Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Branding for Industrial Engineering




Branding for Industrial Engineering

It is possible to develop subjects in the curriculum with industrial engineering included in the subject name.



Industrial Engineering Strategy

Industrial Engineering of Technical Processes


  Manufacturing Systems Industrial Engineering

  Material Handling Systems Industrial Engineering

Quality and Inspection Systems Industrial Engineering

Storage and Warehouse  Systems Industrial Engineering

Supply Chain Systems Industrial Engineering


    Zero-Based Productivity Management of Supply Chain - McKinsey Way Supply Chain Industrial 
    Engineering
    https://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2019/04/zero-based-productivity-management-of.html

Logistics Systems Industrial Engineering

  Information Systems Industrial Engineering

Lean Manufacturing Systems Industrial Engineering

    Maintenance System Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering of Business Processes

Marketing and Selling Processes  Industrial Engineering

Purchase Processes  Industrial Engineering

Accounting Processes  Industrial Engineering

Customer Service Processes  Industrial Engineering

Human Resource Recruitment  Process Industrial Engineering



Updated on 1 May 2019, 15 April 2019

A to Z of Industrial Engineering - 2020 Blogging Challenge Topics


Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao

____________

____________

Earlier Collection
A to Z of Industrial Engineering - Principles, Methods, Techniques, Tools and Applications


1. Analysis of Productivity - Productivity Measurement

2. Behavioral Issues of Industrial Engineering

3. Cost Based Redesign of Engineering Products, Processes and Equipment

4. Design for Additive Manufacturing - Design for Manufacture

5. Engineering Economic Analysis of Industrial Engineering Projects and Proposals

Engineering Economics - Bulletin - Information Board

6. Facilities and Equipment Productivity

Equipment Productivity Improvement - Bibliography

7. Going's Contribution to Industrial Engineering

8. Hearty Cooperation between Engineers, Industrial Engineers, Managers and Operators

9. Industrial Engineering Innovations

10. Journals in Industrial Engineering

11. Knowledge, Information and Data Bases for Industrial Engineering

12. Labor Productivity

13. Machine Work Study

Machine Work Study - Machine Time Estimation - Machine Time Reduction - Machining Cycle Time Optimization - Operation & Inspection Chart Analysis

14. New Developments in Industrial Engineering During 2019

15. Organizing for Industrial Engineering

16. Production Processes Industrial Engineering

Production Industrial Engineering - Scope

17. Quality and Productivity

18. Return on Investment in Industrial Engineering Projects

19. Shop Accounting, Factory Accounting, and Works Accounting

20. Towne's Contribution to Industrial Engineering

The Engineer as an Economist -  Henry Towne

21. Utility of Industrial Engineering to Society, Organization, and Employees

Industrial Engineering for More Benefits but Less Costs - Sustainability

22. Visionary Leadership for Industrial Engineering

23. W's of Industrial Engineering and Creative Thinking

24. Xeroxing, Originating and Sharing Industrial Engineering Designs and Patents

25. Year to Year Capability Development and Planning for Industrial Engineering

26. Zeal for Improving Competitiveness and Sustainability

Monday, April 29, 2019

Industrial Engineering for More Benefits but Less Costs - Sustainability



Industrial Engineering for More Consumption, More Incomes, More Profits but Less Resource Consumption.


People, Profits and Planet - Industrial Engineering working for all the three for 110 years.

As science of preserving essential elements of the planet is coming out with new discoveries, industrial has the necessary expertise to integrate plant related data into product and process redesign.
Industrial engineering researchers, academicians and professionals have to choose areas where IE can focus and do effective work.

Total Cost Industrial Engineering - Industrial Engineering of Enterprise Cost


Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering - Narayana Rao


Cost based engineering redesign is part of system efficiency engineering and is advocated by economists to get maximum utility from available resources. Factor prices and prices of goods and services are to be taken into account to design products and processes. Industrial engineering has taken up this responsibility in the engineering disciplines.


Engineering of cost of engineering activities is the core job of industrial engineering. Total cost industrial engineering is an augmented activity.

Industrial engineering came out of Henry Towne's ideas expressed in 1886 in ASME meeting. Engineers' involvement in cost accounting and use of cost information for decision making precedes this meeting and presentation. But the advocacy for including shop accounting and efforts to reduce cost of production as part of engineers' duties and education were made in 1886. 

1886 - ASME - Henry Towne - Shop Management and Works Management - Shop Accounting


American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) made the beginning in the field of works management and shop management.

Henry Towne, in a paper presented to the society (ASME) in 1886 observed that  the work of all engineers, especially that of the mechanical engineers, includes the executive duties of organizing and superintending the operations of industrial establishments, and of directing the labor of the artisans whose organized efforts yield the fruition of his work.

To insure the best results, the organization of productive labor must be directed and controlled by persons having not only good executive ability, and possessing the practical familiarity of a mechanic or engineer with the goods produced and the processes employed, but having also, and equally, a practical knowledge of how to observe, record, analyze and compare essential facts in relation to wages, supplies, expense accounts, and all else that enters into or affects the economy of production and the cost of the product. 

It will probably not be disputed that the matter of shop management is of equal importance with that of engineering, as affecting the successful conduct of most, if not all, of our great industrial establishments, and that the management of works  has become a matter of such great and far-reaching importance as perhaps to justify its classification also as one of the modern arts. A vast amount of accumulated experience in the art of workshop management already exists, but there is no record of it available to the world in general. Surely this condition of things is wrong and should be remedied. The remedy should originate  from  engineers, and, for the reasons above indicated, particularly from mechanical engineers. So, Towne put forward the question, "why should it not originate from, and be promoted by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers?"

The discussion and the dissemination of useful knowledge in this specialty, group themselves under two principal heads, namely: Shop Management, and Shop Accounting. A third head may be named which is sub-ordinate to, and partly included in each of these, namely: Shop Forms  and Blanks. Under the head of Shop Management fall the questions of organization, responsibility, reports, systems of contract and piece work, and all that relates to the executive management of works, mills and factories. Under the head of Shop Accounting fall the questions of time and wages systems, determination of costs, whether by piece or day-work, the distribution of the various expense accounts, the ascertainment of profits, methods of book-keeping, and all that enters into the system of accounts which relates to the manufacturing departments of a business, and to the determination and record of its results.

This work, if undertaken by the society, may be kept separate and distinct from the present work of the society (engineering work) by organizing a new "section" (which might be designated the " Economic Section'').


In the case of shop information of  a manufacturing establishment, there is now in use, in connection with the manufacturing accounts and exclusive of the ordinary commercial accounts, some twenty various forms of special record and account books, and more than one hundred printed forms and blanks. .The primary object to which all of these contribute is the systematic recording of the operations of the different departments of the works, and the computation therefrom of such statistical information as is essential to the efficient management of the business, and especially to increased economy of production. All of these special books and forms have been the outgrowth of experience extending over many years, and represent a large amount of thoughtful planning and intelligent effort at constant development and improvement. The methods in use presently,  would undoubtedly be of great value to others engaged in similar operations, and particularly to persons engaged in organizing and starting new enterprises. The society can provide a platform for explaining the present practices and many would come forward to engage in such a dialogue to benefit from the idea generated in the discussions.

