Saturday, June 30, 2018

Technology Efficiency Engineering


The focus of industrial engineering on technology level cost reduction can be termed as technology efficiency engineering and be made an important activity of industrial engineering departments. - Narayana Rao

Technology Efficiency Engineering - Tools and Techniques

1. Outside Technology Monitoring
2. Technical and Engineering Economic Analysis
3. Technology Absorption and Assimilatino
4. Application of Operations Research
5. Application of Six Sigma Methodology
6. Statistical Process Control
7. Human Effort Engineering Techniques

Paper presented in an international conference.




DEVELOPMENT OF ABSORPTION CAPABILITY ATTRIBUTES FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PERFORMANCE: A PILOT STUDY IN NATIONAL  AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
http://umpir.ump.edu.my/1700/1/development_of_absorption_capability_attributes.pdf


Technology Absorption in South Africa
2011 presenation
http://is.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pages/ISG/innovation/documents/7SMITAFosteringtechnology_PPT_V4CoorMB.pdf

Fostering Technology Absorption in Southern African Enterprises
The World Bank
World Bank Publications, 16-Sep-2011 - Technology & Engineering - 224 pages
While economic theory considers technological progress to be a key factor for sustained long-term economic growth and job creation, technology absorption is particularly an important driver for 'catch-up growth.' This study seeks to identify channels of technology transfer and absorption for Southern African enterprises, constraints to greater technology absorption, and discuss policy options open to governments and the private sector in light of relevant international experience. It has been done based on sector and enterprise case studies carried in four countries: South Africa, Mauritius, Lesotho and Namibia. This study uses a combination of econometric and in depth case study analyses to investigate the presence of specific channels of absorption and the various constraints that the firms face to effectively absorb this technology. There is evidence of learning by exporting, and spillovers from FDI underscoring the importance of trade and FDI as important channels of absorption. The study finds that four countries while open to trade and FDI face a number of constraints that inhibit them from maximizing the economic benefits from technology absorption. These constraints include a major skills mismatch, insufficient research and development and ineffective industry-research linkages. While outlining broad policy directions in four areas namely increasing skills supply, fostering learning through trade, increasing domestic spillovers from FDI and incentivizing greater firm level research and development, it lays out some priority areas for each of the four countries. We hope that the issues discussed and the dialogue initiated during the course of this study would lend itself to policy design to foster technology absorption with a view to higher growth and job creation in this highly globalized world.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=UK6KKyOdbGcC

Industrial Development and Technology: Absorption in Indian Steel Industry
2005
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=AG-7S7QIIX8C


Related Article

Applied Industrial Engineering - Process Steps

http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2018/05/applied-industrial-engineering-process.html


Updated on 30 June 2018
First Published on 9 August 2013



Thursday, June 28, 2018

Supply Chain Industrial Engineering - Online Book



Online Book is mainly composed of online articles available on Web. Please suggest articles that you judge to be relevant for inclusion in this collection.

Supply Chain Industrial Engineering - Explanation


Supply chain industrial engineering is the study of resource use in various supply chain activities with a view to increasing the efficiency or eliminating the waste wherever possible. While the supply chain is designed to serve the needs of the targeted customers, the resource use in the design is carefully investigated by the industrial engineering to identify and remove waste. Industrial engineering succeeded in reducing the cost of many processes designed in the first iteration by the managers up to 50% and hence it is a very important activity in systems design or systems engineering.

Famous example of industrial engineering, is Henry Ford's production system redesign, that reduced the price of the automobile by half.

Narayana Rao advocated that all systems, especially all engineering systems can be industrial engineered. That is, they can be redesigned by industrial engineers to improve efficiency or productivity and thus reduce the unit cost of outputs. Hence, supply chain systems can also be redesigned by industrial engineers for productivity improvement. The three important steps in industrial engineering of any system or technology are: productivity science, productivity engineering and productivity management. 
System Industrial Engineering - System Human Effort Engineering - System Efficiency Engineering


Defee and Stank stated that goals established in supply chain strategy formulation are eventually translated into performance measures that are evaluated periodically, and ultimately drive adjustments to goals and strategies. Performance  is the measurable outcome of strategy execution through the supply chain network structure developed by various structural modification made to align the structure with the strategy. implementation. Therefore, the shared goals identified in supply chain strategy formulation are to be used to derive performance measures for the supply chain entity. Failure to identify the expected performance from a strategy and control  performance to achieve the planned strategy performacne may lead to the inability of the supply chain to achieve goals and meet
customer expectations. Lack of clear articulation of performance of a strategy  will not provide the vision necessary to influence individual goal‐directed behaviors (Atkinson et al., 1997; Brewer and Speh, 2000; Kaplan and Norton, 1992).

Mentzer and Konrad (1991) break performance down into measures of efficiency and effectiveness, and state that both elements are necessary to accurately measure performance. Efficient performance measures how well the resources expended were utilized while effectiveness assesses the degree to which goals are accomplished. Traditionally,  measures have been used to try to capture both the efficiency and effectiveness of various components of supply chains.  Unfortunately, assessment of overall supply chain performance has been still limited and needs exploration and research (Lambert and Pohlen, 2001).

The existing supply chain management literature clearly indicates the need for industrial engineering discipline to study the supply chains of engineering products to start with to improve efficiency and productivity of supply chains.

A thesis on measurement of efficiency of a supply chain.


C. Clifford Defee, Theodore P. Stank, (2005) "Applying the strategy‐structure‐performance paradigm to the supply chain environment", The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 16 Issue: 1, pp.28-50, https://doi.org/10.1108/09574090510617349

Mentzer, J.T. and Konrad, B.P. (1991), “An efficiency/effectiveness approach to logistics performance analysis”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 33‐61.


Related Artciles

Supply Chain Cost Reduction - Industrial Engineering of Supply Chains

Optimization Opportunities to Improve Supply Chain Efficiency: A Practitioner's Experiences (Presentation)
Saxena, Rajiv. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2010): 1-22.

Supply Chain Engineering


We define "Supply Chain Engineering" as the application of scientific principles to optimize the design and integration of supply chain processes, infrastructure, technology and strategy.(Supply Chain and Logistics Institute at Georgia Tech.)
http://www.scl.gatech.edu/about.php


IE 497 –Supply Chain Engineering
Fall Semester 2012
Course at Penn State University


Course Objective
This course is designed to provide students with a quantitative background for designing, analyzing,
managing, and improving supply chains.

The Chopra & Meindl textbook (prescribed text for the course) is targeted to business students and so it will be supplemented with appropriate quantitative models.
http://www2.ie.psu.edu/griffin/sc_syllabus.pdf



__________

Supply Chain Industrial Engineers

Scott J. Edwards, Intel Corporation

Scott is an Industrial Engineer in the Supply Chain Industrial Engineering and Statistics department at Intel Corporation. His professional experience includes process improvement, capacity planning and modeling, and network design in logistics/supply chain areas. Scott has a Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial and Management Systems Engineering from Arizona State University and a Masters degree in Business Administration from the University of Phoenix. He is also a certified Six Sigma Black Belt through Arizona State University’s Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering and received his “Jonah” recognition from Washington State University / TOCICO.

http://www.cpi-symposiums.com/speakers.html
Interesting Presentation by Scott Edwards
http://www.pinnacle-strategies.com/articles/CPI%20Intel%20TOC%20Lean%20Six%20Sigma%20May%202008.pdf


Patrick O'Gorman
Senior Supply Chain Industrial Engineer
Siltronic AG
Public Company; 5001-10,000 employees; Semiconductors industry
March 2009 – September 2012 (3 years 7 months)

