Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada - Industrial Engineering and Management Syllabus

B.Tech Mechanical Engineering
III Year - II Semester

Unit I


Definition of Industrial Engineering (I.E.), development, applications, role of an industrial engineer, differences between production management and industrial engineering, quantitative tools of IE and productivity measurement.

Concepts of management, importance, functions of management, scientific management, Taylor's principles, theory X and theory Y, Fayol's principles of management.

Unit II

Plant Layout
Factors governing plant location, types of production layouts, advantages and disadvantages of process layout and product layout, applications, quantitative techniques for optimal design of layouts, plant maintenance, preventive and breakdown maintenance

Unit III

Operations Management
Importance, types of production, applications, work study, method study and time study, work sampling, PMTS, micro-motion study, rating techniques, MTM, work factor system, principles of Ergonomics, flow process charts, string diagrams and Therbligs.

Unit IV

Statistical Quality Control
Quality control, its importance, SQC, sampling inspection, types, Control charts - X and R - charts X and S charts and their applications, numerical examples

Unit V

Resource Management
Concept of human resource management, personnel management and industrial relations, functions of personnel management, Job-evaluation, its importance and types, merit rating, quantitative methods, wage incentive plans, types

Unit VI

Total Quality Management
zero defect concept, quality circles, implementation, applications, ISO quality systems, six sigma - definition, basic concepts

Unit VII

Value Analysis
Value engineering, implementation procedure, enterprise resource planning and supply chain management


Project Management
PERT, CPM - differences and applications, critical path, determination of floats, importance, project crashing, smoothing and numerical examples


1. Industrial Engineering and Management by O.P. Khanna, Khanna Publishers,
2. Industrial Engineering and Production Management, Martand Telsang, S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi

Reference Books:


The topic "differences between production management and industrial engineering" is an important one. Actually, the difference between pure mechanical engineering and industrial engineering in mechanical engineering discipline also needs to be clarified at this stage. Similarly difference betwee design of a system done by engineers and managers to give outputs required by the potential users has to be distinguished with redesign done by industrial engineers to minimize resource use by identifying and eliminating waste in the first or primary design solution.

In many of the topics of the syllabus, there is original design done engineers and managers with the academic and practical specialization in that topic. The industrial engineers are given the design to do efficiency or productivity analysis and improve it in the dimension.

Monday, December 22, 2014

Industrial Engineering - History

Pennsylvania State College, USA introduced the first industrial engineering major in 1907.
Principles of Industrial Engineering by Charles B. Going was published in 1911.
Industrial Engineering - Principles and Techniques

Background for Development of Industrial Engineering

Railroads had devised elaborate methods of internal communications and record keeping by mid 19th century. But  the late-nineteenth-century factory remained a loosely organized cluster of operations. The distinguishing feature of factory management was the conspicuous role of the first-line supervisor. Foremen organized materials and labor, directed machine operations, recorded costs, hired and fired employees, and presided over a largely autonomous empire.

In the 1870s and 1880s, however, critics began to attack the “chaotic” condition of contemporary industry and to propose a more systematic, centralized approach to production management. Their critique became the basis for the best-known effort to encourage coordination within the firm during the first half of the twentieth century under production manager.  The movement was known under various labels -systematic management, scientific management, efficiency engineering, and, by the 1920s, industrial engineering- it fostered greater sensitivity to the manager’s role in production and greater diversity in industrial practice, as managers selectively implemented ideas and techniques.

The attack on traditional factory management originated in two late-nineteenth-century developments. The first was the maturation of the engineering profession,  based on formal education and mutually accepted standards of behavior and formally educated engineers embraced  scientific experimentation and analysis in place of sporadic developments based on experience. The second development  was the rise of systematic management, an effort among engineers and sympathizers to substitute system for the informal methods that had evolved with the factory system. Systematic management was a rebellion against tradition, empiricism, and the assumption that common sense, personal relationships, and craft knowledge were sufficient to run a factory.  The factories replaced traditional managers with engineers  and managerial systems replaced guesswork and ad hoc evaluations.  By the late 1880s, cost accounting systems, methods for planning and scheduling production and organizing materials, and incentive wage plans were developed. Their objective was an unimpeded flow of materials and information. In human terms, systematic management sought to transfer power from the first-line supervisor to the plant manager and to force all employees to pay greater attention to the manager’s goals. It promoted decisions based on performance rather than on personal qualities and associations.

Contribution of F.W.Taylor

In the 1890s,  Frederick Winslow Taylor, became the most vigorous and successful proponent of
systematic management. As a consultant, he introduced accounting systems that permitted managers to use operating records to guide their actions, production control systems that allowed managers to know more precisely what was happening on the shop floor, piece-rate systems that encouraged workers to follow orders and instructions, and various related measures. In 1895, he employed a colleague, Sanford E. Thompson, to help him determine the optimum time to perform industrial tasks; their goal was to compute, by rigorous study of the worker’s movements and the timing of those movements with stopwatches, standards for skilled occupations that could be published and sold to employers.

Between 1898 and 1901, as a consultant to the Bethlehem Iron Company, Taylor introduced all of his systems and vigorously pursued his research on the operations of metal-cutting tools.  Taylor’s discovery of high-speed steel in 1900, which improved the performance of metal-cutting tools, assured his fame as an inventor. In his effort to introduce systematic methods in many areas of the company’s operations, Taylor developed an integrated view of managerial innovation and a broader conception of the shop/production manager’s role.  In 1901, when he left Bethlehem, Taylor resolved to devote his time and ample fortune to promoting his new conception of industrial management. In the paper, Shop Management ( 1903),  he portrayed an integrated complex of systematic management methods, supplemented by refinements and additions such as time study.

