Friday, April 19, 2019

3D Printing - Additive Manufacturing Industrial Engineering - Productivity Science and Engineering

Applied Industrial Engineering - Application of Industrial Engineering in 3D Printing - Additive Manufacturing Technology to Improve Productivity

Application of Industrial Engineering Focus Areas in Additive Manufacturing

Productivity Science - Additive Manufacturing

Productivity science has to indicate process parameters that contribute to productivity improvement.

Ramu Murugan, Mitilesh R.N, Sarat Singamneni
International Journal of Modern Manufacturing Technologies,
 Vol. X, No. 1 / 2018

Ingrassia T., Nigrelli V., Ricotta V., Tartamella C. (2017) Process parameters influence in additive manufacturing. In: Eynard B., Nigrelli V., Oliveri S., Peris-Fajarnes G., Rizzuti S. (eds) Advances on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Manufacturing. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Cham

Antonio Lanzotti, Marzio Grasso, Gabriele Staiano, Massimo Martorelli, (2015) "The impact of process parameters on mechanical properties of parts fabricated in PLA with an open-source 3-D printer", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 21 Issue: 5, pp.604-617,

A Process Modelling and Parameters Optimization and Recommendation System for Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing Process

Department of Mechanical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
McGill University, Montreal
2015 Nov
Master of Engineering – Thesis

Product Design Improvement for Productivity - Design for Additive Manufacturing

A design framework for additive manufacturing based on the integration of
axiomatic design approach, inverse problem-solving and an additive manufacturing
Sarath Renjith
Major: Industrial Engineering
Program of Study Committee:
Gül Erdem Okudan Kremer, Major Professor
Michael Scott Helwig, Committee Member
Mark Mba-Wright, Committee Member
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa

Design for Additive
Authors: Erin Komi

Large collection of articles on DFAM

Design for 3D Printing - Additive Manufacturing - Product Industrial Engineering

Process Improvement for Increasing Productivity  of Additive Manufacturing

30 January 2018
To improve additive manufacturing productivity and lower cost per part, Renishaw has launched its latest system, the RenAM 500Q. Featuring four 500 W lasers, the compact machine will greatly improve productivity in the most commonly used platform size

K. F. Graff, M. Short and M. Norfolk
Edison Welding Institute, Columbus, OH 43221

To extend current ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to advanced materials, higher
speeds and larger parts, it was essential to greatly increase the process ultrasonic power. EWI,
with Solidica™, several industry, agency and academic partners, and support of Ohio’s Wright
Program, have developed a “Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing System” that
greatly extends current technology. A key part was the design of a 9.0 kW “push-pull”
ultrasonic system able to produce sound welds in materials such as Ti 6-4, 316SS, 1100 Cu and
Al7075. The VHP system can fabricate parts of up to 1.5m x 1.5m x 0.6m.

Industrial Engineering Economic Analysis of Additive Manufacturing

Digital Alloys’ Guide to Metal Additive Manufacturing – Part 5
Economics of Metal Additive Manufacturing
January 31st, 2019

Justifying A 3D Printer Investment For Rapid Prototyping
Stratasys 2017 Report

ZHU, Z. ... et al, 2017. Economic analysis of plastic additive
manufacturing for production of end use products: a preliminary study. Presented at the 15th Conference on Rapid Design, Prototyping & Manufacturing
(RDPM2017), Newcastle, UK, 27th-28th April 2017.

"An economic analysis comparing the cost feasibility of replacing injection molding processes with emerging additive manufacturing techniques,"
Franchetti, M. & Kress, C. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2017) 88: 2573.

Economic Aspects of Additive Manufacturing: Benefits, Costs and Energy Consumption
by Martin Baumers
Doctoral Thesis
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
for the award of
Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University
September 2012

Mathematical Optimization - Engineering Optimization of Additive Manufacturing

A modified genetic algorithm for time and cost optimization of an additive manufacturing single-machine scheduling
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations,
Volume 9 Issue 4 pp. 423-438 , 2018,  Pages 423-438

D. Brackett, I. Ashcroft, R. Hague
Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University,
Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK

Statistics Based Optimizations of Additive Manufacturing

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) for additive manufacturing applied
to an innovative multifunctional fan
Alfredo Liverani,  · Gianni Caligiana,  · Leonardo Frizziero,  Daniela Francia,  Giampiero Donnici, ·
Karim Dhaimini
Received: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2019
© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Optimal process parameters for 3D printing of dental porcelain
Hadi Miyanajia, Shanshan Zhanga, Austin Lassella, Amir Ali Zandinejadb, Li Yanga
Department of Industrial Engineering, J.B. Speed School of Engineering
Department of Oral Health and Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry
University of Louisville, KY, 40292

Human Effort Industrial Engineering of Additive Manufacturing

Research on the Design of FMD Desktop 3D Printer based on a User-Centred Perspective

Are 3D printers bad for worker health?
Some printers produce a large amount of particles, causing respiratory symptoms in workers

Jeroen Junte, November 2016

Industrial Engineering Measurements - Cost, Productivity and Time Measurement of Additive Manufacturing

Resource Consumption of Additive Manufacturing Technology
Nanond Nopparat, Babak Kianian
School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology  Karlskrona, Sweden
Thesis submitted for completion of Master of Sustainable Product-Service System Innovation (MSPI)
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.

