Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Employee Involvement in Industrial Engineering Projects Advocated by Taylor

I presented this paper in the conference organized by European Association of Management in Switzerland. My presentation in the conference is in this video



16 September 2014

My subsequent study of the IE books brought out the fact that Ralph Barnes indicated that industrial engineering discipline or function can be implemented in an organization in three patterns. Pattern A is IE is practised by expert industrial engineering staff. In Pattern B, managers and supervisors also participate in the IE activities. In Pattern C, operators also participate in IE activities.

Allan Mogensen is an industrial engineer who advocated work simplication. Simplication is a step in ECRS (Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, and Simplify) framework described in method studies. Epecially each process has to be subjected to ECRS analysis. Mogensen found that operation simplification is one step in which each operator can participate effectively. It is imperative for the organization to implement a system to encourage operators to participate in the operation simplication or work simplifications. Organizations not doing it are wasting an opportunity to improve efficiency and profit.

Master in Sustainable Industrial Engineering - Grenoble Institute of Technology - France

 Industrial engineering is the branch of engineering that is concerned with the efficient production of industrial goods as affected by elements such as plant and procedural design, the management of materials and energy, and the integration of workers within the overall system.

Sustainable Industrial Engineering addresses the issue of sustainability of industry in three ways: from an environmental point of view, from a social and societal point of view, from an economical point of view.

Sustainable industrial engineering has myriads of application fields since it encompasses the whole value chain and lifecycle of products: from the development of new and innovative machines, products-services to the market and recyclability.


Implementation of Industrial Engineering in Toyota Motors

Toyota motors made reducing cost and eliminating waste a strategic focus area from the moment, Japan was defeated in the second world war and American occupation of Japan was announced.

On August 15, 1945 Kiichiro Toyoda, then president of Toyota Motor Company, said: “Catch up with America in three years. Otherwise, the automobile industry of Japan will not survive” (Ohno, 1988).  This statement of Kiichiro Toyoda is with respect cost of producing an individual car in Japan. He wanted Japanese car to cost less than American car and then only Japanese people will buy Toyota cars. The immediate problem for Toyota is not quality of the car, which Kiichiro Toyoda believed was of acceptable quality but its cost which is high compared to American cars.  In Ohno's book Taiichi went on to say: “To accomplish this mission, we had to know America and learn American ways” (Ohno, 1988).

Ohno believed that the quickest way to catch up with America was to import American production management techniques and business management practices. Toyota studied industrial engineering (IE)  as according to  Ohno it is profit making engineering. Based on his understanding of industrial engineering, Ohno implemented first in his department and then across the company,  a company-wide system tied directly to management to systematically lower cost and raise productivity. (Ohno, 1988).

According to Shigeo Shingo, management should possess a set of fundamentals closely related to industrial engineering.  If management cannot understand how to attack the rationalization of the current system, through scientific study, then it cannot be expected to improve or change. (Shingo, 2005).

The focus of industrial engineering is cost reduction through engineering and management  practices changes. If industrial engineers had to focus on one aspect of their field it would be productivity or productivity improvement. That is, the total elimination of waste by increasing efficiency through cost reduction (Going, 1911).

Shingo is well versed in the writings of Gilbreth and Taylor. He is a strong believer in the utility of process and operation analysis. Shingo is also an expert engineer. Therefore he could develop Single Minute of Exchanging Dies (SMED) and Foolproofing or Mistakeproofing (Pokayoke) in many engineering activities and generalize them into important methods. But Japanese Management Assocation followed Allan Mogensen's idea of involving front line employees in industrial engineering projects through work simplification projects or activity. Shingo was conducting training programs to educate engineers and supervisors in process improvement. In that capacity he conducted more 85 training programs in Toyota Motors. But, Shingo was himself doing many improvement projects and developing theory, principles and methods. He wrote number of books also.

