Saturday, March 30, 2019

Seven Engineering Wonders of 21st Century

Gore-Tex, the breathable waterproof fabric common in hiking gear and outerwear;

Hawk-Eye, a computer system capable of tracking the motion of a ball, frequently relied on for close calls in sports including football, cricket and tennis;

iPhone, the pioneering smartphone;

YouTube, the ubiquitous video hosting platform;

Dolby Atmos, a powerful sound system;

3D printing of bone implants, a revolutionary healthcare technology; and

Clean water, facilitated by a range of engineering innovations.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Industrial Engineering Conferences

2019 The 2nd International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Intelligent Manufacturing

(CIEIM 2019)

August 14-16, 2019 | Shanghai, China

25th IJCIEOM - International Joint Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management
Novi Sad, Serbia, July 15-17, 2019

Industrial Engineering (IE) Jobs 2019

27 March 2019

Industrial Engineering Manager - Systems with Volvo Group
Company Name  Volvo Group Company Location Dublin, VA, US
Posted Date  Posted 5 days ago


Apply Apply to Industrial Engineering Manager - Systems with Volvo Group on company website
The position listed below is not with Rapid Interviews but with Volvo Group Our goal is to connect you with supportive resources in order to attain your dream career. We work directly with hundreds of publishers to connect you with the right resources to fit your needs. You may also want to visit our News & Advice page to stay up to date with other resources that can help you find what you are looking for
The purpose of this job is to direct and manage the activities of an Industrial/Manufacturing Engineering team that will develop and industrialize the product/assembly electrical information systems that are necessary to support all aspects of the truck assembly process. Other important aspects of this job include but are not limited to promoting the Volvo policies, procedures, philosophy and culture (through leadership by example), promoting the core values of the corporation (safety, quality, and environment) and succession planning by developing people for advancement and future leadership opportunities.

Core Responsibilities
Manage the implementation of efficient and reliable Engineering processes for existing and new product offerings that guarantees consistent quality output
Efficient assignment of Industrial / Manufacturing Engineering resources to support all aspects of plant operations (production, logistics, and quality) on a daily basis as well as during specific project activities.
Secure new product/product change introduction via management of project change and manufacturing engineers resources within the assigned area of responsibility
Evaluate embedded software and electrical hardware based on assembly processes and design engineering specification. Specify electrical system performance, calibration, and testing requirements.
Define the Truck Embedded Software strategy as part of the Volvo Global Manufacturing Network.
Identify capital improvement projects and coordinate with other disciplines (finance, maintenance, production) to justify funding to implement improvements
Develop a professional team of engineers through providing/assisting/coordinating the necessary training for new employees
Champion Lean Manufacturing / VPS (Volvo Production System) initiatives including (but not limited to) Work Place Organization (WPO), Continuous Improvement, Kaizen leadership, Advanced Manufacturing initiatives for the area of responsibility
Provide succession planning by preparing individuals for future advancement opportunities through the use of mentoring activities, providing career-enhancing training activities and opportunities to act in a leadership capacity
Continuously pursue self-improvement through seeking knowledge of new concepts, techniques, and technologies related to Industrial Engineering, benchmarking other areas/departments/organizations for potential improvement ideas
Minimum Education Required:
Bachelor s Degree Required in Engineering (Industrial / Systems or Electrical preferred)
Minimum Years of Experience Required:
Five (5) years of Industrial Engineering experience with educational requirements
Ten (10) years of experience without Industrial Engineering experience without educational requirements
Additional Skills Required:
Knowledge of Electrical Architecture and Systems (Embedded Software/Hardware)
Knowledge of Volvo product/manufacturing
Lean Manufacturing knowledge and Techniques
Capacity to work with technical drawings and conceptualize manufacturing solutions
Knowledge of productivity improvement tools, methods, and line balancing techniques

Associated topics: business, cost efficient, industrial engineer, manufacturing engineer, methods engineer, project, sap, supply, supply chain

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Industrial Engineering - FaceBook Page

24 March 2019 - 1538 Likes + 46 This week

19 March - 1500 Likes

American Manufacturing Summit 2019

MARCH 26–27, 2019

Responding to rising costs through manufacturing innovation
Benefits of an optimized workforce
Product lifecycle, manufacturing cost and the supply chain
Driving down headcount, waste and inefficiencies

Understanding subcontractor selection
Ranking system to guide subcontractor selection
Selecting subcontractors to support business goals
Obtaining continuous improvement from the supply base through supplier evaluation

How can manufacturing divisions become better innovators?
Enhancing innovation through disruptive technologies
Nurturing new talent to push traditional boundaries
Examining how innovative manufacturers are already getting ahead

Reducing the cost of manufacturing error and backlog
Developing a flexible and adaptable lean system
Advanced technologies and trends driving efficient productivity
Taking a data-centric approach to planning, design, supply, manufacturing and customer support

Manufacturing Links
Related Links

Twitter Hashtag  #mfgus19

interview, manufacturing, Q&A, March 22, 2019

Saturday, March 23, 2019

March - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan with Links


Henry Fayol

The Engineering Manager who provided the modern description of Industrial Management.
Planning - Organizing - Commanding - Coordinating - Control

Picture Source:


March 1st week  (1 March  to 5 March)

Analyzing Competitors
Strategy of Market Leader

Marketing Strategies for Challenger Firms
Competitive Strategies for Followers and Nichers

Managing Product Lines and Brands
Marketing Strategy for New Industry Products

Marketing Management for Service Firms
Pricing Strategy and Tactics

Marketing Channel Management – Important Issues
Managing Wholesaling and Retailing Network