Costs of products were reduced by many companies without encroaching upon the earnings of the men engaged and the results we know are quite striking.

A portion of the cost reductions indicated resulted from improved appliances, larger product, and increased experience, but after making due allowance for all of these, there remains a large portion of the reduction which, to the writer's knowledge, is fairly attributable to the operations of the peculiar piece-work system adopted. Henry Towne, promised to present the details and operations of this system followed in his company in the proceedings of the new section of  the society, in due time. He expressed the hope that other, and probably much more valuable, information and experience relating to systems of contract and piece-work would doubtless be contributed by other members.



For the full paper of Towne

The Engineer as an Economist- Henry Towne

Gain Sharing, Piecework and Day Work Systems


Henry Towne presented his ideas on involving labor in cost reduction work of the production organization in the paper "Gain Sharing" presented in 1889. This paper advocated bonus to all the employees based on the reduction achieved in the cost of production relative to a base year. Halsey in 1891 presented a paper and argued for production time as the basis for paying bonus to the individual workers. F.W. Taylor presented a more comprehensive system in 1895. It is very important to note that Taylor, proposed that organization of "Elementary Rate Fixing Department" as the fundamental step to achieve cost reductions. To implement the changes proposed by the rate fixing departments, differential piece rate system has to be introduced. "Elementary Rate Fixing Department" is the first appearance of industrial engineering department.


Elementary Rate Fixing Department (1895 - Taylor)

Taylor started this department of section in his company and its successful record was presented to the ASME in 1895. This department has to study the productive capabilities machines and men in a scientific manner and establish the speeds at which machines can work and men can work and based on the speed information has to decide the time required for completing various jobs or tasks. Such scientific information has to be used to set piece rates. This department must have status equal to the engineering department of the organization.  So Taylor organized the first industrial engineering department that is parallel to the engineering department of the company and is focused on the study of machines and men and in actual working on specific  jobs and in designing best methods of working that reduce cost of production.


Shop Management (1905 - Taylor)


Taylor responded to the call by Towne to described innovations in the field of management done by engineers who had done managerial work as part of engineer's functions. He contributed a paper on redesign of belts based on cost data (1893) and another paper on increasing productivity and reducing costs by organizing elementary rate fixing department and installing differential piece rate system.

In 1895, he presented a book length paper on shop management. He described many practices that will contribute to productivity improvement and effectiveness improvement. He also indicated the innovations of many others in the field of shop management. Taylor also contributed to discussions on shop accounting and its contribution to improving productivity.

In the paper "Shop Management", Taylor wrote, "The art of management has been defined, "as knowing exactly what you want men to do, and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.""  No concise definition can fully describe an art, but the relations between employers and men form without question the most important part of this art. In considering the subject, therefore, until this part of the problem has been fully discussed, the other phases of the art may be left in the background. Once again, we have to carefully note this sentence. Taylor said, the many other items are left in the background and issues related to managing men are highlighted.

Productivity is to be measured in cost terms.

Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug brought the issue into prominence through an article in 2002.

Cost Measurement and Analysis-A Necessary Part of Industrial Engineering Education & Training
Author  Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug
IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings, 2002

Deo, Balbinder S.,(2001) 'Operation Based Costing Model for Measuring Productivity in Production Systems', PHD Thesis Submitted to The University of Manitoba (Canada), ProQuest Digital Dissertations, AAT NQ57506.


Learn or Revise Cost Accounting through these articles

Cost Accounting

23 to 26 April 2016

Role of Costing and Cost Accounting in the Organizations
Introduction to Cost Terms - Review Notes

Traditional Cost Objectives and Their Utility
Job Costing - Review Notes


Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Budgeting
Process Costing - Review Notes



What is Industrial Engineering in practice?


It is the study of resource use to develop planning and control methods and data. Resource use is accounted for in units of resource as well as in money values. The money value of a resource is termed as cost or expense. Planning of resource use is also done in terms of units of resource and money terms. The objective of industrial engineering is resource use efficiency or elimination of waste of resources.

AACE, the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering, stated, "Most people would agree that ‘engineers’ and engineering — or, more generally, the ‘application of scientific principles and techniques’ — are most often responsible for creating functional things or strategic assets … "

Cost engineering profession advocates that an engineering professional must determine the activities needed to design and build a product, as well as estimate how long these activities will take and estimate the potential cost.
http://www.iienet2.org/details.aspx?id=21620

Industrial engineers have to justify their system improvement recommending through engineering economic analysis. As majority of the industrial engineering proposals are cost reduction projects, industrial engineers have to estimate costs using the existing method, costs using the proposed method and then calculate the summary profitability measures like NPV or IRR.

"Total cost industrial engineering is a framework that helps industrial engineers to visualize the total enterprise cost in terms of  individual resources, various processes or methods, various systems and products which they analyse to eliminate waste or improve efficiency and drive total cost reduction, waste elimination and improve efficiency."

(The framework can be developed similar to the thesis Towards a conceptual framework for strategic cost management - The concept, objectives, and instruments
http://www.qucosa.de/fileadmin/data/qucosa/documents/5228/data/Title_250706.pdf)

Value chain analysis proposed by Michael Porter in the context of strategic analysis for differentiation and cost advantage can be the starting point of developing the model for visualizing the total enterprise cost in terms of segments meaningful for IE activity.
Value Chain Analysis - A Base for Total Cost Industrial Engineering



_________________

Ideas to be included


Product ideas, product designs,production process plans, layout plans, inspection plans, maintenance plans etc. are part of the planning process. Industrial engineers' main responsibility is to take care of these engineering activities and their management. In this context an interesting paper to be read is

ROLE OF STRATEGIC PLANNING IN ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, Kumar Krishen, Ph.D.
NASA Johnson Space Center,  Houston, Texas 77058
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19960023932_1996053021.pdf

In the abstract of the paper, this interesting statement is made.


The traditional roles of an  engineer  to  design, develop, and streamline (a product and its) a manufacturing process for a product are still valued and relevant.  However, the need for an engineer to participate in the process of identifying the product  to  be  developed,  the schedule and resources required, and the goal of satisfying the customer, has become paramount to achieving the success of the enterprise. When we include these endeavors in the functions of an engineer, management of “engineering” takes on a new dimension. In this paper, the ramifications of  the  changing and increased functions. of  an engineer and consequent impacts on engineering management are explored.

System cost industrial engineering

    Supply chain system cost industrial engineering
    Manufacturing system cost industrial engineering
    Information system cost industrial engineering
    Quality system cost industrial engineering
    Maintenance system cost industrial engineering
    Accounting system cost industrial engineering

Accounting for industrial engineering decisions

Cost estimating for engineering economic analysis of method studies, value engineering studies, operation research models, human effort engineering studies

Standard Costing

Standard cost of the product - break up in terms of processes and methods evaluated or to be evaluated by IE department - break up in terms of components to be examined by value engineering methodology.

IE departments have to visualize the total cost of the enterprise in terms of subsystems, processes and methods they improve, select the ones they would like to study and improve and declare the benefits they envisage in the new methods. Thus each IE productivity improvement project has to contribute to the reduction of a planned cost of a period. This sort of visually mapping of the benefit of IE projects would make the contribution of IEs to organizations very clear and also will push the industrial engineering to put in right efforts.

