Saturday, November 30, 2019

Engineering Process Productivity Improvement - Process Charts - Industrial Engineering Analysis

Frank Gilbreth proposed the method of process charts to study and improve processes.

In the subsequent days, two process charts became important.

1. Operation Process Chart for study and improvement of material transformation operations and inspections.

2. Flow Process Chart that studies flow of the materials, components and finished item across operations, inspections, temporary delay points and permanent storage places. Transportation and stacking the material between work benches, inspection benches and storage/delay places, and even material handling to load and unload work pieces, work holding equipment, and tools are also transport and handling operations. Flow process chart can depict all types of flow, delay (store), and handling material.

Flow process chart shows five types of activities.

Temporary Delay
Permanent Storage.

Each of these activities can be analyzed using industrial engineering methods and studies.

More activities can be added to process charts to include more items needing analysis. Energy and information are two such items which are to be added to process charts.

Shigeo Shingo explained very well how Toyota Production System emerged from the process improvement based on flow process chart. He strongly stated the fact that Toyota Production System is the excellent output from industrial engineering promoted by Japan Management Association for many years.

Read Shigeo Shingo's explanation

Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering (TPS IE) Part 1

In each activity there are machine activities and manual activities.  Machine activities can be studied under machine work study (process industrial engineering) and manual activities using human effort industrial engineering (human work study).

Machine Work Study - Study Areas

Aspects of Machine to be Studied

Advanced Machine Availability
Condition of the Machine (Repair & Overhaul Need)
Improvement of the Machine
Cutting Tools
Machine Speeds
Setup Procedure
Upkeep of the machine by operator
Power consumption
Breakdowns analysis
Data Generation and Analysis

Industrial Engineering Analysis of Main Transformation Operation

The tools  and equipment used to perform the operation needs to analysed logically. The following questions are the sort that will lead to suggested improvements:

1. Is the machine tool best suited to the performance of the operation of all tools available?

2. Would the purchase of a better machine be justified?

3. Can the work be held in the machine by other means to better advantage?

4. Should a vise be used?

5. Should a jig be used?

6. Should clamps be used?

7. Is the jig design good from a motion-economy standpoint?

8. Can the part be inserted and removed quickly from the jig?

9. Would quick-acting cam-actuated tightening mechanisms be desirable on vise, jig, or clamps?

10. Can ejectors for automatically removing part when vise or jig is opened be installed?

11. Is chuck of best type for the purpose?

12. Would special jaws be better?

13. Should a multiple fixture be provided?

14. Should duplicate holding means be provided so that one may be loaded while machine is making a cut on a part held in the other?

15. Are the cutters proper?

16. Should high-seed steel or cemented carbide be used?

17. Are tools properly ground?

18. Is the necessary accuracy readily obtainable with tool and fixture equipment available?

10. Are hand tools pre-positioned ?

20. Are hand tools best suited to purpose?

21. Will ratchet, spiral, or power-driven tools save time?

22. Are all operators provided with the same tools?

23. Can a special tool be made to improve the operation?

24. If accurate work is necessary, are proper gages or other measuring instruments provided?

25. Are gages or other measuring instruments checked for accuracy from time to time?

Processing Operations Improvement - Illustrations - Shigeo Shingo's Book on IE Study of TPS 

Examples in the book

Manufacturing operations can be improved by alternatives related to proper melting or forging temperatures, cutting speeds or tool selection.

Examples related to vacuum molding, plating and plastic resin drying are given in the book.

Eliminating Flashing in Castings (Die)
Flashing in die castings occurs due to escape of air.
Removing the air in mould with a vacuum pump eliminated flashing.

Removing Foam in High-Speed Plating
Spraying or showering the surface to be painted resulted in a 75% reduction.

Drying Plastic Resin
Letting the resin dry a little at a time by allowing it to float to the surface resulted in a 75% reduction of electric power consumption.

Engineering/Technology Knowledge

Gideon Halevi, Process and Operation Planning, Kluwer Academic Publishers

Industrial Engineering Analysis of Inspections

Analysis of Inspection Operations

Shingo said normal inspection is judgment inspection.
It separates good and defective items.
Rework done on defective items if possible
Informative inspection asks for process improvement.
It is like medical examination that leads to treatment.

Statistical Process Control
SPC is sampling based informative inspection. But Shingo says even it is not sufficient to assure zero defects.

To assure zero defects we need to inspect every item but at low cost per item.

Shingo’s Suggestions
Informative Inspections

Self Inspection
Successive Inspection
Enhanced Self Inspection – Inspection enhanced with devices  - poka-yoke

Example  – Vacuum Cleaner Packing
Cleaner along with attachments and leaflets to be packed.
When a leaflet is taken from the pile,  a limit switch is operated.
When attachments are taken from the container, a limit switch is operated.
Then only, the full package is allowed to be sealed.
The purpose of inspection is prevention of the defect.
Quality can be assured when it is built in at the process and when inspection provides immediate and accurate feedback at the source to prevent the defective item to go further.
Self Inspection
It provides the most immediate feedback to the operator.
He can improve the process and also rework on the item.
Disadvantage inherent.
There is potential for lack of objectivity.
He may accept items that ought to be rejected.
Successive Inspection
The operator inspects the item for any defect in the previous operation before processing it.
Shingo says, when this was introduced defects dropped to 0.016% in Moriguchi Electric Company in television production
Inspection enhanced by Poka Yoke
Human operation and inspection can still make errors unintentionally.
Poka Yoke will take care of such errors.
Ex: Left and right covers are to be made from similar components with a hole in different places.
The press was fitted with a poka yoke which does right cover pressing only when the hole is in proper place.
Source Inspection
This is answering the question: What is the source of the defect in the process/operation?
Two types proposed.
Source Inspection – Vertical, Horizontal
Vertical source inspection traces problems back through the process flow to identify and control conditions external to the operation that affect quality.
Horizontal source inspection identifies and controls conditions within an operation that affect quality.
Poka-yoke Inspection Methods
Poka-yoke achieves 100% inspection through mechanical or physical control.
Poka-yoke can either be used as a control or a warning.
As a control it stops the process so the problem can be corrected.
As a warning, a buzzer or flashing lamp alerts the worker to a problem that is occurring.

Industrial Engineering Analysis of Transportation

Analysis of Transport Operations

Transport within the plant is a cost that does not add value.
Hence real improvement of the process eliminates the transport function as much as possible.
This involves improving the layout of process.

Ex – 7. Transport Improvement
Tokai Iron Works – process layout -  presses, bending machines, embossing
Layout Change: Flow based layout.
A 60 cm wide belt conveyor with ten presses on either side.
WIP reduced. Production time shortened. Delays disappeared.
200% increase in productivity.
Only after opportunities for layout improvement have been exhausted should the unavoidable transport work that remains be improved through mechanization.

Industrial Engineering Analysis of Delays 

Eliminating - Storage Operations (Delay)

Process Delay – Permanent storage – Whole lot is waiting
Lot Delays – Temporary storage – One item is being processed. Other items in the lot waiting.
Another classification is storage on the factory floor and storage in a controlled store.
Eliminating - Storage Operations (Delay)
There are three types of accumulations between processes:

E storage - resulting from unbalanced flow between processes  (engineering)
C storage - buffer or cushion stock to avoid delay in subsequent processes due to machine breakdowns or rejects (control)
S storage - safety stock; overproduction beyond what is required for current control purposes

Eliminating E-Storage

E-storage is due to engineering/planning/design of the production-distribution  system
This can be eliminated through leveling quantities, which refers to balancing flow between high and low capacity processes and synchronization.

Leveling would mean running high-capacity machines at less than 100% capacity, in order to match flow with lower capacity machines that are already running at 100% on short interval basis.
At Toyota, the quantity to be produced is determined solely by order requirements (Takt time).

Presence of high capacity machines should not be used to justify large lot processing and resulting inventory.
Process capacity should serve customer requirements/production requirements and should not determine them
The lots especially one piece lot is processed without delay in a flow.
It is efficient production scheduling that ensures that once quantities are leveled (output is matched), inventories do not pile at any stage due to scheduling conflicts.
Synchronize the entire process flow.

