Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Analysis of Cost of Sales Account

To do total cost industrial engineering, Industrial engineers have to analyze cost of sales account.
Cost of sales account is an appropriate summation of job cost accounts, process cost accounts and cost center costs. Industrial engineers should be able to divide the total cost of sales of the company into various underlying accounts to identify cost reduction challenges and opportunities.

Accounting: Cost of Goods Manufactured/ Cost of Goods Sold: Part I



Accounting: Cost of Goods Manufactured/Cost of Goods Sold (Part II)




See the recording keeping specified for Textile Industry in India regarding cost.


Account Based COPA - Simplification with Simple Finance  in SAP

Updated 26 Apr 2016, 18 April 2016

Sunday, April 24, 2016

April 4th Week - IE Knowledge Revision


22 April to 26 April 2016

Statement of Cash Flows - Review Notes
Financial Statement Analysis - Review Notes

Cost Accounting

23 April 2016

Role of Costing and Cost Accounting in the Organizations
Introduction to Cost Terms - Review Notes

Traditional Cost Objectives and Their Utility
Job Costing - Review Notes

Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Budgeting
Process Costing - Review Notes

Cost Center Reports and Analysis
Cost of Sales Account Analysis

April 3rd Week - IE Knowledge Revision

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Programmer Productivity - Bibliography


Function Points were first described by Albrecht (Albrecht, 1979), and have since been accepted by much of the software development community. The basic idea is that LOC are not measured, but rather the functionality of the developed program. This clearly removes the numeric advantage or disadvantage of the programming language. Some languages take longer to achieve the same functionality, but run faster and are more portable. Function Points still do not address the problems of internal documentation (DECLAREs, COMMENTs, etc.) in the software itself..

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Smart Industrial Devices, Equipments and Machines - Sensor Attached Equipments

March 2016

Wearable Sensors for Low-Voltage Motors
New sensors from ABB are designed to bring condition monitoring and preventative maintenance to low-voltage motors that are typically not part of asset management programs.

Physical Internet - Efficient Sustainable Logistics Movement

Universal interconnection of logistics services

Physical Internet where goods travel in modular containers for the sake of interconnection in open networks. 

Ballot, E, B. Montreuil and F. Fontane (2010).

Topology of Logistic Networks and the Potential of a Physical Internet

CGS-Production and Logistics Systems, École des Mines de Paris, France et CIRRELT, Université Laval, Québec, Canada

Abstract : The topology of the logistic networks that contribute contemporary logistics is minimally examined or challenged in the assessment and improvement of the performance of supply chains, logistic and freight transportation. In this paper, it is shown that the topology of logistic networks has a major performance impact and that it can be significantly improved if the actual organization of flows is substituted by an organization founded on the universal interconnectivity of logistic networks: the Physical Internet.

The performance of contemporary vs. Physical Internet enabled network topologies is measured and contrasted through transportation throughput requirements, flow travel, and total costs.

Ballot, E., B. Montreuil & C. Thivierge (2012),

Montreuil B. (2011)

Towards a Physical Internet: Meeting the Global Logistics Sustainability Grand Challenge

Logistics Research, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, p. 71-87.

Abstract : This paper starts with the assertion that the way physical objects are currently transported, handled, stored, realized, supplied, and used throughout the world is unsustainable economically, environmentally, and socially. Evidence supporting this assertion is exposed through a set of key unsustainability symptoms.

It suggests exploiting the Digital Internet metaphor to develop a Physical Internet vision toward meeting this grand challenge. The paradigm breaking vision is introduced through a set of its key characteristics. The paper then proceeds with addressing the implications and requirements for implementing the Physical Internet vision as a means to meet the grand challenge.

It concludes with a call for further research, innovation, and development to really shape and assess the vision and, much more important, to give it flesh through real initiatives and projects so as to really influence in a positive way the collective future.

Functional Design of Physical Internet Facilities: A Road-Rail Hub 

in Progress in Material Handling Research: 2012, MHIA, Charlotte, NC (2012).

Abstract : Montreuil, Meller and Ballot enumerated the type of facilities that would be necessary to operate a Physical Internet (PI, π), which they termed, “π-nodes.”

This paper is part of a three-paper series for the 2012 IMHRC where the authors provide functional designs of three PI facilities. This paper covers a PI road-rail hub. The purpose of a PI road-rail node is to enable the transfer of PI containers from their inbound to outbound destinations. Therefore, a road-rail π-hub provides a mechanism to transfer π-containers from a train to another one or a truck or from a truck to a train. The objective of the paper is to provide a design that is feasible to meet the objectives of this type of facility, identify ways to measure the performance of the design, and to identify research models that would assist in the design of such facilities. The functional design is presented in sufficient detail as to provide an engineer a proof of concept.