_________________


Total Cost Industrial Engineering - Research Papers



Total Cost Industrial Engineering - Research Papers


1. Cost: The ultimate measure of productivity
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. Industrial Management42. 3 (May/Jun 2000): 20-23.


2. Cost Measurement and Analysis-A Necessary Part of Industrial Engineering Education & Training
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-5.

3.  Operation Based Cost Measurement Model
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-7.

4.  Comparative Outcome Of Productivity Measures- A Case Study
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-6.


5.  Fixing the Problem of Subjectivity in the Concept of 'Activity' in Activity Based Costing (ABC) - An Engineering Perspective
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-7.

6.  MODIFIED MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY APPROACH TO MEASURE PRODUCTIVITY OF OPERATIONS
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-7.

7.  COSTING PRODUCTION SCENARIOS - A SIMULATION MODELING APPROACH
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-6.

8.  AN EVALUATION MODEL FOR A SYSTEM DESIGN - AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Deo, Balbinder S. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 1034-1040.

9.  Communicating cost and performance
Ding, Youmin; Strong, Doug; Deo, Balbinder. Industrial Management51. 4 (Jul/Aug 2009): 22-23,25,5.

10. Developing Generic 'Cost Based MIS Modules' for Process Oriented System
Deo, Balbinder S; Sra, Jaspreet, MSc. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2012): 1-11.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
 Cost Measurement and Analysis-A Necessary Part of Industrial Engineering Education & Training
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-5.

2
 Communicating cost and performance
Ding, Youmin; Strong, Doug; Deo, Balbinder. Industrial Management51. 4 (Jul/Aug 2009): 22-23,25,5.

3
 Cost: The ultimate measure of productivity
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. Industrial Management42. 3 (May/Jun 2000): 20-23.

4
 Operation Based Cost Measurement Model
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2002): 1-7.

5
 MODIFIED MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY APPROACH TO MEASURE PRODUCTIVITY OF OPERATIONS
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-7.

6
 COSTING PRODUCTION SCENARIOS - A SIMULATION MODELING APPROACH
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2004): 1-6.


Citation/AbstractFull textFull text - PDF (72 KB)‎
7
 AN EVALUATION MODEL FOR A SYSTEM DESIGN - AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Deo, Balbinder S. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2007): 1034-1040.

8
 Comparative Outcome Of Productivity Measures- A Case Study
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-6.


9.
 Fixing the Problem of Subjectivity in the Concept of 'Activity' in Activity Based Costing (ABC) - An Engineering Perspective
Deo, Balbinder S; Strong, Doug. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2003): 1-7.

10. Developing Generic 'Cost Based MIS Modules' for Process Oriented System
Deo, Balbinder S; Sra, Jaspreet, MSc. IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (2012): 1-11.











Bibliography - Total Cost Industrial Engineering


Total Cost Industrial Engineering - Bibliography

http://www.aacei.org/educ/cert/cct/cct_primer.pdf

Papers Published by Industrial Engineering Professors in Costing Area

______________________

Comments on the idea


Marshall Spencer

Industrial Engineer at Johnson Controls
Huntsville, Alabama Area

(In linkedin discussions) -
http://www.linkedin.com/groupItem?view=&gid=75670&type=member&item=96855630

In my experience, developing the framework for "total cost engineering" is well worth the investment in resources if they are available (which is mostly the time required by the IE to champion it), and if the results will be utilized as reportable measureables by management. But a lot of cost-engineering information can "fall through the cracks" or be ignored by controllers simply because there may be no place for it in the ledger format used by traditional cost accounting. 

There is usually a large rift between "cost" from an engineering perspective and "cost" as viewed by financial professionals. Therein lies the challenge. 

An innovative IE can "translate" much of the engineering-cost data into something that a controller can use. But the controller must be willing to accept it. 

By becoming proficient in understanding the "language" of financial people, the IE working in cost engineering will have an advantage and may find controllers more willing to accept cost-engineering information and put it into their measurables. 

In college I completed a very good course in engineering economics of which there was no equivalent in the business curriculum at that school. It was not the same approach to accounting as taught in the accounting classes. I would like to see undergraduate IE curriculums try to bridge that gap. It has the potential to enable IE's and controllers to develop an alliance and work more effectively toward a common goal.

My reply to the comment


You said "In college I completed a very good course in engineering economics"

My thinking also stems from that foundation only. Every industrial engineering recommendation has to be profitable in the engineering economic analysis. If IEs recommend many cost reduction projects, EE analysis requires the cost of existing method and the costs of proposed method. To do EE analysis, IEs require cost data. So cost related industrial engineering analysis has to provide this data to IEs. Shall we call it "Cost industrial engineering" or simply as "Cost engineering". Cost industrial engineering focuses the attention of IEs on pulling data from various existing sources in the company and then manipulating the data to come out with information useful to aid IEs in the work. Total cost industrial engineering does the same thing at enterprise level.

I am happy with your support to the idea.

"In my experience, developing the framework for "total cost engineering" is well worth the investment in resources if they are available (which is mostly the time required by the IE to champion it), and if the results will be utilized as reportable measureables by management."

Details emerge slowly as some IEs think over the issue. If we bring an issue into the open and point out that there is scope, the beginning would be made. I have an advantage in the area to make some speculation, as my research work after PG in IE is in the area of stock markets and then I spent five years in conducting training programs in the modern developments in cost accounting and cost management. Now I am involved in developing and teaching "Introduction to industrial engineering" and "Strategic perspectives of industrial engineering"

I connected engineering economic analysis and cost analysis in my first few paragraphs of my note on TCIE. You also referred to the same background. That is a good coincidence. Thank you for the synergy.

http://www.nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/09/total-cost-industrial-engineering.html

Let me see, when can I develop some more detailed version on the topic.

Comment by D. Rajasekhar (23.9.2012)


Dear Narayana Rao,

I would like you to reflect on some of my views on Total cost industrial engineering.
I have read the contents in detail.
How is it different from Lean management ? Request your views.
With all my experience of 33 years in Mfg industry I would like to say cost focus without time element as an integral part is meaningless.
Very often many executives put emphasis on cost.
I have seen many Development Projects in my career did not deliver results due to step motherly treatment given to time over cost.
I have myself experienced Projects resulting in grand success by doing in time even with cost overrun.
In industry COQ ( cost of quality) often goes out of estimates due to poor management of time also.

That is why I always advocate my engineers TIME, QUALITY, COST and RISK.

My reply


In this concept of Total Cost Industrial Engineering, we may not be referring analytically to project cost. As you know, whenever any scientific relation is proposed, the concepts involved are specially defined.

This idea is an offshoot of an idea that the productivity improvement is to be expressed in cost. Productivity improvement is reduction in use of resources, and if at all it occurs, cost has to reduce. So we are having a map of total cost of the organization at a point in time, in terms of industrial engineering segment view of the enterprise and we want to see the contribution of industrial engineering as reduction of cost in some of the segments. It is to plan and do industrial engineering and show its contribution.