March 2nd week ( 8 to 12)

Marketing Communication: Channels and Promotion Tools

Sales Promotion
Marketing Public Relations

Sales Process and Sales Training
Direct Marketing

Online Marketing
Marketing and New Product Development

International and Global Marketing
Sales Force Management

March 3 week  (15 to 19)

Developing Enterprisewide or Company Wide Marketing Orientation
Management of Marketing Department and Function

Operations Management  Revision Starts (16 March)

Introduction to the Field of Operations Management
Operations Strategy and Competitiveness - Review Notes

Optimizing the Use of Resources with Linear Programming
Learning Curves - Review Notes

Operations Project Management
Product Design - Review Notes

Process Analysis - Operations Management
Manufacturing Process Selection and Design

20th March - Birthday of Man of Productivity - Low Prices and High Incomes

Frederick Winslow Taylor - A Pioneer Industrial Engineer
Date of Birth: 20th March, 1856
Contribution of Taylor to Industrial Engineering
Shop Management
Scientific Management

March 4 Week  (22 to 26 )

Facility Layout - Review Notes
Product Design and Process Selection—Services

Total Quality Management: and Six Sigma
Process Capability and Statistical Quality Control
Operations Consulting and Reengineering

24 March - Birthday - Martin Shubik - Economics Professor - Yale University

Supply-Chain Strategy - Review Notes
Strategic Capacity Management

Just-in-Time and Lean Systems - Review Notes
Forecasting - Operations Management Review Notes

Aggregate Sales and Operations Planning - Review Notes
Inventory Control - Review Notes for Chase et al.

29 March
Subject Update: Principles of Management

30 March
Subject Update: Marketing Management

To April - Management Knowledge Revision

Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

March - Birthdays - Management Scholars

3 - Lyndall Urwick (1891)
5 - Edgar Schein (1928),  Stuart Anspach Umpleby (1944)
6 - Raymond Gilmartin (1941
8 - Warren Bennis (1925), Nirmalya Kumar (1960)
10 - Kenneth R. French (1954)
14 - T.V. Rao (1946)
15 - Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1943)
16 - Ferdinando Pennarola (1963)
18 - Water A. Shewart (1891)
20 -  Frederick Taylor (1856), Kim B. Clark (1949),  Marshall Goldsmith (1949)
24 - Martin Shubik (1926)
25 - David Meerman Scott (1961)
26 - Larry Page (1973)
29 - Sam Walton (1918)
30 - Arthur White (1924),   Dr. Arno Antlitz (1970)


Updated  23 March 2019, 16 March 2019,  3 March 2017,  25 March 2016

Friday, March 22, 2019

Fuzzy Productivity Measurement in Manufacturing Systems

Fuzzy Productivity Measurement in Manufacturing Systems

Cengiz Kahraman, editor of the book is a coauthor. He published number of articles on multiobjective optimization in various topics. He is an industrial engineering professor in Turkey. His mail id is in the book. I have to write a mail to him.

About him

His Cv

Chapter 17 in

Production Engineering and Management under Fuzziness

Cengiz Kahraman, Mesut Yavuz
Springer Science & Business Media, 19-May-2010 - Business & Economics - 605 pages

Production engineering and management involve a series of planning and control activities in a production system. A production system can be as small as a shop with only one machine or as big as a global operation including many manufacturing plants, distribution centers, and retail locations in multiple continents. The product of a production system can also vary in complexity based on the material used, technology employed, etc. Every product, whether a pencil or an airplane, is produced in a system which depends on good management to be successful. Production management has been at the center of industrial engineering and management science disciplines since the industrial revolution. The tools and techniques of production management have been so successful that they have been adopted to various service industries, as well. The book is intended to be a valuable resource to undergraduate and graduate students interested in the applications of production management under fuzziness. The chapters represent all areas of production management and are organized to reflect the natural order of production management tasks. In all chapters, special attention is given to applicability and wherever possible, numerical examples are presented. While the reader is expected to have a fairly good understanding of the fuzzy logic, the book provides the necessary notation and preliminary knowledge needed in each chapter.

KUBERNETES - Developer Productivity Enhancer

Industrial Engineering effort that effort to increase programmer productivity and developer productivity is going for many years. Various tools are being developed to increase prograamer and developer productivity. Kubernetes is one such innovation.

Kubernetes (K8s) is an open-source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.

Reliable, efficient, and secured way to run Kubernetes clusters

Sloan is back to chat with Alan and Blake about developer productivity, tools, and a whole lot more Kubernetes.

Istio & Kubernetes: Developer Productivity and freedom to deliver your OKRs
February 14, 2019

What is DevOps?
Today, Software delivery cycle is getting shorter and shorter, while on the other hand application size has been getting bigger and bigger.

DevOps tools automate tasks and manage configurations at a different stage of configuration delivery.

About Container
Containers make it easier to host and manage life-cycle of web applications inside the portable environment. It packages up application code other dependencies into building blocks to deliver consistency, efficiency, and productivity.

What is Kubernetes?
Kubernetes is an open source container orchestration platform, enabling multiple numbers of containers to work together in harmony, reducing operational burden.

Why Developers Should Embrace Productivity Engineering
It’s come time to face the facts: we’re living in a post-DevOps engineer world.
By Andrew Holway - Otter Networks Founder - 2nd November 2018

Kubernetes in DevOps Space: Everything You Need To Know
Oct 12, 2018

Container Orchestration bring IT operations and developers closer together, making it hassle-free for the team to collaborate effectively and efficiently with each other.

Opting for the Kubernetes workflow can simplify the build/test/deploy pipelines in DevOps.