Eliminating C storage - Cushion

Cushion stocks compensate for:
machine breakdowns,
defective products,
downtime for tool and die changes and
sudden changes in production scheduling.

Eliminate Cushion Storage
Prevent machine breakdowns:
Determining the cause of machine failure at the time it occurs, even if it means shutting down the line temporarily.
Total Productive Maintenance movement.

Eliminate Cushion Storage
Zero Defect Movement.
Total quality management.
Use better inspection processes:
Self Inspection.
Successive Inspection.
Enhancement to inspection through Poka Yoke
Eliminate Cushion Storage
Eliminate Lengthy setups and tool changes
Implement SMED to eliminate long set-up times and tool changes
Running smaller batch sizes to allow for quick changes in production plans

Eliminate Cushion Storage
Absorb Change in Production Plan
Running smaller batch sizes allows for quick changes in production plans without disturbing flow production to significant extent.

Eliminating Safety (S) storage

Safety stock is kept not to take care of any predicted problem but to provide additional security
It may guard against delivery delays, scheduling errors, indefinite production schedules, etc.
Ex. 10 Delivery to stores
In example 2.10 Shingo mentions a company wherein vendors supply to store and from store components are supplied to assembly line.
Shingo suggested that vendors should directly supply the day’s requirements to assembly floor and in case of any problem, components in the store can be used.
Less Need for Safety Stock Observed
That practice led to the observation that very less safety stock is needed in the store.

Shingo recommends keeping a small controlled stock that is only used when the daily or hourly scheduled delivery fails or falls behind.
In case of unexpected defects also it can be used.

The safety stock can then be replenished when the scheduled materials arrive, but the supply of materials due for the process go directly to the line, rather than normally going into storage first.
This is the essence of the just-in-time supply method.

Eliminating lot delays
While lots are processed, the entire lot, except for the one piece being processed, is in storage (is idle).
The greatest reduction in production time can be achieved when transport lot sizes are reduced to just one; the piece that was just worked on.

Using SMED (single-minute exchange of dies), set up time is decreased so large lot sizes are no longer necessary to achieve machine operating efficiencies.
SMED facilitates one item lot sizes.

Layout Improvement - Flow
Transportation changes can be accomplished through flow  layout and using gravity feed Chutes which result in shorter production cycles and decreases in transport man-hours.

Reducing Cycle Time
Generally, semi-processed parts are held between processes 80% of the time in a production cycle time.
It quantity leveling is used and synchronization of flow is created, the cycle time can be reduced by 80%.
By shifting to small lot sizes will further reduce cycle time.

TPS – Reduction of Delays or Storage
Methods of reducing production time delays (JIT) is the foundation of Toyota Production System.
It clearly brings down production cycle time and thereby offers small order to delivery time.

Industrial Engineering Analysis of Storage

Storage/Warehouse Improvement

Conventional warehouses: Simple, yet effective
As the industry continues unprecedented transformation, some of the classic approaches still hold up.
Josh Bond, Senior Editor · October 14, 2019

Improving Your Manufacturing Operations Using Warehouse Automation 
June 27, 2019
Blog post written by John Hinchey, VP of Sales for Westfalia Technologies, Inc., a leading provider of logistics solutions for plants, warehouses and distribution centers.

Proposing a new framework for lean warehousing: first experimental validations
Conference Paper,   2017

Lean warehousing plays a significant role in order to achieve lower costs of logistics operations and increase flexibility and efficiency in  supply chains.  . This paper proposes a novel lean warehousing framework combining three well-known lean tools and presents the first outcomes of its validation campaign. It discusses the framework application to a raw material and component warehouse of an international company in the automotive sector. Results show that time savings up to 36% might be achieved in receiving, put away, and picking operations, bringing significant economic benefits in terms of labour, service level, and warehouse space.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

SMT Machine - Production Line - Machine Work Study - Machine Productivity Improvement

Increasing efficiency of SMT

SMT is a system engineering project that involves components and their packaging and tape form, PCB, materials and accessories, design, manufacturing technology and production process, equipment and spare parts, tooling, inspection and management. Production technology, only focusing on a certain link or a certain number of links, can not achieve a good sense of good operation. In the past, some enterprises have a misunderstanding of understanding, and it is considered that the placement equipment is used well and SMT is running well. The actual situation is not so simple, all the links that make up SMT are interrelated.

The design process is not a traditional design idea. It requires technical decision makers and designers to understand and use SMT from a deep level, familiar with equipment and processes, and use and promote SMT on new products and technologies.
Included first in Process Planning - Bibliography

SMT (surface mount technology) component placement systems, commonly called pick-and-place machines or P&Ps, are robotic machines which are used to place surface-mount devices (SMDs) onto a printed circuit board (PCB). They are used for high speed, high precision placing of broad range of electronic components, like capacitors, resistors, integrated circuits onto the PCBs which are in turn used in computers, consumer electronics as well as industrial, medical, automotive, military and telecommunications equipment.

How does SMT electronics assembly work?

Electronics manufacturing using surface-mount technology (SMT) simply means that electronic components are assembled with automated machines that place components on the surface of a board (printed circuit board, PCB).

(SMT) Line Productivity Improvement

Intelligent IoT Connected SMT System
Intelligent Factory
IoT/M2M Integration system - System allows linking our SMT machines to equipment made by other companies and give all-around high productivity in the mounting process.

High Speed YAMAHA SMT Production Line
YAMAHA SMT Assembly line
YAMAHA PCB Assembly line
YAMAHA SMT production line
YAMAHA PCB production line
Product description: High Speed YAMAHA SMT Production Line, with 2 High speed Yamaha Z LEX YSM20R and 1 multifunciton Yamaha YSM10,
Mounting speed can reach 200000 CPH. Really fast for Mobile phone, LED light production,

Smart SMT Lines
Production – Maximum performance, maximum quality
Let your SMT lines run non-stop and gain a competitive advantage through maximum productivity and quality.

Improving printed circuit board surface mount technology (SMT) line productivity with preventative maintenance and cause and effect analysis
By Lee Whiteman

Line Efficiency and Assembly Environment Benchmarking Study,CEERIS Report

The number of components assembled per pick-and-place machine per staffed hour averages 2,340 for the entire sample. It reaches 2,480 at OEMs and is 2,300 at CMs.

Our team will assist you to achieve the highest level of productivity, achieving the best CPH, UPH, and yield through our proposed solutions.

Author: S. Manian Ramkumar
Company: Rochester Institute of Tech.
Date Published: 2/5/2002   Conference: Pan Pacific Symposium

Create an Optimized SMT Production Plan



4 March 2017

How to make a PCB prototyping with UV soldermask - STEP by STEP
1,668,835 views•19 Nov 2016


Making PCB with 3D printer and permanent marker
820,335 views•29 Mar 2015
Lamja Electronics


FreePCB is used to create PCB layout and a gerber-file. Flatcam is used to generate g-code for  K8200 3D-printer. A sharp metal rod is then used for removing the ink from the copper clad, and then it was etched with ferric chloride.

I think using photoresist film is better, cheap and efficient than this

i think using a laser printer is pretty easy honestly.
Laser cutter? Maybe not on Cu.

you will be faster if u use a PCB with foto active skinn and then make a print with UV light. Tought u use it to remove all copper, what would make sense, about then is no chemical need.

can u mod it to be a cnc machine? it sounds nicer.

why not just print stencil with marker, instead of scratching it with rod?

G code needs improvement. g code generator is not working right.  No reason that needs to do so many z retracts for this.  Too much time up & down, not enough time contact & move.

It is taking more time than other pcb milling machines. The first trace is made 5-6 rounds around that to make it right.

Why not let the printer draw the circuits with a Marker modification? you save much more ink and its cheaper? thanks

 this would not function as an actual PCB. If I am missing something please let me know.