Industrial engineering in Toyota Motors became more popular as kaizen. Actually, it was an American initiative that made the work Kaizen popular in Japan in the context of promoting industrial way of improving production processes. Thus the kaizen specialist appeared in Japana. Bicheno suggests that a kaizen specialist should be capable of performing value engineering in product design and development (Bicheno, 2000). Gradually, the demand on the kaizen specialist to acquire more skills was made and he was asked to become capable of performing environmental scanning using complex such as the x-matrix, Porter's matrix and other sophisticated diagnostic tools to do benchmarking and maintain competitive advantage in the area of efficiency of the organization (Jackson, 2006). That pursuit resulted in his advocating and implementing cellular manufacturing, production flow analysis and supply chain infrastructure design (Askin & Goldberg, 2002; Srinivasan, 2004). In these contexts, the kaizen specialist is illustrated as person that exists within an organization to advance efficiency concepts in highly specialized areas.  The kaizen specialist is expected to work with employees utilizing team-based worker participation activities often referred to as kaizen events.  They must have the ability to lead groups. Martin and Osterling state that these specialists should be armed with PowerPoint kick-off material, masking tape, whiteboards, post-it notes and kaizen team t-shirts etc. to form the group and get it going in the right direction with enthusiasm (Martin & Osterling, 2007). A successful kaizen event is one where the specialist can get employees to get involved and feel they have ownership (Tapping, 2007). While workers are more involved, the kaizen specialist is still responsible for the results and outcome. Kaizen events are popular because they have been used to accelerate productivity improvements in a short amount of time (Mika, 2006).

Eiji Toyoda, former chairman, once said “At Toyota, Kaizen is in the air.” He meant that you will breathe kaizen in Toyota’s plants, because you can see everybody is working to improve. Toyota’s DNA is Kaizen. Kaizen is a Japanese word which means continual improvement. But at Toyota, Kaizen means everyday improvement in ‘gemba’ or the shop floor (Masaki Imai).

Askin, R., & Goldberg, J. (2002). Design and analysis of lean production systems. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Bicheno, J. (2000). The Lean Toolbox. Buckingham, England: PICSIE Books.

Going, C. (1911). Principles of industrial engineering. London: Hill Publishing Co., Ltd, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

Imai, Masaki, http://www.autofocusasia.com/management/kaizen_toyota_success.htm

Jackson, T. (2006). Hoshin Kanri for the lean enterprise. New York: Productivity Press.

Martin, K., & Osterling, M. (2007). The kaizen event planner: Achieving rapid improvement in office, service and technical environments. New York: Productivity Press.

Mika, G. (2006). Kaizen: Event implementation manual (5th Ed.). Dearborn, MI: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Ohno, T. (1988). Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production. New York: Productivity Press.

Shingo, S. (2005). A study of the Toyota Production System: From an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint. New York: CRC Press, Taylor Francis Group.

Srinivasan, M. (2004). Streamlined: 14 Principles for Building and Managing the Lean Supply Chain. USA: Thomson.

Tapping, D. (2007). The Lean Pocket Book Handbook for Kaizen Events. USA: MCS Media, Inc.

The article is an adapted excerpt from: Marksberry, P., & Parsley, D. (2011). Managing the IE (Industrial Engineering) Mindset: A quantitative investigation of Toyota’s practical thinking shared among employees. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 4(4), 771-799.

For Production Engineering Manager 0919 job Toyota requires industrial engineering knowledge and experience.

Qualifications and Experience:

Minimum Qualification NQF6 (360 Credits) in an engineering related field
Project management advantageous
Experience in industrial engineering in Assembly environment essential
Good technical knowledge of Assembly production systems
Knowledge of PLC programming advantageous
Knowledge of ISO 9000 & 14001 requirements essential
High level of computer literacy is needed for this position (excel, word, auto cad, sap)

Handbook of Data and System Improvement Information for Industrial Engineering

For effective practice of systems improvement in the area of engineering activities, business activities and management activities, industrial engineering discipline requires a Handbook of Data and Information related to engineering, business processes and managerial processes. But such a handbook was not produced so far. Maynard's Handbook describes various techniques of industrial engineering but does not provide any data or templates which industrial engineers can use for systems improvement.