In Part 1, Kubernetes is the new application operating environment, discussed Kubernetes and its place in application development. In this part, we explore application servers and their role in relation to Kubernetes.

Are App Servers Dead in the Age of Kubernetes? (Part 2)
By Ken Finnigan October 2, 2018

Change your workflow
Increased developer productivity with cloud-native
July 4, 2018  Ross Kukulinski

OPE - Overall Process Effectiveness - Overall Process Efficiency

How to (Really) Improve Process Efficiency
Posted By: Lucidchart Content Team
January 08, 2019

Calculating basic performance indicators for the smart factory: Overall Production Effectiveness (OPE)
Alessandro Bonara December 2016


What is OPE?

Updated on 23 March 2019, 3 April 2016

Wednesday, March 20, 2019

Solar Energy Industrial Engineering

Productivity Science

Process Parameters

Electrical and  thermal parameters

Electrical parameters

Maximum power rating Pmax (Wp)
Rated current IMPP (A)
Rated voltage VMPP (V)
Short-circuit current Isc (A)
Open-circuit voltage Voc (V)

Thermal parameters

Normal operating cell temperature NOCT (°C)
Temperature coefficient: short-circuit current (A/°C)
Temperature coefficient: open-circuit voltage V (°C)
Standard test conditions (STC)
Air mass AM = 1.5
Irradiance G = 1000 W/m2
Cell temperature

Effect of various model parameters on solar photovoltaic cell simulation:a SPICE analysis
Md. Nazmul Islam Sarkar*
Sarkar Renewables (2016) 3:13
DOI 10.1186/s40807-016-0035-3

22 Feb 2014
Solar Power at 11 cents per kWh

Target  6 cents per kWh
Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced that the SunShot Initiative program is already 60 percent of the way toward its goal of bringing the average price for a utility-scale solar power plant down to the target price of six cents per kilowatt-hour.
It means it is now available at 11 cents by the end of 2013. That’s now less than the average price of electricity in the U.S., which is about 12 cents per kWh, according to the Energy Information Administration.

Grand Challenge Announced by National Academy of Engineering

Make Solar Energy Economical

But exploiting the sun’s power is not without challenges. Overcoming the barriers to widespread solar power generation will require engineering innovations in several arenas — for capturing the sun’s energy, converting it to useful forms, and storing it for use when the sun itself is obscured.

Many of the technologies to address these issues are already in hand. Dishes can concentrate the sun’s rays to heat fluids that drive engines and produce power, a possible approach to solar electricity generation. Another popular avenue is direct production of electric current from captured sunlight, which has long been possible with solar photovoltaic cells.

How efficient is solar energy technology?
But today’s commercial solar cells, most often made from silicon, typically convert sunlight into electricity with an efficiency of only 10 percent to 20 percent, although some test cells do a little better. Given their manufacturing costs, modules of today’s cells incorporated in the power grid would produce electricity at a cost roughly 3 to 6 times higher than current prices, or 18-30 cents per kilowatt hour [Solar Energy Technologies Program]. To make solar economically competitive, engineers must find ways to improve the efficiency of the cells and to lower their manufacturing costs.

Prospects for improving solar efficiency are promising. Current standard cells have a theoretical maximum efficiency of 31 percent because of the electronic properties of the silicon material. But new materials, arranged in novel ways, can evade that limit, with some multilayer cells reaching 34 percent efficiency. Experimental cells have exceeded 40 percent efficiency.

Another idea for enhancing efficiency involves developments in nanotechnology, the engineering of structures on sizes comparable to those of atoms and molecules, measured in nanometers (one nanometer is a billionth of a meter).

Recent experiments have reported intriguing advances in the use of nanocrystals made from the elements lead and selenium. [Schaller et al.] In standard cells, the impact of a particle of light (a photon) releases an electron to carry electric charge, but it also produces some useless excess heat. Lead-selenium nanocrystals enhance the chance of releasing a second electron rather than the heat, boosting the electric current output. Other experiments suggest this phenomenon can occur in silicon as well. [Beard et al.]
Theoretically the nanocrystal approach could reach efficiencies of 60 percent or higher, though it may be smaller in practice. Engineering advances will be required to find ways of integrating such nanocrystal cells into a system that can transmit the energy into a circuit.

How do you make solar energy more economical?

Other new materials for solar cells may help reduce fabrication costs. “This area is where breakthroughs in the science and technology of solar cell materials can give the greatest impact on the cost and widespread implementation of solar electricity,” Caltech chemist Nathan Lewis writes in Science. [Lewis 799]
A key issue is material purity. Current solar cell designs require high-purity, and therefore expensive, materials, because impurities block the flow of electric charge. That problem would be diminished if charges had to travel only a short distance, through a thin layer of material. But thin layers would not absorb as much sunlight to begin with.

One way around that dilemma would be to use materials thick in one dimension, for absorbing sunlight, and thin in another direction, through which charges could travel. One such strategy envisions cells made with tiny cylinders, or nanorods. Light could be absorbed down the length of the rods, while charges could travel across the rods’ narrow width. Another approach involves a combination of dye molecules to absorb sunlight with titanium dioxide molecules to collect electric charges. But large improvements in efficiency will be needed to make such systems competitive.