Cost, Quality, Time, Flexibility, Risk, Delivery are all important and industrial engineering may not cover all of them. Certainly time was a focus of industrial engineering and even now it is. This refers more to the operation times. We are not talking of trade offs between these dimensions which is an important managerial problem in operations management. The issue raised by you regarding time and cost of a project is a trade off problem and only a manager on the spot can understand the trade off involved. Your view is to be respected by us.  But  improvement in each dimension or relative improvement among dimensions is possible over time with effort.

Is lean management an industrial engineering innovation or operations management innovation? Lean management is a description of the Toyota Production system by Womack of MIT and it certainly became very popular idea. It in essence an industrial engineering initiative - because waste elimination or efficiency improvement is an industrial engineering concern for the last 100 years.  Total Cost Industrial Engineering can become in one sense Cost Stream Mapping that helps industrial engineers to view the total cost in segments useful to them. So, it is imitating Value stream mapping, another idea that became popular. To support lean management, there is lean cost management and accounting. In a similar way, to support industrial engineering (lean management is a branded technique of IE -my view of it), there will be total cost industrial engineering.


_______________________
First published on 21.9.2012

Updated subsequently many times
_______________________


Updated  30 April 2019,
7 Apr 2016,  9.9.2014

Saturday, April 27, 2019

The Role of of the Mind - Psychology in Productivity Management - Scientific Management - Lilian Gilbreth


THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT
The Function of the Mind in Determining,Teaching and Installing Methods of Least Waste
BY  L. M. GILBRETH, M. L.
STURGIS & WALTON COMPANY
1914

Summary of Chapter I DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE PSYCHOLOGY
OF MANAGEMENT


It has demonstrated that the emphasis in successful management of human effort lies on the man.  Efficiency is best secured by placing the emphasis on the man, and modifying the equipment, materials and methods that he uses to make the most of the man. It has, further, recognized that the man's mind is a controlling factor in his efficiency.  Teaching, enables  the man to make the most of his powers.  In order to understand this teaching element that is such a large part of scientific management, a knowledge of psychology is imperative; and this study of psychology, as it applies to the work of the manager or the managed, is exactly what the " psychology of management " is.

Management is a life study of every man who works with other men. He must either manage, or
be managed, or both ; in any case, he can never work to best advantage until he understands both the
psychological and managerial laws by which he governs or is governed.

What is " Management "?

" Management," as defined by the Century Dictionary, is " the art of managing by direction or
regulation."

Successful management of the old type was an art based on no measurement. Scientific Management
is an art based upon a science, upon laws deducted from measurement. Management continues to be
what it has always been, the art of directing activity.

We may divide all management into three types

(1) Traditional

(2) Transitory

(3) Scientific, or measured functional.

Traditional Management, the first, has been variously called " Military," " Driver," the " Marquis of
Queensberry type," " Initiative and Incentive Management," as well as " Traditional " management.

Definition of the First Type. In the first type, the power of managing lies, theoretically at least, in
the hands of one man, a capable " all-around " manager. The line of authority and of responsibility is
clear, fixed and single. Each man comes in direct contact with but one man above him. A man may
or may not manage more than one man beneath him, but, however this may be, he is managed by but one man above him.

The Name " Initiative and Incentive " Authoritative. The term "Initiative and Incentive," is used
by Dr. Taylor, and is fully described by him.


The only excuses for the term " Traditional, are its brevity and its descriptiveness. The fact that it is indefinite is really no fault in it, as the subject it describes is equally indefinite. The " fringe "  of this word is especially good. It calls up ideas of information handed down from generation to generation orally, the only way of teaching under the old type of management. It recalls the idea of the inaccurate perpetuation of unthinking custom, and the " myth " element always present in tradition, again undeniable accusations against the old type of management.  The fundamental idea of the tradition, that it is oral, is the essence of the difference of the old type of management from science, or even system, which must be written.



Definition of the Second Type of Management.
The second type of management is called " Interim " or " Transitory " management. It includes all management that is consciously passing into Scientific Management and embraces all stages, from management that has incorporated one scientifically derived principle, to management that has adopted all but one such principle.

 Perhaps the name " Transitory " is slightly preferable in that, though the element of temporari-
ness is present in both words, it is more strongly em- phasized in the latter. The usual habit of associating with it the ideas of " fleeting, evanescent, ephemeral, momentary, short-lived," may have an influence on hastening the completion of the installing of Scientific Management.

Definition of the Third Type of Management.
The third form of management is called " Ultimate," " measured Functional," or " Scientific, " management. This differs from the first two types mentioned in that it is a definite plan of management synthesized from scientific analysis of the data of management. In other words, Scientific Management is that management which is a science, i. e.,  which operates according to known, formulated, and applied laws.


The name " measured functional " is the most descriptive, but demands the most explanation. The
principle of functionalization is one of the underlying, fundamental principles of Scientific Management. It is not as necessary to stop to define it here, as it is necessary to discuss the definition, the principle, and the underlying psychology, at length later.

The name " scientific " while in some respects not as appropriate as are any of the other names, has already received the stamp of popular approval. In derivation it is beyond criticism. It also describes
exactly, as has been said, the difference between the older forms of management and the new. Even its " fringe " of association is, or at least was when first used, all that could be desired; but the name is, unfortunately, occasionally used indiscriminately for any sort of system and for schemes of operation that are not based on time study. It has gradually become identified more or less closely with of management as " Scientific," makes its choice advisable. We shall use it, but restrict its content.

We may summarize by saying that:

1. the popular name is Scientific Management,

2. the inspiring name is Ultimate management,

3. the descriptive name is measured Functional  management,



For the purpose of this book, Scientific Management is, then, the most appropriate name. Through
its use, the reader is enabled to utilize all his associations, and through his study he is able to restrict and order the content of the term.



Under the first type, or in the first stage of management, the laws or principles underlying right man-
agement are usually unknown, hence disregarded.

In the second stage, the laws are known and installed as fast as functional foremen can be taught
their new duties and the resistances of human nature can be overcome.

In the third stage the managing is operated in accordance with the recognized laws of management.

Plan of Psychological Study Used in the book . The discussion  follows upon arbitrary divisions of scientific management, that is

1. To enumerate the underlying principles on which scientific management rests.

2. To show in how far the other two types of management vary from Scientific Management.

3. To discuss the psychological aspect of each principle.

Underlying Ideas and Divisions of Scientific Management. These underlying ideas are grouped under nine divisions, as follows :

1. Individuality.

2. Functionalization.

3. Measurement.

4. Analysis and Synthesis.

5. Standardization.

6. Records and Programmes.

7. Teaching.

8. Incentives.

9. Welfare.

 Each will be made the subject of a chapter.

Conclusions to be Reached. These conclusions will include the following:

1. " Scientific Management" is a science.

2. It alone, of the Three Types of Management, is a science.

3. Contrary to a widespread belief that Scientific Management kills individuality, it is built on the basic principle of recognition of the individual, not only as an economic unit but also as a personality, with all the idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person.