In the following years, he modified his presentations to make them more appealing. Two changes were notable. First, he began to rely more heavily on anecdotes from his career to emphasize the links between
improved management, greater productivity, and social melioration to audiences that had little interest in technical detail.  Second, apart from the object lessons, Taylor spoke less about factory operations and more about the significance and general applicability of his ideas. Between 1907 and 1909, with the aid of a close associate, Morris L. Cooke, he wrote a sequel to Shop Management that became The Principles of
Scientific Management (1911).   Taylor came out with four principles and  relied on colorful stories from his experience and language to illuminate “principles” of management. To suggest the integrated character and broad applicability of scientific management, he equated it to a “complete mental revolution.”

 Taylor had fashioned scientific management from systematic management. The two approaches were intimately related. Systematic and scientific management had common roots, attracted the same kinds of people, and had the same business objectives. Yet in retrospect the differences stand out. Systematic management was diffuse and utilitarian, a series of isolated measures that did not add up to a larger whole or have recognizable implications beyond day-to-day industrial operations. Scientific management added significant detail and a larger view.

Taylor’s reformulation of scientific management was the single most important step in the popularization of industrial engineering. The Principles extended the potential of scientific management to nonbusiness endeavors and made Taylor a central figure in the efficiency movement of the 1910s.  To engineers and nonengineers alike, he created order from the diverse prescriptions of a generation of technical writers. By the mid-l910s, he had achieved wide recognition in American engineering circles and had attracted
a devoted following in France, Germany, Russia, and Japan. Pennsylvania State College introduced the first industrial engineering major in 1907 and promoted the thinking of Taylor.

Taylor's  insistence that the proper introduction of management methods required the services of an expert intermediary linked the progress of industrial engineering to the activities of independent consultants and accelerated the rise of a new profession.

Initially, the spread of systematic management occurred largely through the work of independent consultants, a few of whom, such as the accountant J. Newton Gunn, achieved prominence by the end of the nineteenth century. By 1900, Taylor overshadowed the others; by 1910, he had devised a promotional strategy that relied on a close-knit corps of consultants to install his techniques, train the client’s employees, and instill a new outlook and spirit of cooperation. The expert was to ensure that the spirit and mechanism of
scientific management went hand in hand. This activity of Taylor produced a number of successful consulting firms and the largest single cluster of professional consultants devoted to industrial management.

Between 1901 and 19 15, Taylor’s immediate associates introduced scientific management in nearly two hundred American businesses, 80 percent of which were factories  Some of the plants were large and
modern, like the Pullman and Remington Typewriter works; others were small and technologically primitive. Approximately one-third of the total were large- volume producers for mass markets. A majority fell into one of two broad categories. First were those whose activities required the movement of large quantities of materials between numerous workstations (textile mills, railroad repair shops, automobile plants). Their managers sought to reduce delays and bottlenecks and increase throughput.

The records availabe suggest that the consultants provided valuable services to many managers. They typically devoted most of their time to machine operations, tools and materials, production schedules, routing plans, and cost and other record systems. Apart from installing features of systematic management, their most notable activity was to introduce elaborate production-control mechanisms (bulletin boards and graphs, for example) that permitted managers to monitor operations

Between 1910 and 1920, industrial engineering spread rapidly. Large firms introduced staff departments devoted to production planning, time study, and other industrial-engineering activities and consulting firms also developed further. By 1915, the year of Taylor’s death,  professional organization,  the Taylor Society founded in 1910 was active. Western Efficiency Society was founded in 1912.  The Society of Industrial Engineers was founded in 1917. These societies  provided forums for the discussion of techniques and the development of personal contacts.  Financial success and professional recognition increasingly depended
on entrepreneurial and communications skills rather than technical expertise alone. Several of Taylor’s closest associates, including Carl G. Barth and H. K. Hathaway, failed as consultants, while a new generation of practitioners, including many university professors developed successful consulting practices.

Contributions of Gilbreth, Emerson and Bedaux

Competition for clients and recognition-especially after the recession of 1920-21 made executives more cost-conscious-produced other changes. Some industrial engineering consultants began to seek clients outside manufacturing. Spurred by the growing corps of academicians who argued that the principles of factory management applied to all businesses, they reorganized offices, stores, banks, and
other service organizations. A Society of Industrial Engineers survey of leading consulting firms in 1925 reported that many confined their work to plant design, accounting systems, machinery, or marketing . A third trend was an increasing preoccupation with labor issues and time study. This emphasis reflected several postwar developments, most notably and ominously the increasing popularity of consultants who devoted their attention to cost cutting through the aggressive use of time study.

By the early 1920s, industrial engineers  had divided into two separate and increasingly antagonistic camps.
One  influential group of industrial engineers, centered in the Taylor Society, embraced personnel management and combined it with orthodox industrial engineering to form a revised and updated version of scientific management. A handful of Taylor Society activists, Richard Feiss of Joseph & Feiss, Henry S. Dennison of Dennison Manufacturing, Morris E. Leeds of Leeds & Northrup, and a few others, mostly owner-managers, implemented the new synthesis. They introduced personnel management and more controversial measures such as profit sharing, company unionism, and unemployment insurance that attacked customary distinctions between white- and blue-collar employees and enlisted the latter, however modestly, in the management of the firm.

A larger group emphasized the potential of incentive plans based on time and motion study and disregarded or deemphasized other features of orthodox scientific management. Their more limited approach reflected the competition for clients, the trend toward specialization, and the continuing attraction of rate cutting. Indicative of this tendency was the work of two of the most successful consultants of the post- 1915 years, Harrington Emerson and Charles E. Bedaux.

