Friday, August 28, 2015

Analysis of Material - Methods Efficiency Improvement Analysis - Illustrations

Analysis of Material

Material cost is a very important part of the total cost of any product. Therefore the analyst should check the material for the possibility of using lower cost materials.

Questions. The following questions will prove suggestive in connection with an analysis of material:

1. Does the material specified appear suitable for the purpose for which it is to be used?

2. Could a less expensive material be substituted that would function as well?

M30 concrete in place of M35 concrete in India.

3. Could a lighter gage material be used?

Example: Reduction of automobile body sheet thickness by Maruti Suzuki in India.

4. Is the material furnished in suitable condition for use?

5. Could the supplier perform additional work upon the material that would make it better suited for its use?

6. Is the size of the material the most economical?

7. If bar stock or tubing, is the material straight?

8. If a casting or forging, is the excess stock sufficient for machining purposes but not excessive?

9. Can the machinability of the material be improved by heat-treatment or in other ways?

10. Do castings have hard spots or burned-in core sand that should be eliminated?

11. Are castings properly cleaned and have all fins, gate ends, and riser bases been removed?

12. Is material sufficiently clean and free from rust?

13. If coated with a preserving compound, how does this compound affect dies?

14. Is material ordered in amounts and sizes that permit its utilization with a minimum amount of waste, scrap, or short ends?

15. Is material uniform and reasonably free from flaws and defects?

16. Is material utilized to the best advantage during processing?

Change of design and cutting patter in Maruti Suzuki in India.

17. Where yield from a given amount of material depends upon ability of the operator, is any record of yield kept?

18. Is miscellaneous material used for assembly, such as nails, screws, wire, solder, rivets, paste, and washers, suitable?

19. Are the indirect or supply materials such as cutting oil, molding sand, or lubricants best suited to the job?

20. Are materials used in connection with the process, such as gas, fuel oil, coal, coke, compressed air, water, electricity, acids, and paints, suitable, and is their use controlled and economical?

Special materials will evoke special questions, but the list here given will indicate the kind of questions that should be asked and will stimulate suggestions for improvement on many kinds of the more common materials.

Thursday, August 27, 2015

Analysis of All Operations in a Process - Method Efficiency Improvement Analysis - Illustrations

1. Can the operation being analyzed be eliminated by changing the procedure or the operations?

2. Can it be combined with another operation?

3. Can it be subdivided and the various parts added to other operations ?

4. Can part of the operation be performed more effectively as a separate operation?

5. Can the operation being analyzed be performed during the idle period of another operation?

6. Is the sequence of operations the best possible?

7. Would changing the sequence affect this operation in any way?

8. Should this operation be done in another department to save cost or handling?

9. If several or all operations including the one being analyzed were performed under the group system of wage payment, would advantages accrue?

10. Should a more complete study of operations be made by means of an operation process chart?

Individual Operation Purpose Analysis - Methods Efficiency Improvement Analysis Illustrations

1. What is the purpose of the operation?

2. Is the result accomplished by the operation necessary?

3. If so, what makes it necessary?

4. Was the operation established to correct a difficulty experienced in the final assembly?

5. If so, did it really correct it?

6. Is the operation necessary because of the improper performance of a previous operation?

7. Was the operation established to correct a condition that has since been corrected otherwise?

8. If the operation is done to improve appearance, is the added cost justified by added salability?

9. Can the purpose of the operation be accomplished better in any other way?

10. Can the supplier of the material perform the operation more economically?

Sunday, August 16, 2015

Role of Top Management in Managing Change to High Productive Shop - F.W. Taylor

Before starting to make any radical changes leading toward an improvement in the system of management, it is desirable, and for ultimate success in most cases necessary, that the directors and the important owners of an enterprise shall be made to understand, at least in a general way, what is involved in the change. They should be informed of the leading objects which the new system aims at, such, for instance, as rendering mutual the interests of employer and employee through "high wages and low labor cost," the gradual selection and development of a body of first class picked workmen who will work extra hard and receive extra high wages and be dealt with individually instead of in masses.