Montreuil, B., R.D. Meller, C. Thivierge, C., and Z. Montreuil (2012),

Functional Design of Physical Internet Facilities: A Unimodal Road-Based Crossdocking Hub

in Progress in Material Handling Research: 2012, MHIA, Charlotte, NC (2012).

Abstract : As part of the 2010 IMHRC, Montreuil, Meller and Ballot proposed a set of facility types that would be necessary to operate a Physical Internet (PI, π), which they termed π-nodes. This paper is part of a three-paper series for the 2012 IMHRC where the authors provide functional designs of three PI facilities. This paper covers a unimodal road-based crossdocking hub designed specifically to exploit the characteristics of Physical Internet modular containers so as to enable the efficient and sustainable transhipment of each of them from its inbound truck to its outbound truck. The objective of the paper is to provide a design that is feasible to meet the objectives of this type of facility, identify ways to measure the performance of the design, and to identify research models that would assist in the design of such facilities. The functional design is presented in sufficient detail as to provide an engineer a proof of concept.

First work in the field of flows transportation

Sarraj, R., E. Ballot, S. Pan, D. Hakimi, B. Montreuil (2013),

Interconnected logistic networks and protocols: simulation-based efficiency assessment, 

in International Journal of Production Research (2013).

Abstract : Logistic networks intensely use means of transportation and storage facilities to deliver goods. However, these logistic networks are still poorly interconnected and this fragmentation is responsible for a lack of consolidation and thus efficiency. To cope with the seeming contradiction of just-in-time deliveries and challenging emissions targets, a major improvement in supply networks is sought here.

This new organisation is based on the universal interconnection of logistics services, namely a Physical Internet where goods travel in modular containers for the sake of interconnection in open networks.

If from a logical point of view, merging container flows should improve efficiency, no demonstration of its potential has been carried out prior to the here reported research. To reach this potentiality assessment goal, we model the asynchronous shipment and creation of containers within an interconnected network of services, find the best path routing for each container and minimise the use of transportations means. To carry out the demonstration and assess the associated stakes, we use a set of actual flows from the fast-moving consumer goods sector in France. Various transportation protocols and scenarios are tested, revealing encouraging results for efficiency indicators such as CO2 emissions, cost, lead time, delivery travel time, and so forth.

As this is a first work in the field of flows transportation, the simulation model and experiment exposes many further research avenues.


A Presentation on Physical Internet

Physical Internet Manifesto


Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Prototyping Internet of Things Ideas and Networks - Book Excerpts

Microcontroller is the main component to build an IoT Device.

Dig further into the ways of interfacing microcontroller with the real world using the “Interfacing with Hardware” page on the Arduino Playground website:(http://playground.arduino.cc//Main/InterfacingWithHardware). .

From the perspective of the electronics, the starting point for prototyping is usually a “breadboard”. This lets you push-fit components and wires to make up circuits without requiring any soldering and therefore makes experimentation easy.

8-bit microcontrollers are still in use, although the price of 32-bit microcontrollers is now dropping to the level where they’re starting to be edged out.

There are lots of microcontroller manufacturers (Atmel, Microchip, NXP, Texas Instruments, to name a few), each with a range of chips for different applications.

The ubiquitous Arduino platform is based around Atmel’s AVR ATmega family of microcontroller chips.

In between the low-end microcontroller and a full-blown PC sits the SoC (the Raspberry Pi).

If you want to run standard encryption protocols, you will need at least 4KB RAM, and preferably more.


The device has to connect to the rest of the world. Wired Ethernet is often the simplest for the user and cheapest, but it requires a physical cable. Wireless solutions avoid that requirement with a more complicated configuration. WiFi is the most widely deployed to provide an existing infrastructure for connections, but it can be more expensive and consumes more power  than some of its competitors.  ZigBee is a technology aimed particularly at sensor networks and scenarios such as home automation. The recent Bluetooth LE protocol (also known as Bluetooth 4.0) has a very low power-consumption profile similar to ZigBee. Standard Bluetooth chips included in phones and laptops.

If your device can rely on a more powerful computer being nearby, tethering to it via USB can be an easy way to provide both power and networking. Some of the microcontrollers can be bought in versions which include support for USB, so choosing one of them reduces the need for an extra chip in your circuit.