4. Scientific Management fosters individuality by functionalizing work.

5. Measurement, in Scientific Management, is of ultimate units of subdivision.

6. These measured ultimate units are combined into methods of least waste.

7. Standardization under Scientific Management applies to all elements.

8. The accurate records of Scientific Management make accurate programmes possible of fulfillment.

9. Through the teaching of Scientific Management the management is unified and made self-perpetuating.

10. The method of teaching of Scientific Management is a distinct and valuable contribution to Education.

11. Incentives under Scientific Management not only stimulate but benefit the worker.

12. It is for the ultimate as well as immediate welfare of the worker to work under Scientific Management.

13. Scientific Management is applicable to all fields of activity, and to mental as well as physical
work.

14. Scientific Management is applicable to self- management as well as to managing others.

15. It teaches men to cooperate with the management as well as to manage.

16. It is a device capable of use by all.

17. The psychological element of Scientific Management is the most important element.

18. Because Scientific Management is psychologically right it is the ultimate form of management.

19. This psychological study of Scientific Management emphasizes especially the teaching features.

20. Scientific Management simultaneously

a. increases output and wages and lowers costs.

b. eliminates waste.

c. turns unskilled labor into skilled.

d. provides a system of self-perpetuating welfare.

e. reduces the cost of living.

f. bridges the gap between the college trained and the apprenticeship trained worker.

g. forces capital and labor to cooperate and to promote industrial peace.



Value Analysis: Approach and Job Plan





Basic Steps of value Analysis


The three basic steps are:

1. Identify the function.
2. Evaluate the function by comparison - (Is the function performed reliably at the lowest cost possible? No.)
3. Cause value alternatives to be developed. (This step is value engineering.)

The value analysis approach requires development of valid answers for five questions for value analysis of any item:

1. What is the item?
2. What does it cost?
3. What does it do?
4. What else would do the job?
5. What would that alternative cost?

Number of alternatives have to developed in the value analysis exercise. Value analysis approach developed by Miles, aims at identifying very low cost base alternatives early in the exercise (value analysis) and then creatively improving them to deliver the set of functions desired (value engineering).



Job Plan for Value Engineering

 
Phase 1. Orientation: Understand the customers’ needs and wants. Understand the functions performed by the product and the contribution of each part and each feature of the part and the complete product to the functions to be performed by the product.

Value engineer has to make sure that he does not diminish the contribution of the product to the customers' needs and wants.
 
Phase 2. Information: Collection of information on quantities, vendors, drawings, materials, manufacturing methods, and costs.

Phase 3. Speculation: Using all the techniques of value analysis to come out with alternative low cost materials and methods to produce components and the product. Creativity is to be employed here. Value engineer has to involve experts from various disciplines to help with ideas.
Phase 4. Analysis:  Technical and cost analysis of the alternative proposed.
Phase 5. Program planning: Approach the specialists to further refine the selected alternatives. Inform the specialists the accepted suggestions and give mandate to them to take steps to implement the suggestions.
 
Phase 6. Program execution: Pursue regularly the specialists and vendors to get their inputs on various tasks assigned to them. The output of this phase is a detailed design, successful trail  pilot  run of a manufacturing process or  a confirmed estimate from a vendor for supplying a component, material or sub assembly.
 
Phase 7. Status summary and conclusion. The results of the value engineering study are to be presented to decision makers. The reports needs to have a summary sheet as well as the full supporting documentation.  The value engineering project is concluded when the product is manufactured and distributed at the lowered cost as per the value engineering study.


Value Analysis Techniques



1. Blast, Create and Refine
2. Utilize vendors’ available functional products
3. Utilize specialty processes
4. Utilize applicable standards
5. Use information from the best source 
6. Get a dollar sign on key tolerances
7. Use real creativity
8. Identify and overcome roadblocks
9. Avoid generalities
10. Get all available costs
11. Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge
12. Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge
13. Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”

Detailed description of techniques is in Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques


Job Plan for Value Engineering and Use of techniques
 
Phase 1. Orientation: Understand the customers’ needs and wants. Understand the functions performed by the product and the contribution of each part and each feature of the part and the complete product to the functions to be performed by the product.
Value engineer has to make sure that he does not diminish the contribution of the product to the customers' needs and wants.
 
Phase 2. Information: Collection of information on quantities, vendors, drawings, materials, manufacturing methods, and costs.
Techniques to be used:

Get all available costs
Get a dollar sign on key tolerances


Phase 3. Speculation: Using all the techniques of value analysis to come out with alternative low cost materials and methods to produce components and the product. Creativity is to be employed here. Value engineer has to involve experts from various disciplines to help with ideas.
Techniques to be used:

Blast, create and refine

Blast
For each function to be performed by a product or a component, find alternative products, materials or processes that serve the function to a great extent but at a less cost. These alternative ideas do not satisfy the specified or required function completely but they do to a significant extent. Identify they function they perform and the cost involved,

During the blast activity use these techniques.
Utilize vendors’ available functional products



  • Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge
  • Utilize specialty processes
  • Utilize applicable standards
  • Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”

  • All the five techniques have the potential to suggest lower cost alternatives

    Create

    In create phase, the technique of "Use real creativity" needs to be employed to come out with ways by which the low cost alternatives identified during the blast stage can be modified to accomplish the specified function to a much greater extent with pertinent increase in cost. During this stage also the improvement in function and the increase in cost are to be clearly identified.

    Refine

    In this step, much more creativity is used and also the techniques "Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge" and  "Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge" are used to refine the ideas developed during the create step to come out with a refined alternative that fully accomplishes the specified function at a lower cost. During refine step, some more functionality is added as well as some additional cost.

     
    Phase 4. Analysis:  Technical and cost analysis of the alternative proposed.

    The techniques to keep in mind and use during this stage are:
    Avoid generalities
    Use information from the best source
    Identify and overcome roadblocks

    Phase 5. Program planning: Approach the specialists to further refine the selected alternatives. Inform the specialists the accepted suggestions and give mandate to them to take steps to implement the suggestions.
     
    Phase 6. Program execution: Pursue regularly the specialists and vendors to get their inputs on various tasks assigned to them. The output of this phase is a detailed design, successful trail  pilot  run of a manufacturing process or  a confirmed estimate from a vendor for supplying a component, material or sub assembly.
    Phase 7. Status summary and conclusion. The results of the value engineering study are to be presented to decision makers. The reports needs to have a summary sheet as well as the full supporting documentation.  The value engineering project is concluded when the product is manufactured and distributed at the lowered cost as per the value engineering study.