They should thoroughly understand that this can only be accomplished through the adoption of precise and exact methods, and having each smallest detail, both as to methods and appliances, carefully selected so as to be the best of its kind. They should understand the general philosophy of the system and should see that, as a whole, it must be in harmony with its few leading ideas, and that principles and details which are admirable in one type of management have no place whatever in another.

They should be shown that it pays to employ an especial corps to introduce a new system just as it pays to employ especial designers and workmen to build a new plant; that, while a new system is being introduced, almost twice the number of foremen are required as are needed to run it after it is in; that all of this costs money, but that, unlike a new plant, returns begin to come in almost from the start from improved methods and appliances as they are introduced, and that in most cases the new system more than pays for itself as it goes along; that time, and a great deal of time, is involved in a radical change in management, and that in the case of a large works if they are incapable of looking ahead and patiently waiting for from two to four years, they had better leave things just as they are, since a change of system involves a change in the ideas, point of view and habits of many men with strong convictions and prejudices, and that this can only be brought about slowly and chiefly through a series of object lessons, each of which takes time, and through continued reasoning; and that for this reason, after deciding to adopt a given type, the necessary steps should be taken as fast as possible, one after another, for its introduction. The directors should be convinced that an increase in  the proportion of non-producers to producers means increased economy and not red tape, providing the non-producers are kept busy at their respective functions.

They should be prepared to lose some of their valuable men who cannot stand the change and also for the continued indignant protest of many of their old and trusted employees who can see nothing but extravagance in the new ways and ruin ahead.

It is a matter of the first importance that, in addition to the directors of the company, all of those connected with the management should be given a broad and comprehensive view of the general objects to be attained and the means which will be employed. They should fully realize before starting on their work and should never lose sight of the fact that the great object of the new organization is to bring about two momentous changes in the men:

First. A complete revolution in their mental attitude toward their employers and their work.

Second. As a result of this change of feeling such an increase in their determination and physical activity, and such an improvement in the conditions under which the work is done as will result in many cases in their turning out from two to three times as much work as they have done in the past.

First, then, the men must be brought to see that the new system changes their employers from antagonists to friends who are working as hard as possible side by side with them, all pushing in the same direction and all helping to bring about such an increase in the output and to so cheapen the cost of production that the men will be paid permanently from thirty to one hundred per cent more than they have earned in the past, and that there will still be a good profit left over for the company.

At first workmen cannot see why, if they do twice as much work as they have done, they should not receive twice the wages. When the matter is properly explained to them and they have time to think it over, they will see that in most cases the increase in output is quite as much due to the improved appliances and methods, to the maintenance of standards and to the great help which they receive from the men over them as to their own harder work. They will realize that the company must pay for the introduction of the improved system, which costs thousands of dollars, and also the salaries of the additional foremen and of the clerks, etc., in the planning room as well as tool room and other expenses and that, in addition, the company is entitled to an increased profit quite as much as the men are. All but a few of them will come to understand in a general way that under the new order of things they are cooperating with their employers to make as great a saving as possible and that they will receive permanently their fair share of this gain.

Then after the men acquiesce in the new order of things and are willing to do their part toward cheapening production, it will take time for them to change from their old easy-going ways to a higher rate of speed, and to learn to stay steadily at their work, think ahead and make every minute count. A certain percentage of them, with the best of intentions, will fail in this and find that they have no place in the new organization, while still others, and among them some of the best workers who are, however, either stupid or stubborn, can never be made to see that the new system is as good as the old; and these, too, must drop out. Let no one imagine, however, that this great change in the mental attitude of the men and the increase in their activity can be brought about by merely talking to them. Talking will be most useful--in fact indispensable--and no opportunity should be lost of explaining matters to them patiently, one man at a time, and giving them every chance to express their views.