Don't bother etching with ferric in a bath..just take a sponge and rubber gloves..apply straight onto the board and rub for 1 minute...use denatured alcohol to remove ink. I got a stepcraft cnc and will use that to drill out the holes AND plot the design.

For small PCBs, its not worth the time to design and build a PCB, when I can wire it up and solder it in less than an hour.

SMT Process Description

17 Steps  - Machines

mounts 20,900 chips per hour.

Industrial Engineering and Lean Manufacturing Concept

The persons in leadership roles in industrial engineering discipline have failed industrial engineering discipline.  Peter Drucker, the management guru highlighted the issue. They have not augmented industrial engineering discipline adequately and ceded ground to other professional associations mainly because they pursued short term incomes following the latest successful fad without developing the IE discipline through appropriate research and method development and improvement efforts.

IE is very broad in its foundation purpose to contribute to any technology developed in any engineering branch. Similary is it has the mandate to respond to any development in management or in any social science. Developments in other subjects strengthen IE. They do not weaken its purpose or practice.

Lean Has Failed!
Jim Womack in  Planet Lean

On the occasion of  the 20th anniversary of the founding of the Lean Enterprise Institute and the 10th anniversary of the Lean Global Network  – Womack said that he was thinking about the original promise of the lean movement  created by the books "The Machine That Changed the World in 1990" and "Lean Thinking in 1996.“

Failures of lean is an idea in that thinking.

The article by Michel Baudin discusses the issue further.

I made a comment on it. I have taken important points from others comments and replies. You can read full comments from the above Baudin's post.

Narayana Rao KVSS
SEPTEMBER 11, 2017 @ 10:00 PM
Comment on LinkedIn:

I attended the 2017 Annual Conference of IISE and presented Principles of Industrial Engineering. Lean systems as systems having 50% or 100% productivity advantage was a correct description for what TPS achieved in comparison to other earlier productive organizations. It is a wrong strategy to ignore the earlier productivity improvement discipline “industrial engineering’ altogether. The lean movement would have succeeded to a more extent if industrial engineers were included in the strategic thrust right from the start. Yes, still what Womack says is right. The lean transformation of systems giving a significant boost to productivity has to be continued by finding root causes for the delay in transformation projects and lower than expected results.

A reply by  Ashok Motwani

Where is an evidence that industrial engineering was ignored when Lean ‘movement’ was started and was part of some strategy?

My reply Narayana Rao KVSS
SEPTEMBER 11, 2017 @ 10:11 PM

Yes. The books on lean by Womack actually criticized IE. They did not interpret lean as an advance in IE or productivity movement. They did not recommend adding lean section in IE. They recommended a separate lean promotion office without any reference to IE department. In the Pittsburgh conference, I actually heard from professional IEs, that they were ignored by the lean movement.

Michel Baudin replied

There are many types of engineering involved with manufacturing, but essentially ignored by the bulk of the “Lean movement.” Under the Lean flag,  people like Art Smalley or JT Black and myself. did not ignore them.

Process engineers work on the physics and chemistry of the manufacturing process in laboratories; manufacturing engineers on process planning in the factory or shop floor. industrial engineers  work on the shop floor to improve the process on a continuous basis to reduce costs further.

Social scientists downplay the engineering dimension of TPS because they don’t understand it.

Lonnie Wilson then commented

I am amazed that Womack and other academics who studied rather than implemented Lean have become such thought leaders. "I would add that the key is to understand it. That understanding comes from actually doing it….and doing it as a manager within a company, rather than doing is as a consultant at arms length…"

Michel Baudin
Good managers don’t always make good consultants and vice versa. The two are different professions, best suited for different personalities and require different skill sets.

In manufacturing, before becoming consultants, I think people should first put in 5 to 10 years as engineers or managers in a manufacturing company after coming out of school. If they are comfortable in that environment and adept at managing their careers in it, they are better off staying and rising through the ranks.

Machine Cost and Work Measurement - Time and Cost Estimates for Metal Forming Processes

Estimation of Forging Cost and Time

Material Estimation for the Forging

Expected Losses in Forging

The losses expected in forging are:

(i) Scale loss.
(ii) Flash loss.
(iii) Tonghold loss.
(iv) Sprue loss.
(v) Shear loss.

(i) Scale loss

When the material used in forging, iron is heated at a high temperature in atmospheric conditions a thin film of iron oxide is formed all round the surface of the heated metal.  The iron oxide film falls from the surface of the metal on being beaten up by the hammer. This is termed scale loss and it depends upon the surface area, heating time and the type of material. For forgings under 5 kg, the loss is 7.5 per cent of the net weight, and for forgings from 5 to 12.5 kg and over an addition of 6 per cent and 5 per cent of the net weight is expected as the scale loss.

(ii) Flash loss

This is a loss related to die forging or machine forging.

There is a certain quantity of metal which comes between the flat surfaces of the two dies after
the die cavity has been filled in. This material equal to the area of the flat surface is a wastage. For
finding the flash loss, the circumference is determined which multiplied by cross-sectional area of
flash will give the volume of the flash. The volume multiplied by material density gives the flash loss. Generally, it is taken as 3 mm thick and 2 mm wide all round the circumference.

(iii) Tonghold loss

This is the loss of material due to a projection at one end of the forging to be used for holding it
with a pair of tongs and turning it round and round to give the required cross section in drop forging.
About 1.25 cm and 2.5 cm of the size of the bar is used for tonghold. The tonghold loss is equal to
the volume of the protections. For example, the tonghold volume loss for a bar of 2 cm diameter and tonghold length 2 cm will be  (π/4)*2(cube) =   1.25 cm(cube)

(iv) Sprue loss

The connection between the forging and tonghold is called the sprue or runner. The material loss
due to this portion of the metal used as a contact is called sprue loss. The sprue must be heavy
enough to permit lifting the workpiece out of the impression die without bending. The sprue loss is
generally 7.5 per cent of the net weight.

(v) Shear loss

In forging, the long bars or billets are cut into required length by means of a sawing machine.
The material consumed in the form of saw-dust or pieces of smaller dimensions left as defective
pieces is called shear loss. This is usually taken as 5% of the net weight.

Thus nearly 15 to 20% of the net weight of metal is lost during forging. The expected loss of material has to  be added to the net weight to get the gross weight of the material.

Forging Cost

The cost of a forged component consists of following elements:
(i) Cost of direct materials.
(ii) Cost of direct labour.
(iii) Direct expenses such as due to cost of die and cost of press.
(iv) Overheads.

(I) Direct material cost

Cost of direct materials used in the manufacture of a forged component are calculated by first determing the net weight based on component drawing and then adding expected losses.

(i) The net weight of forging

Net weight of the forged component is calculated from the drawings by first calculating the
volume and then multiplying it by the density of the metal used.
Net weight = Volume of forging × Density of metal.

(ii) Gross weight
Gross weight is the weight of forging stone required to make the forged component. Gross
weight is calculated by adding expected losses.

Gross weight = Net weight + Material loss in the process.

In case of smith or hand forging, only scale loss and shear loss are to be added to net weight but
in case of die forging other machine related losses are also to be taken into account. 

(iii) Diameter and length of stock
The greatest section of forging gives the diameter of stock to be used and
Length of stock = (Gross weight)/[ Sectional area of stock× Density of material]

(iv) The cost of direct metal is calculated by multiplying the gross weight by price of
the raw material
Direct material cost = Gross weight × Price/kg.

(II) Direct labour cost

Direct labour cost = t × l
Where t = Time for forging per piece (in hrs)
l = Labour rate per hour

No general formula is given in books for forging. It has to be estimated internally using time study data of the past.

(III) Direct expenses
Direct expenses include the expenditure incurred on dies and other equipment, cost of using
machines and any other items, which can be directly identified with a particular product.

