Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering. It is an engineering discipline that deals with the design of human effort in all occupations: agricultural, manufacturing and service. The objectives of Industrial Engineering are optimization of productivity of work-systems and occupational comfort, health, safety and income of persons involved.” (Narayana Rao, 2006) [8]
Definition proposed in this knol.
"Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineeering. It is an engineering discipline that deals with the design of human effort and system efficiency in all occupations: agricultural, manufacturing and service. The objectives of Industrial Engineering are optimization of productivity of work-systems and occupational comfort, health, safety and income of persons involved."


1. Going, Charles Buxton, Principles of Industrial Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1911, Pages 1,2,3
2. Maynard, H.B., “Industrial Engineering”, Encyclopedia Americana, Americana Corporation, Vol. 15, 1953
3. Lehrer, Robert N., “The Nature of Industrial Engineering,” The Journal of Industrial Engineering, vol.5, No.1, January 1954, Page 4
4. Maynard, H.B.,  Handbook of Industrial Engineering, 2nd Edition,  McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.
5. Nadler, Gerald, Motion and Time Study", McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1955
6. Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.
7. http://www.iienet2.org/Details.aspx?id=282
8. Narayana Rao, K.V.S.S., “Definition of Industrial Engineering: Suggested Modification.” Udyog Pragati, October-December 2006, Pp. 1-4.

What is Industrial Engineering?

Industrial engineering can be better explained with the statement that the two focus areas of industrial engineering are human effort engineering and system efficiency engineering. These two focus areas match with Urwick’s statement 1 and 2. Industrial engineering (i) analyzes, measures, and improves the method of performing the tasks assigned to individuals, and (ii) Designs and installs better systems of integrating tasks assigned to a group (Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963).
It is interesting to note that the first representation to the teachers and practioners of industrial engineering was given in the name of Industrial and Efficiency Engineering Committee in 1912 in Society for Promotion of Engineering Education (S.P.E.E.). In this committee, there were three teachers and 8 practioners and Frank Gilbreth was among practioners (Gerald Thusesne, History of Development of Engineering Economic Representation in within A.S.E.E.).
System design and system efficiency design are to be distinguished by dividing system design into system functional design and system efficiency design. Engineers or managers with specialization in a function do the functional design part. An electrical power generation system is designed by electrical engineers. Industrial engineers may take up the functional design and do efficiency engineering work on it. Similarly a marketing system is designed by marketing managers, and industrial engineers may do efficiency engineering of it.
 The explanation of industrial engineering as human effort engineering and system efficiency engineering brings out more clearly the scope of the IIE definition that industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems. The word engineering is associated with design and production, fabrication or construction according to designs.  As explained above, system design in entirety cannot be the sole preserve of industrial engineers.  The functional design of production systems in various branches of engineering can be done by engineers of that branch only. Similarly functional design of various management systems in a business organization can be done by managers of that function only. Industrial engineers have a role to play in systems design and it is of designing efficiency into the functional systems designed by others.

Maynard stated the scope of industrial engineering in his preface to the second edition of Hand Book of Industrial Engineering, edited by him in 1963. Industrial engineers have been traditionally concerned with the design of manufacturing plants, methods improvement, work measurement, the design and administration of wage payment systems, cost control, quality control, production control and the like. These procedures are all directed toward the reduction of cost. All the techniques of industrial engineering reflect the common denominator of all industrial engineering work – an intense interest in improving thing that is currently being planned or done. Cost reduction or efficiency improvement is the focus of industrial engineering. Maynard also pointed out in his preface that developments in applied mathematics and statistics during the post world war years facilitated industrial engineer to tackle design of much larger systems with more predictive power.

In 1943, the Work Standardization Committee of the Management Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers identified the following areas as the purview of industrial engineer: Budgets and cost control, manufacturing engineering, organization analysis, systems & procedures, and wage & salary administration. The traditional industrial engineering methods of operation analysis, motion study, work measurement, standardization of the method were included in manufacturing engineering and these techniques are relevant for hourly base wage rate determination, incentives and administration of wage payment.
The study of various functional areas in industrial engineering curriculums is for the purpose of understanding the functional designs in those areas and industrial engineering graduates should not claim expertise in those subjects to do functional design unless they really specialize in them through extra study and experience of efficiency design of many systems in the same functional area.

According to M.H. Mathewson, industrial engineering is distinguished from other engineering disciplines in that it:

1. Places increased emphasis on the integration of human being into the system.
2. Is concerned with the total system.
3. Predicts and interprets the economic results.
4. Makes greater utilization of the contribution of the social sciences than do other engineering disciplines.

Industrial Engineering as practiced today can be explained by identifying three components.

1. Human Effort Engineering
2. System Efficiency Engineering
3. Systems Design, Installation and Improvement Management.
All methods and techniques of industrial engineering can be categorized under these three major components.