Their real instruction, however, must come through a series of object lessons. They must be convinced that a great increase in speed is possible by seeing here and there a man among them increase his pace and double or treble his output. They must see this pace maintained until they are convinced that it is not a mere spurt; and, most important of all, they must see the men who "get there" in this way receive a proper increase in wages and become satisfied. It is only with these object lessons in plain sight that the new theories can be made to stick. It will be in presenting these object lessons and in smoothing away the difficulties so that the high speed can be maintained, and in assisting to form public opinion in the shop, that the great efficiency of functional foremanship under the direction of the planning room will first become apparent.

In reaching the final high rate of speed which shall be steadily maintained, the broad fact should be realized that the men must pass through several distinct phases, rising from one plane of efficiency to another until the final level is reached. First they must be taught to work under an improved system of day work. Each man must learn how to give up his own particular way of doing things, adapt his methods to the many new standards, and grow accustomed to receiving and obeying directions covering details, large and small, which in the past have been left to his individual judgment. At first the workmen can see nothing in all of this but red tape and impertinent interference, and time must be allowed them to recover from their irritation, not only at this, but at every stage in their upward march. If they have been classed together and paid uniform wages for each class, the better men should be singled out and given higher wages so that they shall distinctly recognize the fact that each man is to be paid according to his individual worth. After becoming accustomed to direction in minor matters, they must gradually learn to obey instructions as to the pace at which they are to work, and grasp the idea, first, that the planning department knows accurately how long each operation should take; and second, that sooner or later they will have to work at the required speed if they expect to prosper. After they are used to following the speed instructions given them, then one at a time they can be raised to the level of maintaining a rapid pace throughout the day. And it is not until this final step has been taken that the full measure of the value of the new system will be felt by the men through daily receiving larger wages, and by the company through a materially larger output and lower cost of production. It is evident, of course, that all of the workmen in the shop will not rise together from one level to another. Those engaged in certain lines of work will have reached their final high speed while others have barely taken the first step. The efforts of the new management should not be spread out thin over the whole shop. They should rather be focused upon a few points, leaving the ninety and nine under the care of their former shepherds. After the efficiency of the men who are receiving special assistance and training has been raised to the desired level, the means for holding them there should be perfected, and they should never be allowed to lapse into their old ways. This will, of course, be accomplished in the most permanent way and rendered almost automatic, either through introducing task work with a bonus or the differential rate.

F.W. Taylor, Shop Management

Updated 15 August 2015, 3 August 2013

Thursday, August 6, 2015

Neyveli Lignite Corporation - Productivity Initiatives

April 9 2015

Conveyor Efficiency

NLC has also entered into an agreement with National Institute of Technology, Tiruchi for improving energy efficiency of conveyors.

The project tests use of  Programme Logic Control Circuit in the conveyor systems which will permit all motors to work only while starting the conveyor and then depending on the load will operate just the required number of motors automatically.

Over two million units of electricity can be saved in each conveyor system. NLC uses 50 conveyor systems in its second mine and can save over 31 crore annually. The research project is estimated to cost about  1.22 crore with NLC contributing 58 lakh and the NIT  63 lakh.

Presentation by CMD on 2.1. 2015


Benchmarking Thermal Efficiency of Coal Based Plants in India with Mature Systems in Other Countries

Economic Times Editorial of 4 August 2015

For a Tech Boost to Energy Efficiency

Revving up efficiency in the energy economy cannot but focus on dirty but abundant, coal. The fuel conversion efficiency in state electricity board-owned plants is abysmally close to 30%. In contrast, in the mature power systems abroad, thermal efficiency levels approach 50%. It follows that by raising thermal efficiencies, we could generate up to two-thirds more power with the same amount of coal, reducing the carbon intensity of growth, besides pollution. This is achievable using existing technology. India needs to invest in coal gasification and integrated gasified coal combined cycle technologies, to utilise our natural endowment of coal while clamping down on green gas emissions.

Report of CSE's Study - Study of 47 Thermal plants

Old technologies, poor maintenance worsen performance

India’s landscape is dotted with many inefficient plants; its fleet is among the least efficient in the world. Improving efficiency is key to meet India’s energy needs, consume fewer resources and have the least impact on the environment.