Taylor suggested in his article "A Piece Rate System" that  a handbook on the speed with which work can be done, similar to handbooks in various engineering disciplines. Taylor worked on both machine speeds and speed of human operators. But unfortunately such a handbook was not produced by industrial engineering profession so far.

Scientific management: A History and Criticism by Horace Bookwalter Drury - Book Information

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: A History and Criticism


Lecturer in Industrial Organization
University of California



London : P. S. King & Son, Ltd.




A History of Scientific Management



The Meaning of Scientific Management . 15

1. The Origin of the Term 15

2. The Movement Briefly Described 23

3. The Boundaries of Scientific Management 2S


Early Attempts AT A Solution OF THE Wages Problem 31

1. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 32

2. The Wages Problem 33

3. Profit Sharing 3

4. Plenry R. Towne's  Gain-Sharing 39

5. Frederick A. Halsey's " Premium Plan " 43

6. The » Rowan Plan " 5 ^


The Genesis of the Principles of Scientific Management .... 54

1. The First Scientific Management 55

a. Elementary Time Study 57

b. The DifFerential Rate . . . 6l

c. Conclusions 64

2. The Scope of Scientific Management Enlarged 67

a. The First Phase of the Larger Scientific Management : Securing the
Initiative of the Workmen 68

b. The Second Phase of the Larger Scientific Management : Improving
Methods of Work 70

(1) Standardization of Tools and Equipment 71

(2) Routing and Scheduling 74

(3) Instruction Cards 75

(4) Motion Study 79

(5) Selection of Workmen 81

(6) Supplies 82

(7) Symbols 83

(8) Conclusions 85

c. The Third Phase of the Larger Scientific Management: Organization 87

3. Scientific Management in Adjustment 91


Lives of the Leaders — Including certain Contributions to the Enrichment of Scientific Management 93

1. Frederick Winslow Taylor 98

2. Henry L. Gantt I02

3. Carl G. Barth 106

4. Horace K. Hathaway 109

5. Morris L. Cooke

6. Sanford E. Thompson 116

7. Frank B. Giibreth 118

8. Harrington Emerson 124

9. The Scientific Management Men as a Body 129

10. The Organization of the Scientific Management Movement 131


A Survey of the Trades and Plants in Which Scientific Management has been Introduced 134

1. The Present Status of the Historic Illustrations of Scientific Management 134

a. The Midvale Steel Company 134

b. The Bethlehem Steel Company 134

c. Bicycle Ball Bearing Inspection 138

d. Bricklaying 139

e. The Santa Fe 140

f. Conclusions as to the Fast of Scientific Management 143

2. A Study of Several Installations of Contemporary Importance 144

a. The Tabor Manufacturing Company 144

b. The Link-Belt Company 148

c. The Watertown Arsenal 152

d. The Cotton Industry 157

e. The II. H. Franklin Manufacturing Company 159

f. The Clothcraft Shops 160

3. Extent of the Introduction of Scientific Management 162

a. Scientific Management in America 162

b. Scientific Management Abroad 165



A Critical Review Of Important Aspects of Scientific Management



The Productivity of Scientific Management I75

1. The Value of the Initiative of Workmen 175

2. The Extent to which Planning may be Profitably Carried 179

3. The Place of Organization in Scientihc Management 183

4. How much can Scientific Management Increase the National Income ? . 1S5

Scientific Management as a Solution of the Labor Problem ... 190

1. The Views of the Organization Experts with Respect to Trade Unions . 191

2. A Sketch of the Relations between Scientific Management and Organized Labor

3. Is Scientific Management a Satisiactory Substitute for the Collective Bargain ?

a. Scientific Management Removes from Labor Some Incentives towards Organization 200

b. Scientific Management, however, does not Adequately Perform the
Functions of the Collective Bargain 203