Methods of Industrial Engineering

Techniques of Industrial Engineering

Human Effort Engineering - Techniques

4. Application of Ergonomics and Biomechanics
5. Fatigue Studies
6. Productivity/Safety/Comfort Device Design
7. Standardization of  Methods
8. Operator training
9. Incentive Systems
10. Job Evaluation
11. Learning effect capture

Efficiency Improvement Techniques of Industrial engineering 

1. Process Analysis 
2. Operation Analysis 
3. Time study
4. Value engineering
5. Statistical quality control
6. Statistical inventory control and ABC Classification Based Inventory Sytems
7. Six sigma
8. Operations research
9. Variety reduction
10. Standardization
11. Incentive schemes
12. Waste reduction or elimination
13. Activity based management
14. Business process improvement
15. Fatigue analysis and reduction
16. Engineering economy analysis
17. Learning effect capture and continuous improvement (Kaizen, Quality circles and suggestion schemes)
18. Standard costing
19. 5S
20. SMED

Development of Industrial Engineering -  History

Industrial engineering as the application of engineering approach to factory manufacture developed initially over a 30 year period spanning 1882 to 1912. The important mile stones in this period are:

1. The idea that engineers have to design and fabricate products at costs, large number of consumers can afford to pay was advocated. This idea gave birth to the subject of Engineering Economics subsequently. H.R. Towne’s address in 1886 to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) “The Engineer as an Economist” was a classic paper in this area.  The papers of Oberlin Smith also fall in this group.
 2. Engineers got interested in wage incentive methods. Papers by Towne, F.R. Halsey and H.L.Gantt between 1880 ad 1895 addressed this issue.
 3. Engineers got involved in factory accounting issues. An English engineer and accountant, Emile Garcke and J.M. Fells published a book on factory accounts in 1889.
 4. Engineers recognized the importance of production control and paid attention to improve the procedures of production control. H.C. Metcalfe’s “ A Shop Order System of Accounts” was an early paper in this regard.
 5. F.W. Taylor addressed issues related to shop management in a more comprehensive manner in his paper “Shop Management” (1903).
 6. Frank Gilbreth developed the motion study technique.
7. H.L. Gantt advocated training of operators.
 8. Harrington Emerson came out with a book that emphasized efficiency of business organizations and systems.
 9. Lillian Moller Gilbreth work along with Frank Gilbreth and applied psychology to industrial work.
10. Hugo Diemer authored book on Factory Management emphasizing industrial engineering (1910).
11. Charles Going authored the book, Principles of Industrial Engineering (1911).
Among the pioneers, F.W. Taylor is hailed as the father of scientific management as he was the first person to perceive the interconnection between these initiatives and integrated them into a philosophy of management “Scientific Management.”

The earliest reference to Industrial Engineering was  the address delivered by Henry R. Towne[1] at the Purdue University on February 24th, 1905. According to him,” the Engineer is one who, in the world of physics and applied sciences, begets new things, or adapts old things to new and better uses; above all, one who, in that field, attains new results in the best way and at lowest cost.” Towne explained that Industrial Engineering is the practice of one or more branches of engineering in connection with some organized establishment of a productive character, in which are conducted the operations required in the production of some article, or series of articles, of commerce or consumption. Nearly all industrial work of this kind, especially if it be conducted on a large scale, involves technical, physical, and engineering questions, varying with the kind of industry but usually of wide scope.

Industrial engineers have to do both technical and administrative work; that is, they have to take responsibility both for the design and character of the product, and for the economy of its production. According to Towne, the industrial engineer as  the man  responsible for the daily operation and, still more, for the vitality and growth of a large industrial plant, must be a many-sided Engineer. He has to consider the planning and, construction of new buildings. He has also to deal with the question of power and its distribution, with steam engines and boilers, with electric generation and transmission, with shafting and belting, in many cases with pumping and the use of compressed air for many purposes, in all cases with heating, ventilating, plumbing and sanitation, and in large plants with questions of internal transportation  he has to  select the right men for the various positions to be filled, and inspire them with ambition and the right spirit in their work. He has to  coordinate their work so as to produce the best final result and understand and direct the technical operations and appreciate quickly and surely whether or not they are properly performed. Industrial engineer combines in one personality  two functions of technical knowledge and executive ability, and a person  who has aptitude for both the fields  has open to him unlimited opportunities in the field of industrial engineering.
According to Urwick, persons who liked Taylors ideas called themselves as industrial engineers, when both big business companies and trade union disliked "scientific management."[2]


  1. Towne, Henry R., “Industrial Engineering” An Address Delivered  At the Purdue University, Friday, February 24th, 1905, downloaded from http://www.cslib.org/stamford/towne1905.htm

 2. Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.

Library Collections of Pioneers

F.W. Taylor's papers are at Steven Institute

Frank Gilbreth's Papers are at Purdue University

Harrington Emerson's papers are at Pennsylvania University


Efficiency is the focus of Industrial Engineering

IIE describes itself as the Global Association of Productivity and Efficiency Professionals (http://www.iienet2.org/Default.aspx accessed on 20.1.2010).


Professional Societies in Industrial Engineering

Taylor Society

New York Efficiency Society

In 1912, Harrington Emerson helped to found the New York Efficiency Society which promoted and disseminated the ideals of reform through scientific management.

Society of Industrial Engineers

It was founded in 1917.
Society of Industrial Engineers was formed  in 1917, as a measure for helping the war effort, from the Western Efficiency Society (1910)

Society for Advancement of Management
SAM traces is origin to Taylor Society that was founded in 1912 by the colleagues and disciples of Frederick Taylor, the "Father of Scientific Management”. In 1936 the Taylor Society and the Society of Industrial Engineers merged to form the Society for the Advancement of Management.