Harrington Emerson

Emerson (1853-1931) was a creative personality. Attracted to Taylor at the turn of the century, he briefly worked as an orthodox practitioner and played an influential role in Taylor’s promotional work. He soon became a respected accounting theorist and a successful reorganizer of railroad repair facilities. As his reputation grew, however, he broke with Taylor and set up a competing business with a large staff of engineers and consultants. Between 1907 and 1925, he had over two hundred clients  He also published best-selling books and promoted a mail-order personal efficiency course. He was probably the best-known industrial engineer of the late 1910s and early 1920s.’ Emerson’s entrepreneurial instincts defined his career. An able technician, he was capable of overseeing the changes associated with orthodox scientific management. He also recruited competent assistants, such as Frederick Parkhurst and C. E. Knoeppel, who later had distinguished consulting careers, and E. K. Wunnerlund, who became the head of industrial engineering at General Motors. But Emerson always viewed his work as a business and.tailored his services to this customer’s interests. In practice, this meant that his employees spent most of their time conducting time studies and installing incentive wage systems. By the mid- 1920s, General Motors, Westinghouse, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Aluminum Company of America, American Radiator, and many other large and medium-sized industrial firms had introduced the Emerson system and in many cases an industrial engineering department staffed by former Emerson employees.

Bedaux (1886-1944) was even more adaptable. A French immigrant who was a clerk at a St. Louis chemical company in 1910 when an expert arrived to conduct time studies, Bedaux quickly grasped the essentials of time study and replaced the outsider. During the “efficiency craze” that followed the pub-
lication of The Principles, he found other clients. The turning point in his ca-reer came in 1912, when he accompanied several Emerson engineers to France as an interpreter. In Paris he struck out on his own, reorganized several factor- ies, and studied the writings of Taylor and Emerson. Returning to the United
States during World War I, he launched the Bedaux Company and began to cultivate clients.  He relied on personal con- tacts and a simple, compelling promise: he would save more money than he charged. Although Bedaux employed able engineers and usually made some effort to reorganize the plant, his specialty was the incentive wage. His men worked quickly, used time studies to identify bottlenecks and set production standards, installed a wage system similar to Emerson’s.  Bedaux’s clients included General Electric, B. F. Goodrich, Standard Oil of New Jersey, Dow Chemical, Eastman Kodak, and more than two hundred other American firms by the mid- 1930s. His European offices were even more successful.

Whereas Taylor and his followers opposed wage cutting and “speed-up” efforts, Emerson was more flexible, and Bedaux made a career of forcing workers to do more for less. One notable result was a resurgence of strikes and union protests. By the 193Os, Bedaux had become infamous on both sides of
the Atlantic. In response to his notoriety, he revised his incentive plan to increase the worker’s share and dropped much of his colorful terminology, including the famous B unit. Bedaux’s business survived, though neither he nor his firm regained the position they had enjoyed in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

Bedaux’s legacy was a substantial burden for other industrial engineers. The growth of labor unrest in the 1930s and the frequent appearance of the “Be-do” plan on grievance lists revived the association of industrial engineering with labor turmoil. Regardless of their association with Bedaux and his tactics, industrial engineers became the targets of union leaders and their allies. In industries such as autos and tires, worker protests paralyzed the operations of industrial engineering departments and led to the curtailment or abandonment of many activities.

Diffusion of Industrial Engineering

There are at least three partial measures of the diffusion of industrial engineering.  First, the many references to cost ac- counting, centralized production planning and scheduling, systematic maintenance procedures, time study, and employment management in the trade press and in the records of industrial corporations indicate that these activities were no longer novel or unfamiliar to executives. The promotional work of the consultants, the “efficiency craze,” and the growth of management education in universities had made the rudiments of industrial engineering widely available; only the oldest or most isolated executives were unaware of them. The critical issue was no longer the desirability of the new management; it was the particular combination of techniques suitable for a given firm or plant, the role of the outside consultant, if any, and the authority of the staff experts.

Second, the information on industrial wage systems that the National Indus- trial Conference Board assiduously collected in the 1920s and 1930s documents widespread acceptance of incentive wage plans, particularly among large corporations. In 1928, for example, 6 percent of the smallest companies (1-50 employees) had incentive wage plans, while 56 percent of the largest firms (more than 3,500 employees) had such plans. In earlier years, small firms devoted to industrial reform had been among the most vigorous proponents of industrial engineering. But their ranks did not grow, and they were soon overshadowed by large corporations, which found in industrial engineering an effective answer to the problems that often prevented large, expensive factories from achieving their potential. Incentive wage plans were an indicator of this trend.  Feiss, Dennison, and others hoped to trans- form the character of industrial work through the use of incentives and person- nel programs; judging from the information that survives, big business manag-
ers had more modest goals. Their principal objective was to make the best use of existing technology and organization by enlisting the workers’ interest in a higher wage. In the early 1930s, many managers were attracted to the “work simplification” movement that grew out of the Gilbreths’ activities, but the effects were apparently negligible, at least until the World War I1 mobilization effort. To most manufacturers, industrial engineering provided useful answers to a range of shop-floor problems; it was a valuable resource but neither a stimulus to radical change nor a step toward a larger goal.

A third source, contemporary surveys of the industrial engineering work of large corporations, provides additional support for this conclusion.   A 1928 survey by the Special Conference Committee, an elite group of large industrial firms, emphasized related problem. It reported wide differences in the practice of
time study, in the duties of time-study technicians, and in the degree of commitment to time study as an instrument for refining and improving the worker’s activities. At Western Electric, which had one of the largest industrial engineering staffs, a manufacturing planning department was responsible for machinery and methods; the time-study expert was simply a rate setter. At Westinghouse, which also had a large industrial engineering department, time-study technicians were responsible for methods and rates. However, a
report from the company’s Mansfield, Ohio, plant indicated that the time-study engineer could propose changes in manufacturing methods “in cooperation with the foremen.” Most companies had similar policies. The time-study expert was expected to suggest beneficial changes to his superiors, often after consulting the foreman, but had no independent authority to introduce them. Essentially, the “expert” was a rate setter. In most plants, industrial engineering focused on detail, seldom threatened the supervisors or workers, and even more rarely produced radical changes in methods.