    References
    L.D. Miles, Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering, First Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1961

    Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/value-analysis-approach-and-job-plan/2utb2lsm2k7a/  3900


    Updated  28 April 2019, 13 December 2013

    Tuesday, April 23, 2019

    Industrial Engineering of Milling Processes and Operations


    Productivity Formulas
    For Face Milling Application
    https://www.kennametal.com/en/resources/engineering-calculators/face-milling-calculators/productivity-formulas.html

    What is successful milling?
    https://www.sandvik.coromant.com/en-gb/knowledge/milling/Pages/default.aspx

    Manufacturing economics: learn how metal cutting solutions influence profit
    The Manufacturing economics calculator illustrates how the selection of metal cutting solutions affects your bottom line. The application uses your production values as input to calculate the impact on cost per component and gross profit.
    https://www.sandvik.coromant.com/en-gb/knowledge/machining-calculators-apps/pages/manufacturing-economics.aspx



    5/17/2018
    HPC Milling Cutters Increase Manufacturing Productivity
    High-performance milling cutters should be designed for high process speeds. Certain factors must be considered when selecting the advanced cutting tools in order to shorten primary processing and non-productive times and significantly increase productivity.
    https://www.productionmachining.com/blog/post/high-performance-milling-cutters-increase-manufacturing-productivity



    Six Sigma Studies

    application of six sigma to gear box manufacturing - International ...
    http://ijme.us/issues/fall2010/Abstracts/Z__IJME%20fall%202010%20v11%20n1%20(paper%202).pdf

    Reducing variability in micro-milling process using six sigma ...
    https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7385822/

    Reduction of the Machining Time of a Crankshaft Machining ... - ejaet
    www.ejaet.com/PDF/2-7/EJAET-2-7-66-69.pdf

    Improving Surface Roughness of CNC Milling Machined ... - iNEER
    www.ineer.org/Events/ICEEiCEER2009/full_papers/full_paper_188.pdf

    Optimization of Cutting Parameters of CNC Milling for Aircraft ...
    https://www.scientific.net/AMM.598.164

    Optimal selection of operating parameters in end milling of Al-6061 ...
    https://mammp-journal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40759-017-0020-6

    A Six Sigma Approach for Precision Machining in Milling☆
    Ganesh Kumar, Nithyanandama, Radhakrishnan Pezhinkattil
    Procedia Engineering
    Volume 97, 2014, Pages 1474-1488
    open access
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705814034997

    Optimal selection of operating parameters in end milling of Al-6061 work materials using multi-objective approach
    Jakeer Hussain Shaik  author and Srinivas J
    Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Modern Processes 2017, 3:5
    https://mammp-journal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40759-017-0020-6




    05/08/2016|MULTIVAC
    More than 20% higher productivity with the turning-milling spindle compactMASTER
    With compact turning-milling spindle and 80 tools, the CTX beta 800 TC is an asset in the everyday production of MULTIVAC
    https://in.dmgmori.com/news-and-media/technical-press-news/customer-stories/multivac-more-than-20--higher-productivity-with-the-turning-mill

    December 11, 2013
    Economics of Machining Bevel Gears on Multi Tasking Machines
    By Nitin Chaphalkar
    In last five to six years, development of multi-tasking machines and new programming software combined with the newly-developed machining processes have created an opportunity to give a new process to gear machining and usher in 21st century advances. Gear manufacturing is being reinvented.
    http://gearsolutions.com/features/economics-of-machining-bevel-gears-on-multi-tasking-machines/


     1/1/2007
    How to Achieve Economical Five-Axis Milling
    Although moldmaking has not had great incentives to invest in five-axis technology like the aerospace industry, there are still many reasons for moldmakers to adopt five-axis machining, and there are a few interesting software functions that help to make five-axis programming economical.


    10/15/1999
    Tooling Tips For High Productivity Milling
    Today's machining centers feature higher spindle speeds and feed rates, but if you want to push this capability to the limit, there are some tooling considerations that must be addressed.
    https://www.mmsonline.com/articles/tooling-tips-for-high-productivity-milling

    9/1/1998
    The Economics Of Converting Manual Mills To CNC
    It's no secret that CNC retrofits of older 1 to 5 hp manual machine tools increase productivity and profits for machine shops.

    contribution to the assessment of economic viability of hard milling ...
    https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/193992

    Assessment of Machining Cost for End-Milling of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium ...
    https://www.scientific.net/AMR.903.83

    Energy Analysis in Turning and Milling - Research Explorer - The ...
    https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/files/54505753/FULL_TEXT.PDF

    Monday, April 22, 2019

    Industrial Engineering of Welding Processes






    Picture source: https://www.army.mil/article/106672/welder_works_to_prevent_casualties_along_afghanistans_most_important_highway




    LEARN TO IDENTIFY, MEASURE, AND MANAGE THE COSTS OF WELDING PRODUCTION PROCESSES


    The American Welding Society  Course

    Every year, welding manufacturing operations lose millions of dollars in profits due to the improper calculation of costs and inefficient welding practices. Participants in this course will learn to identify, measure, and manage the costs of production in order to reduce expenses and ensure quality. Topics include welding process variables, weld procedure specifications, calculating weld metal volume and deposition rates, and managing the costs of labor, materials, equipment, and overhead. Please see the course curriculum for a complete list of topics.


    COURSE MODULES

    MODULE 1 – Process Variables: Current, Amperage, Voltage

    MODULE 2 – Process Variables: Polarity, Inductance, Arc Length, CTTWD, Shielding Gas

    MODULE 3 – Process Variables: Travel Angle, Transverse Angle, Travel Speed, Electrode Position, Wire Feed Speed

    MODULE 4 – SMAW: Process Variables

    MODULE 5 – GTAW: Process Variables

    MODULE 6 – GMAW: Process Variables

    MODULE 7 – FCAW: Process Variables

    MODULE 8 – SAW: Process Variables

    MODULE 9 – Weld Process Comparison: Advantages and Disadvantages I

    MODULE 10 – Weld Process Comparison: Advantages and Disadvantages II

    MODULE 11 – Manufacturing Costs: Materials, Labor, Equipment, Overhead

    MODULE 12 – Welding Procedure Specification

    MODULE 13 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Area

    MODULE 14 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Volume

    MODULE 15 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Deposited Weight

    MODULE 16 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Deposition Efficiency

    MODULE 17 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Deposition Rate

    MODULE 18 – Calculating Labor Costs: Arc Time, Non-Arc Time, Total Labor Time

    MODULE 19 – Calculating Labor Costs: Operator Factor

    MODULE 20 – Calculating Labor Costs: Problem Solving

    MODULE 21 – Calculating Filler Metal and Labor Costs: Problem Solving

    MODULE 22 – Calculating Weld Job Costs: Problem Solving

    MODULE 23 – Managing Costs: Joint Design, Weld Design, WPS, Mistake Proofing, Production Planning

    MODULE 24 – Managing Costs: Eliminating Operations, Supporting Activities, Field Welding, process Selection

    MODULE 25 – Managing Costs: Unforeseen Costs, Quality Issues, Overwelding

    Focus Area-wise Articles, Case Studies and Research Papers -  Industrial Engineering of Welding Processes


    Productivity Science


    Process Variables: Current, Amperage, Voltage, Polarity, Inductance, Arc Length, CTTWD, Shielding Gas, Travel Angle, Transverse Angle, Travel Speed, Electrode Position, Wire Feed Speed


    Product Industrial Engineering


    Design for welding: Design recommendations - nptel
    https://nptel.ac.in/courses/107103012/module6/lec2.pdf

    Design for Welding-I - nptel
    https://nptel.ac.in/courses/112101005/21

    Weld Joint Design
    https://www.haynesintl.com/alloys/fabrication-brochure/welding-and-joining/weld-joint-design

    DFM for Welding | Machine Design
    https://www.machinedesign.com/mechanical/dfm-welding

    A team of five people from a major Midwestern manufacturer of welding equipment joined together with a team of expert business strategists. The goal? To reduce the cost of one of their “heart-of-the-line” products – a welding rod.
    https://adapt.consulting/project/improve-packaging/

    29 March 2019
    Using Value Engineering, IMI Remosa was able to re-develop its products which significantly reduced welding and other manufacturing costs and created a compelling solution for the customer at a competitive price.
    https://www.imiplc.com/media/imi-in-action/imi-critical-engineering/value-engineering-delivering-competitive-advantage.aspx

    Process Industrial Engineering


    16-JAN-2019
    Research to improve welding process for manufacturing industries
    New research, led by the University of Leicester, will optimize the welding and additive and manufacturing process.
    Arc welding and additive manufacturing are hugely important for creating large metal components relatively inexpensively and quickly.