American Institute of Industrial Engineers

University of Alabama Alumnus,  Wyllys G. Stanton invited a dozen gentlemen to his home one January evening in 1948 to discuss the formation of a new organization specializing in the interests of industrial engineers.
In 1948, the American Institute of Industrial Engineers (AIIE) was established: its objectives were many and compelling, but perhaps the most important was the professional recognition of IE.


The Institute of Industrial Engineers Australia
The Institute of Industrial Engineers celebrated it's 50th Anniversary year in 2008. In 1958 the Australian Methods Engineering Society was incorporated to become IIE Australia.

Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE)
The name of the American Institute of Industrial Engineers was changed to Institute of Industrial Engineers.
Gilbreth Network


Some Interesting Statements

Hoxie [2], who is probably best remembered as the one who was among the first to define the relationship between scientific and organized labor, and who insisted that "…Time and motion study, therefore, must be regarded as the chief cornerstone."
[2] R. R. Hoxie. Scientific management and labor welfare. Journal of Political Economy, XXIV, 1916, p.838. (C.F. Taylor said many years ago: "Time study is by far the most important element in scientific management." q.v. by A. H. Mogensen. Common Sense Applied to Motion and Time Study. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1932, p. 7.)

If a pragmatic beginning is sought for industrial engineering, it can be found in the pioneering work of Taylor in his attempt to answer the question: What is a fair day's work? Taylor was fond of quoting President Theodore Roosevelt who insisted that "The conservation of our national resources is only preliminary to the larger question of national efficiency." Almost a hundred years ago, Taylor noted:
We can see our forests vanishing, our water-powers going to waste, our soil being carried by floods into the sea; and the end of our coal and iron is in sight. But our larger wastes of human effort, which go on every day through such of our acts are as blundering, ill-directed, or inefficient…

Engineering might be defined as the art of controlling the forces and materials of nature, and organizing and directing men for the benefit of the human race.
(Nadler, Gerald, Motion and Time Study", McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1955, p.3)


Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Industrial Engineering

F.W.Taylor is credited with instigating the first undergraduate curriculum in Industrial Engineering by recommending to Beaver, President of the Board of Trustees of Pennsylvania State University that Mechanical Engineering be taught from the vantage point of view of manufacturing rather than from the perspective of power plants and higher mathematics. 

In 1908, the first course was offered as an option in Mechanical Engineering. 

In 1909, the first baccalaureate program in Industrial Engineering was offered at Pennsylvania University. Hugo Diemer, a young professor from the University of Kansas, recruited by Penn state University on the recommendation of Frederick Taylor, developed and coordinated the program. Diemer is credited with offering the first paper/course in industrial engineering to be taught in the United States – “Machinery and Millwork” – at University of Kansas School of Engineering in 1899.  Professor Diemer described industrial engineers as persons "who are thoroughly familiar with the productive processes, with broad interests, and who are at the same time thorough accountants and businessmen." Accounting as an area of importance to industrial engineers was mentioned by Towne also.
Diemer wrote his most famous book Factory Organization and Administration  published by McGraw-Hill in 1910.

Visit the knol for more about programs

Ph.d degree in Industrial Engineering
R.M. Barnes was awarded the first Ph.d in Industrial Engineering.

Industrial Engineering Subjects for Functions of Business Organization

Product Design Industrial Engineering

Maintenance System Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Information Systems Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Financial System Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Marketing System Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Supply Chain Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Manufacturing System Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Total Cost Industrial Engineering - Industrial Engineering of Enterprise Cost

Quality System Industrial Engineering


Related Knols

Originally posted in Knol
http://knol.google.com/k/ industrial-engineering Knol number 1151

By Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.

updated  26 June 2016, 12 June 2016, 12 Oct 2012

Industry Week Updates on Manufacturing Technology, Management and Productivity

System and Human Dimensions of Industrial Engineering - H. Harold Bass

Definition of Industrial Engineering by Narayana Rao KVSS: Industrial Engineering is System Efficiency Engineering and Human Effort Engineering.

Excerpts From

H. Harold Bass
Supervisor Research and Development Group
Industrial Engineering Division
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York
1963, University of California

The publishers have given permission to all to include the articles as needed provided reference is given.

 It has seemed to me that industrial engineers tend to get smothered in their growing body of techniques and perhaps lose sight of the ends towhichthese techniques should be directed.

If there is anyone theme which has persisted throughout the history of industrial engineering it
is the theme of improving Organization Performance.

There are a number of dimensions along which breadth of industrial engineering practice could be
discussed. I should like to emphasize two dimensions which I shall call the ''Systems Dimension''
and the ''Human Dimension."

I. The Systems Dimension

It seems that there has been one characteristic of traditional industrial engineering practice. Our
approach for many years assumed that we should concentrate on unit operations. Despite admonitions
such as ''look at the preceding and succeeding operation" we have by and large tended to optimize Organizational Performance piece by piece.

 The Systems' concept teaches that the sum of optimal parts is not necessarily equal to an optimal whole. Interactions between units or sub-systems and environmental variables can affect the performance of a system. The effects of this are only obvious when we grasp the system as a total system.

Linear Programming has enabled us to assess the total system of products and machines,
take into account the many inter-relationships of production rates and costs and arrive at a machine
loading program that is within the specified restrictions and is optimal for the total system.
Problems involving a large number of products and machines rapidly tax the capacities of the
most modern computers; however, efficient algorithms are capable of solving problems with as many as 300 products and 18 machines.