Deputy for Supply Chain Management role.
Global capacity / load / utilization analysis and modeling.
Design, implement and improve on manufacturing support systems.
Global inventory reporting.
Revenue forecasting.
Lead and work on cross-functional project teams.
Global Lean Supply Chain initiatives.
SAP/R3 Master Data maintenance and analysis.
Product / Unit / Lot genealogy migration.
Analyze and recommend efficiency and productivity improvements.
Design, implement, and optimize material flow control systems.
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) - Program development.
Advanced material mix balancing, optimization and maintenance within gemba.
Overall Operator Effectiveness (OOE) - Program development.
Global process and procedure development.
Provide technical expertise to define line equipment layouts and equipment interfaces for material handling/control and overall equipment utilization.
Prepare capital proposals.
Lead and facilitate cross-functional training.
Maintain appropriate documentation for material flow and control systems.
Determine impact on material flow and line balance of process changes, material flow changes, yield enhancements and equipment efficiencies.
KPI & Business Intelligence design.
Global Supply Chain Industrial Engineering team member.
Design planning and scheduling systems to optimize manufacturing systems.
Patrick has 7 recommendations (1 manager, 3 co-workers, 3 partners) including:
3rd Jordan H., MIM Degree Candidate, Portland State University
3rd Chase J., student, Portland State University
Supply Chain Industrial Engineer
Siltronic AG
Public Company; 5001-10,000 employees; Semiconductors industry
March 2007 – March 2009 (2 years 1 month)

Deputy for Operations Management role.
Estimate and update equipment capacities and process standards.
Provide material flow system training to operations.
Design workstations and material fixtures to improve productivity and safety.
Global facility benchmarking.
Analyze manufacturing systems and equipment for performance; inventory level, cycle times, scheduling, utilization and capacity.
Work across functional lines with operations, equipment engineering, and process technology.
Analyze and recommend proposals for changing manufacturing systems.
Data mining.
Support operations, logistics and engineering in daily decision making process regarding flow system problem solving.
Analyze equipment needs and material flow control systems to recommend purchase and layout requirements to enhance systems that improve cycle time, inventory and efficiency.

http://www.linkedin.com/in/globalcitizenpatrickogorman

__________
__________

Human Effort Engineering - Techniques

1. Principles of Motion Economy
2. Motion Study
3. Workstation Design
4. Application of Ergonomics and Biomechanics
5. Fatigue Studies
6. Productivity/Safety/Comfort Device Design
7. Standardization of  Methods
8. Operator training
9. Incentive Systems
10. Job Evaluation
11. Learning effect capture
12. Work Measurement


EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING


1. Process Analysis
2. Operation Analysis
3. Layout Efficiency Analysis
4. Value engineering
5. Statistical quality control
6. Statistical inventory control and ABC Classification Based Inventory Sytems
7. Six sigma
8. Operations research
9. Variety reduction
10. Standardization
11. Incentive schemes
12. Waste reduction or elimination
13. Activity based management
14. Business process improvement
15. Fatigue analysis and reduction
16. Engineering economy analysis
17. Learning effect capture and continuous improvement (Kaizen, Quality circles and suggestion schemes)
18. Standard costing


Functional Solutions

1.Warehouse efficiency improvement
2. Warehouse 5S
3. Warehouse human effort engineering
4. Inventory control




Supply Chain Human Effort Engineering - Techniques


1. Principles of Motion Economy

2. Motion Study
    Wearable computers empower workers to achieve new levels of efficiency in package handling and warehouse applications.
     http://www.mmh.com/article/wearable_computers_optimize_workflows
     MMH - Modern Material Handling Magazine website

3. Workstation Design

4. Application of Ergonomics and Biomechanics
    Warehouse workers - Take the hurt out of material handling
     http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/hesis/Documents/warehous.pdf

5. Fatigue Studies

6. Productivity/Safety/Comfort Device Design

7. Standardization of  Methods

8. Operator training

9. Incentive Systems

10. Job Evaluation

11. Learning effect capture

12. Work Measurement


SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT



1. Process Analysis
    A Better, Easier Way to Improve Warehouse Operations
    12 Leading case studies
     Steve Anderson, Acorn Systems Inc., 2004
     Request white paper from Acorn Systems

2. Operation Analysis

3. Layout Efficiency Analysis

4. Value engineering

5. Application of Statistics in Supply Chain Planning, Control and Operations


    Forecasting

    Forecasting supply chain components with time series analysis
    Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2003. Proceedings.
    Date of Conference: May 27-30, 2003
    Author(s): Martin, L.J. and Frei, J. ,  Page(s): 269 278

    Statistical quality control

    Statistical inventory control and ABC Classification Based Inventory Systems

    Supply Chain Risk Management
    ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/common/ssi/sa/wh/n/gbw03015usen/GBW03015USEN.PDF
    Six sigma

    54 statistics on hospital supply chain (efficiency)
    http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/racs-/-icd-9-/-icd-10/54-statistics-on-hospital-supply-chain-efficiency.html

    Supply Chain Monitoring: A Statistics Approach
    Fernando D. Mele, Estanislao Musulin and Luis Puigjaner*
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering – 15
    L. Puigjaner and A. Espuña (Editors)
    2005 Elsevier Science B.V.

    Forecasting in Supply Chain
    http://logistics.about.com/od/strategicsupplychain/a/Forecasting.htm



6. Optimization and Operations research

     IBN ILOG
     http://www-01.ibm.com/software/websphere/products/sca/

      http://www.ups.com/content/us/en/bussol/browse/supply-chain-optimization.html

     http://www.scl.gatech.edu/research/supply-chain/10rules.pdf


Companies that take a more strategic approach improve plant output by up to 25% and inventory turns by up to 40% while reducing capital expenditure and increasing the agility, flexibility and speed of the supply chain, according to Bain research. Overall, creating an optimal manufacturing and distribution network increases gross margins by 6 to 10 percentage points.

Turn Your Supply Chain into a Competitive Weapon
December 12, 2017 Bain Brief By Keith Donnelly, Meghan Shehorn and Debjit Banerjee
http://www.bain.com/publications/articles/turn-your-supply-chain-into-a-competitive-weapon.aspx

7. Variety reduction

     Measuring variety reduction along the supply chain: The Variety Gap Model
     by: Alessandro Brun, Margherita Pero, International Journal of Production Economics (May 2012)

     Variety Management in assemble-to-order supply chains
     http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5250/1/MPRA_paper_5250.pdf

8. Standardization

9. Waste reduction or elimination

     7 Wastes Supply Chain
     http://supplychain-mechanic.com/?p=75

     Lean Supply Chain Practices in Malaysia
     http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/17141/InTech-Lean_supply_chain_practices_and_performance_in_the_context_of_malaysia.pdf

10. Activity based management - Supply Chain Cost Management using Activity Based Cost Measurement and Management

11. Business process improvement

12. Engineering economy analysis

13. Learning effect capture and continuous improvement (Kaizen, Quality circles and suggestion schemes)

14. Standard costing and Kaizen costing

15. Lean Warehousing


Importance of Effectiveness - Only Effective Supply Chains are to be made efficient

The Triple A Supply Chain - Agile, Adaptive and Aligned
http://hbr.org/2004/10/the-triple-a-supply-chain/ar/1



Supply Chain Efficiency - Supply Chain Waste Elimination - Lean Supply Chain
Supply Chain Industrial Engineering - Bibliography




A Computational Model for Warehouse Analysis and Design
Karathur, Karthik N; Govindaraj, T; Bodner, Douglas A; McGinnis, Leon F. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-6.