A quarter of the total capacity under the study had exceeded operational life. Second, just 1 per cent of the power sector’s capacity in 2012 comprised supercritical (SC) or ultra supercritical (USC) plants, which operate with efficiency that is 3-7 percentage points higher than that of “subcritical” technology, the most commonly used. In comparison, 25 per cent of Chinese capacity was SC/USC. Around a third of plants under the study had efficiencies of less than 32 per cent. The worst performers typically have small capacity units, poor technology and are old..

Over half the plants in the study were found to be running inefficiently due to bad operation and maintenance practices. A particularly poor performer is MPPGCL, Birsinghpur, a 13-year-old plant, whose efficiency was 22 per cent below design. On the other hand, well-maintained plants like Reliance-Dahanu had a deviation of 3.8 per cent from design.

Only four plants in the study experienced less than 15 days of outages, which is considered a desirable level of availability. Poor maintenance, which results in increased outages, meant that average availability was low for the sample—11 plants experienced an average annual outage of more than 73 days during 2010-13. Even some new private plants such as Adani-Mundra and Maithon Power experienced outages as high as 95 days.

Auxiliary Power Consumption (APC), the power consumed by the plant’s own equipment, in most cases was almost 50 per cent higher than global best practices—APC of 12 of them was over 10 per cent. Higher APC means less power supplied to the grid.  Most plants in India do not monitor APC for individual equipment, which makes it impossible to identify areas of excess consumption.

The government launched the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) programme to encourage efficiency improvement in eight industrial sectors, including thermal power generation.

GRP study exposed weaknesses in the PAT scheme. Of the 31 plants that were analysed, five achieved target efficiency in 2010-11 (even before the scheme started) while four more did so in 2011-12.

Shortcomings like these meant that plants like UPRVUNL, Obra, whose efficiency was 27 per cent during baseline period, achieved their PAT target after R&M—but its present efficiency at 31 per cent is still quite low.

Low efficiency is directly related to high CO2 emissions. The average emission rate of plants was 1.08 tonne CO2/MWh, which is seven per cent higher than the global average and 14 per cent higher than China’s. In 2012, coal-based power generation accounted for half of India’s total CO2 emissions from fuel combustions. During 2011-12, India’s total CO2 emissions grew by six per cent which was mostly on account of coal in energy production.

JSEB, Patratu, was again the worst performer with an unacceptably high emission of 1.80 tonne CO2/MWh (see ‘Specific CO2...’). There were just 13 plants in the study whose average emissions were lower than the global average. No plant conformed to the global best values. Even super critical plants in the study had emissions 35 per cent higher than the global best. It is estimated that a one percentage point improvement in efficiency can reduce CO2 emissions by 2-3 per cent. Apart from improving efficiency of existing plants, adopting state-of-the-art technologies can help achieve big cuts in emission rates.

See for more details and figures of efficiencies

21 February 2015
Efficiency of India's Power Plants way below global standards

Wednesday, August 5, 2015

Optimization in Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler Design, Manufacturing and Operation

Power Plant Engineering Notes

Google Search Optimization - Pulverized Coal - 144,000 results on 14 May 2015

Google Search - Six Sigma Pulverised Coal - 25,900 results on 14 May 2015


Effect of TQM on the Maintenance of Pulverizer and Raw Coal Feeder
in a Coal Based Thermal Power Plant
Pooja¹, Dr. B.K. Roy², Pooja Rani31
Post Graduate Student, Om Institute of Technology & Management, Hisar, Haryana, INDIA 2
Director-Principal, Om Institute of Technology & Management, Hisar, Haryana, INDIA 3
Post Graduate Student, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, Haryana, INDIA
Volume-4, Issue-1, February-2014, ISSN No.: 2250-0758
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research
Available at:
Page Number: 234-240  - six month and one year IE course in India - To write to them.