The linear programming approach has proven useful not only as a control in assigning products
on a weekly basis, but for long range planning of machine requirements such as;
1. Determining where to place development effort to overcome technological restrictions
which limit the capability of products to be produced on certain machines.
2. Determining the economics of adding additional capacity which is generally
more efficient than present equipment.
3. Determining the best allocation of products for special situations such as extended
periods of machine downtime for maintenance or design changes. This is just one example of work done in the Systems Dimension. Actually, the technology in this area has developed rapidly and can have significant influence on our goal of improving .Organization Performance.

II. The Human Dimension
For the Human Dimension, I'd like to cover two areas; Work Physiology and Organizational
Behavior.  Let's take Work Physiology, first.

A. Work Physiology

In the year 1903, Frederick W. Taylor in his book Shop Management stated, "One of the
most difficult pieces of work which must be faced by the man who is to set the daily tasks is
to decide just how hard it is for him to make the task." (end of quote) This, then, at the
time of Taylor was a decision under conditions of uncertainty and not a measurement. And,
judging by the labor disputes which arise over this question, we seem to be no nearer the point
of being definitive about this question than was Taylor.

What is work effort? Is there an objective way of measuring this effort? Effort can be defined
as an exertion of power or energy and this can be measured and quantified. Energy cannot
be measured by measuring time, but it can be measured by measuring such physiological
phenomena as heart rate, oxygen comsumption and respiratory volume.

The industrial engineer has implied consideration of these physiological phenomena in his concern with fatigue allowances and rest pauses, but even these allowances have generally been based upon time criterion rather than physiological measurements.

Today the industrial engineer has available to him, thru his own and other disciplines, the knowledge
and capability necessary for making quantitative determinations of many of these factors involved
in studying man at work. In the future, to successfully fulfill our role of studying man at work and to integrate him into the organizational system, we need to know the real demands which are being placed upon people. In a sense, we need to know their tolerance to physical and psychological loading.

While as engineers, we wouldn't think of regularly exceeding the design capacity of a production
machine, neither should we exceed the design capacity of the human operator. Knowing this
design capacity has definite humanitarian and economic value.

The optimum work situation is when the work capacities of an individual are compatible
to the work demands of the job. If we underload the individual, the situation is obviously inefficient
and costly. Although it is less obvious, the reverse is also very costly. The resolution of
grievances over work rate, working conditions, and the costs of on-plant medical care, as well
as compensation, do not come cheaply.

While I have earlier singled out the area of effort determination, I don't wish to imply that
this is the only area in which knowledge of human capacities and capabilities is needed. Some other
work situations in which such knowledge is needed are; tasks involving maintenance of a performance level during monitoring and vigilance tasks, frequent decision-making associated with
rapid paced operations, and the integration of an aging industrial population into an increasingly
complex and rapid paced industrial enviornment.

To define and approach these problems requires an understanding and application of physiological
knowledge. engineers. If they are to be solved, we must seek the assistance of other professions
and disciplines. No one discipline is sufficient within itself to bring to bear all of the effort
that is needed. This, then, dictates the need for the team approach. Our work physiology studies at Kodak Park, which started about five years ago, developed from a common need of the Medical Department and the Industrial Engineering Division to better understand the physiological limitations and capabilities of people. The understanding of common problems that has developed between
these two divisions, in itself, almost justifies the effort which has been expended on these
studies. The real reward, of course, is in our growing ability to evaluate and quantify situations
which heretofore, from a job design standpoint, had to remain unknown.

Initially, our investigations were confined solely to the ''effort" or "energy expenditures"
aspect of work. This was natural for several reasons, namely:
1. High effort is more obvious to the observer of the industrial scene and,
therefore, demands more attention.
2. While it is fractionated and scattered, much work has been done and reported by other investigators relative to "'energy expenditure", which is a measure of effort.
3. Instrumentation has been developed such that it is now practical to measure this variable of "energy expenditure" on the industrial scene.
Energy expenditure is measured by the indirect calorimetry method; that is, respiration
and oxygen consumption are the variables which are measured and converted to energy. Combined
with heart rate, these represent the physiological responses which we feel are necessary for accurately assessing high effort industrial jobs.

Physiological measurements in conjunction with time study now provide us with an insight
into industrial job design problems which is not obtainable in any other way. Using criterion
relative to energy expenditure, we can now assess jobs prior to the installation of a new work
standard or job design. We are in a better position to determine in terms of time and energy
what the job requires, the frequency of rest breaks, the necessity of providing auxiliary labor
saving equipment or the need for re-engineering the job completely. In situations where
the manufacturing process is not amenable to change, then the same physiological measurements
help us to select persons with the physical capacity demanded by the process. Most preemployment
medical examinations do not completely provide this information.

This new approach to designing industrial jobs has been successfully employed in many
types of jobs ranging from the handling of containers in a darkroom cold storage area to the
loading of box cars. A most rewarding use of it involved the pre-evaluation of a proposed piece
of production equipment. The work physiology studies indicated that additional materials handling
equipment was necessary if we were to obtain the anticipated increased production. The
nature of this materials handling equipment was such that installation at a later time would have
caused an extensive shutdown with the resultant loss of production.

With the measurement of and utilization of energy expenditure as a factor in job design, we
feel we are just beginning our work physiology studies. Energy expenditure is just one facet of
the problem. Other physiological phenomena of people may be studied so that we can integrate
them into job systems which take advantage of their capabilities and do not aggravate their
limitations. The result will be mutually beneficial to the individual and the company. The
second part of our Human Dimension is Organizational Behavior.