Supply Chain Engineering Books


__________________________


Supply Chain Network Design: Applying Optimization and Analytics to the Global Supply Chain


Michael Watson, Sara Lewis, Peter Cacioppi, Jay Jayaraman
Publisher:  FT Press, Copyright:  2013
Format:  Cloth; 432 pp, Published:  08/22/2012


Table of Contents


Preface     xvi
Part I: Introduction and Basic Building Blocks
Chapter 1: THE VALUE OF SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN     1
Chapter 2: INTUITION BUILDING WITH CENTER OF GRAVITY MODELS     23
Chapter 3: LOCATING FACILITIES USING A DISTANCE-BASED APPROACH     37
Chapter 4: ALTERNATIVE SERVICE LEVELS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS     63
Chapter 5: ADDING CAPACITY TO THE MODEL     83
Part II: Adding Costs to Two-Echelon Supply Chains
Chapter 6: ADDING OUTBOUND TRANSPORTATION TO THE MODEL     99
Chapter 7: INTRODUCING FACILITY FIXED AND VARIABLE COSTS     127
Chapter 8: BASELINES AND OPTIMAL BASELINES     139
Part III: Advanced Modeling and Expanding to Multiple Echelons
Chapter 9: THREE-ECHELON SUPPLY CHAIN MODELING     157
Chapter 10: ADDING MULTIPLE PRODUCTS AND MULTISITE PRODUCTION SOURCING     177
Chapter 11: MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION     207
Part IV: How to Get Industrial-Strength Results
Chapter 12: THE ART OF MODELING     217
Chapter 13: DATA AGGREGATION IN NETWORK DESIGN     237
Chapter 14: CREATING A GROUP AND RUNNING A PROJECT     261
Part V: Case Study Wrap Up
Chapter 15: CASE STUDY: JPMS CHEMICALS CASE STUDY     277
Index     295

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Supply-Chain-Network-Design-Applying-Optimization-and-Analytics-to-the-Global-Supply-Chain/9780133017373.page





Supply Chain Engineering: Models and Applications


By A. Ravi Ravindran, Donald Warsing, Jr.

Published September 27th 2012 by CRC Press – 548 pages


Table of Contents

Introduction to Supply Chain Engineering

Understanding Supply Chains

Flows in Supply Chains

Meaning of Supply Chain Engineering

Supply Chain Decisions

Enablers and Drivers of Supply Chain Performance

Assessing and Managing Supply Chain Performance

Relationship between Supply Chain and Financial Metrics

Importance of Supply Chain Management

Organization of the Textbook

Summary and Further Readings

Exercises

References


Planning Production in Supply Chains

Role of Demand Forecasting in Supply Chain Management

Forecasting Process

Qualitative Forecasting Methods

Quantitative Forecasting Methods

Incorporating Seasonality in Forecasting

Incorporating Trend in Forecasting

Incorporating Seasonality and Trend in Forecasting

Forecasting for Multiple Periods

Forecasting Errors

Monitoring Forecast Accuracy

Forecasting Software

Forecasting in Practice

Production Planning Process

Aggregate Planning Problem

Linear Programming Model for Aggregate Planning

Nonlinear Programming Model for Aggregate Planning

Aggregate Planning as a Transportation Problem

Aggregate Planning Strategies: A Comparison

Summary and Further Readings

Replenishment (CPFR)

Exercises

References


Inventory Management Methods and Models

Decision Framework for Inventory Management

Some Preliminary Modeling Issues

Single-Item, Single-Period Problem: The Newsvendor

Single-Item, Multi-Period Problems

Multi-Item Inventory Models

Multi-Echelon Inventory Systems

Conclusions

Further Readings

A Appendix: The Bullwhip Effect

References

Exercises

References


Transportation Decisions in Supply Chain Management

Introduction

Motor Carrier Freight: Truckload Mode

Accounting for Goods in transit

Stepping Back: Freight Transportation Overview

More General Models of Freight Rates

Building A Rate Model: LTL Service

A More General Rate Model for LTL Service

Beyond Truck Transport: Rail and Air Cargo

Conclusion

Further Readings

Exercises

References


Location and Distribution Decisions in Supply Chains

Modeling with Binary Variables

Supply Chain Network Optimization

Risk Pooling or Inventory Consolidation

Continuous Location Models

Real-World Applications

Summary and Further Readings

Exercises

References


Supplier Selection Models and Methods

Supplier Selection Problem

Supplier Selection Methods

Multi-Criteria Ranking Methods for Supplier Selection

Multi-Objective Supplier Allocation Model

Summary and Further Readings

Exercises

References


Managing Risks in Supply Chain

Supply Chain Risk

Real World Risk Events and Their Impacts

Sources of Supply Chain Risks

Risk Identification

Risk Assessment

Risk Management

Best Industry Practices in Risk Management

Risk Quantification Models

Value-at-Risk (VaR) Models

Miss-the-Target (MtT) Risk Models

Risk Measures

Combining VaR and MtT Type Risks

Risk Detectability and Risk Recovery

Multiple Criteria Optimization Models for Supplier Selection Incorporating Risk

Summary and Further Readings

Exercises

Acknowledgments

References


Global Supply Chain Management

History of Globalization

Impacts of Globalization

Global Sourcing

International Logistics

Designing a Resilient Global Supply Chain: A Case Study

Summary and Further Readings

Exercises

Questions

References

Appendix A: Multiple Criteria Decision Making: An Overview

Index


http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9781439811986/

___________________________


Supply Chain Industrial Engineering - IIE Conference Papers






2
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PURCHASING/INVENTORY/MATERIALS (Presentation Supporting Paper)
Hamlin, Jerry; Migliore, R Henry, PhD; Paris, David; Metz, Rick D; Watt, David B. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-10.




5
Integration of Product Structure and Supply Chain Decisions at the Conceptual Design Stage: A Repository Enabled Decision Tool
Chiu, Ming-Chuan; Gupta, Saraj; Okudan, Gül E. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1512-1517.

6
Object-oriented modeling of supply chain configuration problem
Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2006): 1-6.

7
 QUEUEING MODELS FOR ANALYZING SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORKS
Srivathsan, Sandeep; Krishnamoorthy, Ananth; Kamath, Manjunath; Ayodhiramanujan, Karthik. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-6.

8
 An Integrative Methodology for Product and Supply Chain Design Decisions at the Product Design Stage
Chiu, Ming-Chuan; Okudan, Gül. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2010): 1-6.

9
 Supervisory Control of a Synchronized Supply Chain Using Petri Nets
Drzymalski, Julie; Odrey, Nicholas G. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2010): 1-6.

10
 Supply Chain Risk Management
Hadavale, Rajesh S; Alexander, Suraj M. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1363-1368.



12
 Modeling a Flexible Supply Chain and Logistics System Through Object-Oriented Approach
Kim, Jinho; Rogers, K J, PhD, PE. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-6.

13
 A Real-time Simulation-Based Control Architecture for Supply Chain Interactions
Ramakrishnan, Sreeram; Wysk, Richard A. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-6.

14
 A Rule Based Supply-Chain Business Model Under Object-Oriented Paradigm
Kim, Jinho; Rogers, K J, PhD, PE. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-6.

15
 Conflict and Cooperation of Scheduling in a Two-echelon Supply Chain
Chen, Yuerong; Li, Xueping. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1357-1362.

16
 A Comparison of Coordinated Ordering Policies in a Three-Echelon Supply Chain Network
Abdelmaguid, Tamer F; Marzouk, Mohamed M. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1239-1244.


17
 Inventory Accuracy Improvement via Cycle Counting in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain
Rossetti, Manuel D, PhD, PE; Gumrukcu, Seda; Buyurgan, Nebil; English, John. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 913-918.

18
 A MANUFACTURING STRATEGY FOR PRODUCT ASSEMBLY IN A SUPPLY CHAIN ENVIRONMENT
Sundaram, R Meenakshi; Patel, Rakesh B. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-8.

19
 Reducing Supply Chain Data Degradation in Emerging Networks
Ajoku, Pamela. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 180-185.