How do you store solar energy?
However advanced solar cells become at generating electricity cheaply and efficiently, a major barrier to widespread use of the sun’s energy remains: the need for storage. Cloudy weather and nighttime darkness interrupt solar energy’s availability. At times and locations where sunlight is plentiful, its energy must be captured and stored for use at other times and places.
Many technologies offer mass-storage opportunities. Pumping water (for recovery as hydroelectric power) or large banks of batteries are proven methods of energy storage, but they face serious problems when scaled up to power-grid proportions. New materials could greatly enhance the effectiveness of capacitors, superconducting magnets, or flyweels, all of which could provide convenient power storage in many applications. [Ranjan et al., 2007]

Another possible solution to the storage problem would mimic the biological capture of sunshine by photosynthesis in plants, which stores the sun’s energy in the chemical bonds of molecules that can be used as food. The plant’s way of using sunlight to produce food could be duplicated by people to produce fuel.
For example, sunlight could power the electrolysis of water, generating hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen could then power fuel cells, electricity-generating devices that produce virtually no polluting byproducts, as the hydrogen combines with oxygen to produce water again. But splitting water efficiently will require advances in chemical reaction efficiencies, perhaps through engineering new catalysts. Nature’s catalysts, enzymes, can produce hydrogen from water with a much higher efficiency than current industrial catalysts. Developing catalysts that can match those found in living cells would dramatically enhance the attractiveness of a solar production-fuel cell storage system for a solar energy economy.

Fuel cells have other advantages. They could be distributed widely, avoiding the vulnerabilities of centralized power generation.

If the engineering challenges can be met for improving solar cells, reducing their costs, and providing efficient ways to use their electricity to create storable fuel, solar power will assert its superiority to fossil fuels as a sustainable motive force for civilization’s continued prosperity.

Industrial Engineering Professor Promoting Solar Energy

Dr. Earnest Fant, associate professor of industrial engineering,  has designed solar panel platforms that can be tilted to optimize the amount of solar energy they absorb, and solar arrays based on his design can be installed using materials found at local hardware stores. He takes classes and helps people to set up solar arrays in their backyards and connect it to grid.

Optimum design of solar water heating systems
Layek Abdel-Malek†
Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Rutgers University, PO Box 909, Piscataway, NJ 08854, U.S.A.
Computers & Operations Research
Volume 12, Issue 2, 1985, Pages 219–225
This paper presents an approach to the design of solar water heating systems for optimum performance in different locations. The results of a previously developed queueing model for solar water heating systems evaluation are used to determine the optimum size of the system design parameter. The approach concerns itself in selecting the optimum volume of the system water tank, and its collector area in different locations.

Updated on 21 March 2019, 22 February 2014

Tuesday, March 19, 2019

Process Engineering

Process Engineering Problem Solving: Avoiding "The Problem Went Away, but it Came Back" Syndrome
Joseph M. Bonem
John Wiley & Sons, 26-Sep-2008 - Technology & Engineering - 296 pages

Avoid wasting time and money on recurring plant process problems by applying the practical, five-step solution in Process Engineering Problem Solving: Avoiding "The Problem Went Away, but it Came Back" Syndrome. Combine cause and effect problem solving with the formulation of theoretically correct working hypotheses and find a structural and pragmatic way to solve real-world issues that tend to be chronic or that require an engineering analysis. Utilize the fundamentals of chemical engineering to develop technically correct working hypotheses that are key to successful problem solving.


Sunday, March 17, 2019

Developments in Mechanical Engineering of Immediate Relevance to Industrial Engineering

Advances in Mechanical Engineering
0.848 Impact Factor
Table of Contents
Volume 11 Issue 3, March 2019

Multi-objective optimization design of spur gear based on NSGA-II and decision making
Qizhi YaoFirst Published March 13, 2019 Research Article 
Advances in Mechanical Engineering
Volume 11 Issue 3, March 2019

Open access article:
Due to most of power transmission systems requiring light weight, efficient, and low-cost elements, Tamboli et al. (11) optimized a heavy-duty gear reducer with helical gear pair based on the minimum volume. Rao (12) used teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) and elitist teaching learning based optimization (ETLBO) algorithms to optimize a spur gear train for weight reduction under the contains of bending strength, surface durability, torsional strength, and center distance.

11. Tamboli, K, Patel, S, George, PM. Optimal design of a heavy duty helical gear pair using particle swarm optimization technique. Proc Tech 2014; 14: 513–519.

12. Rao, RV . Design optimization of a spur gear train using TLBO and ETLBO algorithms. In: Rao, RV (ed.) Teaching learning based optimization algorithm: and its engineering applications. Cham: Springer, 2016, pp.91–101.

Wei and Lin14 performed a multi-objective optimization design for a helical gear using finite element method and Taguchi method.

14. Wei, F, Lin, H. Multi-objective optimization of process parameters for the helical gear precision forging by using Taguchi method. J Mech Sci Technol 2011; 25: 1519–1526.

Huang et al.18 worked on the optimization of three-stage spur gear reduction units in order to minimize volume and maximize surface fatigue life.

Huang, HZ, Tian, ZG, Zuo, MJ. Multiobjective optimization of three-stage spur gear reduction units using interactive physical programming. J Mech Sci Technol 2005; 19: 1080–1086.

The effects of robot welding and manual welding on the low- and high-cycle fatigue lives of SM50A carbon steel weld zones
Changwan Han, Changhwan Yang, Hanjong Kim, ...
First Published March 13, 2019 Research Article
Advances in Mechanical Engineering
Volume 11 Issue 3, March 2019

Open access

The major advantage of RW is the productivity enhancement of uniform quality products, because robots can always guarantee the same operating conditions for welding.