B. Organizational Behavior

I am using this term to refer to the behavior of people in an organizational or industrial setting.
As an area of knowledge, among other things, it refers to the reasons why people work or don't work, decide or don't decide to perform so as to achieve the objectives of their organizations.

If the concept of "Organizational Behavior" seems remote from industrial engineering to you, let me say that an incentive system, or any control system for that matter, is primarily designed to direct and influence the behavior of people towards organizational goals. As industrial engineers we are, it seems, in the business of designing systems to influence, direct and control human behavior, but we've never quite faced up to it in these very words.

The famous Western Electric Hawthorne studies of thirty years ago marked the beginning
of organized research into Organization Behavior. Since that time, studies in industry plus general
behavioral research have yielded information which promises utility to industry.

I think I can summarize the results of this research (and its utility to industrial engineers) this way.

You industrial engineers profess, in effect, a theory of management - a theory of how to organize men, machines, and materials so as to get the best results. The part of this theory which deals with men assumes that the performance of people will be best under situations where they are told exactly
what to do and how to do it, and are rewarded with money in proportion to performance.
Your way of doing business rests on certain behavioral assumptions.

''To put it another way, you are hipdeep in designing systems for influencing behavior and you make almost no use of the collective scientific information about the behavior of man. The assumptions which support your practice are not all wrong; they are just not complete nor up to
date. You need, first, to realize that you are deeply involved in influencing people's work attitudes, second, that you do this based upon certain assumptions, and third, that there is a good deal of information available which would alter and improve these assumptions."

You might assume that under the proper conditions, they will actually find personal satisfaction in
working towards your objectives.


In the short time left, I can only outline the manner in which we at Kodak Park are trying to
answer this challenge. In the first place, we have acquainted ourselves with the research
which bears on the problem. We have tried to integrate this to the best of our ability and reduce
it to the probable effect it may have on our practice. The following specifics are indicated:

1. Job Design

Instead of simply designing operations from the point of view of the optimum technical system, we think there are gains to be made in considering the nature of the jobs which people will do.
The usual industrial engineering criteria for job design stress extremes of task specialization. The consequences tend to be meaningless jobs. That is, jobs in which the individual has difficulty
seeing the relationship of his function to a larger whole. A version of what has been called Job Enlargement is called for. This is not just a matter of adding functions to a job, but adding a set of
functions which will comprise a set of activities leading to accomplishment of a visible objective. The activities making up a job should be examined to see if there has been a tendency to
remove the thinking functions and specialize them in other persons. Taken as a whole, we should endeavor to design jobs such that people have a maximum of control of the variables which
lead to end objectives.

2. Goal Orientation - Information Systems

A natural consequence of the over division of labor has been to focus the attention of individuals on very minute goals such as pieces per hour. We believe that industrial engineers should re-examine their approach to the goal setting function which is, after all, what time study has led to all these
years. People, it seems, do not behave on the job as isolated individuals. Many jobs are parts of a system and depend for success upon a high degree of interdependency of people. We are examining the structuring of goals to see what beneficial effect there is in providing the individual a perception
of his contribution to system goals. This takes the form of specifying job goals in terms of end-results and also in terms of the contribution of job level goals to system goals. Individuals are kept informed of system objectives, current progress of the system and any contemplated changes in objectives.
In effect, they are kept "in the know" about objectives and progress of the unit as well as their own job goals. In effect, we are trying to enlarge the focus of the individual relative to end objectives. By giving his more control through Job Design and overall goal orientation, we think his performance
and personal satisfaction will both increase.

III. Compensation or Incentive Systems
For many years, industrial engineering activity has been closely identified with incentives. The classical incentive approach stresses the closest possible relationship between pay and rate-of-output performance. As any of you who have administered an incentive system know, you have to take the bitter with the better. There are a number of practical problems or dysfunctions associated with incentives. I shall not stress these, but will try to describe the more fundamental problems. If we are to believe the results of behavioral research, people work for the satisfaction of a number of human needs. Only some of these can be satisfied by money. The most serious indictment of classical
incentives is that they have pre-occupied us with money to such an extent that we have largely
overlooked other considerations. Such things as achievement, responsibility, recognition and
work, itself, are satisfactions and sources of motivation in themselves. Our problem, here,
is to retain some monetary incentive, some pay/performance relationship, but not to do it
in such a manner that it is seen as the be-all and end-all of motivation. We believe that
closer attention to Job Design and Goal Orientation, previously mentioned, is one way of
providing a basis for satisfaction in the job. There is nothing in motivational research to indicate that relating rewards such as pay to performance is unsound. How this is done seems to be most important, however. We think that money should be looked upon as an after-the-fact reinforcement, not the primary initial motivator of good performance. In contrast to classical wage incentives, which stress close, short term, hour by hour correlation of pay and performance, the shift from "motivator"
to "reinforcement" may be brought about by extending the time over which pay and performance
are related. In addition, by utilizing longer time periods, performance considerations like quality, versatility and dependability can be considered in terms of pay.

We may close by reviewing the official definition of Industrial Engineering as it appears
on the AIIE Journal: "Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems of men, materials and equipment; drawing upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the
principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems."