Instead of the microcontroller presenting itself as a device, some can also act as the USB “host”. This configuration lets you connect items that would normally expect to be connected to a computer—devices such as phones, for example, using the Android ADK, additional storage capacity, or WiFi

Interfacing with Sensors and Other Circuitry
The device has to interact with sensors to gather data about its environment and motors, LEDs, screens, and so on, to provide output. You could connect to the circuitry through some sort of peripheral bus—SPI and I2C being common ones—or through ADC or DAC modules to read or write varying voltages; or through generic GPIO pins, which provide digital on/off inputs or outputs. Different microcontrollers or SoC solutions offer different mixtures of these interfaces in differing numbers.

Arduino board

The “standard” Arduino board has gone through a number of iterations: Arduino NG, Diecimila, Duemilanove, and Uno. The Uno features an ATmega328 microcontroller and a USB socket for
connection to a computer. It has 32KB of storage and 2KB of RAM,

The Uno also provides 14 GPIO pins (of which 6 can also provide PWM output) and 6 10-bit resolution ADC pins. The ATmega’s serial port is made available through both the IO pins, and, via an additional chip, the USB connector.

Integrated Development Environment
To develop using  the Arduino, the integrated development environment (IDE) that the team supply at http://arduino.cc is used. This is a fully functional IDE, based on the one used for the Processing language (http://processing.org/). Most Arduino projects consist of a single file of code. IDE mostly is a simple file editor. You use it  to check the code (by compiling it) and to push code to the board.

The language usually used for Arduino is a slightly modified dialect of C++ derived from the Wiring platform. It includes some libraries used to read and write data from the I/O pins provided on the Arduino and to do some basic handling for “interrupts” (a way of doing multitasking, at a very low level).
This variant of C++ tries to be forgiving about the ordering of code; for example, it allows you to call functions before they are defined.

The code needs to provide only two routines:
◾ setup(): This routine is run once when the board first boots. You
could use it to set the modes of I/O pins to input or output or to prepare
a data structure which will be used throughout the program.
◾ loop(): This routine is run repeatedly in a tight loop while the Arduino is switched on. Typically, you might check some input, do  some calculation on it, and perhaps do some output in response.

In the absence of a screen, the Arduino allows you to write information over the USB cable using Serial.write(). For debugging,  information can be accessed using it.  The Arduino IDE provides a serial monitor which echoes the data that the Arduino has sent over the USB cable. This could
include any textual information, such as logging information, comments, and details about the data that the Arduino is receiving and processing (to double-check that your calculations are doing the right thing).

The Arduino can be powered using a USB connection from your computer. This capability is usually quite convenient during prototyping because you need the serial connection in any case to program the board. The Arduino also has a socket for an external power supply.


Raspberry Pi is effectively a computer that can run a real, modern operating system, communicate with a keyboard and mouse, talk to the Internet, and drive a TV/monitor with high-resolution graphics. The Pi Model B has built-in Ethernet. Many makers blogged about their own attempts to use Raspberry Pi and have contributed designs to Thingiverse, Instructables, and others.

Extension boards and other accessories are already available for the Raspberry Pi. Many interesting kits are in development, such as the Gertboard (www.raspberrypi.org/archives/tag/gertboard), designed for conveniently playing with the GPIO pins.

To seriously explore the Raspberry Pi, a copy of the Raspberry Pi User Guide, by Eben Upton and Gareth Halfacree (Wiley, 2012) is to be consulted.

Operating System
For Internet of Things work on Pi, use the Linux based Adafruit distro.  The main tweaks of  interest in it are:
◾ The sshd (SSH protocol daemon) is enabled by default, so you can connect to the console remotely.
◾ The device registers itself using zero-configuration networking (zeroconf) with the name raspberrypi.local, so you don’t need to know or guess which IP address it picks up from the network in order to make a connection.

Programming Language
 The Pi Foundation, suggests Python. (and indeed the name “Pi” comes initially from Python).

Readily available libraries on PyPi
(https://pypi.python.org/pypi) may  provide code that other people have written, used, and thoroughly tested.

Node.js is used by some board brands.

Node.js is a platform built on Chrome’s JavaScript runtime for easily building fast, scalable network applications. Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it lightweight
and efficient, perfect for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.

Node.js is a rich environment with a host of libraries available to integrate into the app. Currently, the convenient npm (Node Packaged Modules) utility isn’t bundled with the IDE, but this is an item for a future version. In the meantime, online help and forums should get you over any possible stumbling blocks.