The  robot welding (RW)  and manual welding (MW) effects on the fatigue of SM50A carbon steel weld zones were analyzed in this study. The RW weld zone showed better fatigue life at 800 MPa, but slightly poorer fatigue life than the MW at 227 MPa. However, no significant difference in the overall S-N curves between the MW and RW except these two stress levels may suggest that the RW method is more desirable due to its advantage in maintaining consistency of welding process parameters than the MW. Further systematic studies to derive the correlations between welding parameters (welding currents, voltages, and speeds) and weld zone microstructures, as well as their effects on the fatigue strength of weld zones, can contribute to the design of the optimized welding process parameters in the RW method.

Saturday, March 16, 2019

Industrial Engineering - One More Explanation - Narayana Rao

16 March 2019

Industrial Engineering - One more explanation - Narayana Rao

Engineering for Time, Cost, Productivity, Materials utilization, Equipment Utilization, Zero defects, Manpower comfort, Energy Utilization, Information Utlization (Resource Utilization in Engineering Processes and Products). #industrialengineering #productivity

Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Industrial Engineering
Proceedings of the 2017 Industrial and Systems Engineering Conference
IISE, Pittsburgh, USA

Presentation Video

The activity in basic engineering is driven by developments in underlying engineering sciences like mechanics etc. The activity in industrial engineering is driven by responses to industry relevant data like cost of production, defects, resource use etc. Industrial engineers visualize and create engineering changes to make products less costly and to make processes more faster and comfortable to employees.

The first industrial engineering article.

F.W. Taylor - Productivity Engineering of Belting - 1893 - Notes on Belting

Google Engineering Productivity Department - Activities and Accomplishments

Google Engineering Productivity

Engineering Productivity : Delivering frictionless engineering and excellent products

What is Engineering Productivity?
We are a data-driven engineering discipline focused on optimizing the engineering process so that Google can deliver amazing experiences to our users, faster.

Qualities that humanize Engineering Productivity

System Analysis

With a system-level view and a user-centric view, we work hard to identify gaps and inefficiencies in our engineering process so that we can build solutions to improve engineering excellence and velocity.


We believe that you can’t improve what you can’t measure. Google is a data-driven company and we are a data-driven discipline. We obsess over metrics and work hard to move them in the right direction.

Tools and Infrastructure

Much like a bustling metropolis needs great infrastructure to enable happy and productive residents, Google engineers working on complex systems need the right tools and infrastructure to be productive.

Focus on the user
We embed in product engineering teams where we champion polished products for Google’s users and fast, scalable engineering for our users, Google’s engineers.

Interested in joining Engineering Productivity?
We are looking for world class engineers that bring a quantitative mindset, execution velocity, leadership skills, and a passion to change the way engineering is done at Google and beyond.

Google strives to cultivate an inclusive workplace. We believe diversity of perspectives and ideas leads to better discussions, decisions, and outcomes for everyone.

Reasoning about the correctness of Engineering and Engineering Change 

Reasoning about the correctness of your change is now much more difficult.

Some questions come up, including: How do you make sure your change works? How do you make sure your change didn’t break an obscure use case for a user in a different geography? How do you prepare your change such that the next 100 engineers that modify the system don’t break the feature you just added?

These are complex problems that require tooling and infrastructure to help engineers reason about the correctness of their change. EngProd’s purpose is to make engineering easier and better, so we spend a lot of time on the hardest part of the process: building tools and infrastructure to make testing and debugging simpler.


Software Engineer, Tools and Infrastructure (SETI)
SETI at Google is a Software Engineering role that focuses on building software, infrastructure, harnesses, tooling to help improve engineering velocity and product excellence.

You might love this role if:

You love developing tools that make the engineering process better - be it command line tools, web services, debugging tools, test data factories, etc.
You are passionate about high-quality software and unhappy about shortcuts and hacks in the code.
You have worked to automate and remove repetitive and manual tasks because inefficiency drives you crazy.
You believe that unless you can quantify or measure something, you probably can’t improve it.

Test Engineer (TE)
TE at Google is a technical role that focuses on advancing product excellence and engineering productivity.

You might love this role if:

You have an unwavering passion for, and focus on, polished products, engineering excellence, and productivity.
You love thinking through complex product and system interactions to find gaps, failure modes, and edge cases.
You have worked to automate and remove repetitive and manual tasks because inefficiency drives you crazy.
You love to design, implement, and improve tools, frameworks, metrics, and processes.
You love to work, collaborate, and lead cross-functionally.

Thursday, March 14, 2019

3D Printing Softwares

Best 3D Printing Software Tools in 2019 (All Are Free)

An Overview Of The Best 3D Printing Software Tools

3D Printing Simulation, Part 1: Where Are We Now?
Phillip Keane  September 10, 2018

Simulations in 3D Printing
Written by Benjamin Vaissier

The Rise of Design Software for 3D Printing
By Kenneth Wong
 April 1, 2018

Evolution of Industrial Engineering

1901, James Newton Gunn first proposed the term Industrial Engineer.

In 1901, James Newton Gunn first proposed the term Industrial Engineer.

While all manufacturers agree that a knowledge of the operations of the business is of paramount importance, they are inclined to scrutinize out of all relative proportion those expenditures required to give them these results. They further are slow to enter into a scientific investigation of the facts presented in their own business, becoming impatient of final results and refusing to recognize that each manufacturer must, to a large degree, in solving the problem of costs, solve the problem of the economic relations of the investor and the laborer. This problem yields only to long pains-taking study.