    New research led by Professor Hongbiao Dong from the University of Leicester's Department of Engineering has shown how to optimise this process to improve efficiency and cost.
    the team inserted small tungsten and tantalum particles into the melt pool. Due to their high melting points, the particles remained solid in the melt pool long enough for them to be tracked using intense beams of X-rays.

    The X-rays were generated using the synchrotron particle accelerator at Diamond Light Source, which is the UK's National facility for synchrotron light. The results revealed that arc welding can be optimised by controlling the flow of the melt pool and changing the associated active elements on the surface.
    https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-01/uol-rti011619.php
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190116115515.htm

    T.Y. Chernysheva et al., "Overview Information Systems for Calculating Processes Welding Stainless Steels", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 938, pp. 12-17, 2018
    The possibilities of using nanomaterials and nanocoatings for machine building are considered. The review of software for engineering calculations of welding processes and heat treatment is carried out. A decision support system for choosing a rational amount of nanostructured modifier powders for welding corrosion-resistant steels is proposed.
    https://www.scientific.net/MSF.938.12

    A good combination of tool, process, and technique for weld preparation contributes to making robust, defect-free welds
    THE TUBE & PIPE JOURNAL JUNE 2018
    Special tool for bevelling saddles
    https://www.thefabricator.com/article/tubepipefabrication/good-looks-aren-t-everything-especially-in-welding

    2007
    Reducing Waste of Welding Resources


    Design of Welding fixture for sample parts and user manual - Theseus
    https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/141317/Theis_Ashek_Elahe.pdf


    Industrial Engineering Optimization


    2006

    Welding parameters optimization for economic design using neural approximation and genetic algorithm, 

    Hsien-Yu Tseng, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
    February 2006, Volume 27, Issue 9–10, pp 897–901

    Industrial Engineering Statistics

    Industrial Engineering Economics


    Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding  vs.  Shielded Metal Arc (Stick Electrode) Process


    In Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), also known as Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, an electric arc is established between the workpiece and a consumable bare wire electrode. The arc continuously melts the wire as it is fed to the weld puddle. The weld metal is shielded from the atmosphere by a flow of an inert gas, or gas mixture.

    Continuing developments have made the mig process applicable to the welding of all commercially important metals such as steel, aluminum, stainless steel, copper and several others. Materials above .030in. (.76 mm) thick can be welded in all positions, including flat, vertical and overhead.It is simple to choose the equipment, wire electrode, shielding gas, and welding conditions capable of producing high-quality welds at a low cost.

    https://www.esabna.com/euweb/mig_handbook/592mig1_1.htm

    The mig process can afford the user considerable cost savings when compared to other welding processes.The question that usually arises is whether mig will save me money and should I use it. Most commonly, the question concerns a comparison to the shielded metal arc (stick electrode) process.

    The only way one can decide if the savings with the mig process can pay back the investment in new equipment, welder training and production changes is to evaluate it for your shop and your product. In order to determine this, cost studies must be made.

    The most important factors in determining the welding cost are labor requirements, overhead allocations,and materials. Labor requirements and associated overhead allocation dominate the cost. However, there are many manufactured procedures associated with a completed weldment other than just the welding where the mig process affords economic benefits. These include weld cleaning, metal finishing, reduced inspection time, and a reduced number of defects. Other factors affecting the cost may be available fixturing, materials handling, work rules, customer requirements, welding fumes, etc.

    The greatest incentives to investigate mig are the case histories over the past quarter century.

    In those shops where welding is a significant part of the product cost, the cost of a weldment has been reduced by about 40% to 50% by using the mig process.

    The standard formula presented for the major cost factors associated with making the weld can be used for any electric welding process.

    https://www.esabna.com/euweb/mig_handbook/592mig9_1.htm


    Human Effort Industrial Engineering



    Virtual Reality-based Training System for Metal Active Gas Welding

    By Hwa Jen Yap, Zahari Taha, Hui Kang Choo and Chee Khean Kok
    November 26th 2014
    https://www.intechopen.com/books/the-thousand-faces-of-virtual-reality/virtual-reality-based-training-system-for-metal-active-gas-welding

    2014
    Profiling mild steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions and costs in the workplace.
    Keane MJ, Siert A, Chen BT, Stone SG.
    Ann Occup Hyg. 2014 May;58(4):403-12

    To provide quantitative information to choose the best welding processes for minimizing workplace emissions, nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for mild steel were assessed for fume generation rates, normalized fume generation rates (milligram fume per gram of electrode  consumed), and normalized generation rates for elemental manganese, nickel, and iron. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux-cored arc-welding (FCAW) processes were also profiled.

    Fume emission rates per gram of electrode consumed were highest for SMAW (~13 mg fume g(-1) electrode) and lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed spray (~1.5mg g(-1)) and CMT (~1mg g(-1)). Manganese emission rates per gram of electrode consumed ranged from 0.45 mg g(-1) (SMAW) to 0.08 mg g(-1) (CMT). Nickel emission rates were generally low and ranged from ~0.09 (GMAW short circuit) to 0.004 mg g(-1) (CMT). Iron emission rates ranged from 3.7 (spray-mode GMAW) to 0.49 mg g(-1) (CMT). The processes studied have significantly different costs, and cost factors are presented based on a case study to allow comparisons between processes in specific cost categories. Costs per linear meter of weld were $31.07 (SMAW), $12.37 (GMAW short circuit), and $10.89 (FCAW).

    The study provides information to aid in the choice of process. Suggestions for overcoming barriers to utilizing new and less hazardous welding processes are also provided.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24515891

    Productivity Measurement

    (Cost, Time and Productivity Measurement and Estimating)

    ESTIMATING AND COMPARING WELD METAL COSTS
    https://www.esabna.com/euweb/awtc/lesson9_2.htm

    2011
    Estimation and Comparison of Welding Cost of MIG & MAG Process on Mild Steel
    If MAG is used instead of MIG for the process where the properties required are satisfactory (by MAG welding) than one can make more profit.


    Productivity Management


    ESAB developed the Value Added Engineering (VAE) process to give our customers an edge. When you choose VAE, you get access to the only team of welding and cutting experts - industry-wide - who come to you, analyze your production processes, and make recommendations based on factual data collected at your shop.