4. The Possibility of Coordinating Trade Unionism and Scientific Management 211


The Human Side

1. The Charge that Employees are Overworked . 212

2. The Charge that Men are made Automatons 219

3. Promotion— Skill— Wages 224

4. The Humanizing of Management 228


Other Criticisms and Conclusions 231

1. Scientific Management but One Factor in Social Life 231

2. The Larger Significance of Scientific Management 233

3. Tiie Originality of Scientific Management 236

4. The Future

Index 245

Check archive.org

Industrial Engineering and Manufacturing Technician - Occupation in Canada

Industrial Engineering and Manufacturing Technician is an occupation in Canada.

See the description of the occupation by Canadian Supply Chain Sector Council.

International Asia Conference on Industrial Engineering and Management Innovation (IEMI2012) Proceedings - Book Information


Springer Publication

1763 pages

The International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management is sponsored by the Chinese Industrial Engineering Institution, CMES, which is the only national-level academic society for Industrial Engineering.

The conference is held annually. Being the largest and the most authoritative international academic conference held in China, it provides an academic platform for experts and entrepreneurs in the areas of  industrial engineering and management to exchange their research findings. Many experts in various fields from China and around the world gather together at the conference to review, exchange, summarize and promote their achievements in the fields of industrial engineering and engineering management. For example, some experts pay special attention to the current state of the application of related techniques in China as well as their future prospects, such as green product design, quality control and management, supply chain and logistics management to address the need for, amongst other things low-carbon, energy-saving and emission-reduction. They also offer opinions on the outlook for the development of related techniques. The proceedings offers impressive methods and concrete applications for experts from colleges and universities, research institutions and enterprises who are engaged in theoretical research into industrial engineering and engineering management and its applications. As all the papers are of great value from both an academic and a practical point of view, they also provide research data for international scholars who are investigating Chinese style enterprises and engineering management.

The first paper is on TRIZ

Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer - Contribution to Industrial Engineering



Regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of manufacturing of Japan for his contributions to improving manufacturing processes, Shigeo Shingo has been described as an “engineering genius.”  He has authored several books including, A Study of the Toyota Production System; A Revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED System; Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and the Poka-yoke System; The Sayings of Shigeo Shingo: Key Strategies for Plant Improvement; and Non-Stock Production: The Shingo System for Continuous Improvement.
I studied his book The Sayings of Shigeo Shingo: Key Strategies for Plant Improvement first. This book is full of short stories that explain the strategies for plant improvement.


Shigeo Shingo was born in 1909 at Saga City, Japan. His date of birth was given as 8 January in a website.  He attended the Saga Technical High School and graduated from Yamanashi Technical College. In 1930 he went to work for the Taipei Railway Company.

In 1943 shingo was transferred to the Amano Manufacturing Plant in Yokohama. As Manufacturing Section Chief, he raised productivity 100% [strategosinc].

Shigeo Shingo's Association with JMA

Shigeo Shingo joined the Japan Management Association (JMA) as a management consultant in 1945.

One of his first projects was at Hitachi Ltd.’s vehicle manufacturing plant in Kasado, Japan.  Here he clarified  that the objective of industrial engineering was to improve the process, not the individual operations in isolation, and that any improvement to the operations must be measured by its contribution to the improvement of the process.

In 1950, while working at Toyo Kogyo, Shingo came out with idea that setup operation is composed of “internal setup” (IED) and “external setup” (OED).  Seven years later at Mitsubishi Shipbuilding’s Hiroshima shipyards he further developed exchange of dies process with the concept of shifting IED to OED.