I believe so thoroughly in the fundamental importance of cost keeping and factory organization as to proffer this suggestion : that while engineering to day has, as its recognized representatives, civil, mechanical, mining, and electrical engineers—those who deal rather with processes and mechanical methods —yet there exists a science which only awaits the creation of a literature to have its own existence recognized as a new department of engineering. Our various industrial organizations are successful directly as their executive or administrative heads have made a study and application of the principles of that science, which may be termed the science of production. The successful manager has himself become a member of this existing, but as yet unrecognized, engineering profession. The discovery, study, and collation of the facts, and the enunciation and application of the principles of this science, are the work of the production or industrial engineer.

James Newton Gunn joined in 1908 Harvard Business School

Industrial Engineering  - Henry R. Towne

An Address Delivered by Henry R. Towne, M.E.
At the Purdue University Friday, February 24th, 1905

Let me tell you what I understand to be implied by the term Industrial Engineering. The phrase is not entirely new, but it has not yet acquired sufficient currency to make it entirely familiar. Industrial Engineering is the practice of one or more branches of engineering in connection with some organized establishment of a productive character, in which are conducted the operations required in the production of some article, or series of articles, of commerce or consumption. Nearly all industrial work of this kind, especially if it be conducted on a large scale, involves technical, physical, and engineering questions, varying with the kind of industry but usually of wide scope. For instance, in steam engine building it is primarily a question of thermodynamics and steam engineering, but it involves equally the question of the selection and right use of machines, tools, and methods of production. So likewise in electrical work, the textile industries, and all the range of our manifold industries. On its technical side each has its special and distinctive features; but on its administrative side each involves certain fundamental elements which are common to all. The technical work may be in charge of a technical man, responsible for that work only. The administrative work may be in charge of another man, not fortunate enough to have had a technical training, but a good administrator. If these two work in harmony a good result should follow. But a better result in every way will be reached where these two functions are combined in one person; where one master mind knows both the technical side of the work and how to select and direct the men who shall attend to its details, and who also has the ability and the training needed to qualify him to direct and control the work of administration. The union of these two functions in the one individual constitutes the best kind of material with which to fill leading positions, the kind of material the captains of industry are always looking for.

Now, what constitutes the administrative work of industrial engineering? What does it imply and involve? The man who is responsible for the daily operation and, still more, for the vitality and growth of a large industrial plant, must be a many-sided Engineer. He has to consider the planning and, construction of new buildings. He may have an architect to assist in this, but the buildings which he requires are in a certain sense machines, designed to meet certain conditions and produce certain results with which the architect is not familiar, with which the manager himself should be more familiar than anyone else, and which, therefore, he pre-eminently should be qualified to plan. He has also to deal with the question of power and its distribution, with steam engines and boilers, with electric generation and transmission, with shafting and belting, in many cases with pumping and the use of compressed air for many purposes, in all cases with heating, ventilating, plumbing and sanitation, and in large plants with questions of internal transportation. In my own practice, which has not been exceptional nor as wide in scope as that of many others, all of these questions and many more have entered directly and continuously. Is it not clear that such a man must be manysided, and that any or all of the information you are absorbing in these splendid technical courses which you have the privilege of attending here is liable to come into play, and to do good service to any one of you who may chance in future years to find himself in a position of the kind I have attempted to outline?

In one of its phases industrial engineering has recently become a specialized vocation, which in passing I will touch on because it may appeal to some of you. We have today, not many, but a few very prominent examples of a new type of engineers who call themselves productive or production engineers-men who in a consulting practice offer their services to existing industries for the purpose of studying them and then modernizing them by the introduction of the latest improvements, not only in processes but even more in methods of management. One of the earliest apostles of this new cult, and one of its most original leaders, is Mr. Fred W. Taylor of Philadelphia, whose work in investigating the possibilities of the use of high speed steels is familiar to all engineers in the metal industries, and is of the greatest interest and value. But Mr. Taylor has equally distinguished himself by developing new methods for the compensation of labor in industrial work, which are quite as revolutionary as the increased output of machine tools which has followed from the introduction of high speed steels. In each case it is a demonstrated fact that he has obtained an increased production two, two and one-half, or even three times greater than what was previously accomplished under the best conditions and practice. Entering into the same field of work is the firm of Dodge & Day of Philadelphia, Mr. Gunn of New York, and others whom I might name. I mention these facts in passing to call attention to a new line of practice in the field of consulting engineering which is attractive and, I believe, highly remunerative.

As I said at the beginning, the dollar is the final term in every engineering equation, and cost is a part, and a vital part, of the work of the Engineer, the final end of which should be the attainment of the best result in the most economical manner. But when the Engineer has to deal with the complex organism of a great industry, employing hundreds or, as is more frequently the case now, thousands of operatives, and utilizing the applied sciences in a vast number of their various developments, he cannot obtain the accurate knowledge he needs and should have of what he is doing, or trying to do, save through the medium of an accurate and highly organized system of accounting, nor can such system be planned by any ordinary mercantile accountant, unfamiliar with industrial questions and manufacturing operations. A good accountant, lacking this experience, can often assist greatly in conducting the purely accounting part of the work, but must be guided and directed by a mind which grasps all of the factors involved, as he cannot grasp them from lack of technical knowledge, and which sees clearly, through this tangle and maze of crossing and conflicting conditions, the essential elements in the problems and the final result to be reached. Therefore, industrial accounting is basic in its value to the industrial Engineer, and those of you who adopt the latter field of practice will sooner or later realize this fact and be thankful if at any time you have the opportunity, and avail of it, to acquire at least the rudiments of knowledge of industrial accounting.

Aim always that you shall know at least as much, if not more, about the work than any subordinate; that no one under you shall long or permanently know more that is important about it than you. Get as big men under you as you can, but try always to be bigger yourself, and if that implies fresh study and fresh work, do it.


Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylvania State
College; Consulting Industrial Engineer
STATE COLLEGE, PA., July 1, 1910.


IT is now some twenty years since Mr. Henry R. Towne presented to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers a paper on "Gain Sharing/' in which he assumed that everything connected with successful factory management constituted a part of the work of the engineer.

Mr. Taylor stands to-day as the earliest and foremost advocate of modern business or industrial engineering. As early as 1889, Mr. Taylor earnestly pleaded that shop statistics and cost data should be more than mere records, and that they in themselves constituted but a small portion of the field of investigation to be covered by the industrial engineer. While he did not so express himself, the gist of his treatment of factory management is this:

He considers a manufacturing establishment just as one would an intricate machine. He analyzes each process into its ultimate, simple elements, and compares each of these simplest steps or processes with an ideal or perfect condition. He then makes all due allowances for rational and practical conditions and establishes an attainable commercial standard for every step. The next process is that of attaining continuously this standard, involving both quality and quantity, and the interlocking or assembling of all of these prime elements into a well-arranged, well-built, smooth-running machine. It is quite evident that work of this character involves technical knowledge and ability in science and pure engineering, which do not enter into the field of the accountant. Yet the industrial  engineer must have the accountant's keen perception of money values. His work will not be good engineering unless he uses good business judgment. He must be able to select those mechanical devices and perfect such organization as will best suit present needs and secure prompt returns in profit. He must have sufficiently good business sense to appreciate the ratio between investment and income. He must be in close enough touch with the financial management to be able to impress upon them the necessity of providing sinking funds to provide for the more perfect installations and organizations which future demands of a more
educated and enlightened public will necessitate.

The industrial engineer to-day must be as competent to give good business advice to his corporation as is the skilled corporation attorney. Upon his sound judgment and good advice depend very frequently the making or losing of large fortunes. Mr. James Newton Gunn is responsible for the use of the term " production engineer" or "industrial engineer" in speaking of the engineer who has to do with plant efficiency.

The word "production" indicates the making or manufacturing of commodities. Engineering as applied to production means the planning in advance of production so as to secure certain results. A man may be a good mechanic but no engineer. The distinction between the mechanic and the engineer is that the mechanic cuts and tries, and works by formulae based on empiricism. The engineer calculates and plans with absolute certainty of the accomplishment of the final results in accordance with his plans, which are based ultimately on fundamental truths of natural science.

The mechanical engineer has to do with the design, construction, testing, and operating of machines. The mechanical engineer designs with certainty of correct operation and adequate strength. Production engineering has to do with the output of men and machines. It requires a knowledge of both. The product involved may be anything that is made by or with the aid of machinery.

It is the business of the production engineer to know every single item that constitutes his finished product, and every step involved in the handling of every piece. He must know what is the most advantageous manufacturing quantity of every single item so as to secure uniformity of flow as well as economy of manufacture. He must know how long each step ought to take under the best attainable working conditions. He must be able to tell at any time the exact condition as regards quantity and state of finishedness of every part involved in his manufacturing

The engineer must be able not only to design, but to execute. A draftsman may be able to design, but unless he is able to execute his designs to successful operation he cannot be classed as an engineer. The production engineer must be able to execute his work as he has planned it. This requires two qualifications in addition to technical engineering ability: He must know men, and he must have creative ability in applying good statistical, accounting, and "system" methods to any particular production work he may undertake.

With regard to men, he must know how to stimulate ambition, how to exercise discipline with firmness, and at the same time with sufficient kindness to insure the good-will and cooperation of all. The more thoroughly he is versed in questions of economics and sociology, the better prepared will he be to meet the problems that will daily confront him. As economic production depends not only on equipment and plant, but on the psychological effect of wage systems, he must be able to discriminate in regard to which wage system is best applicable to certain classes of product.

For many years the orthodox courses in mechanical engineering as taught in our leading technical universities have elaborated and specialized on applied mechanics and thermodynamics. It has been only within recent years that problems of practical machine design, combining a rational teaching of the subject based upon fundamental laws of stresses and factors of safety rather than empirical rules, have been introduced. Within the past few years a number of leading universities have endeavored to meet the demand for young men with some preparation to fit them for beginners in fields which would lead to industrial management, by introducing so-called courses in commerce and business in its higher relations. The work of these courses has been directed almost exclusively towards distributional and financial rather than the productive side of business enterprises. A great demand at the present time is for young men specially prepared, capable, and willing to enter the productive departments of manufacturing establishments. In order that America may assume her natural leadership in export trade, we need not only experts in financing and distribution, but experts in production.

It is a noticeable characteristic of the manufacturing establishments of this country that turn out an engineering product of high excellency, that their technical staff includes not only designers but company officers, and heads of productive departments as well.

I do not wish to be misunderstood as claiming that we can by any system of education prepare young men so that immediately after graduation from some kind of a college or university course they can be full-fledged managers or production engineers. The work of industrial management is of such nature that it requires not only thorough preparation, but the stability of age and practical experience which should cover not only a period of at least ten years, but varied fields of work. The school can, however, develop an aptitude as well as a desire to fill certain minor staff positions in the management of industrial enterprises, so that a technical graduate may, after serving his apprenticeship of several years, be able and willing to assume the duties of foreman or head of some shop department, or some department such as Production, Tracing, Stores, Cost, Employment, or Purchasing. I do not wish to advocate the supplanting of  the shop foreman who has advanced from the ranks of the craftsmen by college-trained young men who have completed their apprenticeship, nor will we ever have such a condition. But I claim that we should have (and I believe that we are bound to have) an increasing number of technical college graduates filling positions in practically all of the departments of manufacturing corporations, instead of in only the designing, drafting, and testing departments.