The method
of apportioning die cost and machine cost:

Apportioning of die cost Let cost of die = Rs. x
No. of components than can be produced using this die be  y components
Cost of die/component = Rs. x/y

Apportioning of machine (press) cost

Let cost of press = Rs. A
 Life of press be n years

 Life of press in hours = B =  n × 12 × 4 × 5 × 8 = 1920 n hours
(Assuming  12 months in a year, 4 weeks in a month, 5 days a week, 8 hours of working per day, 
Hourly machine price cost of production = A/B
No. of components produced per hour = N
Cost of using press per component = A/ (BN) Rs.

This excludes cost of power consumed and other consumables.

(IV) Overheads expenses

The overheads include supervisory charges, depreciation of plant and machinery, consumables,
power and lighting charges, office expenses etc. The overheads can be  expressed as percentage
of direct labour cost or machine hours.

The total cost of forging is calculated by adding the direct material cost, direct labour cost, direct
expenses and overhead.

Three hundred pieces of the bolt are to be made from 25 mm diameter rod. The head has to be 40 mm dia.  The length of the head is 22mm and the length of the remaining bolt is 113 mm. Find the
length of material required for forging by upsetting. What length of the rod is required if 4% of the length goes as scrap?

Volume of head of the bolt = (π/4)* D(square)* L

D = 40 mm
L = 22 mm
=  (π/4)* 40(square)*22  =   27,646 mm(cube)

Length of material required for making the head
= Volume/area of the blank  being used
In the problem the dia. of the blank used is 25 mm

Area =  (π/4)* 25(square)  =  490.6 mm

∴ Length of bar = 27,632/490.6 =  56.35 mm

Total length required for forming = 56.35 + 113 = 169.35 mm
Length of rod required for making 300 bolts = 169.35*300/1000     =   50.8 metre

Considering loss 4%,
Total length required = (50.8 + .4) × 50.8 = 71.12 metre

産業工学 - 定義 - Industrial Engineering in Japanese

Industrial Engineering - Definition


Industrial engineering is the engineering of human effort and system efficiency.

Narayana Rao
NITIE, Mumbai, India

Economics Engineering -

Production Efficiency Engineering - Industrial Engineering  - article

Manufacturing ideation method course [cost reduction course] that changes common sense

What is Real IE (Industrial Engineering)?

産業工学の原則  Industrial engineering principles

Principles  of  Industrial engineering

Sangyō kōgaku no gensoku

About improving Process Efficiency/Productivity and Reducing Cost of Production/Process.  #IndustrialEngineering

Process Industrial Engineering 

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


Industrial engineering is Gemba based (現場)  continuous engineering of products and processes to increase productivity/efficiency/cost reduction
80 - 20 Rule in Industrial Engineering - 80% Engineering - 20% Human Motions and Movements

Updated on 29 November 2019,  18 July 2019, 6 June 2012

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

80 - 20 Rule in Industrial Engineering - 80% Engineering - 20% Human Motions and Movements

"Industrial Engineering is System Efficiency Engineering and Human Effort Engineering."  - Narayana Rao.

Actually system efficiency engineering is sufficient description for industrial engineering scope and activity. But human effort engineering is added to highlight the fact that all among all engineering branches industrial engineering has the maximum focus on human effort in engineering systems. The role of man in machine system is studied in detail and engineering of the effort is done so that it is effective as per the requirement of the machine operation and efficient and comfortable to the operator;. 

Industrial engineering is 80% Engineering - 20% Human Motions and Movements

Industrial engineering is 80% Engineering

Industrial engineering adds value in  organizations through engineering changes that it identifies, develops, and installs in engineering systems in products, components, materials, machines, methods (machine operation steps specifications), energy related aspects and information system.

We can say industrial engineering is done on Inputs - Process - Output.

Industrial engineering is intensive engineering.

Engineering changes identified by industrial engineers demand use of engineering intensively and creatively to develop the engineering solution and implement it. It is in areas of complete product design, component design, material specification, machine specification, machine accessories and tooling specification, machine work holding specification, machine operation specification, mechanical handling of the material, maintaining atmospheric conditions in the shop and work cells, energy input and utilization, information generation, processing, storage, communication and action etc.

The study of human motions and movements and the time taken to make those motions does occupy only around 20% or less of industrial engineers' effort. 80% of the activities are in the area of engineering.

Effective and successful Industrial engineering practice requires engineers of highest calibre as in the role of industrial engineering they have to use full engineering knowledge to locate engineering change opportunities that will enhance productivity in any element of the engineering system. In comparison, core engineers can specialize in design of specific machine components and work on the topic for many years in their service. Not so in industrial engineering. From day one, industrial engineer has to remember much bigger set of engineering knowledge, keep abreast of technical developments and make effort to absorb them into the technology as fast as possible. 

Industrial engineering is continuous engineering of products and processes.

Industrial engineers work on the shop floor along with operating engineers and do engineering changes on a continuous basis and improve the products and processes  so that they are more productive and less costly and thus make sure that market grows for the product on a continuous basis. They do take care of many complaints of operators regarding process difficulties and make sure that process improvement is continuous.

We can say: What is IE?

Industrial engineering is Gemba based (現場)  continuous engineering of products and processes to increase productivity/efficiency/cost reduction.

Industrial Engineering - Principles and Practice



Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Industrial Engineering Accompanied by Cost Estimating

Industrial Engineering is System Efficiency Engineering. - Narayana Rao

It makes engineering changes to products and processes to increase their efficiency - increase their productivity which means reduction in costs.

In some defence related engineering/production organizations, industrial engineering department is given the responsibility of preparing cost estimates to support marketing activity also apart from preparing cost budgets for production departments and processes. It is a rational way of organizing and industrial engineering discipline has the required activities in place in theory to support cost estimation for marketing purposes. So, we can say industrial engineering departments have the necessary data and activities in place to support marketing related cost estimation and also production budget related cost estimation.

In this connection the following modified explanation of industrial engineering given in the web site is worth knowing.

What is the Industrial Engineering Method?

Definition: Industrial engineering method is a physical way of examining the relationship between cost drivers and costs by analyzing the inputs coming into the company, the outputs that are created, and the work that goes into the process. In other words, it is a detailed look at the entire production process and how that process affects the costs of an organization.

What Does Industrial Engineering Method Mean?
What is the definition of industrial engineering method? Regardless of the specifics of a manufacturing process, units go in and outputs are created at a manufacturing company. When there is a physical relation between those inputs and outputs, analyzing that relationship can help managers to examine and control costs. Industrial engineering measurements related to productivity and cost help in this. Time taken by machines and men is directly related to productivity of resources and cost of output. Therefore time studies that measure  how much direct machinery time and manpower time  is needed to produce a certain amount of output are conducted by industrial engineers. Time study is also the basic measurement for efficiency improvement. Reducing the machine hours and labour hours based on engineering modifications is the focus of industrial engineering. Hence every industrial engineering project or study begins with a time study, cost study, and productivity study. When an industrial engineering project is completed, its benefits are indicated by once doing a time study, cost study and productivity study. As an intermediate stage, estimates of time, cost and productivity are made by industrial engineers.

The site gives the example of a large business that manufactures curtains with some being cloth, dye, thread, machine hours, and labor, and output being  the finished curtain. Industrial engineering identifies the  physical relationships between the inputs and the output. It will measure or determine  how much of each input produces a certain amount of output (partial productivity of the input). For example, the finding that  it takes two hours of direct labor to produce twenty square feet of curtain is a useful piece of information.

Summary Definition
Definition of Industrial Engineering Method: It is a way of comparing cost drivers and objects to see how the company can make its operations more efficient.

What are the Basic Steps for Industrial Engineering + Cost Estimation

Understanding Processes and Costs

Receiving and Maintaining Product Designs and Process Plans
Receiving Cost Reports - Periodical Reports and Product Orderwise Reports, Productivity Reports

Analyzing Processes and Costs

Preparing Process Charts and Product Charts based on Shop Observation and Study in standard IE Charts and Diagrams. Analyzing Cost Information and Productivity Reports

Product Improvement, Process Improvement and Cost Reduction

Product Improvement, Process Improvement

Product Industrial Engineering


Process Industrial Engineering



Preparing new material requirement specifications and resource requirement specifications for products and processes and inputs. Time estimates or measurements prepared.