Techno-Economic Optimization of a Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant With Integrated CO2 Capture and Utilization Processes
 Kasule, J., West Virginia University,  Bhattacharyya, D., West Virginia University,  Turton, R., West Virginia University,  Zitney, S. E., National Energy Technology Laboratory
AIChE  2013 Annual Meeting

Bhattacharyya, D., West Virginia University, Debangsu.bhattacharyya @


Reducing Ash Agglomeration in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers
2012 Article, October 2012

SAS Tech Consultants
Innovative Approach to Improved Pulverised Coal Delivery and Combustion Optimization,NTPC,%20NOIDA,UP/Saraswati%20Hall/Session-04%20Optimising%20Boiler%20Performance/Paper%204%20Improved%20Combustion%20Optimisation.pdf


C.P. Crane Generating Station, Middle River, Maryland
When operators of this 400-MW plant converted to burning 100% low-sulfur Powder
River Basin coal to meet state regulations, they knew it wouldn’t be fully successful
unless they also converted the plant’s operating culture.

Merrimack Station’s Clean Air Project, Bow, New Hampshire
By implementing a Clean Air Project to meet state regulations (and future federal
ones), this 440-MW plant became one of the cleanest coal plants in the country. It
may also provide a model for future wastewater treatment systems.

Northside Generating Station, Jacksonville, Florida
This circulating fluidized bed boiler plant is an award-winner for a series of modifications
made over nearly a decade to resolve operating challenges created by a design
problem. Its operating stats now place it in the top tier of U.S. fossil plants.

Tanjung Jati B Electric Generating Station’s Expansion Project, Central
Java Province, Republic of Indonesia
A multinational project team built this 1,300-MW generator of power and economic
growth and equipped it with some of the first examples of modernized air quality
control technology on a major Asian power plant.

Virginia City Hybrid Energy Center, Virginia City, Virginia
Waste not. By using a fuel-flexible circulating fluidized boiler, this new plant is helping
Dominion meet its commitment to the state renewable portfolio standard while
including regionally sourced coal waste in its fuel mix. It also recycles plant wastewater
and waste heat.

Yeongheung Power Station Unit 3, Yeongheung Island, South Korea
A number of site-specific circumstances required careful design modifications and
advanced monitoring and controls for this new supercritical unit near Seoul at a site
that could eventually host 12 coal-fired plant selection in year 2012


System and Method for Full Combustion Optimization For Pulverized Coal-Fired Steam Boilers
US 20100319592 A1
Patent Filing Date 5 Dec 2008

Dahanu Power Plant of Reliance - Best plant in its category

Singareni Collieris - Productivity Issues

SCCL's coal reserves in Godavari Valley Coal Field (GVCF)  are expected to last for 60 years. This coal field has approximate reserves of 10,000 million tonnes.

As of now, SCCL has 32 underground and 16 opencast mines across four districts of Telangana - Karimnagar, Warangal, Adilabad and Khammam - covering an extent of 17,500 sq km. The company produces about 50 million tonnes a year.

Earlier, the chief minister of the state asked the SCCL officials to give preference to underground mines instead of opencast as opencast mines are causing pollution in the area. He also asked officials to make efforts to reduce the pollution. But SCCL has been giving preference to opencast mines due to its operating cost advantages.

In opencast mining as the cost of production is very less in opencast compared to underground mining. While the cost of production in opencast is about Rs 1630 per tonne, it may go up to Rs 3740 per tonne in underground coal production while the realization through sales is Rs 2,000 per tonne for SCCL.

Of the company's total production, 79% of the coal production is being produced from opencast and only 21% from underground mines.

Singareni is planning to open 17 new mines in the next few years. Of the proposed 17 mines, 11 are opencast and six underground, which are expected to generate 31.85 million tonnes of coal.

SCCL has also decided to close 12 mines in the next few years including eight underground and four opencast especially several inclines in Godavarikhani.

Adriyala Long Wall Project of Singareni Collieries

Mining Ideas and Coal
by Dattatreyulu Jammalamadaka
Gives the background with failure of longwall mining earlier and initiation of new project in his book

Project IRR 17.3 percent

Sep 30, 2014
Cost of Production: Rs. 863 per tonne

Mechanization in Mining in India

Long wall Mining - Slide Share

A Wireless Factory Floor

Engineers may control factories remotely using wireless technology