If we are to believe this definition as a statement of what industrial engineers do, then we must assume that in our practice we do, indeed, draw upon knowledge from the social sciences. (But industrial engineering has not effectively drawn research conclusions or principles from the social or life sciences) . If we are to be designers of integrated systems of "men, materials and equipment," and if the design activity is to be based upon specialized scientific knowledge, then we had better equip ourselves to do so, (this article specifically focuses on)  the social or life sciences.

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Future of Industrial Engineering

The future of industrial engineering / by C.E. Knoeppel. Knoeppel, C. E. (Charles Edward),

Society of industrial engineering, 1920


The Future of Industrial Engineering As An Academic Discipline, J. A. Buzacotta
IIE Transactions
Volume 16, Issue 1, 1984

Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - Bulletin Board - 2016


Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

November 2016

See entire issue of Journal of Industrial Engineering Sep - Oct 1964 for role of IEs in various types of organizations.

June 2016

UK Government's Productivity Plan Review 2015-16

Investment Association UK's Productivity Plan 2016

Boosting competitiveness, managing costs and reducing emissions

May 2016

Industrial Engineers – Improving Processes for More Efficiency

by Brian Rooney
October 20, 2015
Interesting writeup

Workshop Presentations on Benchmarking Project Efficiency, 30.01.2015


Center for Productivity Innovation
UT Knoxville

News on Industrial Engineering in Africa



Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

In months after June the articles prescribed have to be modified as a new scheme is started in 2015.

July 2015
New Metal Property reduces cutting force by half and speeds machining - Industrial engineering faculty of Purdue involved in research on machining

June 2015

Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Applications 2015
Mitsuo Gen, Kuinam J Kim, Xiaoxia Huang
Springer, Jan 1, 2015 - 1085 pages
This volume provides a complete record of presentations made at "Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Applications 2015 "(ICIMSA 2015), and provides the reader with a snapshot of current knowledge and state-of-the-art results in industrial engineering, management science and applications. The goal of ICIMSA is to provide an excellent international forum for researchers and practitioners from both academia and industry to share cutting-edge developments in the field and to exchange and distribute the latest research and theories from the international community. The conference is held every year, making it an ideal platform for people to share their views and experiences in industrial engineering, management science and applications related fields.

IIE Transations - Index to All Volumes

D.R. Towill P. Childerhouse, (2011),"Industrial engineering priorities for improved demand chain
performance", International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 60 Iss 3 pp. 202 -
Permanent link to this document:

IE Course Notes by Prof Sam ADEJUYIGBE

(With special reference to Power Projects Construction)
Dr. B. Kuberudu, , Ch.Sreenivasa Rao , and  B.Sridhar
International Journal of Advanced Technology in Engineering and Science
Volume No 03, Special Issue No. 01, March 2015

ARGON has developped a service that allows for very fast scanning of fuel tanks with immediate feedback for adjusting the cooling fixture. The procedure has saved TI Lokeren (Belgium) up to 80% in time and material cost for the process approval for a Volvo fuel tank. Additionally the total geometry of the fuel tank is captured so no areas are overlooked.

"Thanks to ARGON we have significantly decreased our costs and increased the dimensional quality of our products" says Michel De Clercq, Industrial Engineering Manager of TI Automotive Lokeren.

A New Curriculum for Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management for BS and MS Degrees
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
Volume 102, 22 November 2013, Pages 560–567
6th International Forum on Engineering Education (IFEE 2012)

Comparing Engineering Management and Industrial Engineering programs

May 2015

Recent Advances in Industrial Engineering - Articles - Springer Collection

Articles on Lean Manufactuing and Product Development by S. Vinodh, NIT Trichy

March 2015

IEOM International Conference on Operations Excellence and Service Engineering, September 10-11, 2015, Orlando, USA

What is Operational Excellence in Manufacturing and Supply Chain?

November 2014

Industrial Engineering Strategy  -  Companies have define their industrial engineering strategy. Do they intend to benefit from it? By how amount? Through what organization structure? How many industrial engineers will they employ? What tools they will emphasize? What are the bottle neck areas in the plant? etc.

Faculty Directory of IE Faculty Members

Compiling a directory of faculty members in top IE programs and institutes. This is the first step to compile research output in the area of IE in recent years.

Industrial Engineering Professors - Faculty - Top IE Programs and Institutes

July 2014
July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

19 June 2014

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - Started on 17 June 2014

A division of Aldevron, a biotech company has invited researchers from University of Wisconsin-Madison to study its processes and improve the speed. The normal focus in biotech companies is to make efforts to improve yield.

26 Feb

New Lessons from Toyota - 2014 

Deryl Sturdevant,  Retired as president and CEO of Canadian Autoparts Toyota (CAPTIN)
The two pillars of the Toyota Production System are the philosophy of continuous improvement (kaizen) and training, skilling  and empowerment for people, particularly line workers. Involvement of line workers in improvement activities in a systematic manner rather than in a sporadic manner through suggestions schemes is a special feature of TPS. The line management is responsible for improvement on a continuous basis apart from the staff help. It is an American idea implemented very well in Japan.  Evaluation tools keep upgrading the bar every year in Toyota.

Rank-and-file workers know far more any particular tool than do executives. The job of executives is to understand how all the tools combine to make an effective and efficient system.

For creating any change, you need knowledge and passion. With lean journey also it is the same. You need knowledge and passion.