IoT Prototyping with Node.js and Firebase (Ubiquity Dev Summit 2016)

Google Developers


The most important part of a web service, with regards to an Internet of Things device, is the Application Programming Interface, or API. An API is a way of accessing a service  to interact with another computer application.  The interaction can be with a cloud application.

Excerpts from the Book

Designing the Internet of Things

by Adrian McEwen and Hakim Cassimally
Wiley, 2014

Create Prototypes and Get to Market Faster Using Intel® Edison Technology
Intel® Edison technology is a hardware and software platform that, when combined with sensors and your imagination, empowers you to invent new Internet-enabled products and solutions.

Prototyping tools for the Internet of Things
Our hardware development kits give you a microcontroller and connectivity (Wi-Fi or cellular) along with powerful software development tools and a cloud back-end. Add the internet to your product with a single line of code.

Internet of Things Hardware Round-up

Below is a list of some popular boards and development platforms to help you with your latest prototype or DIY project.

As a platform, shiftr.io provides you with the ability to share your data and access data of others. Sharing data publicly is encouraged by the platform's design. In the future, we plan to have additional features that allow more interactions between users and their namespaces.

Using shiftr.io everyone is able to rapidly prototype connected objects and build a network of connected things. Start building prototypes for the Internet of Things now!

Joe W.'s picture Joe W., March 4, 2016

A Rapid IoT Prototyping Toolkit
Shayne Hodge
January 12, 2016

Prototyping Connected Devices for the Internet of Things
Steve Hodges, Stuart Taylor, Nicolas Villar, and James Scott, Microsoft Research Cambridge, UK
Dominik Bial, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Patrick Tobias Fischer, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

paul-guermonprez (Intel)'s picture paul-guermonprez (Intel), December 25, 2015

IoT prototyping with LittleBits & Arduino
by mike vladimer / November 2, 2015

IoT Prototyping With Arduino
Carl Krupitzer  |   September 24, 2015

Tutorial: Prototyping a Sensor Node and IoT Gateway with Arduino and Raspberry Pi – Part 1
Interesting explanation - Sensor node - Field Gateway - Cloud gateway
June 2015

OPITZ CONSULTING’s own IoT prototype to demonstrate capabilities (part 1)

IoT prototype – Retrospective. What did we learn? What did we miss? (part 5)



Lightwatch : An IOT prototype using XMPP and Android
Oct 2015

Node-RED: How it simplifed my IoT project – and how YOU can rapidly prototype for the Internet of Things
Aug 2014

India Events

Internet of Things, Mumbai (IoTMUM)
Learn basics of Arduino & Its application in Internet of Things..

Arduino Hands-on Workshop by YUPS Tech Solutions Pvt. Ltd. and Home Automation demo by Parth Temkar (Uses Arduino)

Arduino for IoTiets!
Sep 7, 2014 · 10:00 AM

Monday, April 18, 2016

Process Mapping and Process Flow Chart

Process Mapping is "the process of putting on a map, using specialized symbols, the process that you what to talk about".

Process Flow Chart is one of the many tools you can use to map your process.

Different diagramming tools that you can use to map your process.
You have to use the right one according to your purpose for mapping the process.

- Basic Flowchart
- Highlight Flowchart
- Audit Flow Diagram
- Operation Process Chart
- Process Flowchart
- SDL Diagram
- Data Flow Diagram
- Relationship Diagram
- Workflow Diagram
- IDEF0 Flowcharts
- SIPOC Diagram
- Mind Map
- Business Process
- Cycle Diagram
- Hierarchy Diagram
- Marketing Chart and Diagram
- Matrix Diagram
- Value Stream Mapping
- Material Process Flow Analysis
- Flow_Planner

From an answer given by Jacques Pineault, Himansu in a Linkedin Community Discussion

Fortune 500 2015 Number 3

Digital Oilfield of the Future (DOFF).

Digital Oil Field Goes Global
September 2012


Exxon Mobil - Digital Transformation

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Productivity and IE in Power, Distribution, and Specialty Transformer Manufacturing

ABB - Future Plans

15 Sep 2015

quality value stream mapping in Transformer Plant in India

Lean - Tansformer company - Middle EAst

Lean - PhD Thesis

Improving Productivity and Quality of a Transformer Production Line by Applying Lean Manufacturing Principles


An Ergonomics Intervention in a Transformer Manufacturing
Industry to Improve the Productivity
Sandip B. Wanave1
, Manish K. Bhadke2
1  Research Scholar, Mechanical Engineering Department, SVPCET, Nagpur-441108
2 Asstt. Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, SVPCET, Nagpur-441108
International Conference on Advances in Engineering & Technology – 2014 (ICAET-2014)

Productivity increased by 500% - Siemens Jinan - KPC Consulting

KPC began consulting in 2001 and is still supporting on the continuous improvement of the entire processes. This case-study covers a period of seven years from 2001 until now in which the productivity was increased by 500%.