Preparing Cost estimates and doing Cost measurement after Improvement

Preparing Cost Estimates for Supporting Marketing Efforts/Quotations/Bids

Product Cost Estimates and Supporting Process Cost Estimates are done using the latest reduced costs. When feedback is given by marketing on these bids at various stages, they are studied and understood. The process repeats with the first step.

Engineering Cost Estimating
(  Defense acquisition made easy site)

The Engineering Cost Estimating method builds the overall cost estimate by summing detailed estimates done at lower levels of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). It’s a technique where the system being costed is broken down into lower-level components (such as parts or assemblies), each of which is costed separately for direct labor, direct material, and other costs. The estimates for direct labor hours are done using analyses of engineering drawings, standard time data and contractor or industry-wide standards.

Engineering estimates for direct material have to be made for  raw materials and purchase parts based on drawings and "make or buy" decision. The remaining elements of cost (overheads including specific items such as quality control) may be expressed in terms of the direct labor and material costs. The  cost estimates at lower component level  are aggregated or totaled and hence the method is called “bottoms-up” estimate). The use of engineering estimates requires extensive knowledge of a system’s (and its components’) characteristics both product design and process plan, and lots of detailed time study and cost study data.

Because of the high level of detail, each step of the work flow should be identified, measured, and tracked, and the results for each outcome should be summed to make the point estimate.

The  advantages to the Engineering Cost Estimating method include:

The estimator’s ability to determine exactly what the estimate includes and whether anything was overlooked,
That it gives good insight into major cost contributors, and
The details of one product can be transferred to other products.

To do engineering estimating, the product specification must be prepared at component level.
All product and process changes also must be communicated to IE department so that they are  reflected in the estimate

More detailed are available in

Defense Acquisition Guidebook (DAG)
GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide
NASA Cost Estimating Handbook – 2008  Ch 88 of IE Handbook Salvendy

Cost Engineering  Definition of AACE

Cost Engineering is the application of scientific principles and techniques to problems of estimation; cost control; business planning and management science; profitability analysis; project management; and planning and scheduling.

Total Cost Management
Total cost management is that area of engineering practice where engineering judgment and experience are used in the application of scientific principles and techniques to problems of business and program planning; cost estimating; economic and financial analysis; cost engineering; program and project management; planning and scheduling; cost and schedule performance measurement, and change control.

Simply stated, it is a systematic approach to managing cost throughout the life cycle of any enterprise, program, facility, project, product, or service. This is accomplished through the application of cost engineering and cost management principles, proven methodologies, and the latest technology in support of the management process.
Cost Engineering: New Profession -

Friday, November 22, 2019

BEL - Industrial Engineering Department


Analyse and evaluate efficient working of all projects and administer all processes and methods according to required supply standards and systems.

 Assist to organize and approve all labour and supply cost annually and prepare reports to measure all labour performance. 

Analyse all product costs and assist to reduce all negative variance on same and prepare strategies to reduce labour and wastage in all engineering projects.

 Assist Industrial Engineering department to design business plans and develop salary for all employees and prepare all required reports on weekly and monthly basis and manage all communication with production management.

Develop salary model budgets for all industrial engineering processes and provide support to all world class manufacturing facilities and analyse all waste elimination plans and develop appropriate factory flow analysis on processes. 

Maintain and update knowledge for all manufacturing engineering processes and design all processes for manpower and associate program and monitor all productivity and ensure compliance to all safety standards.

Evaluate and perform investigation on all variances for all planned and actual results for industrial processes and maintain track of all information and ensure integrity of all results for processes.

Supervise reporting processes on everyday basis and manage everyday activities and ensure adherence to all fiscal budgets and prepare strategic models.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

T/R Module - Transmitter - Receiver Module

 The classic T/R module that made high-performance X-band phased arrays possible cost on the order of $1000 each, which prevented widespread adoption of the technology. Various efforts by DARPA have attempted to bring the price down to $100.

GaN-based Components for Transmit/Receive Modules
in Active Electronically Scanned Arrays
Mike Harris, Robert Howard and Tracy Wallace
Georgia Tech Research Institute, 925 Dalney Street, Atlanta, GA 30332
Email: mike.harris  at the rate
CS MANTECH Conference, May 13th - 16th, 2013, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

For  a fixed power level, a GaN MMIC can be 1/3-1/4 the size of  an equivalent power GaAs MMIC.  Raytheon has found that, if the  finished GaN wafer (including material) costs 2X that of  GaAs, but yet the GaN MMIC is 1/3-1/4 the size of the GaAs MMIC, the resulting GaN solution is only 50-66% the dollars per RF watt generated (To be checked with data in Sturdivant's book).


BEL facility Bengaluru

Automated Transmit/Receive Module Assembly Line consisting of die-attach & wire-bonding lines to increase the X-Band TR Modules production capacity.

T/R Module Design

T/R-module technologies today and possible evolutions
Conference Paper (PDF Available) · November 2009

LTCC T/R X-Band Module With a Phased-Array Antenna
This application example describes the steps to design a transmit/receive (T/R) module with a 2x2 phased-array antenna operating in the 8-12 GHz frequency range. Several innovative capabilities within the NI AWR software are highlighted, including multi-technology and circuit/system co-simulation, as well as phased-array modeling.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Prof. Rick Sturdivant - T/R Modules

Rick Sturdivant, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Engineering and Computer Science
Adjunct Professor, Department of Mathematics, Physics, and Statistics

He is a recognized expert in the field of Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules and phased arrays. Sturdivant has been awarded seven U.S. patents and has four pending.

Sturdivant is the author/co-author of several books and book chapters, including: RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging II (Springer Publishing, 2017); Transmit Receive Modules for Radar and Communication Systems (Artech House, 2015); Hands On Guide To Heat Transfer For Microwave and Millimeter-wave Elect. (​ebook, 2015); Microwave and Millimeter-wave Electronic Packaging (Artech House, 2013); and RF and Microwave Electronic Packaging, Chapter 1 (Springer Publishing, 2010).

MMIC Technology - Cost Estimation and Reduction - Industrial Engineering - Articles and Cases


Oct 2016

MMICs - Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

Cost models attribute 50 to 75% of cost AESA (active electronically scanned array ) to antenna. Within antenna 50% of the cost is attributed to T/R modules./

AESAs have a price of $175 million for array face. Hence the price of T/R modules in an AESA can be $44 million to $65 million. Ground based arrays can have 25,000 T/R modues. Hence each T/R module may have a price of $1760 to $2600. MMICs account for 50% of the TR module cost.

Overall yields of 60 to 70% are considered normal from wafer to MMICs.


Within $1760, the MMIC may cost $700, HPA $350 and rest purchased items and assembly cost.
Touch labor has to be contained below $262 per module.

Breakup of T/R module cost:

MMIC: 40%
Purchased part: 20%
Assembly : 15%
Test: 10%
Qualification: 15%

So MMIC: 40% of 1750 = $700. 50% of it is high power amplifier (HPA) = $350.

Raytheon supported low cos flat panel X-band array using COTS type PCBs and demonstrated four TR channels on a common SiGe BiCMOS substrate at a reported T/R channel cost of $4.

Cost Factors of Fabricating a MMIC wafer

Labor -  11% of the Manufacturing Cost
Machine related consumables and energy - 43%  of   the Manufacturing Cost
Depreciation - 10%
Taxes - 10%
SG&A - 15%
Profit - 11%

Machine related consumables and energy - 43%  of   the Manufacturing Cost  include cost of consumables, spare parts, materials (including cleanroom garments, wipes, face masks and tweezers) production control and facilities (power, deionized water and gas scrubbers).


 Plextek RFI unveils phased array GaN MMIC reference design

CAMBRIDGE, UK: 13 July 2016 —Plextek RFI, a UK design house specialising in microwave and millimetre-wave IC design, has announced a new reference design for a GaN power amplifier (PA) MMIC for use in X-band active phased array radar applications.