20
 The manager's guide to supply chain and logistics problem-solving tools and techniques: Part III: End user experiences
Hicks, Donald A. IIE Solutions29. 11 (Nov 1997): 34-38.

21
 Incomplete information equilibria: Separation theorems and other myths
Feldman, David. Annals of Operations Research151. 1 (Apr 2007): 119-149.




23
 The Effect of Information Update on Optimizing the Supply Chain Single Node Inventory Systems
Haji, Maryam; Darabi, Houshang. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2006): 1-6.




26
 Emerging Supply Chain Drivers (Presentation)
Musselman, Ken. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-55.

27
 The Secrets of Supply Chain Success: A Retail Case Study (Presentation)
Anonymous. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-33.

28
 Reverse Logistics: Designing Your Supply Chain for Product Recovery (Presentation)
Barker, Theresa J; Zabinsky, Zelda B. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2010): 1-18.

29
 Supply Chain Breakthrough Strategy: On-site MRO Partner-Managed Storeroom (Presentation)
Stein, Martin; Krauter, George. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1-32.

30
 Driving Benefits from the Supply Chain: A Case Study (Presentation)
Miksis, Michael. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-18.

31
 Integrating Supply Chain Management and Maintenance Philosophies (Presentation)
Siriram, R; Cobb, P. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2005): 1-43.

32
 Optimization Opportunities to Improve Supply Chain Efficiency: A Practitioner's Experiences (Presentation)
Saxena, Rajiv. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2010): 1-22.



35
 It's all in the delivery
Anonymous. Industrial Engineer37. 1 (Jan 2005): 52.



36
 Managing Oil and Gas Supply Chain - Numerous Challenges, One Solution (Presentation)
Mehta, Arvind. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-14.

37
 Supply Chain Risk Management (Presentation)
Anonymous. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2005): 1-21.

38
 Supply Chain Solution Using Six Sigma: A Case Study Based on a Project for Square D Company (Presentation)
Anonymous. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 1-19.

39
 Integrating Engineering for Supply Chain Effectiveness (Presentation)
Dickerson, James. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 1-24.

40
 Simulation of Supply Chain System Costs for Industrial Audiences (Presentation)
Ray, Charles D, Ph D. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2005): 1-46.



43
 Designing principles to create resilient Supply Chains
Carvalho, Helena; Machado, V Cruz. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 186-191.






50
 Use of OR to Design Your Reverse Logistics Supply Chain (Presentation)
Barker, Theresa J; Zabinsky, Zelda B. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1-25.
..."Use of OR to Design Your Reverse Logistics hitSupply Chain" during the Jun 01,

Citation/AbstractFull text - PDF (1 MB)‎
Save to My Research
Delete (Delete item 50)
51
 General Purpose Ontologies for Supply Chain Management
Ahmad, Ali; Mollaghasemi, Mansooreh; Rabelo, Luis. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-7.

 A methodology for the strategic design of robust global supply chains
Goetschalckx, Marc; Cordova, Gonzalo. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-6.

53
 Modeling and Mitigating Global Supply Chain Risk Management
Yang, Dengfeng; Wang, Jiao; Li, Xueping; Sawhney, Rapinder. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1339-1344.

54
 AN INTERNET ENABLED SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES
Magableh, Ghazi M; Abu-Ali, Mahmoud. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-6.

55
 Benefits of Incorporating Supply Chain Decisions into the Product Design via Design for Supply Chain
Gokhan, N Mehmet; Needy, Kim LaScola; Norman, Bryan A; Hunsaker, Brady. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2008): 390-395.

56
 Supply Chain Reconfiguration: Designing Information Support With System Taxonomy Principles
Chandra, Charu; Tumanyan, Armen. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-6.


58
 An Improved Supplier Selection Method Integrated to the Conceptual Design Phase
Chiu, Ming-Chuan; Okudan, Gül. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1518-1523.

59
 Supply chain system taxonomy: development and application
Chandra, Charu; Tumanyan, Armen. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-6.

60
 Taxonomy of Research Directions for Sustainable Supply Chain Management
Badurdeen, Fazleena; Metta, Haritha; Gupta, Sonal. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1256-1261.

61
 Use of Shared Information in a Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI) Supply Chain
Angulo, Andres; Nachtmann, Heather; Waller, Matthew. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-6.

62
 Combining Strategic and Tactical Decisions in an Integrated Supply Chain
Sajjadi, S Reza; Cheraghi, S Hossein. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1149-1154.

63
 A Hybrid Solution Procedure for Design for Supply Chain Problems
Gokhan, N Mehmet; Needy, Kim LaScola; Norman, Bryan A; Hunsaker, Brady. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 1678-1683.

64
 Quantifying the Bullwhip Effect in the Supply Chain of Small-Sized Companies
Centeno, Martha A; Pérez, Jaime E. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 486-491.

65
 Supply Chain Models for Small Agricultural Enterprises
Jang, W; Klein, C M. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-6.


67
 Design for Supply Chain - A Collaborative Research Project Between Institutions and Between Centers
Needy, Kim L; Norman, Bryan A; Hunsaker, Brady; Gokhan, N Mehmet; Claypool, Erin; et al. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2008): 396-401.


69
 Reverse Logistics Optimization with Data Envelopment Analysis
Tonanont, Ake; Yimsiri, Sanya; Rogers, K J. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2009): 1268-1273.


71
 The Impact of the Internet Economy on Logistics
Sehwail, Loay; Ingalls, Ricki G. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2005): 1-6.

 Applying Radio Frequency Identification for Cutting Tool Supply Chain Management
Cheng, Chen-Yang; Prabhu, Vittal. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 637-642.







78
 A Framework for Cost Modeling a Supply Chain
Yousef, Nabeel; Rabelo, Luis; Sepulveda, Jose. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2006): 1-6.

79
 Stakeholder value mapping framework for supply chain improvement when implementing IT solutions
Alvarado, Karla P; Rabelo, Luis; Eaglin, Ronald. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2008): 1320-1325.

80
 Simulation-Optimisation Methods in Supply Chain Applications: A Review
Abo-Hamad, Waleed; Arisha, Amr. Irish Journal of Management30. 2 (2011): 95-124.

81
 Goal-Driven Supply Chain Design
Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2008): 241-246.

82
 Elaborating Process Models for Supply Chain Reconfiguration
Chandra, Charu; Marukyan, Ruzanna. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-6.

83
 Integrated Supply Chain Management: Discrete Manufacturing (Presentation Supporting Paper)
Kumar, Dinesh. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-5.


85
 Information Modeling to Manage Supply Chain: Problems Taxonomy
Chandra, Charu; Tumanyan, Armen. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-6.

86
 Achieving Supply Chain Optimization: Guiding Your Organization's Improvement Journey (Presentation Supporting Paper)
Pinnekamp, Dale J, CPIM. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 1-7.

87
 Value Chain Management (VCM) Principles, Framework, and Footprint (Presentation)
Sabri, Ehap; Rehman, Aamer. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-22.


89
 Increased Supply Chain Efficiencies through Integration
Magableh, Ghazi M; Mason, Scott J. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-6.


91
 Optimization Strategies for Complex Supply Chains (Presentation)
Lathon, Ruby D, PhD. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2006): 1-26.

92
 Applied Operational Research Techniques to Balance Costs & Service in Customers' Supply Chains (Presentation)
Jeray, Jim. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-37.

93
 A Maturity Model to Assess and Improve Supply Chain Operations
Giachetti, Ronald E; Garcia-Reyes, Heriberto. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2010): 1-6.

94
 Collaborative implementation of e-business processes within the health-care supply chain: the Monash Pharmacy Project
Bhakoo, Vikram; Chan, Caroline. Supply Chain Management16. 3 (2011): 184-193.

95
 ANALYSIS OF A TRANSPORTATION CONTRACT IN A SUPPLY CHAIN
Sinha, Sudhir K; Rangaraj, N; Hemachandra, N. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2006): 1-6.