Essential Tasks of the Kaizen-optimization at SIEMENS Jinan:

Introduction of the pull-production system
Focus on overall productivity (instead individual / process efficiency)
Focusing on process synchronization, thereby eliminating stagnation / waiting time
Improvement of production planning logic and method. Week plan ->day -> shift -> hour -> minute at each single process
Continuous elimination of waste
Consistent 5 S activities
Division into value-added / non-value added activities
Introduction of the Doctor-/Nurse-System
Visualization of the current status of "OK" and "not OK"
Standardization of work / adjustment of standard time
Visualization of the timing of all activities
Continuous evaluation of output of each shift in entire processes
Introduction of a daily communication system at all levels, which improves the decision-making abilityContinuous employee training
Individual and overall factory layout (incl. offices)

Industrial transformers
Power and productivity for a better world


MAHSHAKTI has pioneered itself into manufacturing of Power Transformers. With in house research, design & manufacturing facilities we produce best quality Power Transformers.
System that ensures quality products and services to total satisfaction of the customer.

Updated  13 April 2016, 19 Feb 2014

Productivity and IE in Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing

PharmaWorks Takes a Prescription for Productivity
Yaskawa America

6 May 2015

Refine and Streamline Your R&D Operations to Reduce Cycle Times
"Low productivity in research labs is the biggest single challenge facing the global pharmaceutical industry, which is struggling to replenish its medicine chest after a wave of patient expiries that peaked this year"

The Path to Productivity Improvement in Pharma
Pharma must transform its productivity, and an emerging set of disruptive innovations promises giant gains

Robots in Pharma Industry

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) closely regulates the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Integrated robotics allow manufactures to meet a number of compliance issues, including requirements for pedigree traceability, ergonomics, handling toxic materials, maintaining an aseptic environment and data acquisition and tracking. Robots are ideally suited to capturing process data, providing a clear audit trail to verify FDA compliance. Robots placed in aseptic “clean rooms” allow the manufacturer to protect employees from exposure to hazardous and toxic materials, reduce the cost of protective gear, and reduce the space required. Aseptic clean rooms also protect the product from accidental contamination by workers.

Divya Chauhan1, Dr. Nusrat Khan2
1Research Scholar- School of Business Management at Noida International University, Noida
& Project Manager at Fresenius Kabi Oncology Ltd., Gurgaon
2Associate Professor –School of Business Management at Noida International University,
Volume 2, Issue 5, 2560-2568.

Productivity Dynamics in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry:
Evidence from Plant-level Panel Data
Atsuko Kamiike, Takahiro Sato, Aradhna Aggarwal

Updated  13 April 2016,  26 Jan 2014

Monday, April 11, 2016

2015 - 2016 - Best Manufacturing Plants - Productivity Improvement


1 Polaris Industries Inc. Railcars, Ships, & Other Trans. Equip. $4,480 (REVENUE (MILLIONS)

2 Apple Inc. Computers & Other Electronic Products $182,795

3 Northern Tier Energy LP Petroleum & Coal Products $5,556
4 Monster Beverage Corp. Beverages $2,465
5 Deluxe Corp. Publishing & Printing $1,674

6 Western Refining Inc. Petroleum & Coal Products $15,154
7 Sanderson Farms Inc. Food $2,775

8 Hershey Co. Food $7,422


Productivity Initiative Impacts

The program is expected to generate pretax savings of $65 million to $75 million, primarily in 2016, of which a portion will be reinvested back into the company. Hershey anticipates that enabling further investment in brand-building and global capabilities should deliver future confectionery and snacks revenue and adjusted earnings per share-diluted growth that results in increased shareholder value.

The program is expected to result in the reduction of approximately 300 jobs by the end of 2015, with estimated pre-tax charges and costs of $100 million to $120 million, or $0.29 to $0.35 per share-diluted, the majority of which are cash and will be incurred in 2015.