In 1954, Morita Masanobu of Toyota Motor Co. attended one of Shingo’s courses.  When he returned to Toyota, he applied some of the concepts he had learned and achieved great results.  One year later, Shingo was invited to Toyota and began industrial engineering and factory improvement training at Toyota for both its employees and parts suppliers.  At that point, at just short of 10 years with JMA, he had worked with over 300 companies to improve manufacturing process and had taught his innovative concepts to hundreds of manufacturing professionals in Japan.
Shingo began his association with Taichi Ohno of Toyota in 1956, a relationship that would last for over twenty years.  Shingo was regarded as a teacher who could solve problems and develop new techniques while Ohno was the passionate visionary.  Shingo created and wrote about many aspects of the revolutionary manufacturing practices which became components of  the renowned Toyota Production System.  When asked whether it was he or Ohno that created the Toyota Production System, Shingo took full credit, saying, "I did, for I was Ohno's teacher."  (JMA)   Ohno successfully applied many of Shingo’s concepts such as SMED and Poka-yoke which led to great success for Toyota. But Shingo wrote in his book that he was challenged by Taichi Ohno to come out with SMED and Shingo could come out with SMED. Shingo used his expertise with die changing process under the challenge put forward by Ohno to come out with the SMED process.

Shingeo Shingo left the Japan Management Association in 1959 to found the Institute of Management Improvement. 

Recognition and Awards

Utah State University recognized Dr. Shingo for his lifetime accomplishments with an Honorary Doctorate in Business in 1988 and began awarding the Shingo Prize for Excellence in Manufacturing to companies that demonstrate excellence in manufacturing practices which translate into excellent customer satisfaction and business results.


JMA, Shingo with Japan Management Association,

Contribution of Shigeo Shingo to Industrial Engineering

More articles by Narayana Rao on Shigeo Shingo

Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer - Books By Shingo
Shigeo Shingo - Famous Industrial Engineer of Japan - Videos

Toyota Production System - IE Point of View - Shigeo Shingo

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System Chapter 1 to 3 of the book - Presentation
Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo Chapters 4 to 10
Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo Chapter 11 of the book

Poka Yoke

Poka-Yoke - Shigeo Shingo

The SMED System: Shigeo Shingo's Explanation
Eight Steps or Principles for SMED - Shigeo Shingo
SMED Case Studies and Examples - Shigeo Shingo
SMED - Single Minute Exchange of Dies - An Industrial Engineering Innovation

Shingo's Contribution to Toyota Production System
Shingo with Japan Management Association
Shingo - Some Resources
Original Knol - Number 1907

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Lean Manufacturing Issues in India - 2014

Lean Manufacturing

Lean manufacturing is a conceptual framework based on implementation of industrial engineering in an innovative way by Toyota executives. Now certain principles are derived from it. Its objective is to improve productivity by reducing  waste and decreasing cycle time. .  LMS has shorter manufacturing and new product lead times; team based work organization with responsibility for producing finished products and components of acceptable quality with self inspection in just in time manner. JIT system also employs a smaller supplier  base providing JIT deliveries.

Lean concepts form part of  world-class manufacturing philosophies that advocate utilizing the resources efficiently and effectively. .

The survey, the results of which are summarised in this post,  is based on  71 respondents from thirty two Industries and 63 from forty two Technical Institutions in India.

The key issues for any organization to implement LMS

They are identified as follows:

Inventory: For the implementation of LMS, 27 % and 39 % respondents rate Inventory as a very important and important issue respectively. Reduction of inventory is the basis for JIT.

The cumulative 56 % response indicates that majority consider inventory as a key issue.

Lead-time: For the implementation of LMS, 31 % and 30 % respondents rate Lead-time as a very important and important issue respectively. Reduction of cycle time is another important issue to lean journey.

LMS find out the wastage to time in the processes and eliminate it on regular basis.

Rejection: For the implementation of LMS, 21 % and 11 % respondents rate rejection as a very important and important issue respectively. Rejections have to be brought down to reduce cycle time as well as inventory

This response indicates that more attention has to be paid towards rejection control to improve lead-time and quality of the products. LMS helps in control rejection.

Transportation Cost: For the implementation of LMS, 4 % and 40% respondent's rate transportation cost as a very important and important issue respectively.  Indian companies have to come out with transport solutions that make small lot transportation compete with large lot transportation.