96
 Considering Customer Waiting Time in Supply Chain Integration
Masel, Dale T; Pujari, Nikhil A. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2005): 1-6.

97
 REDUCING PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT TIME USING CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES (Presentation)
Ross, James. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-40.

98
 A Method for Measuring Supply Chain Interoperability
Ford, Thomas C, PhD; Ogden, Jeffrey A, PhD; Johnson, Alan W, PhD. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2010): 1-6.

99
 Development of a Framework for Supply Chain Research in Industrial Engineering
Krishnamoorthy, Ananth; Kamath, Manjunath; Ingalls, Ricki G. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1.

IE students and faculty can access these papers from Proquest Database


Industrial Engineering Faculty Members with focus on Supply Chain Industrial Engineering

http://comp.uark.edu/~mason/Research.html





Supply Chain Human Effort Engineering - Techniques

1. Principles of Motion Economy
 
2. Motion Study
    Wearable computers empower workers to achieve new levels of efficiency in package handling and warehouse applications.
     http://www.mmh.com/article/wearable_computers_optimize_workflows
     MMH - Modern Material Handling Magazine website

3. Workstation Design

4. Application of Ergonomics and Biomechanics
    Warehouse workers - Take the hurt out of material handling
     http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/hesis/Documents/warehous.pdf

5. Fatigue Studies

6. Productivity/Safety/Comfort Device Design

7. Standardization of  Methods

8. Operator training

9. Incentive Systems

10. Job Evaluation

11. Learning effect capture

12. Work Measurement


SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT


1. Process Analysis
    A Better, Easier Way to Improve Warehouse Operations
    12 Leading case studies
     Steve Anderson, Acorn Systems Inc., 2004
     Request white paper from Acorn Systesm

2. Operation Analysis

3. Layout Efficiency Analysis

4. Value engineering

5. Application of Statistics in Supply Chain Planning, Control and Operations


    Forecasting

    Forecasting supply chain components with time series analysis
    Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2003. Proceedings.
    Date of Conference: May 27-30, 2003
    Author(s): Martin, L.J. and Frei, J. ,  Page(s): 269 278

    Statistical quality control

    Statistical inventory control and ABC Classification Based Inventory Systems

    Supply Chain Risk Management
    ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/common/ssi/sa/wh/n/gbw03015usen/GBW03015USEN.PDF
    Six sigma

    54 statistics on hospital supply chain (efficiency)
    http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/racs-/-icd-9-/-icd-10/54-statistics-on-hospital-supply-chain-efficiency.html

    Supply Chain Monitoring: A Statistics Approach
    Fernando D. Mele, Estanislao Musulin and Luis Puigjaner*
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering – 15
    L. Puigjaner and A. Espuña (Editors)
    2005 Elsevier Science B.V.

    Forecasting in Supply Chain
    http://logistics.about.com/od/strategicsupplychain/a/Forecasting.htm

 

6. Optimization and Operations research

     IBN ILOG
     http://www-01.ibm.com/software/websphere/products/sca/

      http://www.ups.com/content/us/en/bussol/browse/supply-chain-optimization.html

     http://www.scl.gatech.edu/research/supply-chain/10rules.pdf
   

7. Variety reduction

     Measuring variety reduction along the supply chain: The Variety Gap Model
     by: Alessandro Brun, Margherita Pero, International Journal of Production Economics (May 2012)

     Variety Management in assemble-to-order supply chains
     http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5250/1/MPRA_paper_5250.pdf

8. Standardization

9. Waste reduction or elimination

     7 Wastes Supply Chain
     http://supplychain-mechanic.com/?p=75

     Lean Supply Chain Practices in Malaysia
     http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/17141/InTech-Lean_supply_chain_practices_and_performance_in_the_context_of_malaysia.pdf

10. Activity based management

11. Business process improvement

12. Engineering economy analysis

13. Learning effect capture and continuous improvement (Kaizen, Quality circles and suggestion schemes)

14. Standard costing and Kaizen costing


Importance of Effectiveness - Only Effective Supply Chains are to be made efficient

The Triple A Supply Chain - Agile, Adaptive and Aligned
http://hbr.org/2004/10/the-triple-a-supply-chain/ar/1



Books


Excellence in Inventory Management
Author: Stuart Emmett and David Granville
Edition: First
Publisher: Cambridge Academic
Date: 05/01/2007

Additiontal articles on supply chain - 2018 onwards

http://www.scmr.com/article/the_top_25_supply_chains_leadership_in_action

https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/operations/articles/supply-chain-leadership.html

https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/at/Documents/strategy/supplychain-leadership-report.pdf





Updated on  29 June 2018,   22 December 2017,  12 May 2015
First Published on 2 March 2013


Wednesday, June 27, 2018

Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Industrial Engineering


Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Industrial Engineering were developed Prof. Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. in two stages. In the first Stage, Taylor's principles of scientific management were converted into basic principles of industrial engineering.

Principles of Scientific Management - Taylor


The managers following scientific management thought do the following things.

First. They develop a science for each element of a man's work, which replaces the old rule-of.-thumb method.

Second. They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could.

Third. They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed.

Fourth. There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men.

The principles explain the question what is industrial engineering (IE)?

Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao


1. Develop science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.
2. Engineer methods, processes and operations to use the laws related to the work of machines, man, materials and other resources.
3. Select or assign workmen based on predefined aptitudes for various types of man - machine work.
4. Train workmen, supervisors, and engineers in the new methods, install various modifications related to the machines that include productivity improvement devices and ensure that the expected productivity is realized.
5. Incorporate suggestions of operators, supervisors and engineers in the methods redesign on a continuous basis.
6. Plan and manage productivity at system level.
(The principles were developed on 4 June 2016 (During Birthday break of 2016 - 30 June 2016 to 7 July 2016).

The principles were developed by Narayana Rao based on principles of scientific management by F.W. Taylor)


Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao - Detailed List

Clicking on the link will take you to more detailed content on the principle




The full paper on the principles by Prof. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao is now available for downloading from IISE 2017 Annual Conference site in prepublished format.


Presentation on Principles of Industrial Engineering First made by Dr. Narayana Rao on 23 May 2017 in IISE Annual Conference, Pittsburgh, USA.

_________________

_________________



John Heap
Managing Director at Institute of Productivity


Principles of Productivity Science

Stimulated by recent exchanges in this group, on behalf of the World Confederation of Productivity Science, I have drafted the following principles of productivity science .... the principles that productivity leaders and practitioners should adopt to ensure their work is technically and ethically valid. Comments welcome!


Undertake a structured and systematic review of the social, environmental and economic value created by human endeavour;

Measure, at macro and micro levels, the value created - and the resources consumed to produce it;

Design products in ways which facilitate efficient manufacturing, distribution and subsequent disposal; Design services that are user-focused and scalable whilst remaining efficient in terms of their requirements for physical infrastructure and administrative support. 

Strive to identify and eliminate or minimize waste across the lifecycle of services and products (including throughout manufacturing and delivery processes);

Ensure all working environments and working practices are designed to ensure the safety and well-being of the workforce;

Minimise the consumption of energy and natural resources;

Minimise harmful effects on the natural environment;

Establish working systems, processes and methods that reduce inherent variability; 

Treat all members of the workforce with respect and, wherever possible, engage them in decision-making processes that affect their work roles or working conditions;

Ensure that all staff have the tools, equipment and skills necessary to maximize their performance;

Engage individuals and teams in productivity and performance enhancing reviews and investigations.