Experience at Du Pont

A recent, detailed examination of industrial engineering at E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company, a Special Conference Committee member, suggests the range of possibilities that could exist in a single firm (Rumm 1992, 175-204). Du Pont executives created an Efficiency Division in 191 1 after the company’s
general manager read The Principles. Rather than employ an outside consul- tant, they appointed two veteran managers to run the division. These men con- ducted time and motion studies, “determined standard times and methods for tasks, set standard speeds for machinery, and made suggestions for rearranging
the flow of work, improving tools, and installing labor-saving equipment.” Yet they encountered a variety of difficulties; their proposals were only advisory, they clashed with the new employment department when they proposed to study fatigue and the matching of workers and jobs, and they found that many executives were indifferent to their work. Worst of all, they could not show that their activities led to large savings. In 1914, after the introduction of functional supervision in the dynamite-mixing department apparently caused several seri- ous accidents, the company disbanded the Efficiency Division.

Although some Du Pont plants introduced time-study departments in the following years, the company did nothing until 1928, when it created a small Industrial Engineering Division within the larger Engineering Department. The IED was to undertake a “continuous struggle to reduce operating costs.” That battle was comparatively unimportant until the Depression underlined the importance of cost savings. In the 1930s, the IED grew rapidly, from twenty- eight engineers in 1930 to over two hundred in 1940. It examined “every aspect of production,” conducted job analyses, and introduced incentive wage plans.  IED engineers began with surveys of existing operations. They then “consolidated processes, rearranged the layout of work areas, installed materials-handling equipment, and trimmed work crews.” To create “standard times” for particular jobs, they used conven-tional stopwatch time study as well as the elaborate photographic techniques
the Gilbreths had developed. By 1938, they had introduced incentive wage plans in thirty plants; one-quarter of all Du Pont employees were affected.

Du Pont introduced a variety of incentive plans. Three plants employed the Bedaux Company to install its incentive system. Other managers turned to less expensive consultants, and others, the majority, developed their own “in- house” versions of these plans. Some executives, and workers, became enthusi-
astic supporters of incentive wages; others were more criticai. Despite the work of the aggressive and ever-expanding IED, many workers found ways to take advantage of the incentive plans to increase their wages beyond the anticipated ranges. Wage inflation ultimately led the company to curtail the incentive plans. Time and motion study, however, remained hallmarks of Du Pont indus- trial engineering.

 During the depression of the 1930s, when they developed a new sensitivity to the value of industrial engi-
neering, they defined it as a way to cut factory costs.  One reason for this per- spective was bureaucratic: Du Pont had developed an extensive personnel op- eration in the 1910s and 1920s, which had authority over employee training, welfare programs, and labor negotiations. Equally important was the apparent
assumption that industrial engineering only pertained to the details of manu- facturing activities, especially the work of machine operators. Despite mount-ing pressures to reduce costs, the company’s offices, laboratories, and large white-collar labor force remained off-limits to the IED. Despite these handi-
caps, the IED had a significant impact because rapid technological change in the industry created numerous opportunities for organizational change and Du Pont avoided relations with powerful unions.

 Du Pont executives were re- ceptive to the “principles” of industrial engineering but focused on the particu-
lars, which they assessed in terms of their potential for improving short-term economic performance. As a result there was little consistency in their activi- ties until the 1940s; even then, industrial engineering was restricted to the com-pany’s manufacturing operations. This approach, fragmentary and idiosyn- cratic by the standards of Taylor or Dennison, was logical and appropriate to executives whose primary objective was to fine-tune a largely successful organization.

During the first third of the twentieth century, industrial engineers successfully argued that internal management was as important to the health of the enterprise as technology, marketing, and other traditional concerns. Their message had its greatest impact in the 1910s and 1920s, when their “principles”
won wide acceptance and time study and other techniques became common- place. Managers whose operations depended on carefully planned and coordi- nated activities and reformers attracted to the prospect of social harmony were particularly receptive. By the 1930s, the engineers’ central premise, that inter-nal coordination required self-conscious effort and formal managerial systems, had become the acknowledged basis of industrial management.


Allan Mogensen's Common Sense Applied to Motion and Time Study (1932)

Ralph Barnes's Indus­trial Engineering and Management: Problems and Policies (1931).

Steward M. Lowry, Harold B. Maynard, and G. J. Stegmerten's widely used Time and Motion Study and Formulas for Wage Incentives.

The 1927 edition treated motion study only briefly and insubstantially, while devoting many chapters to stopwatch methods and rate setting formulas. In 1932, the authors approached Lillian Gilbreth and her research group for more detailed information on their methods. By 1940 Lowry, Maynard, and Stegmerten had reduced their treatment of wage incentive formulas from nine chapters to three, and increased the number of chapters devoted to motion study to seven.



Charles E. Bedaux - Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management Consultant

Charles E. Bedaux was born in Paris in 1886 on 26 October and migrated to the United States early in the 20th century. He became an American citizen and developed himself to become one of the pioneering contributors to the field of scientific management.

Bedaux worked out various ideas about measuring human energy: these provided the basis for the innovative work study programs that lead to startling improvements in productivity.

Bedaux introduced the concept of rating assessment in timing work. He adhered to Gilbreth's introduction of a rest allowance to allow recovery from fatigue. He is also known for extending the range of techniques employed in work study, including value analysis.

In 1916, Charles Bedaux established his first management consultancy firm in Cleveland. The firm can be considered to be one of the first professional management consultancy firms in the world and its success led to the creation of a string of consultancy firms, firstly in the USA and later in Europe. In 1926 the British Bedaux Company was formed, followed by companies all over Europe, Africa, Australia and the East. Some of the leading consultancy firms of today have their roots with Bedaux.

Bedaux had a strong streak of idealism and believed that his improved production methods were important to the whole world. He preached to industrialists about the need to consider other people and not just profits. This philosophy achieved results.