Transportation time and cost play a big role in Inventory accumulation. A proper logistic management will help Indian organizations to reduce the transportation as well as inventory cost. For example In India M/s Transystem Logistics does "Milk runs" for Toyota Kirloskar Motor's (TKM) manufacturing plant (Gupta, 2003) and it  helps TKM to work on the principles of JIT as well as to optimize the inventory levels. LMS advocates the removal of the waste in transportation.

Break down Maintenance: For the implementation of LMS, 13 % and 34% respondent's rate break down maintenance as a very important and important issue respectively. Breakdowns have to be brought down.
Without high availability of machines with proper maintenance it is very difficult to commit deliveries and maintain quality. With a proper maintenance system, which leads to TPM, LMS improve the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).

House keeping: For the implementation of LMS, 19 % and 39 % respondents rate house keeping as a very important and important issue respectively. This shows people understand the importance of clean and visible work place.

A good house keeping is required to pick the required items quickly and start the work.  The principles of motion economy recommend keeping all item in designated places and Japanese 5 S program incorporates it.and it became a  basic principle of LMS.

Product Design / Changes in Design: For the implementation of LMS, 19 % and 34 % respondent's rate product design and design changes as a very important and important issue respectively. Value engineering exercise is important for reducing waste that exist due to product designs.In today's competitive world where the variety of products decides any organization's market share, proper management of Product design and its changes is very important. LMS is extended to design activity also in Japan. It helps for a speedy product design and its changes.

Process Selection: For the implementation of LMS, 22 % and 30 % respondents rate Process selection as a very important and important issue respectively. Cellular manufacturing has to be followed.A proper selection of process decides the throughput time, effective utilization of the available resources such as machines, skilled manpower etc. LMS declares overprocessing as a waste and thus helps to identify process waste and  makes selection of a proper process an important decision.

Supplier & Vendor Relations: For the implementation of LMS, 30 % and 27 % respondents rate Supplier Relations as a very important and important issue respectively. For implementing JIT there has to be change in supplier and vendor relations

For the implementation of LMS, 28 % and 24 % respondents rate vendor relations as a very important and important issue respectively. As discussed earlier mutual trust and win-win strategy with suppliers and vendors helps to strengthen the whole supply chain. A healthy relationship with suppliers is possible with the implementation of LMS as well as it is the base for LMS.

Material Handling: For the implementation of LMS, 22 % and 33 % respondents rate Material handling as a very important and important issue respectively. Material handling can be redesigned to increase efficiency.

Waste identification and elimination in material handling system through LMS leads to Lead-time improvement; reduce throughput time reduction and minimization of rejections due to transportation.

Information Technology: For the implementation of LMS, 27 % and 40 % respondents rate Information Technology as a very important and important issue respectively. JIT systems do require MRP and other planning techniques.

It is very clear for the response that use of IT in every field of operations will help to take decisions at faster rate and accurately. IT helps to minimize the wastage due to repetitive nature of work. It also save a lot of time, which is very crucial in today's competitive world. A well planned IT system for the business is must to implement LMS in any organization.

The key issues for the purpose of Inventory Management:

Small Batch Production: For the implementation of LMS, 18 % and 30 % respondents rate small batch production keeping as a very important and important issue respectively. For better lead time and variety products small batch production is the need of hour. It also helps to maintain the Inventory level. LMS principles support organizations to produce small batch production.

Setup time reduction: For the implementation of LMS, 27% and 33 % respondents rate setup time reduction as a very important and important issue respectively. To produce small batch production setup time reduction is very essential. Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) principles developed by Shingo (1989) helps the person on shop floor to reduce the setup time.

Nearby Suppliers: For the implementation of LMS, 15 % and 43 % respondents rate nearby suppliers as a very important and important issue respectively. For faster delivery of components / material nearby suppliers are still considered very well owing to the logistics problem in India. Also the amount of follow up required with suppliers and vendors can be reduced with a proper online system and mutual trust. The global market provides an opportunity to select suppliers and vendors from any part of the world.