“Active phased arrays require numerous PAs, which need to have high efficiency, and to have a small size and relatively low cost,” said Liam Devlin, CEO of Plextek RFI. “Our new design has a die size of only 1.5mm x 2mm, which means around 2,300 PAs can be fabricated on a single 4-inch (100mm) diameter wafer. This makes the cost very competitive compared with other commercially-available MMICs offering this level of RF output power.”

The X-band GaN PA MMIC covers 9.0 – 11.5GHz and delivers 7W (+38.5dBm) of RF output power from a +29dBm input, with a Power Added Efficiency (PAE) of 42%. This means that it can be driven by readily available GaAs parts when used as the output PA stage.

Plextek RFI designed the MMIC using Keysight ADS 2015, and it was manufactured by UMS on its 0.25µm gate length GaN-on-SiC process (GH25).

“As the IC is designed and manufactured in Europe, it will have the added advantage of not being subject to US export control,” added Liam Devlin.

How to save money by using custom design GaAs MMICs
August 23, 2010 | Liam Devlin, Plextek Ltd

Same as above in a different link

Practical MMIC Design
Steve Marsh
Copyright: 2006
Pages: 376

MMIC Design Techniques for Low-Cost High-Volume Commercial Modules
This paper presents several MMIC design techniques that focus on module cost reduction and general MMIC component requirements relative to point-to-point and point-to-multipoint terrestrial, as well as two-way satellite, low-cost high-volume communication module needs. Currently, MMIC vendors concentrate on improving performance and reducing MMIC cost. Low-cost high-volume modules impose additional requirements relating to MMIC compatibility with module volume production processes. The MMIC design techniques discussed include: circuit compaction, use of external support components, maximizing symmetry, reduction of external connections, compatibility with automatic bonding machines, compatibility with automatic pick-and-place machines, and standardizing RF probe types. General MMIC requirements relative to module needs for both terrestrial and satellite communication links are also discussed.
Published in: 2003 33rd European Microwave Conference
Date of Conference: 2-10 Oct. 2003

Design GaAs MMICs for best price and performance values
Atkinson, Bobby
Though the manufacturing advantages of monolithic integration and the emergence of GaAs foundaries have resulted in low-cost GaAs MMIC technology, further cost reduction can be achieved by using a foundary's standard line of circuit cells. By using a PC-based workstation with CAD software, it is possible, however, to fabricate a custom MMIC design for $10,000 or less. As an example, this low-cost approach was applied to the design and fabrication of a Ku-band oscillator. Criteria useful for selecting a good foundary are outlined, and attention is focused on MMIC computer-aided-engineering tools. A design process on an Apollo-based MMIC workstation is described and compared with that on a PC-based workstation, and protocols for exchanging data between PCs and mainframes are outlined.

Microwaves & RF (ISSN 0745-2993), vol. 30, Feb. 1991, p. 93, 94, 96, 98, 99.
 Pub Date: February 1991


MMIC (Monolithic microwave integrated circuit) devices offering includes ultra-wide band (UWB) power amplifiers (PA), low noise amplifier (LNA), mixers and gain blocks, drive amps, IF ICs, dividers, discrete devices and switches and other RF ICs, available in variety of package sizes or Bare Die to fit your requirements.

Our MMIC products offer substantial advantages such as ESD 4,000 volt, MSL 1, high quality and uniformity, enhanced band width 10MHz to 65GHz, 100% lead-free green products (RoHS compliant), higher performance, temperature compensated bias circuit, friendly packaging, MTBF over 100 years and more.


The ilities of a system are often called life cycle properties.
Packageability as an ‘Ility’ for Systems Engineering
by Rick L. Sturdivant 1,* andEdwin K. P. Chong
Systems 2017, 5(4), 48;

Yi-Qun Hu, Hao Luo, Yong-Heng Shang and Fa-Xin Yu, 2014. Design of a Highly Integrated Front-End K-Band TR Module Based on LTCC Technology for Phased-Array System. Information Technology Journal, 13: 165-170.

Automatized synthesis of microwave monolitic integrated circuits with spatial and astronomy applications
Start date 1 January 2007  End date  31 December 2008

In designing MMICs, the hardest problem is to select MMIC's schematic and topology to satisfy performance specifications. This task needs very qualified designers that know electronics, microwaves and technology. The MMIC design is now based on the multiple simulation and optimization of different circuit variants, such the process is very labor- and time-consuming and may lead to non-optimal solutions. This project focuses on investigating and developing methods and software for the direct synthesis of passive and active MMICs from circuit requirements. The project will be based on the new high-frequency network synthesis approaches. The methods and software developed will allow the automatic or interactive determination of MMIC's schematic and topology directly from requirements using exact models of MMIC elements. For implementing the proposed approach to MMIC design, fast MMIC element models will be constructed for specific MMIC production processes. It is planned to build fast polynomial and neuro-network models firstly for GaAs OMMIC ED02AH process and then for another GaAs, InP, SiGe or CMOS European processes that will be selected by partner teams. Within this project, it is supposed to implemented several tools for interactive and automatic synthesis of MMIC passive and active microwave circuits: LOCUS, a tool for the "visual" design of passive matching/compensated networks, GENESYN, a GA-based tool for the synthesis of matching networks, and GENEAMP, a tool for the automatic synthesis of transistor amplifiers using GAs. Also, it is planned to develop two additional software tools: SHIFTER for designing phase shifters, and IMCON for designing negative impedance converters with application to microwave active filters. It is planned to integrate MMIC synthesis tools in such the popular simulators as Microwave Office and ADS. This task supposes the careful estimation and validation of techniques, software tools, and MMIC element models developed. For this, the design and implementation of several extreme-quality MMICs with using these techniques and tools (such as low-noise and power amplifiers, phase shifters, impedance converters, and active filters) are planned. In particular, MMIC designs for spatial, astronomy and low-noise applications will include several designs with OMMIC (GaAs), NGC Indium Phosphide (InP) and WIN (GaAs). Also, as these III/V processes have difficulty meeting the cost targets and high integration density, Silicon processes will therefore be investigated with AMS and IHP ( in a SiGe process with frequency > 200 GHz but also with UMC in a CMOS process. The designs will be based on the SOC concept integrating amplifying and filtering functions (active filters) on a single ship. In designing negative impedance converters and active filters, the specific original design techniques of XLIM group based on the "impedance profile" will be used.

The benefits and challenges of using GaN technology in AESA radar systems

Google Books

Pseudomorphic HEMT Technology and Applications
R.L. Ross, Stefan P. Svensson, Paolo Lugli
Springer Science & Business Media, 06-Dec-2012 - Science - 350 pages

PHEMT devices and their incorporation into advanced monolithic integrated circuits is the enabling technology for modern microwave/millimeter wave system applications. Although still in its infancy, PHEMT MIMIC technology is already finding applications in both military and commercial systems, including radar, communication and automotive technologies. The successful team in a globally competitive market is one in which the solid-state scientist, circuit designer, system engineer and technical manager are cognizant of those considerations and requirements that influence each other's function.
This book provides the reader with a comprehensive review of PHEMT technology, including materials, fabrication and processing, device physics, CAD tools and modelling, monolithic integrated circuit technology and applications. Readers with a broad range of specialities in one or more of the areas of materials, processing, device physics, circuit design, system design and marketing will be introduced quickly to important basic concepts and techniques. The specialist who has specific PHEMT experience will benefit from the broad range of topics covered and the open discussion of practical issues. Finally, the publication offers an additional benefit, in that it presents a broad scope to both the researcher and manager, both of whom must be aware and educated to remain relevant in an ever-expanding technology base.

Wafer Cost - Estimation and Historical Record

Lecture 5: Cost, Price, and Price for Performance - BNRG

Cost per Wafer

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles

Value Analysis Techniques


Value Engineering - Examples, Cases


Atina Systems
Value Engineering Consultant in Bengaluru

Advances in Simulation, Product Design and Development pp 663-674| Cite as

Application of Value Analysis and Value Engineering for Cost Reduction of Global Pumping Unit
Authors and affiliations
Aniket BhosleAvinash SahD. K. Shinde
In this study, a total of three components namely rotor, pump body and stator housing were taken to apply VAVE which resulted in 30, 4 and 10% of cost reduction.