Charles Bedaux bought the sixteenth century Chateau de Cand in France, where he lived with his American wife Fern.  Charles Bedaux had  business dealings  with  the allied forces as well as the Germans, previous to, and in the beginning of the second world war. He was flown from North Africa to the United States in 1944 to investigate his legal position regarding dealing with Germans. He died before a formal charge was entered.

After the war, various Bedaux companies all over the world continued their work, some of them with new names and new management; all of them with the same philosophy: giving true attention to people in organisations pays off in terms of motivation and productivity.

The Canadian director George Ungar published in 1995, after 16 years of research and gathering of material, a TV documentary of 100 minutes with the title "The Champagne Safari". In this documentary the life of Charles E. Bedaux has been presented in the most fascinating way and put into relation to the economical developments of the first half of the 20th century. This movie is a must-see for every person who has an interest in the history of  scientific management, industrial engineering and management consultancy..

The management systems and tools have developed far away from the original techniques and tools. Still the essential working principles are based on the traditional doctrines: looking and listening carefully to people, understanding their working processes, assessing and developing opportunities for improvement, establishing fair standards and providing stimulating conditions.


Monday, December 15, 2014

Productivity and IE in Soya Bean Processing

Improving Productivity in Soya-Bean Processing Through the Design and Fabrication of Double Action
Decoating and Separation Machine
C. Agulanna, E.C Oriaku and J.C Edeh
Projects Development Institute (PRODA), PMB 01609 Enugu, Nigeria
2011 paper

India Case Study


Soya Tech Website - USA

Soy Milk Plants - India

Friday, December 5, 2014

UNEP Launches Global Initiative for Resource Efficient Cities

The Global Initiative for Resource-Efficient Cities 

Rio de Janeiro, 18 June 2012

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and partners have unveiled today at the Rio+20 summit in Brazil a new initiative that aims to reduce pollution levels, improve resource efficiency and reduce infrastructure costs in cities across the world.

The Global Initiative for Resource-Efficient Cities will work with local and national governments, the private sector and civil society groups to promote energy efficient buildings, efficient water use, sustainable waste management and other activities.

Cities with populations of 500,000 or more are invited to join the initiative, which aims to attract 200 members by 2015.

Today, urban areas account for 50 percent of all waste, generate 60-80 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions and consume 75 percent of natural resources. In terms of space they occupy only 3 percent of the Earth's surface.

Water savings of 30 percent, and energy saving of up to 50 percent can be achieved in cities with limited investment and encouraging behavioral change, according to UNEP.

The green initiatives in cities can provide employment to some 20 million people in the wind, solar and biofuel industries by 2030.

The Global Initiative for Resource-Efficient Cities will support sustainability efforts in cities with the following core activities:

Promoting research on resource efficiency and sustainable consumption and production
Providing access and advice for city decision-makers on technical expertise, capacity building and funding opportunities for improving resource efficiency
Creating a network for cities and organizations to exchange experiences and peer-review projects for mutual benefit

"Decoupling economic growth from unsustainable resource use and environmental impacts-especially in urban areas - underpins the transition to a low-carbon, resource efficient green economy",

"The new Global Initiative for Resource Efficiency Cities aims to provide cities with a common framework for assessing environmental performance and encouraging innovative sustainability measures. In the context of rapid urbanization and growing pressures on natural resources, there is an urgent need for co-ordinated action on urban sustainability. This is essential both for preventing irreversible degradation of resources and ecosystems, and for realizing the multiple benefits of greener cities, from savings through energy-efficient buildings, or the health and climate benefits of cleaner fuels and vehicles."

The initiative has already been backed by a broad range of international institutions, such as UN-Habitat, the World Bank, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI), Cities Alliance, International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC), Veolia Environment Institute, Bioregional, Urban Environmental Accords Members Alliance and International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

Several cities have already come on board, including the City of Sao Paulo, Malmo, Heidelberg, Quezon City, Gwangju, with national interest having been expressed by Japan, Brazil, France and the United States.

The strong, early interest in this initiative is further evidence that cities, which generate 80 percent of global GDP, understand they are the key decision-makers and implementers of the necessary steps required to move our societies towards a more sustainable pattern of consumption and production,

There was an initiative of  C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group earlier.

Sustainable Cities: Making it Happen  - A Report

The practical steps that cities can take towards resource efficiency are the focus of a new UNEP report, also launched today at Rio+20.

Using case studies from China, Brazil, Germany and a host of other countries, Sustainable, Resource Efficient Cities in the 21st Century: Making it Happen, highlights opportunities for city leaders to improve waste and water management, energy efficiency, urban transportation, and other key sectors.

Among the projects highlighted in the report is the Masdar City development in the United Arab Emirates, which is acting as a test-bed for the development of the skills, innovation and markets required for realizing the eco-city concept at a large scale.

The report also examines several initiatives that aim to meet the rising energy demands of urban centres, in a sustainable way.

Renewable energy feed-in tariff strategies in Germany, for example, have allowed the city of Freiburg to invest in photovoltaic, wind and other renewable energy systems, which now supply over 8 percent of the city's total energy demand. Household energy consumption has been decreased by up to 80 percent due to Freiburg's energy-efficient housing standards.

Integration: Cities need to move beyond merely conducting environmental impact assessments before implementing new developments. In addition to a conservation approach towards greening, the livability of cities and social equality measures should be taken into account.

Governance: Tackling climate change and advancing urban sustainability requires an integrated, consultative approach involving local communities and civil society groups, as well traditional decision-makers.

Smart Urban Design: Supporting low-footprint design that targets public transport, pedestrian zones and cycle lanes and promote compact, multi-use urban development

Finance: Tax incentives and subsidies can be used to stimulate the up-take of green technologies.

Technology Transfer: Transfer of technology and skills to developing countries should be adapted to suit local context, not simply 'off-the-shelf' solutions from the developed world. Capacity building on management and maintenance is an important part of technology and skills transfer.

Innovation: Supporting and/or establishing educational and research bodies that can support the development of skills, capabilities and networks on urban sustainability.