Nearby Customers: For the implementation of LMS, 10 % and 45 % respondents rate nearby customers as a very important and important issue respectively. This shows that some times logistics related problems affect the decision of entering in far away markets. But in today's world a manufacturer has little choice of customer selection.

Direct Online Suppliers: For the implementation of LMS, 25 % and 30 % respondents rate Direct Online suppliers as a very important and important issue respectively. The impact of Information Technology in our day to day life is reflecting in the supply chain management. LMS helps to design Lean Supply Chain.

The key issues in the area of Quality are analyzed as under

Process Control: For the implementation of LMS, 46 % and 33 % respondents rate Process Control as a very important and important issue respectively. As the selection of process is important, its control is also important from the LMS point of view. A controlled process will produce defect free products consistently, which is necessary for the implementation of LMS.

Vendor Development: For the implementation of LMS, 21 % and 31 % respondents rate Vendor Development as a very important and important issue respectively. Vendor development is the aspect on which every organization is working seriously. In today's outsourcing world the effectiveness of the supply chain depends more on the vendors and suppliers. The success of LMS depends on the proper network of loyal vendors.

Level of Automation: For the implementation of LMS, 24 % and 42 % respondents rate Automation as a very important and important issue respectively. Many persons see automation as an alternative to manual work owing to its numerous advantages, but in Indian conditions we have to adopt it very carefully looking to the cost involvement.

Measurement of Quality: For the implementation of LMS, 31 % and 37 % respondents rate Quality measurement as a very important and important issue respectively. Measurement is required to understand the present level of rework and for improving it.

The quality of products at every stage of manufacturing is very important in LMS and thus to ensure it a quality measurement system should be in its place.

The key issues in the area of Maintenance

They are analyzed as under

Spare Parts Management: For the implementation of LMS, 24 % and 51 % respondents rate house keeping as a very important and important issue respectively. The cumulative 75 % importance level clearly indicates that non-availability of spare parts causes great difficulty for maintenance of equipment. Thus it is very crucial to have right spare parts available at right time and in right quantity.

Cleanliness: For the implementation of LMS, 31 % and 27 % respondents rate cleanliness as a very important and important issue respectively. A good housekeeping and cleanliness provides a base for any advanced manufacturing system.

Application of TPM: For the implementation of LMS, 21 % and 52 % respondents rate Total Productive Maintenance as a very important and important issue respectively. The availability of equipment at the required time is must for the implementation of LMS and it is possible only with the application of TPM.

Worker's participation: For the implementation of LMS, 39 % and 39 % respondents rate worker's participation as a very important and important issue respectively. It is not true only for the maintenance issues as asked in questionnaire but in all aspect of LMS. The active participation of the entire workforce is sought for the success of any activity. The teamwork provides the perfect base for the implementation of LMS.


The authors made the conclusion that the participants in the survey are  clear about the concepts of LMS.

Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal > July 1, 2009
Nitin Upadhye, S G Deshmukh, Suresh Garg,

Barriers in Implementation of Lean Manufacturing System in Indian industry: A survey 

Rakesh Kumar
Research Scholar, Mechanical Engineering Department,
YMCA University of Science and Technology,
Faridabad-121006 (Haryana), India.
Dr. Vikas Kumar

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department,
YMCA University of Science and Technology,
Faridabad-121006 (Haryana), India.
Abstract: Lean Manufacturing system has been acknowledged by Indian industry as a capable system in enhancing organisational performance by focusing on elimination of waste from the manufacturing system and thus improving effectiveness of the organisation.  Though if used on full scale as organisational culture it can produce significant improvement in organisational performance. This paper has attempted to explore the key barriers in extensive implementation of Lean Manufacturing even after two decades of introduction with Indian industry.
International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)
Vol. 4 Issue 2 July 2014

A Qualitative Study on Barriers of Implementation of Lean Manufacturing: An Indian Cotext (Delhi NCR Region)
Akhil Kumar
The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES)
|| Volume || 3 || Issue || 4 || Pages || 21-28 || 2014 ||
ISSN (e): 2319 – 1813 ISSN (p): 2319 – 1805
www.theijes.com The IJES Page 21

BECOMING LEAN ENTERPRISE: THEORY AND CASE STUDIES - Company Based Customized Programmes and  Management Development Programme at NITIE, Mumbai, India

Lean Construction - The Toyota Industrial Engineering of Construction

Welcome to Lean Design & Construction!