Posted on linked on 27 June 2018
https://www.linkedin.com/groups/2587524/2587524-6417631280732651523


Updated on 5 July 2017, 28 June 2017

Motion Economy - Principle of Industrial Engineering



TAYLOR - NARAYANA RAO PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING






Principles of Motion Economy


________________



Principles of Motion Economy

Principles of Motion Economy - Some More Details - R.M. Barnes

Gilbreth's Statement on Principles of Motion Economy

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation 


by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017

______________________________


______________________________


Updated on 28 June 2018
First published on 6 July 2017

IISE 2017 Annual Convention - NITIE Alumni Participation


NITIE: National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai, NITIE

The convention was held at Pittsburgh


Professor K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao,  Professor, NITIE, presented Principles of Industrial Engineering. The principles were developed for the first time in the discipline after 108 years of the birth of the discipline. Taylor's principles of scientific management and developments in the discipline for the next 108 years form the basis for the development of the principles.

_______________

_______________


Dr. Rajiv Saxena was honored by the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers with the Outstanding Industry Practitioner of Logistic and Supply Chain Award.

Ind. Engr. Martin Nazareth led a panel discussion in the convention

Martin Nazareth is the founder and president of OpEx Solutions, Inc. (OSI) — an organization with two divisions, Global OpEx Solutions and the CenTex OpEx Consortium, helping organizations find and define their own way to operational excellence. Since its inception, OSI has successfully assisted clients from Fortune 100 companies to startups in their pursuit of operational excellence through strategy, simplicity and execution.

Prior to OpEx Solutions, he was a senior manager for Lean and TPM deployment at Alcoa. He led program quality for all North American programs at Delphi Thermal & Interior. Before Delphi, he consulted through EDS, Tata Consulting Services, and independently. Nazareth successfully led change through four corporate- and division-wide initiatives including Lean, TPM, FMEA/PCP and error-proofing at two Fortune 100 companies.

Nazareth is a global expert in operational excellence involving the strategic application of lean manufacturing (Lean), total productive maintenance (TPM), quality, and industrial engineering (IE). He has led strategic coaching, consulting, training and execution at over 100 plants in the USA, Canada, Australia, India, Latin America and Europe. His background spans several industries, including automotive, metals and mining, oil and gas, ship building, electrical systems, information systems, and healthcare.

He has two masters’ degrees in industrial engineering and a bachelor’s in mechanical engineering and is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) and a Six Sigma Green Belt.

Martin Nazareth served on the board of AME’s Southwest Region and is a Director of the Institute of Industrial Engineering’s (IIE) Lean Division and Industry Advisory Board. With over thirty years of professional experience, Nazareth is well recognized for his passion for excellence and strategic execution, flawless new product launches, successful implementation of initiatives and achieving bottom-line results.
http://www.opexsolutions.org/id70.html



Prof. Om Prakash Yadav presented   "Estimation of Product Lifetime Considering Gamma Degradation Process with Multi-Stress Accelerated Test Data"

Limon, Shah; Yadav, Om Prakash; Nepal, Bimal. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings; Norcross (2017): 1387-1392.

Tuesday, June 26, 2018

Human Effort Engineering - Bulletin Board

Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering

Interesting to note that the book "Motion Study" by Frank Gilbreth was published in 1911 along with Scientific Management and Principles of Industrial Engineering.
________________________________________________________________


2018

January 2018

Turning Men into Machines? Scientific Management, Industrial Psychology, and the “Human Factor”
Maarten Derksen
15.5University of Groningen

The conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists "humanized" management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices.



Turning Men into Machines? Scientific Management, Industrial Psychology, and the “Human Factor” (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259370895_Turning_Men_into_Machines_Scientific_Management_Industrial_Psychology_and_the_Human_Factor [accessed Jan 20 2018].


October 2014
Ikea creates a push button sit - stand work facilitating desk
Bekant ergonomic products from IKEA
http://www.fastcodesign.com/3037577/ikeas-new-desk-stands-up-with-the-push-of-a-button


24.2.2014

Time and Motion Study of Visian ICL
by Erik Mertens, MD, FEBOphth A time and motion study of the Visian ICL, conducted by Erik L. Mertens, MD, FEBOphth, showed that the Visian ICL Preloaded saves 12 surgical steps; whereas implantation of the nonpreloaded Visian ICLs required 23 steps, the preloaded model required only 11.
http://eyetube.net/video/time-and-motion-study-of-visian-icl/

Time and Motion Study Guidelines by Philippines Government - 2013
http://www.nwpc.dole.gov.ph/pages/download/TMS%20guidelines%20&%20forms.pdf

28-7-2013
The Textbook "Motion and Time Study" by R.L. Barnes can be a good foundation book for Human Effort Engineering

24.2.2013
ILO in collaboration with International Ergonomics Association has brought a full book on Ergonomic Check Points
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---safework/documents/instructionalmaterial/wcms_178593.pdf


20.5.2012
Blacksmith Practice - War Education Manual
http://www.evenfallstudios.com/woodworks_library/blacksmith_practice.pdf

Proposed design of workstation for rural blacksmith
http://www.bvmengineering.ac.in/docs/published%20papers/mechprod/mechprod/601016.pdf
Paper published 2011

Application of Time and Motion Study in PhotoFrame Production
http://www.pfmproduction.com/pdfs/PFMP_Winter07/PFMP_Winter07_Time.pdf
2007 case study

Analysing assembly processes using virtual reality
http://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-haptics/haptic-virtual-reality-assembly-moving-towards-real-engineering-applications

A manual of Time and Motion Study - a practical guide to the measurement of human endeavour in industry and to the development of productive efficiency
by W. Hendry
Download full book from
http://www.library.wisc.edu/selectedtocs/ca1714.pdf

Has a chapter on waste elimination in various departments of factory

http://www.dli.ernet.in/cgi-bin/metainfo.cgi?&title1=A%20manual%20of%20time%20and%20motion%20study&author1=w%20henry&subject1=Literture&year=1947%20&language1=english&pages=224&barcode=5990010114541&author2=&identifier1=&publisher1=sir%20isaac%20pitman%20and%20sons&contributor1=&vendor1=NONE&scanningcentre1=iiit,%20allahabad&scannerno1=&digitalrepublisher1=&digitalpublicationdate1=&numberedpages1=&unnumberedpages1=&rights1=OUT_OF_COPYRIGHT&copyrightowner1=&copyrightexpirydate1=&format1=TIFF%20&url=/rawdataupload/upload/0114/543

Above entry is from India digital library

Time and Motion Studies to aid Rural employment scheme in India
http://www.crd.kerala.gov.in/2011/feb/time_motion11.pdf

9.4.2012
Taxonomy of Human Performance
First year report of a five year project

There are number of articles on human performance requirements in Google search.
I prepared one today. Human Performance Requirements and Human Effort Engineering Design Requirements

3.3.2011
Software for Motion Economy

Generating Economic Motion Plans for Manual Operations - Masters Thesis (Computer Engineering)
http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12606524/index.pdf


31.1.2010

Mr. Jisnu Basu, Workshop, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Mr. Bijan Sarkar, Production Engineering Dept., and Mr. Ardhendu Bhattacharyya, Mechanical Engineering Dept. of Jadavpur University, authored a paper "Change in Occupational Dynamics due to Technology Upgradation: A Study in a Cigarette Factory in Eastern India" in Udyog Pragati, October-December 2009. The paper discusses psychological workstation dimenions. Engineers are discussing behavioral aspects related to workstations.
Original Knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/human-effort-engineering-bulletin-board/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2225


Updated 27 June 2018,  20 January 2018, 12 June 2016,,  26 Oct 2014

Process Industrial Engineering



Process Improvement - Gilbreths' View


Frank Gilbreth developed process analysis and improvement also along with motion study. In 1921, he presented a paper in ASME, on process charts. Lilian Gilbreth was a coauthor of this paper.