SMED activity is still going on in Toyota. In making an aluminum-alloy wheel five years ago, changeover required about four or five hours. But now, the process was modified so that the changeover time is down to less than an hour.

One of the basic Toyota approaches: Try and perfect any improvement before you recommend implementing it elsewhere. But once again as a principle, perfection is a moving target.

The Lean System of Motivation

Bringing lean thinking to energy
Beset by rising costs, resource-intensive manufacturers are applying lean-management thinking in new ways to reduce the amount of energy used in production, to increase resource productivity—or both.
McKinsey Article - Feb 2014

The Remedy: Bringing Lean Thinking Out of the Factory to Transform the Entire Organization

21 Feb

Industrial Engineering - Productivity Enhancing Technology Development

1000th Published Post in Industrial Engineering Knowledge Center Blog
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering.
Technology is a subsystem in the Systems made efficient by industrial engineers. Hence creating efficient technology or more productive technology is a task of industrial engineering

19 Feb 2014

The Productivity Manual: Methods and Activities for Involving Employees in Productivity Improvement

Elizabeth A. Smith, Taylor & Francis, 1995 - Business & Economics - 234 pages
Managers and supervisors will appreciate the manual's straightfoward, problem-solving approach. Trainers will benefit from the quantitive and qualitive techniques for measuring, analyzing, and reporting organizational and personnel achievements.
Google Book Link http://books.google.co.in/books?id=zj2jspgdcn4C

PepsiCo’s (PEP) productivity plan

PepsiCo’s (PEP) productivity plan from 2015 through 2019 will result in cost savings of $1 billion a year, About 40 percent  will come from labor cuts. Under the plan, PepsiCo will increase investment in manufacturing automation, close some manufacturing facilities, reengineer its distribution network in developed markets to be more efficient, share more back-office services, and simplify organization.
Productivity at the company hasn’t kept pace with sales growth. There are opportunities because of previous investments made in information systems, to make supply chain more efficient and go-to-market systems more efficient.
PepsiCo employed 278,000 employees in fiscal 2012, down from 297,000 a year earlier.

UK's Productivity’s Lost Decade – And How To Avoid Another
Strong GDP and employment growth throughout 2013 has highlighted productivity’s continued weakness. At the onset of the recession in Q1 2008, productivity initially fell. However, it has not recovered and remains 4% below the pre-crisis peak on an output per hour basis. Productivity has now fallen back to where it was in Q4 2005. Without improvements, we will have lived through almost a decade of stagnant productivity.

Getting Lean with Your Healthcare Practice:
Five Tips for Improving Provider Productivity with an EHR
EHR - Electronic Health Records

Introduction to Software Productivity
Galorath Incorporated
2010 presentation

Book Review: Growing the Productivity of Government Services by Patrick Dunleavy and Leandro Carrera
In this book Patrick Dunleavy and Leandro Carrera ask why government productivity has been so neglected in the study of economics and public management. Chapters cover customs regulation, tax services, and the need to embrace digital change, and the book concludes with some clear and practical advice.

12 Feb 2014

Productivity Day in India

It is important to study carefully the definition of management by Koontz and O'Donnell

"Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims."

Also they say in the chapter on productivity,

"In reality this entire book on management is about productivity."

Are management professionals and professors following that idea?




 THE WORLD'S TOP 10 MOST INNOVATIVE Solutions from COMPANIES IN PRODUCTIVITY Improvement of people in general

NitroDesk Announces Cockpit Mobile Productivity Management Solution
Cockpit allows for management of TouchDown corporate data container

Committed to sustainable productivity
Atlas Copco is a world-leading provider of sustainable productivity solutions. We serve customers in more than 180 countries with products and service focused on productivity, energy efficiency, safety and ergonomics.

Photoshop Keyboard Eliminates Shortcuts For Increased Productivity
The Shortcut-S is a computer keyboard created specifically for designers that use Photoshop and other graphics and video software. The keyboard has 319 tactile keys that are customizable.

9 Feb 2014

11 Ways to Improve Your IT Team's Productivity


What is Lean Management?

Lean Management is management with simultaneous emphasis on customer satisfaction or goal achievement and productivity or resource consumption.

Liquid Lean: Developing Lean Culture in the Process Industries

Published: February 24, 2010 by Productivity Press Content:346 Pages |
Author(s):Raymond C. Floyd

Forth International Productivity Cartoon Festival: 

No. 164, 6th Boostan St., Opposite White Tower ( Burj-e-Sefid) , Pasdaran Ave., Tehran, Iran.

The programme is a collaboration between BCA Academy and The Singapore Contractors Association Ltd (SCAL).  It caters to the specific needs of the contractors and builders in managing construction productivity. The course will be conducted over 12 sessions.  Each session will last for 3 hours in the evening, once a week.

Wide range of connectors with molded-on control cables, guarantees high productivity for your machines and systems, even in the most rugged conditions.

Designed for harsh environments, especially "no-contact" zones in the food industry, the new generation of connectors supplements the proven connectors of the M12 Food & Beverage Classic Line.

Labour Productivity in Coal Mining Sector in India: With Special to Major Coal Mining
The production of coal has increased from 35 million tons in 1951 to 409.3 million tons in 2004. At the same time, the Average Daily Employment (ADE) has increased from 352 thousand in 1951 to 405 thousand in 2004.

Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK)
Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK) is an easy-to-use, comprehensive content development, deployment and maintenance platform designed to increase project, programme and user productivity. With over 4 million users globally, it features out-of-the-box integration with core systems and the ability to support any application.

Productivity & Efficiency at Forefront of LexisNexis at LegalTech New York 2014
Portfolio of integrated analytical, workflow and productivity solutions drives insights and better outcomes for law firms and legal departments
“Driving efficiency and productivity is at the core of our business,” said Bob Romeo, CEO of Research & Litigation Solutions at LexisNexis.

Role of information literacy in agricultural productivity and food security: An international perspective
80th IFLA General Conference and Assembly, Lyon, France in August 2014

German firm to train farmers in productivity in Uganda

The National Center for Transportation Systems Productivity and Management (NCTSPM)
conducts transportation related research in the areas of safety, state-of-good-repair, and economic competitiveness. NCTSPM is a collaboration between Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia Transportation Institute, Florida International University, University of Central Florida, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and each university’s state Department of Transportation.

Port productivity: Handling freight more efficiently
February 5, 2014|By Doreen Hemlock, Sun Sentinel
Some 140 port experts from around the nation met in Fort Lauderdale this week to discuss ways to boost port productivity in a conference.

Productivity Improvement - Manufacturing Process Improvement Consulting by Maverick
As your productivity improvement consultant, MAVERICK begins by evaluating the current state of your operations regarding man, machine, material and methods — lean manufacturing’s 4M perspective on improving production processes. Then we compare benchmark findings with best-in-class operations and help you close the gaps. Because we are able to leverage the experience of 500 professionals working across the country — noting what works and what doesn’t — we’re able to incorporate best practices that might not be obvious otherwise.
Columbia, IL (World HQ)
265 Admiral Trost Drive
PO Box 470
Columbia, IL 62236

The Lean CFO: Architect of the Lean Management System

Published: September 16, 2013 by Productivity Press Content:151 Pages
Author(s):Nicholas S. Katko

5 Feb 2014

2014 Asia-Pacific Productivity Conference

The Centre for Efficiency and Productivity Analysis (CEPA) in the School of Economics at The University of Queensland is pleased to invite you to attend the 10th Asia Pacific Productivity Conference (APPC) from 8 -11 July 2014 in Brisbane, Australia.
Conference Dates: Jul 8, 2014 to Jul 11, 2014
Deadline for paper submissions: Feb 15, 2014
Deadline for participant registration: Thursday, May 15, 2014
The conference will consist of theoretical and applied sessions, as well as special-focus sessions targeting specific industries and topics. This will include topics on efficiency and productivity in industries such as the banking and energy sectors, regulated industries, agriculture, USA productivity, EU and APEC productivity, Asia-KLEMS and many more.

Heidelberg India fixing productivity with maintenance tips
Heidelberg India hosted a seminar on key maintenance and advanced trouble shooting techniques in sheetfed offset printing in Kochi.
Haribabu, head of customer service at Heidelberg addressed the audience on activities required for a print-shop, and how such efforts promote best results in print production through his presentation on ‘benefits of maintenance’.

Improving productivity and profitability
Maintenance can help American businesses avoid losing more than $500 billion every year to equipment breakdowns or inefficiencies.

Variable-speed drive gives Energy Savings + Productivity Improvements - ABB
 While there is a gradual improvement in those willing to invest in drives, there still remains some 90 percent of installed motors that are not speed controlled. A further 95 percent of the 11 million motors installed in the UK are oversized. Savings of more than 50 percent can be achieved by the use of a drive on these applications.

Global Total factor productivity (TFP) dipped below zero in 2013

Total factor productivity (TFP), that is, how well labour inputs combine with capital inputs to generate output, was also low, dipping below zero in 2013

DAVE: a tool for software QA productivity
DAVE stands for DAta VErification. The way it works is rather simple: first, the user chooses the environments (dev, test or prod). Second, they enter either the email address or the order key/id of the customer they’re trying to verify and press the Submit button


. It adopted and integrated lean manufacturing and continuous improvement principles into its culture and work processes. During this journey, it was determined that SFI's welding operations at its Memphis plant needed to be radically revamped and updated.

SFI's welders have been using the Lincoln Power Wave® machines and Power Feed™ wire feeders for nearly a year now and have seen a consistent 15-percent productivity gain.

4 February 2014

Professionalism in precision sheet metal manufacturing
A commitment to reducing waste and making key investments helps DeWys Manufacturing earn The FABRICATOR’s 2014 Industry Award

The Powermax125, a professional-grade plasma metal cutting and gouging system, that works as hard as you do. With the maximum power and performance for air plasma in our line, the Powermax125 severs 57 mm (2-1/4") thick metals at 125 mm/min (5 ipm). With 100% duty cycle and Powermax reliability, it is ready for the most demanding cutting and gouging jobs.

Increasing Marketing Productivity and ROI with Tealium iQ - Case Study

The McKinsey Infrastructure and Capital Productivity Academy (MICA)

Productivity and Efficiency of Groundnut Farming in Northern Taraba State, Nigeria
G.B. Taphee, A.A.U. Jongur

The Construction Productivity Handbook

Textura-PQM Software Helps Subcontractors Improve Efficiency and Enhance Productivity

Improving productivity, efficiency and safety through automation and reliable communication infrastructure
MINING.com Editor | February 3, 2014

Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - January 2014

Updated  12 June 2016,  27 May 2016