Improvising the six row manually operated paddy seedling transplanter through value engineering
M. Mohan Department of Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Anna University, Tamilnadu, 641004, India
, G. Sundararaj Department of Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Tamilnadu, 641004, India
, S.R. Devadasan Department of Production Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Tamilnadu, 641004, India
, R. Murugesh Darshan Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gujarat, 363650, India

Published online 6 November 2019
On executing phases of value engineering, the cost and weight of the parts involved in manufacturing the six row manually operated paddy transplanter were reduced by 38.79 percentage and 39.93 percentage respectively. Furthermore, eight components have been removed in the newly improvised six row manually operated paddy transplanter.

Value Engineering at Rannoch Station
Published by  Laura Molloy at  November 5, 2019

July 2019

Railway Station - Value Engineering

Engineering and professional services consultancy, WSP, with SME Expedition Engineering, have  undertaken a series of value engineering reviews for Old Oak Common  station designs.  “By challenging the standard design approach, the WSP-Expedition design team have realised savings in the roof steelwork tonnage that has significantly reduced cost, construction complexity and embodied carbon.

Taking advantage of the results from wind tunnel tests and a snow load review, the team of structural design engineers, in partnership with architects Wilkinson Eyre, concluded that structural thicknesses and profiles in the station roof could be modified to allow for 27% less material to be used with a total steel reduction of over 1000 tonnes. This is an amount equivalent to a 2700 tonne reduction in embodied carbon and a cost saving of £7m.

Ring for Oil Seal
Saving of Rs. 5 Crores through Value Engineering for Rear Axle Oil Seal Ring from forging ( EN8 Steel Grade) to casting ( FG 260 gray Iron) to AL with Induction hardening. 

Value Engineering
we examine the project in its entirety in an attempt to locate areas of opportunity for cost savings. We will provide a projection of the life-cycle cost analysis of certain materials involved in the project and provide alternative solutions.

Carbon Value Engineering: Integrated Carbon and Cost Reduction Strategies for Building Design
Costs savings were in the order of $127/m2 which equates to a 10% reduction in capital cost.

June 2019

Value Engineering a Multifamily Project



Enabling cost-effective reformulations for bio-based laundry detergents
We reduced production cost for Bio-Based laundry detergents without compromising on quality.
Lowered cost by 10% while maintaining the overall quality of the product.
Interested to see how we can help you reduce your production costs without compromising on quality?

Petro-SIM - Simulation Software Enabling “Value engineering” and “Value chain optimization.”

KBC has completed a major redesign of its flagship  Value Chain Optimization  engineering simulation software platform, Petro-SIM. KBC designed release 7 of Petro-SIM for industries focused on what it refers to as “value engineering” and “value chain optimization.”

Value engineering branch network renovation and expansion

SOLUTION: Developed a modular kit-of-parts, which lowered costs dramatically. The parts  could be trimmed on site to accommodate the varying branch sizes and layouts. Proprietary versions less costly to procure and ship and easier to install were used instead of locally fitted furniture at higher cost. 50 percent cost savings without sacrificing quality or functionality.

Consultant offering Value Engineering of Packaging

Value Engineering saves $4.5 million

Port Canaveral commissioners OK plan to cut cost of new cruise terminal by $4.5 million
Dave Berman, Florida Today Published  April 26, 2019

Work underway to build Port Canaveral Cruise Terminal No. 3 Canaveral Port Authority, Florida Today. Port Canaveral will be saving millions of dollars on the construction of its new cruise terminal through what officials call "value engineering."

Integrated Water Services, Inc. (IWS) recently completed the construction of the regions first “Zero Discharge” agricultural re-use project for the City of Tulelake, CA located five miles south of the Oregon border. A key element of the project was the $1.4 mm in savings that were achieved through value engineering, post bid, which brought the constructed cost in line with the city’s budget

Value Engineering for the Facade

Value Engineering is in Priedemann’s DNA. On the basis of precisely defined functions and requirements for the facade. we work out alternatives and options with a view to improving the overall solution. We take into account the criteria of the entire building life cycle.

Adaptation and optimization of facade systems and solutions for a specific project, taking into account functionality, sustainability and costs.

Adaptation and optimization of production procedures, assembly, logistics, installation and fitting

Enviroply Roofing Ltd  - Specialists in Flat Roofing - Value engineering Projects

Artificial Intelligence for Value Engineering

Quanta AI
Our proprietary algorithms recommend changes to your products and components, enabling you to maximize the value of your existing resources, and make crystal clear what is needed to achieve your corporate VE goals.  They have included applications in consumer electronics also in portfolio of services.

Using Value Engineering for Flooring Selection
The process of value engineering allows construction teams to select products that offer the greatest return on investment with the lowest total cost of ownership (TCO).  doing phd in value engineering


Value Engineering delivering competitive advantage
Despite challenging market conditions, since 2016 IMI Critical Engineering has won nearly half a billion pounds of new contracts through the application of Value Engineering tools and processes. On average, a 15% cost reduction for our customers has been delivered.

Included in the division’s 2018 contract wins was an order for IMI Remosa to provide a package of products for installation in a Spanish oil refinery which was being refurbished. The product package included control systems, actuators and slide valves, which operate together in extreme temperatures of up to 980°C. These products control and shut down the flow of liquids and gases during the critical “crude oil to liquid fuels” conversion process. Using Value Engineering, IMI Remosa was able to re-develop its products which significantly reduced welding and other manufacturing costs and created a compelling solution for the customer at a competitive price.

Value engineering increases value, reduces delivery time for I-17 bridge project
Contractor’s innovation yielding new bridges at Willard Springs Road
October 29, 2018
PHOENIX – The Arizona Department of Transportation’s original plan for improving the Interstate 17 bridges at Willard Springs Road south of Flagstaff called for replacing the decks in both directions over two summers, ending well into 2019. The project that’s underway, however, is replacing the bridges in their entirety by the end of November – at no additional cost.

The difference is thanks to a process called value engineering.

Value Engineering Gas Turbines

TAS can provide detailed evaluations of the economics of gas turbine power augmentation options.

The study provides a detailed “before and after” look at a GT-based simple cycle or combined cycle power plant which provides an hour-by-hour simulation of how a plant will operate with and without Turbine Inlet Chilling. Multiple options are  investigated.

The methodology full encompasses variations in air temperature, humidity, and other site conditions. The calculations further overlay the real-time value of power and the cost of fuel. Other economic factors such as capacity payments, economic dispatch, water usage, and the cost of hot / cold engine starts.

TAS customers get the benefit of 8760 analyses of their chiller plants to optimize the target compressor inlet temperature (T2), the range of the chilled water temperature (“delta T”), the heat transfer configuration of the chilled water / air coils, the size of the chiller system, the efficiency of the chiller plant, and the capacity of the Thermal Energy Storage tank when the Generation Storage option is used.

The use of these studies assists our customers to realize the highest value of their potential TIC investment, and to focus their decisions to the optimum hardware configuration that maximizes both the operational flexibility and their maximum profits.

Study outputs provide tabular and graphical results of simple metrics such as incremental capacity (MW), incremental energy (MWHrs), CapEx requirements, and net revenue. We can also provide financial results through the “unlevered IRR” method. Finally, we demonstrate why TIC technology always results in the lowest “$/kW” for the entire power plant.

Railway construction projects - VALUE ANALYSIS AND VALUE ENGINEERING
Railway construction projects are capital intensive and a slight variance in design could bring a significant impact in the total project cost. To achieve value for money, it is necessary to optimize the design as far as possible. However, in reducing costs, it is important that key project objectives such as system capacity and operational flexibility are not sacrificed. It involves

Identifying major cost drivers
Devising explicit knowledge representations for these cost drivers
Analysing how they could be optimized without compromising key requirements such as the passenger-carrying capacity.