PROCESS CHARTS: FIRST STEPS IX FINDING THE ONE BEST WAY TO DO WORK
By Frank B. Gilbreth, Montclair, N. J. Member of the Society
and L. M. Gilbreth, Montclair, N. J. Non-Member
For presentation at the Annual Meeting, New York, December 5 to 9, 1921,
of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 29 West 39th Street, New York.
https://ia800700.us.archive.org/5/items/processcharts00gilb/processcharts00gilb_bw.pdf


At the end of the paper, the conclusion made is as follows:

The procedure for making, examining and improving a process is, therefore, preferably as follows:

a.  Examine process and record with rough notes and stereoscopic diapositives the existing process in detail.

b. Have draftsman copy rough notes in form for blueprinting, photographic projection and exhibition to executives and others.

c. Show the diapositives with stereoscope and lantern slides of process charts in executives' theater to executives and workers.

d. Improve present methods by the use of —
1 Suggestion system
2 Written description of new methods or 'write-ups," "manuals," ''codes," ''written systems," as they are variously called
3 Standards
4 Standing orders
5 Motion study
6 Micromotion studies and chronocyclegraphs for obtaining and recording the One Best Way to do Work.

e. Make process chart of the process as finally adopted as a base for still further and cumulative improvement.


We see in the method described above the method study steps of record, and examine. The practice of involving the workers in analyzing the process chart which was later popularized by Alan Mogensen is also present in the method suggested by Gilbreth to improve a process.  Motion study as a later step in the process analysis method, which was emphasized by H.B. Maynard as part of the operation analysis proposed by him is also visible in the procedure described by Gilbreths.

H.B. Maynard proposed "Operation Analysis" for process improvement.

So, we can see the methods engineering and methods study which became popular subsequently were futher development of Gilbreth's process improvement procedure only.


Process Engineering


Process engineering focuses on the design, operation, control, optimization and Intensification of chemical, physical, and biological processes. Process engineering encompasses a vast range of industries, such as chemical, petrochemical, agriculture, mineral processing, advanced material, food, pharmaceutical, software development and biotechnological industries.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_engineering

http://web.iitd.ac.in/~pmpandey/Process_engg_html/Process%20Engineering_introduction.pdf

http://www.sampe.org/

http://www.tudelft.nl/en/study/master-of-science/master-programmes/chemical-engineering/track-process-engineering/

http://www.princeton.edu/cbe/research/process/

Process Industrial Engineering


Process engineering is an established term in engineering. Hence process industrial engineering, which represents the redesign of processes by industrial engineers to improve productivity is an appropriate term.


Methods Engineering, Operations Analysis, Method Study and Motion Study are various methods or procedures of process industrial engineering.

The process industrial engineering has to develop analysis and improvement of technical elements of a process in more detail to make industrial engineering an engineering based activity to increase productivity in engineering organizations, departments and activities.

Process industrial engineering also includes improvement of related management activities. F.W. Taylor was a pioneer in introducing many changes in management practices to improve productivity. Industrial engineering adopted the same objective. So within process industrial subject area comes the function of management process industrial engineering.


Methods efficiency engineering is the earlier proposed name. Now it is rechristened as Process Industrial Engineering. Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering are the two main components of productivity engineering which is totally dependent on the engineering knowledge of the industrial engineer.

The Function of Methods Efficiency Engineering




Methods efficiency engineering was the activity performed by F.W. Taylor and explained first in his paper "A Piece Rate System." As it evolved over the years, it became a  a logical and systematic procedure for reducing costs, increasing production without an impairment to quality.  Methods efficiency engineering may be applied with equal success to repetitive work or to jobbing work, to simple, easily understood operations or to complex, specialized jobs. It is applicable to all man machine systems, manual work or automated work.

Definition of Methods efficiency engineering.  Briefly it may be said that Methods efficiency engineering is the industrial engineering component  which is chiefly concerned with increasing the efficiency of resources used in a method.


Methods efficiency engineering is the technique that subjects each operation of a given piece of work to close analysis in order to eliminate every unnecessary operation and in order to approach the quickest and best method of performing each necessary operation; it includes the standardization of equipment, methods, and working conditions ; it trains the operator to follow the standard method; when all this has been done,  it determines by accurate measurement the number of standard hours in which an operator working with standard performance can do the job.

A methods efficiency study always begins with a careful primary analysis of existing conditions. The reason is that the existing system is taken as an effective system that is producing the required output at quality acceptable to the customers. The first factors that are considered are the number of pieces made or the yearly activity, the length of the operation, and the hourly rate of the operator or operators doing the job. This information permits the computation of the yearly cost of the job. An estimate is next made of the probable improvement that methods study can make. This in turn determines the kind and amount of methods-engineering work that can profitably be undertaken.

The method or process is recorded for the purpose of presenting the study problem clearly. Then complete information is compiled for each operation concerning such points as the purpose of the operation,tolerance requirements, material and material handling, and tools and equipment used.

As a part of methods efficiency engineering, motion study, that is study of motions of the operator is made. In motion study, each individual motion used in doing the work is considered in detail to try to shorten the motion or to eliminate it altogether.

After the new method has been devised, information and records describing the redesigned procedure must be carefully made and communicate.  If the method is available in a written form, frequent audits can be done to make sure it is being followed.

The operator or operators must next be taught to follow the new method. This may be done by verbal instructions, demonstrations at or away from the workplace, instruction sheets or operator process charts ; or by the highly successful procedure that employs motion pictures.


Explanation of the Term "Methods efficiency engineering." 


The term " Methods efficiency engineering" is of comparatively recent origin.

When trained methods efficiency engineer brings to his job an extensive knowledge of fundamental waste-eliminating practices, every body will recognize its utility in the organization.

Development of Methods efficiency engineering - History


Rate Setting History


Probably the oldest wage-payment plan to be used by man was not day work, as might be supposed, but piecework. Day work probably came into being only when one "man desired to pay another man to work for him at a variety of tasks or to retain his general services to use or not at his discretion. Servants, for example, were paid on this basis. As industry began to grow, day work was used more and more, probably because this was the easiest method of payment where a variety of work was handled. Supervision was direct in most cases, labor was plentiful, and fear of dismissal furnished the incentive to produce.

At the same time, piecework payment was used in a number of instances. The weaver who worked a loom in his own home was paid for what he produced and not for the number of hours he spent at work. In the case of piecework, some plan that encouraged a definite output by the workers was felt necessary.  Incentive plans came into existence.  He was using records of past performance and his own judgment of what a man could accomplish if he worked with an honest effort to fix piece rates.

These two factors proved to be utterly unreliable. Records of past performance told only how much was produced and gave no indication of the conditions under which the work was done or of the method used by the operator. Under the stimulus of an incentive, the operator could almost always devise a better method and, by working steadily with a good effort, could make earnings that often exceeded those of the foreman. The various problems associate with these incentive plans,  defeated the purpose of incentives which was to stimulate production.

All this time, competition was becoming increasingly keen. The need for incentives was felt most strongly, and the importance of proper rate setting caused a search for a better way of handling the matter. Thus the position of rate setter was established. The new setup gave somewhat better results, but conditions were far from satisfactory. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, therefore, the more progressive plants began to feel the need for a better, fairer, and more accurate method of handling the rate question. The problem was attacked independently in a number of plants in USA and abroad, and various solutions were offered which have contributed to a greater or lesser extent to methods-engineering practices. One attack, for example, was to attempt to equalize the inconsistencies of poor rate setting by the wage-payment plan; and this led to the development of such well-known plans as the Halsey premium plan and, later, the Rowan plan.