9 Sherwin-Williams Co. Chemicals $11,130
10 Toro Co. Machinery $2,173
11 Microsoft Corp. Computers & Other Electronic Products $86,833
12 NewMarket Corp. Chemicals $2,335
13 Oasis Petroleum Inc. Petroleum & Coal Products $1,390
14 Pilgrim's Pride Corp. Food $8,583
15 Westlake Chemical Corp. Chemicals $4,415
16 Qualcomm Inc. Communications Equipment $26,487
17 Packaging Corp. of America Paper $5,853
18 IDEXX Laboratories Inc. Chemicals $1,486
19 Fossil Group Inc. Apparel $3,510
20 Thor Industries Inc. Motor Vehicles $3,525
21 Mettler-Toledo International Inc. Instruments $2,486
22 Nike Inc. Apparel $27,799
23 Alon USA Partners LP Petroleum & Coal Products $6,779
24 Lear Corp. Motor Vehicle Parts $17,727
25 Donaldson Co. Inc. Machinery $2,473
26 Colgate-Palmolive Co. Chemicals $17,277
27 FMC Technologies Inc. Machinery $7,943
28 Rockwell Automation Inc. Electrical Equipment & Appliances $6,624
29 Coach Inc. Apparel $4,806
30 Gentex Corp. Motor Vehicle Parts $1,376
31 Mead Johnson Nutrition Co. Beverages $4,409
32 Altria Group Inc. Tobacco $24,522
33 Hormel Foods Corp. Food $9,316
34 IBM Corp. Computers & Other Electronic Products $92,793
35 Estee Lauder Cos. Inc. Chemicals $10,969
36 Cummins Inc. Motor Vehicle Parts $19,221
37 Oracle Corp. Computers & Other Electronic Products $38,275
38 Renewable Energy Group Inc. Petroleum & Coal Products $1,274
39 Gilead Sciences Inc. Pharmaceuticals $24,890
40 Western Digital Corp. Computers & Other Electronic Products $15,130
41 Borg Warner Inc. Motor Vehicle Parts $8,305
42 Keurig Green Mountain Inc. Food $4,708
43 Wabtec Corp. Railcars, Ships, & Other Trans. Equip. $3,044
44 Lockheed Martin Corp. Aerospace & Defense $45,600
45 Skyworks Solutions Inc. Computers & Other Electronic Products $2,292
46 Wabash National Corp. Motor Vehicles $1,863
47 Linear Technology Corp. Computers & Other Electronic Products $1,388
48 Middleby Corp. Electrical Equipment & Appliances $1,637
49 Nordson Corp. Machinery $1,704
50 Marathon Petroleum Corp. Petroleum & Coal Products $97,949



Friday, April 8, 2016

Cutting Tools - Productivity

Cutting Tool Engineering Magazine

For a representative machined part,  the cost of machinery represents 26 percent of the cost of machining a part. Overhead represents 21 percent of the unit cost of machining. Labor and raw material account for 28 and 22 percent, respectively. The cost of cutting tools accounts for 3 percent.



Wednesday, April 6, 2016

Machining Process Improvements - Reference for Industrial Engineers




A customer in the piping field needed machined flanges to connect a variety of their pipes to tanks, engine blocks and manifolds. The traditional method for producing these flanges was to machine them from bar or plate. With PLSMFG’s ability to utilize various technologies to reduce costs and improve quality, we were able to provide a laser cut blank from plate that was subsequently machined in critical fit areas to achieve the same functional capability at a 20% cost savings from the existing method.
http://www.precisionlaser.com/machining/case-study-machining/ accessed on 8.3.2010.

Hard turning can be a cost effective alternative for shops looking to streamline part processing.
Hard turning is typically the turning of a part or barstock of harder than 45HRC on a lathe or turning center. 

Measurement on multi-axis machine tools is set to take a great leap forward with the introduction of a new version of Renishaw’s Productivity+™ suite of PC-based probing software. A key improvement is a new multi-axis option that allows more creativity and efficiency in machining processes, which supported by Renishaw’s high accuracy Rengage™ 3D technology-based touch probes and new ultra-compact radio probes, gives process engineers and machinists a wide choice of flexible process solutions
BSME project report



Hard Turning and Grinding on a Single Machine
Combining multiple technologies on a single machine makes the machining process more complex, but the advantages of consistent integration of such functionality can be worth the effort.