C.B. Going gave lecture on the concept and practice of industrial engineering in Columbia University College of Engineering, New York during 1907 to 1911 as special lecturer and his teaching notes was converted into a textbook with the title "Principles of Industrial Engineering."

Industrial engineering is the applied science of management. It directs the efficient conduct of manufacturing, construction, transportation, or even commercial enterprises of any undertaking, indeed, in which human labor is directed to accomplishing any kind of work.

It is of very recent origin. It is only just emerging from the formative period. Its elements have been proposed during the past one or two decades. The conditions that have brought into being this new applied science, this new branch of engineering, grew out of the rise and enormous expansion of the manufacturing system.

Industrial engineering has drawn upon mechanical engineering, upon economics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, accountancy, to fuse from these older sciences a distinct body of science of its own. It provides guidelines or direction to the work of operatives, using the equipment provided by the engineer, machinery builder, and architect.

The cycle of operations which the industrial engineer directs starts with money which is converted into raw materials and labor; raw materials and labor are converted into finished product or services of some kind; finished product, or service, is converted back into money. The difference between the first money and the last money is (in a very broad sense) the gross profit of the operation. The starting level (that is, the cost of raw materials and labor) and the final level (the price obtainable for finished product) these two levels are generally fixed by competition and market conditions. Profit of the operating cycle varies with the volume passing from level, to level. Higher volumes lead to greater profits. But with the efficiency of the conversions between these levels also determines the profits. In the case of a hydroelectric power-plant, there are conversion losses like  hydraulic, mechanical  and electrical. In industrial enterprises the conversion losses are in commercial, manufacturing, administrative and human operations. It is with the efficiency of these latter conversions that industrial engineering is concerned.

The central purpose of  industrial engineer  is efficient and economical production. He is concerned not only with the direction of the great sources of power in nature, but with the direction of these forces as exerted by machinery, working upon materials, and operated by men. It is the inclusion of the economic and the human elements especially that differentiates industrial engineering from the older established branches of the profession. To put it in another way : The work of the industrial engineer not only covers technical counsel and superintendence of the technical elements of large enterprises, but extends also over the management of men and the definition and direction of policies in fields that the financial or commercial man has always  considered exclusively his own.


An address delivered before Chicago Chapter of The Society of Industrial Engineers

The basis of industry has been and is Engineering Knowledge, but engineering knowledge has thought too much in terms of 2 plus 2 equals 4. It has given too much attention to matter—not enough to man. It has given too little attention to matching human variables against physical constants.

Engineering knowledge has built a wonderful structure in the shape of industry as we see it today but quicksand has been discovered and engineering knowledge must strengthen the structure, or, if necessary, rebuild it.

The next field for the Industrial Engineer is therefore that of industrial design, and on the shoulders of those representing engineering knowledge rests an enormous responsibility as builders of a new structure, which rising out of the ruins of the old will give the human the attention he deserves. Engineering knowledge must do this if our Twentieth Century civilization is not to be declared a sham; if we are to replace selfishness with service, and unhappiness with contentment. The Industrial Engineer of the future will there fore be an Industrial Architect.

We must take into consideration also that modern industry is a complex mechanism; that knowledge is so comprehensive and so vast as to make impossible for management to secure results unaided and unassisted. Therefore, the Industrial Engineer must step in as the staff organization of management to investigate, to devise, to formulate, to work up standard practice, to give counsel, and to assist management in the work of co-ordinating the money of capital and the work of labor. The Industrial Engineer of the future will .therefore be an Executive to Executives.

No attainment is ever greater or more efficient than the organization which makes it possible.

Industrial organization and management / Hugo Diemer.
Chicago, IL : La Salle Extension University, 1920, c1918.
Subjects: Industrial management.
Industrial organization.
Note: Includes index.
Physical Description: xv, 291 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.;view=1up;seq=1

Diemer, Hugo, 1870-1937.


Industrial engineering survey
Barnes, Ralph Mosser, 1948
IE report 101

Updated  15 March 2019, 21 January 2019, 

Sunday, March 3, 2019

What is Industrial Engineering? C.E. Knoeppel 1920

An address delivered before Chicago Chapter of The Society of Industrial Engineers

The basis of industry has been and is Engineering Knowledge, but engineering knowledge has thought too much in terms of 2 plus 2 equals 4. It has given too much attention to matter—not enough to man. It has given too little attention to matching human variables against physical constants.

Engineering knowledge has built a wonderful structure in the shape of industry as we see it today but quicksand has been discovered and engineering knowledge must strengthen the structure, or, if necessary, rebuild it.

The next field for the Industrial Engineer is therefore that of industrial design, and on the shoulders of those representing engineering knowledge rests an enormous responsibility as builders of a new structure, which rising out of the ruins of the old will give the human the attention he deserves. Engineering knowledge must do this if our Twentieth Century civilization is not to be declared a sham; if we are to replace selfishness with service, and unhappiness with contentment. The Industrial Engineer of the future will there fore be an Industrial Architect.

We must take into consideration also that modern industry is a complex mechanism; that knowledge is so comprehensive and so vast as to make impossible for management to secure results unaided and unassisted. Therefore, the Industrial Engineer must step in as the staff organization of management to investigate, to devise, to formulate, to work up standard practice, to give counsel, and to assist management in the work of co-ordinating the money of capital and the work of labor. The Industrial Engineer of the future will .therefore be an Executive to Executives.

No attainment is ever greater or more efficient than the organization which makes it possible.;view=1up;seq=16