    Our value added engineering recommended modifications to your process have the potential to quantifiably improve quality, enhance productivity, and boost profits. We'll reveal untapped revenue opportunities through capacity growth, increased product sales, and improved employee productivity.
    https://www.esabna.com/us/en/support/value-added-engineering/index.cfm





    Year-wise Articles, Case Studies and Research Papers -  Industrial Engineering of Welding Processes


    Process Selection for Welding

    https://www.lincolnelectric.com/en-us/support/welding-how-to/Pages/process-selection-detail.aspx

    https://awo.aws.org/online-courses/economics-of-welding/

    Welding Handbook - 10th Edition, Volume 1
    Welding and Cutting Science and Technology
    https://www.aws.org/publications/page/10th-edition-volume-1

    Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding  vs.  Shielded Metal Arc (Stick Electrode) Process


    In Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), also known as Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, an electric arc is established between the workpiece and a consumable bare wire electrode. The arc continuously melts the wire as it is fed to the weld puddle. The weld metal is shielded from the atmosphere by a flow of an inert gas, or gas mixture.

    Continuing developments have made the mig process applicable to the welding of all commercially important metals such as steel, aluminum, stainless steel, copper and several others. Materials above .030in. (.76 mm) thick can be welded in all positions, including flat, vertical and overhead.It is simple to choose the equipment, wire electrode, shielding gas, and welding conditions capable of producing high-quality welds at a low cost.

    https://www.esabna.com/euweb/mig_handbook/592mig1_1.htm

    The mig process can afford the user considerable cost savings when compared to other welding processes.The question that usually arises is whether mig will save me money and should I use it. Most commonly, the question concerns a comparison to the shielded metal arc (stick electrode) process.

    The only way one can decide if the savings with the mig process can pay back the investment in new equipment, welder training and production changes is to evaluate it for your shop and your product. In order to determine this, cost studies must be made.

    The most important factors in determining the welding cost are labor requirements, overhead allocations,and materials. Labor requirements and associated overhead allocation dominate the cost. However, there are many manufactured procedures associated with a completed weldment other than just the welding where the mig process affords economic benefits. These include weld cleaning, metal finishing, reduced inspection time, and a reduced number of defects. Other factors affecting the cost may be available fixturing, materials handling, work rules, customer requirements, welding fumes, etc.

    The greatest incentives to investigate mig are the case histories over the past quarter century.

    In those shops where welding is a significant part of the product cost, the cost of a weldment has been reduced by about 40% to 50% by using the mig process.

    The standard formula presented for the major cost factors associated with making the weld can be used for any electric welding process.

    https://www.esabna.com/euweb/mig_handbook/592mig9_1.htm


    Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers,
    on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/production/welders-cutters-solderers-and-brazers.htm


    2019

    16-JAN-2019
    Research to improve welding process for manufacturing industries
    New research, led by the University of Leicester, will optimize the welding and additive and manufacturing process.
    Arc welding and additive manufacturing are hugely important for creating large metal components relatively inexpensively and quickly.

    New research led by Professor Hongbiao Dong from the University of Leicester's Department of Engineering has shown how to optimise this process to improve efficiency and cost.
    the team inserted small tungsten and tantalum particles into the melt pool. Due to their high melting points, the particles remained solid in the melt pool long enough for them to be tracked using intense beams of X-rays.

    The X-rays were generated using the synchrotron particle accelerator at Diamond Light Source, which is the UK's National facility for synchrotron light. The results revealed that arc welding can be optimised by controlling the flow of the melt pool and changing the associated active elements on the surface.
    https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-01/uol-rti011619.php
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190116115515.htm


    2018

    Kemppi Robotic Welding Application Center Opens in India
    Finland’s Kemppi opened up a robotic welding application center in Pune, India to respond to the increasing needs for welding automation.
    The Pune center is equipped with Kemppi’s A7 MIG Welder and KempArc robotic welding systems integrated with robots from well-known robot manufacturers. The systems are presented in action to demonstrate the efficiency and quality that can be reached with Kemppi’s Wise optimized welding processes.
    https://www.maintworld.com/Applications/Kemppi-Robotic-Welding-Application-Center-Opens-in-India


    T.Y. Chernysheva et al., "Overview Information Systems for Calculating Processes Welding Stainless Steels", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 938, pp. 12-17, 2018
    The possibilities of using nanomaterials and nanocoatings for machine building are considered. The review of software for engineering calculations of welding processes and heat treatment is carried out. A decision support system for choosing a rational amount of nanostructured modifier powders for welding corrosion-resistant steels is proposed.
    https://www.scientific.net/MSF.938.12

    A good combination of tool, process, and technique for weld preparation contributes to making robust, defect-free welds
    THE TUBE & PIPE JOURNAL JUNE 2018
    Special tool for bevelling saddles
    https://www.thefabricator.com/article/tubepipefabrication/good-looks-aren-t-everything-especially-in-welding

    2015
    Economic analysis and justification for automated welding systems


    2014
    Profiling mild steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions and costs in the workplace.
    Keane MJ, Siert A, Chen BT, Stone SG.
    Ann Occup Hyg. 2014 May;58(4):403-12

    To provide quantitative information to choose the best welding processes for minimizing workplace emissions, nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for mild steel were assessed for fume generation rates, normalized fume generation rates (milligram fume per gram of electrode  consumed), and normalized generation rates for elemental manganese, nickel, and iron. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux-cored arc-welding (FCAW) processes were also profiled.

    Fume emission rates per gram of electrode consumed were highest for SMAW (~13 mg fume g(-1) electrode) and lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed spray (~1.5mg g(-1)) and CMT (~1mg g(-1)). Manganese emission rates per gram of electrode consumed ranged from 0.45 mg g(-1) (SMAW) to 0.08 mg g(-1) (CMT). Nickel emission rates were generally low and ranged from ~0.09 (GMAW short circuit) to 0.004 mg g(-1) (CMT). Iron emission rates ranged from 3.7 (spray-mode GMAW) to 0.49 mg g(-1) (CMT). The processes studied have significantly different costs, and cost factors are presented based on a case study to allow comparisons between processes in specific cost categories. Costs per linear meter of weld were $31.07 (SMAW), $12.37 (GMAW short circuit), and $10.89 (FCAW).

    The study provides information to aid in the choice of process. Suggestions for overcoming barriers to utilizing new and less hazardous welding processes are also provided.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24515891


    Virtual Reality-based Training System for Metal Active Gas Welding

    By Hwa Jen Yap, Zahari Taha, Hui Kang Choo and Chee Khean Kok
    November 26th 2014
    https://www.intechopen.com/books/the-thousand-faces-of-virtual-reality/virtual-reality-based-training-system-for-metal-active-gas-welding

    2012
    Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

    Welding Processes

    Radovan Kovacevic
    Edited by Radovan Kovacevic
    Southern Methodist University, United States of America
    https://www.intechopen.com/books/welding-processes

    2011
    Estimation and Comparison of Welding Cost of MIG & MAG Process on Mild Steel
    If MAG is used instead of MIG for the process where the properties required are satisfactory (by MAG welding) than one can make more profit.


    2007
    Reducing Waste of Welding Resources

    2006

    Welding parameters optimization for economic design using neural approximation and genetic algorithm, 

    Hsien-Yu Tseng, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
    February 2006, Volume 27, Issue 9–10, pp 897–901


    Training Materials on Welding


    BASIC WELDING FILLER METAL TECHNOLOGY
    A Correspondence Course
    ©COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROUP, INC.ESAB Welding &Cutting Products
    https://www.esabna.com/euweb/awtc/lesson1_1.htm



    Updated 22 April 2019, 19 April 2019

    Search results for "economics of welding processes"