Hobbing On A Turning Center
Turning centers that include live-tool capability for milling and drilling.
Ph.d Thesis:
12 key performance measures for Machine Shops - Survey Results
Justification for High Cost Tools - Reduction in Cycle Time
How To Perfect A Machining Process (Or At Least How To Make It More Trustworthy)
Machining Process Improvement by Practical Tests in Shop Floor
Setup Evaluation of Machines for Small Batches
High Speed Machining and Hard Turning
Simulation and Optimization of Milling Processes
Manufacturing Assessment Planner
Cutting costs for grinding operations
Haas Videos on Machine Tools

Videos on Machining Process Improvements

Knol - 2316

To be updated 7 April 2016

High Throughput Machining - High Speed Machining


Cimskil — High Throughput Manufacturing

DOD Contract Award - High Throughput Manufacturing Manufacturing Programs.
We were awarded Phase III of the DOD High Throughput Manufacturing Program for automation of manufacturing processes for titanium parts.

This contract, valued at $700,000.00 to our company, after cost-sharing with the Department of Defense, follows on from the Hithru Program Phases I and II.

Hithru Phases I and II addressed two major areas:

Automation of manufacturing engineering tasks for machining 5-axis aerospace parts, based upon the recognition of manufacturing features on the as-designed part with subsequent automated processing of all work required to produce the first good part.
Implementation of a means for end-users to easily program their manufacturing practices for use in automated processing.
For details of the highly encouraging results of Hithru to date, please see Hithru Program.

Team Members for Phases I and II, who were also in Phase III:

National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (Program Management)
Warner Robins Air Logistics Center
Sikorsky Aircraft
Cincinnati Machine
Technology Answers
It is appropriate here to record our thanks to the team members who provided us with so much advice and guidance - and criticism when necessary!

New Team Members for Phase III were:

Boeing Defense & Space
Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point
Project Objectives for Phase III

The objective of HITHRU phase III is to develop and capture in CimskilTM best manufacturing practices for titanium components, and apply that knowledge to productivity improvement.

Titanium machining is more complex than aluminum machining. The material is much harder, making the selection of tools, inserts, and coatings a critical factor in determining machining parameters such as axial and radial depth of cut, feed rate and spindle RPM. It is also more expensive than aluminum, resulting in a greater need for efficiency in shop cutting tests. Titanium components with long machining cycles, for a given feature, will require a tool change (to overcome tool dulling) before the feature is completed. That means that the machining system must compensate for any inaccuracy introduced via a tool change. The issue is further complicated by the fact that program participants use a mixture of slab and forging stocks. Slab stock can use the fixturing methods developed in HITHRU phase I, but forging stock will require new fixturing strategies.

Innovations in Advanced Manufacturing - Papers of Seminars
NIST, USA - 2009

Guide to Hard Milling and High Speed Machining
Dale Mickelson
Industrial Press, Oct 11, 2006 - 400 pages

High Speed Machining Cuts Moldmaking Cycle Time
15,000 rpm

to be updated  7 Apr 2016

11 Apr 2015

Manufacturing Managers Questions - Topic-Wise - Industrial Engineering and Manufacturing Cost Management

# How industrial engineering concept can be integrated with product design?

# How to convince a team of people (with interest and without interest) for a change of betterment?

# Can't we run a manufacturing unit in a better way without industrial engineering support? For example, most of the small/medium scale units run without industrial engineer.

# If any product is running with minimum cost and the rejection rate as well as warranty claims are well within the target then how to progress further in value analysis/value engineering ensuring proper quality of the product.

# How to increase productivity even after reaching all the maximum target values in any production line?  Optimum cycle time/man power

# How to improve efficiency of operations?

# How to improve inventory and process lead time?

# How can we achieve best efficiency from the work force without any additional remunerations?

# What are the tools to achieve cost effectiveness even at the highest market price?

# With this versatile market demand, how to manage and maintain optimum inventory levels?

# Ways for increasing productivity

While deciding the time study, how much factor to be taken in starting?

# How to study time-motion of a process effectively?

How to reduce cost of product without cutting quality level?

While deciding the time study, how much factor to be taken in starting?

Is there any standard criteria between product cost, labour cost and manufacturing cost?

Quality Management vs Industrial engineering

Significance of allowances provided

How can JIT be applied ini mass production unit?

Process variation

Productivity Improvement

What the specific tools that can be used to increase efficiency of manufacturing operations?

How to relate motion study for a manual job?

How to increase productivity for the same machine where the cycle time remain constant.

Significance of industrial engineering in organisations business?

Every Industry takes a target of cost reduction in every year.  At the same time they need upgradation of quality every year.  To what extend it is logical

Cost optimization in manufacturing process.

Basic roles of Industrial Engineer to access a manufacturing  process.

How Quality of a product has been taken care by Industrial Engineer.

How to minimize repetitive Human errors?

How to you control the human behavior when it comes to making costly errors?