Taylor's Pioneering Efforts in Methods Improvement


Taylor used stop watch time study of understand the best practices of doing work at elemental level. Through the study of work and output using time study, Taylor found that some were following improper methods, many did not take full advantage of their tools and equipment, and all were subject to many interruptions. Hence, Taylor often found that a man could do two or three times as much as he had previously done in a day. Taylor carefully selected individual workman, guided, trained and made them produce the expected output under the guidance of  management or supervision specialists. As one person produced according to the expected output, he trained one more man. In this manner gradually more and more operators were trained to produce the increased output. Since those days, time study has increased the productivity of industry manyfold. It has resulted in improved conditions, standardization, reduced costs, better production control, and better satisfied labor wherever it has been properly applied, and it has been applied to nearly every class of work.

Taylor' s system was to give the workman a definite task to be accomplished in a definite time in a definite manner. The workman was told in detail how to do the job. The method was established by careful study.

Taylor's original procedure forms the basis of methods engineering. It has been improved upon by those who came after him, as is the case when any new science is developed.
Taylor stressed the importance of improving method of doing the job and he used stop watch time study for that purpose. Frank B. Gilbreth  stressed the importance of the detailed study of methods and thereby made a distinct contribution to methods efficiency engineering . As an apprentice bricklayer, he became impressed with the fact that most brick- layers had their own way of doing a job. Being very observant, he noticed further that each worker had three ways of doing the same job: one that he taught to other inexperienced workers, one that he used when working slowly, and one that he used when working at his normal speed. Gilbreth became interested in the reasons underlying this, analyzed the work of number operators and developed the technique of motion study. The Gilbreths established a laboratory and studied motions by laboratory methods. As a result, they made a number of fundamental discoveries and originated the concept of therbligs, or basic divisions of accomplishment. They were the first to recognize that there are certain definite principles which govern efficient working practices, and they developed several techniques for studying the motions used in performing operations. Of these, the motion study made with the aid of motion pictures, often called the "micromotion technique' is the best known and most used. Of the originality, soundness, and value of their contribution to methods engineering, there can be no question.

As has been pointed out, Taylor's original work forms the basis of modern Methods efficiency engineering. Paralally, the developments made by the Gilbreths were  incorporated.

Motion study was improved further.  Better designs of industrial motion-picture equipment permit the wider use of the motion picture at a greatly reduced cost. The element of time has been tied in with the concept of therbligs, or basic divisions of accomplishment, thus offering a new and valuable approach to methods study. The leveling principle permits adjusting the time data obtained from a study taken on any kind of performance over a wide range to a standard level with a high degree of accuracy, thus permitting the setting of accurate and consistent rates. Finally, time-formula derivation has been developed to a point that makes possible the quick and accurate setting of a large number of rates or time allowances with a minimum of engineering effort. This later became pre-determined motion system. MTM and MOSt are widely used predetermined motion time systems.

Methods Efficiency Engineering Procedure


Methods efficiency engineering is now  a carefully planned, systematic procedure. Standard process charts have been developed to a state of greater flexibility and have become more useful for analysis purposes.

Economic Function of Methods efficiency engineering


Under modern business conditions, one of the major problems which faces the managers of industry is that of constantly reducing costs. Markets are restricted for any product  because many individuals are economically unable to purchase the product at the current market price. Even in periods of prosperity, millions of people are able to supply themselves with only the barest necessities of life because of high prices of many items.

In any country, there are the fewest individuals in the highest group of income  and the greatest number of people are in the lowest group with some groups of people at intermediate income levels. At each level, there is a group with a certain purchasing power.


The consumers at any economic levels but the highest few have only a limited amount to spend. All kinds of products are offered to them in various enticing ways. Competition as a result is keen and ruthless. The only way an industrial unit an hope to survive under these conditions is constantly to seek to keep production costs as low as possible.

Taylor's "Shop Management" paper described methods that gave lower production cost and higher income to operators. Cost reduction methods aim at waste elimination in machine work and man work so that greater production is secured with less effort.

Methods efficiency engineering is primarily concerned with devising methods that increase production and reduce costs. Hence, it plays an important role in determining the competitive position of a plant. As competition appears to be become keener,  Methods efficiency engineering becomes increasingly important.

Methods efficiency engineering in an industrial unit can never be considered as completed. Costs that are satisfactory and competitive today become excessive in a comparatively short time because of the improved developments of other units of the industry. If the producer who is in a good competitive position today decides that his costs have reached rock bottom and that no further attempt to improve them is necessary, within a short while he is likely to find himself facing loss of his commercial standing as owner of an efficiently managed plant. Only by constantly seeking to improve can any unit safeguard its competitive position. Conditions in industry are never static, and steady progress is the only sure way to success.

Cost-reduction work is important as a factor for survival, but it  also expands the industry and the firm. There are  various economic strata of society. Assume that a certain company is manufacturing a product that, although universally desirable, is priced so high that only those individuals in group C or higher can purchase it. The market for the product is thus rather limited. If, however, properly conducted cost-reduction work permits the lowering of the selling price so that the individuals in group D can purchase the product, the market is at once greatly expanded, perhaps doubled or even tripled. Henry Ford was among the first to combine recognition of this principle with the courage to act upon it.

In actual practice, society is not divided into definite groups, but incomes range, in small steps, from next to nothing to the highest. Hence, each time the selling price of a product is reduced, even though it is as little as 1 per cent, the product is brought within the reach of more people. Therefore, it may be seen that cost reduction as a means of increasing the distribution of the product is at all times important.

Methods efficiency engineering and Shop Supervisors


The methods efficiency man is by no means the only one who takes an interest in establishing economic costs and improving methods. The foremen, the tool designers, and the other shop supervisors all realize the importance of keeping costs upon a competitive level. Very often they make worth-while improvements in manufacturing methods. The differences between the methods efficiency man and the other shop supervisors are two. In the first place, the methods man devotes all his time to methods work, whereas the other supervisors have numerous duties, which force them to consider methods work as incidental to their major activities. In the second place, the methods, man conducts his methods studies systematically and makes improvements as the result of applying a carefully developed technique. This technique is based upon a large amount of specialized knowledge which can be acquired only by special study and training. Therefore, unless a course in Methods efficiency engineering has been given to the other shop supervisors, their improvements are less certain and are due more to inspiration than to deliberate intent.

For these reasons, the major part of methods improvement is usually made by methods engineers. This is not a necessary condition, however; for the principles that they use can be learned by the other supervisors and can be applied, in part at least, during the course of their other work. Certain progressive organizations have realized this and have given methodsengineering training in more or less detail to their various key supervisors. The results, as may be expected, have been gratifying, and methods-improvement work has received a marked impetus (Maynard 1938).

It is hoped that this technique will be used by shop supervisors such as foremen, tool designers, and so on, as well as by methods engineers; for if the principles of methods efficiency work are understood throughout an organization, that organization will be in a good position to meet competition, depressions, or any other economic disturbances which may come its way.

Alan Mogensen advocated work simplification methodology. In this method, he used to conduct methods work shops based on process chart to supervisors and operators and used to improve processes with the involvement of the trainees. He was very successful in this endeavor for three decades and his method was adopted by Training Within Industry (TWI) program and then from them by Toyota Motors. Now, industrial engineering is being taught in undergraduate engineering programs to make all engineers practice industrial engineering and also to train their supervisors and operators. But in undergraduate programs, only mechanical branch and other branches are not teaching. It is important that it is taught in all engineering branches.


Adopted based on the first chapter of Maynard's Operation Analysis

Full Knol Book - Method Study: Methods Efficiency Engineering - Knol Book
Next Article - Process Analysis and Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering




August month Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan is completely focused on Process Industrial Engineering

Process Industrial Engineering - Article Index  - Presently it contains the copy of August revision plan. More articles are to be added to this index.



Updated on 27 JULY 2018
30 July 2017,   19 July 2017,  26 March 2017, 7 February 2017
Revision made on 23 Nov 2013
Revision made on 16 Feb 2014, 11 April 2015