Value Engineering with Geosynthetics
Civil engineers add value through smart design, efficient and safe construction methods or leveraging new materials or technologies.  Whatever the scale or complexity, there is always room for engineers to add value.

Over the past thirty years geosynthetics have emerged as a “value engineering” solution for civil engineers, being a new construction material that allowed engineers to design and build their engineering infrastructure faster and safer, at reduced costs, with lower risk, and with lower environmental impact.

most common method is to “add value” through reduced product supply cost, but this ignores the greater benefits that flow from understanding the many sources of value that a geosynthetic product offers when used as part of the engineered system.

The best way is to understadn this is to look at recent, real examples where if the engineer had understood how a geosynthetic product performs as part of a system, greater value could have been achieved for their client:

Example 1 – New Rail Formation Being Built for an Australian Mine

Example 2 – Road Formation

Value Engineering (VE) alternative to your current deep foundation plans?

For the past 20 years, owners and general contractors have worked with Geopier design engineers to perform Value Engineering on their projects, by developing Geopier Intermediate Foundation® solutions when deep foundation options prove too costly.

Our systems have become effective replacements for massive over-excavation and replacement or deep foundations, including driven piles, drilled shafts or augered cast-in-place piles. Over 9,000 structures around the world are currently supported by Geopier technologies. Each providing a safe, reliable, cost-effective solution that can help expedite your construction schedule.

Value Engineering
Value engineering explained is a simple process of taking a conventional way of doing something and exploring more economical options while maintaining the original design intent. It’s just another way to save you money, whether its through decreasing operating costs by using pre-fabricated walls, comparable design options, or changes in scope of work.

Value Engineering, case study - NPTEL

Value Engineering
Value Engineering plays an important role in our Masters in Improvement philosophy. Products can always be improved, in terms of both functionality and costs, particularly in the markets in which Hittech is active, where the time-to-market aspect is of great importance. Product introduction often puts the emphasis on proving the functionality, with the emphasis shifting to improving the ratio between functionality and costs soon thereafter. Streamlining the process of optimising costs and/or functionality often involves the use of product roadmaps. These roadmaps are drawn up to efficiently implement product improvements from market feedback and value engineering ideas.

Value engineering application in a high rise building (a case study in Bali)
Putri Arumsari and Ricco Tanachi

Value engineering solutions in Packaging
We deliver solutions that simplify logistics, reduce costs and increase profit for our customers.
Our solutions add value
Our value engineering solutions enable more efficient packaging lines, improved supply chain efficiency, reduced total cost of ownership, and decreased environmental footprint. If you want to achieve this kind of continuous improvement on your own packaging products or logistical processes, give us a call.

Indian companies take to value engineering to reign in prices
To become more competitive in an increasingly hostile environment, Indian companies are innovating to add value


Value Engineering and Function Analysis: Frameworks for Innovation in Antenna Systems
Hamid Reza Fartookzadeh, and Mahdi Fartookzadeh
Open Access
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 20
Published: 25 April 2018

A study on value engineering and green buildings in residential construction
Jan 2018

Holistic Value Design - PWC
2018 Note

Cutting COGS by Three Times the Target - Argo Consulting structured Value Engineering approach

Cooking Palm Oil Value Engineering

TN company is turning recycled paper to pencils
‘Plantcils’ offer better grip than your average wooden pencil and they’re eco-friendly!
January 04, 2018


Application of Value Engineering in the Design and Implementation of Dam channel and Storage Pump Power Plant (Case Study of Siah Bishe Project)
(Research Paper)
Mojtaba Saeedi, Mohammad Reza Kavian pour
Journal of Civil Engineering and Materials Application
Volume 1, 2017, Issue 3, Pages 108-117

Value Engineering from Tata Steel

Value Engineering Based on Monitoring During Tunnel Excavation Phase-a Case Study of Hakim Tunnel
Majid Taromi 1, Maziar Hosseini , Seyed Mahdi Pourhashemi , Majid Sadeghi
Volume 11, Issue 1 (Vol. 11, No. 1 Spring 2017 2017)

Number of Examples of Value Analysis/Value Engineering/Value Management
by VM Services,Bryanston, South Africa
Specialists in the application of Value Analysis, Value Engineering and Value Management (VA/VE/VM) methodology including Value Improvement Practices (VIP’s)

Advanced Structures India Private Limited - Value Engineering Services and Case Study Examples

Wekiva Parkway/SR 417 and I-4 Interchange  - Highway project value analysis study report


Value Analysis of 2 Wheeler Parts - TVS Motors

Value Engineering Analysis in the Construction of Box-Girder Bridges


Jonson Street Bridge Replacement Project - Value Engineering Report

A Survey on the Application and Role of Value Engineering in Pars
Simin Chemical manufacturing company (the manufacturing unit of
Pars Simin white plastic paints)
Seyed Mohammad No' Pasand Asil1
, Esmaeil Ramzanpour2
, Seyedeh Sogol Seyed Sa'adat
International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences
Available online at
Vol., 3 (9), 1935-1945, 2012


Seat base weight reduction

Auckland Rail Transportation Project - Role of Value Engineering
Cost reduction of 25 million dollars.

Student Project - Value engineering for car shade


Value Engineering West Rail
Estimate for the project was brought down to HK$46.4 billion from HK$64 bn
2006 report
Supporting document - legislative council panel report
KPIT cummins Infosystems

   *  Over 30% weight reduction (optimization) by value engineering
    * 60% variant reduction (standardization) by value engineering
    * Engine performance improvement through re-engineering engine components
    * Cost effective solution in material optimization of interior plastic trims (Instrument panel, Door panel)
    * Fuel economy improvement and reduced carbon footprint from weight
    * Savings over $148,000/year from cost of aluminum by design, optimize & virtual simulation
Accessed on 28.2.2010

Seattle Sound Transit Rail link - Value engineering and cost reduction results

Value engineering applications in transportation: a synthesis of highway practice
NCHRP synthesis, 352
Volume 352 of Synthesis of highway practice
Authors David C. Wilson, National Cooperative Highway Research Program
Publisher Transportation Research Board, 2005
125 pages


Acumen Value Engineering

Automotive client. They had begun a new product and not performed a value planning session during the planning phase, because "they didn't have time." Result, they were losing 5% on each product sold. 

Using VE, we were able to give them a 12% profit immediately, with more to come. This way, they would not "sell them selves out of business." Unfortunately, due to machining costs, we had to leave much opportunity behind. If we had been able to do a value planning session before equipment purchases, we estimate that we could have generated an additional 10% profit for each unit.

Accessed on 28.2.2010

substituting INA114

with LM324

A student at NITIE IM interview (15.3.2011) said that they brought down the cost of ECG instrument with this substitution. He explained that they got this idea from the function performed by INA114 in the instrument. Cost came down by 20 times he claimed.


Value Engineering Study for Closing waste packages containing TAD Canisters

Value engineering leads to piping innovations at New FAU Football Stadium 

USA Department of Energy - OU1 Value engineering - Waste minimization and volume reduction study



Value Engineering in Transportation - Value World Issue March 1997



The VE study has shown that value engineering, applied after the alternatives analysis phase, can provide significant savings on an overall transit project's costs. It also has demonstrated that single tracking is an operating technique with potential for major capital cost savings.

The paper appeared in Transportation Research Board State-of-the-Art Report 2, Light Rail Transit: System Design for Cost-Effectiveness. Presented at the Conference on Light Rail Transit held May 8-10, 1985, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


Value Engineering Radar Building Protection System
Value Engineering--1973: Hearings, Ninety-third Congress, First Session
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Public Works. Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Grounds
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973 - Value analysis (Cost control) - 310 pages

Original Knol - 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2348

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Value Engineering in Buildings - Some Examples

Updated 20 November 2019,  14 July 2019,  1 July 2019,  1 June 2019,   28 April 2019,  22 April 2019,  26 July 2018,  22 July 2017, 12 June 2016, 26 June 2015,  4 April 2015, 20 Feb 2014

Please share any interesting value engineering example that you appreciate.