What are the basics of Industrial Engineering?  How to improve the Industrial Relationship?
The parameters to be focused for Productivity for meticulous performance?

# How manufacturing cost can be measured at each stage of production?
# What are the common/special considerations in working out manufacturing cost?
# How to calculate the manufacturing cost?

# How to calculate break even cost?

# How depreciation cost is calculated?

# Is there an ideal ratio of fixed and variable cost?

# Steps to be taken to meet the budgeted mfg. cost. even at less production volume compared to budgeted volume.

# What are different ways to control cost of product?

How to manage cost without compromising the basic standard of shop floor?

How to control manufacturing cost of a product?

What is the benefit of Manufacturing Cost Management?

Whether cost management talks only or cost Reduction?

# Understanding lean manufacturing and implementation procedure.

# Importance of outsourcing in manufacturing and control needed.

# Quality management - Comparing with competitors.

# Managing critical situation like one side despatch urgency - otherside quality abrasion.

# In the manufacturing sector, will the low cost automation serve long term benefit?



# What is manufacturing management and how can it help in our daily life as well as in our industry?

# Format for calculating different types of output

# Relation between demand and manufacturing department activities

# How to develop engineering skills in the operators?


# What are tools to utilise resources at the optimum during the lean period without hampering the employee expectations?

# Explain inventory control in manufacturing.

# What are best practices in manufacturing?


# Cell concept of manufacturing

Up to how much level of cost cutting we can go so that our product can sustain in the market?

What is D.O.E.?

How to manage manufacturing where product life cycle is shrinking and market dynamics are changing?

How to manage manufacturing in global market scenario?

How to tackle new competitors entry with cost benefits?

How to manage wide product gamut and supply chain challenges?

Role of automation

How to handle IR where process is varying?

What are various aspects of manufacturing management?


Product cost control

Outsourcing - quality issues

Automation requirements - Why?

Reduction in Operating cost

Control over Outsourcing

How to increase production, since there are fixed norms for production

How to motivate people for problem solving (improvement)?

Reduction in waste in case of random patterns

How do you get productivity measures in maintenance field?

How to address less availability of manpower in QA functions for inspection activities?

Automation will it really lead to reduction of manpower when an organization is bound by trade unions.

In Indian industries, normally the shopfloor does not abide through 7 QC tools and sometimes ti gets impractical. How to make it effectie on the floor, apart from training.

Eximbank business excellence model or Manufacturing Business Excellence

How to estimate risk involved in any improvement implemented in shop floor through a statistical



What are the latest best practices going on in the industy?

What impact is there for cost of quality?

Different methods of calculating cost of quality.


Frequent change of manufacturing plan – How we can accommodation.
Conversion cost remain recharges with compare to last year though the other costs are variable.

How to accommodate with customers’ requirement (time base samples).
How to increase the skills throughout out operation as well as surprises.

How is the managerial effectiveness measured?
Leader is born or made! It made, how attribute of leadership are inculcated into the individual?
Do amenity measures leave input on customer delist and satisfactions and hence, overall business  substance in long run.
Inputting management or sells/marketing management or financial management or all three – plays significant role in business growth & enhancement of  bio on line when market  wide remains the same or in the force of economic     down worldwide?
How do you evaluate the effectiveness of this type of programme?
Every industry takes a target to expand business in every year for a substantial %, How much it is realistic?

In every Industry, salary of workmen get revised after every 3 years based on chartered demand.  It is very difficult for manufacturing unit those who are long time player.  How do you analyse this?
Many Industries go for diversification on product with much having background.  How do you justify?
What are the basic role of a manager for manufacturing excellence.

How personality related to manufacturing management.


What is the best way to bring people to same skill levels?
What is the threshold point for cost reduction?

How to handle other department heads who are fairly new do the company and may be working towards achieving their own short term goals?
What is the course detail?
What does it mean by Manufacturing Management?
Faculty Background?
What is the benefit of Manufacturing Management?

How to manage the Manufacturing Process by the person who has not been trained preciously by experience or Study or by skill?

How the Manufacturing cost optimized for healthy competition in the Market?
Cost or Price of a product : How these are guided by the Manufacturing Management?


# How to manage cost without compromising the basic standard of shop floor?
# How to manage costs during lean periods of market demand without having IR issues?

These questions were asked in a programme conducted for manufacturing managers in 2014.
Course coordinate by dr. K.V.S.S. NRao

To be updated  7 Apr 2016

Productivity Technology in Metal Cutting - 2013

Productivity Summit - 2013, 15-16 2013, Pune

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To be updated  7 Apr 2016