The Feasibility Study on the Development of an Urban CDM

A second UNEP report, also launched today, examines  how cities can better access climate finance through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The Feasibility Study on the Development of an Urban CDM, recommends reforming the existing CDM to allow for methodologies geared towards cities. It also recommends the development of a CDM programme of activities for pilot cities that would inform the future development of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions and assist in the transition to a green economy.



One of the first projects of this initiative was to conduct a mapping exercise as part of a  comprehensive review on resource efficiency in cities. In partnership with Sustainable Cities International and, Infrangilis, Travisia Partners identified what  stakeholders and organizations are doing in relation to resource efficiency as well as identified the most appropriate areas for UNEP intervention in the sector.

Sustaianble Cities International secured a second contract to produce a background paper on city level resource efficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and carry out a two-day workshop as a parallel event at the World Urban Forum in Medellin, Colombia. This project was conducted as a partnership between Fundacion Corona, the Latin American Network for Democratic, Fair and Sustainable Cities. Practitioners from four cities of the LAC region attended as well as representatives from UNEP, and a final report was produced that included suggestions for priority areas where UNEP initiatives could add value in the region.

Monday, December 1, 2014

33699 Productivity and Industrial Engineering in Bicycle Manufacturing

Atlas Cycles(Haryana)Ltd., Sonepat

The company is one of the biggest Bicycle manufacturing units producing most of the components under one roof. It has got a vast Press Shop, Machine Shop, Brazing Shop, Welding Shop, Heat treatment Plant, Paint Shop, Electroplating Plant and Assembly Shop spread over in a campus of 28 acres.

 The manufacturing facilities are supported by a modern tool room

Research & Development Department provides components and tool drawings designed with the support of CAD.  Necessary press tools, fixtures, jigs, special tools, templates and gauges are manufactured on high precision machine tools, like jig boring machine, spark erosion machine etc., in tool room. All the tools and gauges pass through Tools Inspection to ensure its precision and accuracy.

Gauge Control Cell of QA ensures timely calibration of all production gauges and measuring equipment used throughout the factory.

QA has got state of art Mechanical Laboratory having Tensile Testing Machine of different ranges upto 10 Tons, Optical Profile Projector, Spring Testing machine, Vickers Hardness Testers, Rockwell Hardness Testers, GSM Tester, Bursting Strength Tester, Cupping Value Tester, Rubber Abrasion Tester along with Special Testing Equipment for Handle, Pedal, Fork, Frame, Rim, Crank etc.

Chemical Laboratory of QA is equipped with paint test apparatus, carbon sulphur tester, hull cell apparatus, flash point apparatus, Kinetic viscosity bath, nickel - chrome plating tester, micro test for zinc and paint thickness testing, UV tester and Salt spray testing apparatus to provide assistance to receiving inspection, pretreatment plant, electroplating plant, paint shop etc.

The Integration of Research & Development, Tool Room, Manufacturing and QA activities has resulted in high and consistent quality level of the company products enhancing customer satisfaction.

Warehouse Productivity - Trek Bicycles

Uploaded by DSI

Productivity Gain in Production of Brompton Hinge

The Brompton hinge is the biggest change on the bike for 15 years, and technically one of the most challenging ever. Brompton finally placed an order for a Haas VF-1 40-taper vertical machining centre.
Before the arrival of the Haas, all of Brompton’s hinges were manufactured on a machine tool designed and built inhouse.  “The bespoke machine is fairly inflexible. So it was decided to replace it. However, the problem wasn’t finding a machine to do the job, it was finding a solution to the technical aspects of the project, such as the workholding, methodology and the ergonomics. It seemed there were a million ways of making the components, and they needed  the most efficient and cost-effective. Haas UK set about designing a method for clamping the cast-iron hinge, including a solution that would be able to compensate for the irregularities of the cast faces.

The solution is based on a Haas QuikCube multi-fixture system, where a hinge casting is loaded using an innovative locating/aligning mechanism. This is repeated four times – on the four faces of the cube – and the whole QuikCube is loaded on the VF-1. The rotary table and right-angle heads on the VF-1 mean that the hinges are completed in a single setup – four at a time – something that Brompton was never able to achieve previously. Tolerances are ± 0.05 mm on critical dimensions. The Haas VF-1 improved efficiency, reduced cost base and increased productivity by 20 percent with the same workforce. It also provided better accuracy  and flexibility to make different types of hinges. The cube can handle new parts. So just load the news parts and press the Cycle Start button for making different designs of hinges.

The operator has found programming the Haas as easy as riding a bike. Quoting the training operation as a “real success,” the operator is regularly shaving time from machining cycles. Important time savings are being realized and the Haas VF-1 will process 45,000 hinges required in a year with plenty of capacity for more.

DIY Bamboo Cycle Workshop

Crisil ratings commentary on Bicycle industry in India
China Number one
India Number two
cost reduction is critical

Bicyle materials - case study

Bicycle Manufacturing Process

3D Printing of Cycle frame
http://www.industrial-lasers.com/articles/print/volume-29/issue-3/departments/updates/first-metal-3d-printed-bicycle-frame-manufactured.html  UK based companies


Fatigue life improvement of Aluminum frame of a bicycle


http://www.greenlinebicycles.com/manufacturingprocess.php - In pictures

How a bicycle was made in 1945 - Video


India is the second largest producer of bicycles,  next  to china. It Produces around 1.26 crore bicycles every year. More than 90 per cent of the bicycle production in India comes from four bicycle companies,  Hero Cycles 35%, Atlas Cycles 24%, TI Cycles 18% and Avon 15%. Hero Cycles has grown to become the world’s largest bicycle maker.
http://www.niir.org/projects/projects/bicycle-bicycle-industry-bicycle-parts-bicycle-assembling-tyres-tubes-bicycle-components-spares-bicycle-accessories/z,,6c,0,64/   The link contains projects reports on various bicycle components.