Lean Construction Institute (LCI) is a non-profit organization, founded in 1997.
The Institute operates as a catalyst to transform the industry through lean project delivery using an operating system centered on a common language, fundamental principles, and basic practices. We have these broad goals:

Create Industry Demand for Lean
Grow and Sustain Members
Develop Lean Knowledge
Develop Lean Capacity
Develop Collaboration and Distribution Channels

Lean Construction Institute - Chicago
Community of Practice Events

Institute of Lean Construction of Excellence (ILCE). India
Indian engineers, managers and industry leaders are aware of lean construction and taking steps to implement it.
ILCE was established in India in 2008 as a partnership between construction industry leaders and academia.  

Lean construction has  answers to complete projects early, get business benefits without compromising on clients’ satisfaction, according to Dr. Subhash Rastogi, Executive Chairman of BT&BT.

2012 Address in Lean Construction Institute Conference


Lean Construction Journal


Published by the Lean Construction Institute since 2003, the Lean Construction Journal (LCJ) is an international refereed journal devoted to Lean Construction practice and research.

2004 paper

Patricia Tzortzopoulos1  and Carlos Torres Formoso2
Proceedings of IGLC 7

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

A Process Outlook for Industrial Engineering - Course Videos Information

Bilkent Online Courses

IE-102 A Process Outlook for Industrial Engineering
Prof. Nesim Erkip
2013-2014- Spring

Playlist of 34 Videos



Lean for Systems Engineering with Lean Enablers for Systems Engineering - Bodan W. Oppenheim - Book Information

John Wiley & Sons

It is a 'must read' for any engineer and manager trying to establish and maintain lean practices and principles in their systems engineering/product development processes.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction.

1.1 Introducing Lean Systems Engineering and Lean Enablers for Systems Engineering.

1.2 Organization of the Book.

2. A Brief History of Recent Management Paradigms.

2.1 From TQM to Six Sigma and Lean.

2.2 Lean Six Sigma.

3. Lean Fundamentals.

3.1 Value.

3.2 Waste.

3.3 Lean Principles.

3.4 The Lean Symphony of the Principles.

4. Lean in Product Development.

4.1 Review of Progress.

4.2 The Method of Lean Product Development Flow (LPDF).

5. From Traditional to Lean Systems Engineering.

5.1 Successes and Failures of Traditional Systems Engineering.

5.2 Waste in Traditional Systems Engineering.

5.3 Beginnings of Lean Systems Engineering.

5.4 Lean Systems Engineering Working Group of InCOSE.

5.5 Value in Lean Systems Engineering.

6. Development of Lean Enablers for Systems Engineering (LEfSE).

6.1 Strategy.

6.2 Development of LEfSE).

6.3 Survey.

6.4 Benchmarking with NASA and GAO Recommendations.

6.5 Version 1.0 and Awards.

7. Lean Enablers for System Engineering.

7.1 Organization.

7.2 Tables with Lean Enablers for Systems Engineering (LEfSE).

8. General Guidance for Implementation.

8.1 General Guidance for Implementing LEfSE.

8.2 Early Case Studies.

Glossary of Abbreviations.

Glossary of Idioms, Colloquialisms and Foreign Expressions (bold and italicized in the text).


Appendix 1. INCOSE Web Page with LEfSE.

Appendix 2. Mapping of LEfSE onto INCOSE SE Processes.