Sunday, November 30, 2014

Productivity and Industrial Engineering in Soft Drink Manufacturing


21 October 2014
Coca Coal is expanding its current successful productivity program by targeting annualized savings of $3 billion per year by 2019. This productivity program will focus on four key areas:

• Restructuring the Company’s global supply chain, including manufacturing in North America;
• Implementing zero-based budgeting across the organization;
• Streamlining and simplifying its operating model; and
• Driving increased discipline and efficiency in direct marketing investments.

15 October 2013

During the three and nine months ended September 27, the company recorded charges of $97M and $312M, respectively, related to its productivity and reinvestment program.

The first component of this program is a global productivity initiative focused around four primary areas: global supply chain optimization;
global marketing and innovation effectiveness;
operating expense leverage and operational excellence; and
data and information technology systems standardization.

The second component of its productivity and reinvestment program involves an integration initiative in North America related to  acquisition of Coca-Cola Enterprises' former North America business.

The company has identified incremental synergies in North America, primarily in the area of its North American product supply operations, which will enable the company to better serve customers and consumers.

As a combined productivity and reinvestment program, the company anticipates generating annualized savings of $550M-$650M which will be phased in over time. Coke said it expects to begin fully realizing the annual benefits of these savings in 2015, the final year of the program.

Feb 2012

The company says productivity is a “core pillar” of its “2020 Vision”, which sets out its target to double revenue in the next eight years.

New PET Bottling Plant at Bidadi, India

Five to six people are operating the line and the plant now produces an average of 720,000 x 600 ml
bottles per day. The new line is performing fully as expected: bringing savings in the consumption of energy and water and producing light-weighted bottles.
The new Sidel's line is  flexible.  HCCBPL is currently bottling products in three different formats: 600ml ('on-the-go' size) at an output of 36,000 bottles per hour, 1250ml at 22,000 bph, and the larger 2000ml at 18,000 bph.


The Traditional Channel Productivity Senior Manager

Coca - Cola
The Traditional Channel Productivity Senior Manager is responsible to:

Define the pipeline of DMI productivity projects for the traditional channel

Provide analysis and recommendations to maximize the ROI of the commercial and marketing initiatives to be implemented in the traditional channel

Support the implementation of the DMI productivity initiatives

Promote a productivity mindset in the system

Drive talent development/recruitment for the productivity analysts team

1. Project Pipeline Management (10%)
Identify and prioritize productivity initiatives. Alignment of objectives, reach, and time restrictions with clients and other relevant areas. Lead management routines with key stakeholders to review the status of the projects and the update of the pipeline

2. Provide analysis and recommendations to maximize the ROI of the commercial and marketing initiatives to be implemented in the traditional channel (35%)

Create models to measure the effectiveness of the marketing and commercial initiatives. Prepare business cases and recommendations to optimize the ROI of the initiatives Present business cases and recommendations to the key stakeholders
Define KPI#s to measure the success of the initiatives Provide post analysis and scorecards to follow up the ROI of the initiatives

3. Support the implementation of the initiatives (35%)
Design and implement processes to assure that the preparation of the business cases, analysis and recommendations are align with the market execution requirements. Support with specific analysis and business cases to be presented to bottlers, customers and providers

4. Promote a productivity mindset in the system (10%)
Provide a knowledge management platform containing business cases, recommendations, post analysis and scorecards of
each of the projects

5. Drive talent development/recruitment for the productivity analysts team (10%)

Manage development and carrier plan of the productivity analysts


Pepsi Cola

Process Improvement Engineer

PepsiCo - Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Posted 25 November 2014

Job description


The RTE Process Improvement Engineer is responsible for ensuring productivity goals for current year are met through coordinating existing projects, analyzing current practices and recommending improvements, and tracking cost management activities. In addition, the position is responsible for developing a healthy pipeline of productivity projects for years two and three.


Analyze, identify, recommend and implement methods to reduce waste, inefficiencies and non-value added activities.
Develop annual operating plan, yield, cullage, and fixed budgets for RTE.
Coach and train others on variable labor costs, yields, cullage and fixed budgets.
Facilitate brainstorming meetings with RTE natural work teams and salaried team members for purposes of identifying cost improvement projects. Coordinate the development of timelines and action step accountabilities (RACI charts).
Assist in the development of the RTE capital plans to support the respective business unit objectives.
Manage/lead operational projects.
Coordinate and complete cost studies, providing FOB buildups, impact to fixed budgets, and work with the project study team to identify capital requirements.
Analyze component and total system (process/equipment/ methods) capabilities; identify, develop, and execute improvement opportunities.
Educate department employees on KPI's (key performance indicators) and other business information. Coach and train your work team on the costs of the operation and how their actions can impact these costs.
Demonstrate exemplary problem solving skills; coach and lead others to execute problem solving
Demonstrate good oral and written communication skills through leading meetings, facilitating meetings and preparing written plant communications.
Assist in plant initiatives and direct line supervision as needed.
Coach and lead an Autonomous Maintenance team within the assigned area of responsibilities
Responsible for Centerline Compliance and Minor Stop losses for assigned area. Identifying opportunities and working with AM teams to resolve issues using Focused Improvement Tools.
Leading and facilitating Simple Root Cause (SRC) and 7 Steps
Other job duties as required.
Ensure financial commitments and targets are achieved or exceeded in the areas of operating income and invested capital to ultimately contribute to the net profitability of the RTE business. This is achieved through management of capital plans, cost improvement goals, variable costs, fixed costs (including maintenance), quality, high performance work system development, and other miscellaneous areas.
Develop long range plans, goals and strategies in order to ensure net profitability of the unit using TPM and LSS .
To establish/maintain departmental programs which assure full compliance with pre-established Federal, State, Corporate and Plant sanitation and safety standards.
To establish and adhere to department variable and fixed budgets; to establish and adhere to yield, cullage, and over-pack standards; to direct the department in such a manner to ensure the highest level of efficiency while meeting these budgeted costs and standards; to continue to push the organization to attack leading financial losses.
To keep abreast of new developments affecting the RTE department, including new products, modifications, and processes.


Ten packaging assets
Ten processing assets

TPM - Sustain a culture of continuous improvement
Problem Solving
Lean Six Sigma
Financial Accounting/Analysis
Project Management
Long-Range Operations Planning
Communication Skills

Working Knowledge of:
Industrial Engineering (Methods and Costing)
Labor Relations
Regulatory Requirements
Quality Assurance
Natural Work Teams/High Performance Work System

Minimum Job Requirements :

The RTE department consists of highly automated and complex machinery. The candidate must be knowledgeable concerning sophisticated processing and packaging machinery and materials being used. The RTE Process Improvement Engineer must coordinate daily activities with the RTE Operations Manager, other operating departments, staff groups, and/or suppliers. The RTE Process Improvement Engineer is expected to develop, recommend, and implement productivity improvements.

PepsiCo is an equal opportunity employer and gives consideration for employment to qualified applicants without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability or protected veteran status.

Supply Chain Senior Analyst (Industrial Engineer)

PepsiCo - Plano, Texas
Posted 21 November 2014

Job description

Position will be responsible for performing industrial engineering time studies to validate and maintain Warehouse Labor Management System.
Position will update LM system at each site after appropriate time sampling and auditing processes have been completed.
Position will perform floor observations of the work space to analysis the business and look for new streams of productivity
Position will routinely meet with field Business Unit Leaders and shift managers to address and review Labor Management program opportunities.
Position will work closely with field LM experts to address issues, concerns, watch-outs.


Degree in Industrial Engineering is required.
1-3 yrs, Industrial Engineering experience
Experience performing time and motion studies, preferrably in a warehousing environment.
Thorough understanding of warehouse systems and processes.
Ability to influence across different levels of the organization.
Ability to work independently, setting own work plan and priorities.

July 2008

Director of fleet procurement, Pepsi Cola, Pete Silva has helped PepsiCo achieve substantial cost and time savings, including:

Helping produce more than $1.1 million total fleet savings for PepsiCo in 2007 by improvements in purchasing processes across the supply chain.

Testing hybrids in 2005, eventually leading the company to convert its company car fleet to hybrids.

Supporting Frito-Lay efforts to redesign its delivery trucks, leading to significant capital savings over the past two years.

PepsiCo is one of the world’s largest producers of convenience snacks, foods, and beverages, with revenues of more than $39 billion and more than 185,000 employees. The PepsiCo and bottler fleets number more than 48,000 U.S. vehicles.

Productivity and Industrial Engineering in Bottled Water Manufacturing

Simulation and Control of Bottling Plant using First-order Hybrid Petri Nets

Positive Systems: Theory and Applications: Proceedings of the First Multidisciplinary International Symposium on Positive Systems: Theory and Applications (POSTA 2003), Rome, Italy, August 28-30, 2003.

Energy efficiency in Nestle  bottled water plants

Over the period 2005-2010, our energy use per litre has decreased by 22%.

Nestlé Waters has introduced many initiatives to optimise the energy efficiency of its plants, Including :
increasing line productivity,
investing in more energy-efficient machines,
heat recovery,
sharing expertise among the engineering community,
introducing new bottle blowing technologies.
While our production has increased, our energy use per litre has decreased by 22%.


Productivity in Bottle Washing and Cost Reduction

Kolob Water Co. of Cedar City, UT, is a successful marketer of bottled spring water. Kolob’s customers get to have their “own” label on the PET water bottles they give to customers during office visits or at trade shows.

Martin Edgel, company manager,visited Pack Expo Las Vegas 2001 to view the latest technology and acquire it to improve the plant’s productivity. As a result of the show, Edgel purchased a 90-degree transfer turntable, a stainless-steel conveyor, and an automatic bottle washer—all from Accutek Packaging Equipment Co.

The bottle washer operates in a linear fashion. It has 10 rinse nozzles, an automatic bottle-indexing system, and a soft-grip bottle grabber. Photoeyes count the appropriate quantity of PET bottles into the work area. Additional containers are stopped automatically. A gripper arm then inverts the containers over a liquid-recovery basin as sanitizing liquid is sprayed into the bottles to remove any carton dust or particles. A no-clog spray and valve system allows the bottle washer to remain in operation when recycling rinse or sanitizing solution from the recovery basin.

After containers are rinsed and placed back onto the transport conveyor, they’re released from the work area and a new set of containers is indexed in for rinsing. The bottle washer cleans effectively at production rate speeds of up to 45 containers per minute (21,600 containers in 8 hour shift).

Prior to installing Accutek’s bottle washer, Kolob washed all of its bottles by hand.  With the new system installed, Kolob increased productivity by 300%, producing up to 400 cases per day. The manufacturing cost reduced by $1.50 per case.

http://www.accutekpackaging.com/main.php?page_id=50  - Spring 44 bottling solution

Automatic water bottle washing, filling and capping


Portable Water Bottle Production Systems - 125 liters per hour
In an eight-hour session, up to 2,000 bottles of 500 ml size can be filled with a crew of two.
water purified by Blue Spring table-top bottled water production system costs as little as 1/8th penny (US$ 0.0013) per liter of product water.

Norland International.

Norland International, Inc. is your complete source for water bottling plants: complete bottled water production lines, water distillation systems; and related equipment for the water bottling industry, such as: commercial water distillers; carbon filters; ozone generating systems; bottle washers, fillers and cappers; case-packers and shrink-wrappers; and blow molding equipment for PET bottles.
In addition to its quality water bottling products, Norland is known worldwide for its industry-leading customer support, including pre-sale consultation and plant design, and after-sale service, including installation and maintenance.

A project report on mineral water - location at Uruguay - 2011
Pack: 21 months;  IRR: 71.9%