Mina Amini
A thesis submitted to the Graduate Council of
Texas State University in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Technology
with a Major in Industrial Technology
December 2014

Implementation of Additive Manufacturing Cost Estimation Tool (AMCET) Using Break-down Approach
Procedia Manufacturing,Volume 17, 2018, Pages 70-77

Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel
Physics Procedia
Volume 78, 2015, Pages 388-396

Productivity Management

September  2018

Technology Adoption
Partnering in Technology Development for Productivity Improvement

Volkswagen  adopts the latest 3D printing technology, the "HP Metal Jet" process, which simplifies and speeds up metallic 3D printing. The process improves productivity by a simply staggering 50 times compared to other 3D printing methods for some components.

This process produces production-ready components for mass production applications in the automotive industry for the very first time. Volkswagen has closely partnered with printer manufacturer HP and component manufacturer GKN Powder Metallurgy in development for mass production use. The  new process was demonstrated at the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) in Chicago this week.

Volkswagen's Head of Technology Planning and Development, Dr. Martin Goede said that  we are relying on state-of-the-art technologies to ensure a smooth and fast production and  3D printing will play an  important role in manufacturing of individual parts.

85% Cost Reduction Due to Additive Manufacturing - $50,000 to $7,000.

10 sets of inlet booster rake for measuring air flow turbine engine test cells were made for $50,000 using a combination of welding, brazing, EDM, and other conventional medicines. The additive  machining technology center made it for $7,000.

Donald Godfrey, Honeywell, ISABE 2015 Manuscript

Huge Savings at Company Level - Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies

Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies has achieved huge cost reduction. As of FY 2018, they have printed more than 60,000 tooling fixtures for product testing and calculated $125 million in cost avoidance.

Design for Additive Manufacturing - Additive Manufacturing Industrial Engineering are Necessary for Effectiveness and Productivity

3D Printing is not simple.
For industrial parts, There is a workflow before the machine and after the machine with hundreds of variables that need to be specified and controlled to make sure of getting an industrial-grade part reliably, repeatably at reduced cost.


Huge Hybrid Manufacturing Machine is Ready to Start 3D Printing Construction Parts and Structures and Give Higher Productivity

31 JAN 2019

The machine will be tested to manufacture demonstrator parts, such as large cantilever beam structures, airplane panels and wind turbine parts. The machine and the process technologies are expected  provide a more productive solution for the hybrid manufacturing of large engineering parts and deliver a projected 20% reduction in time and cost expenditure, as well as a target 15% increase in productivity for high-volume additive manufacturing production.

3D printing 100 times faster with light

Rather than building up plastic filaments layer by layer, a new approach to 3D printing lifts complex shapes from a vat of liquid at up to 100 times faster than conventional 3D printing processes, University of Michigan researchers have shown.
Michigan Engineering
January 11, 2019

SLA 3D Printing 100 Times Faster


MIT Researchers Developed FDM 3D Printing Head that makes Build Speed 10X

 A. John Hart, an associate professor of mechanical engineering and director of the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity and the Mechanosynthesis Group at MIT.

Screw mechanism for feeding the wire and a laser in the printhead to melt the wire more thoroughly were incorporated into the print head.

February 2016 information

Productivity Drivers - 3D Printing

The output per unit time of  3D printer depends on

–Size of extrusion nozzle opening: ; The bigger the opening the more the material flow.

–Size of part to be printed. More volume, more time

–Part orientation on the build bed. X-Y orientations can usually be built faster than parts set up to build in the Z orientation.

–Complexity of part to be printed. Parts with many angles, curves and other geometric features will take longer to build than a straightforward box type shape.

–Material choice. In extrusion systems, every material flows at a different rate.

–Type of laser used in powder-bed systems.

–Type of material used in powder-bed systems. Plastics and metals will build at different rates.

–Required print resolution; Fine resolutions mean slower build rates.

–Part density. Fully dense parts can take longer to build than those with filler support.

The Ultimaker desktop 3D printer, gives its depositio rates as: With a 0.25 size nozzle, it is up to 8 mm3/s, a 0.40 nozzle it is  up to 16 mm3/s, a 0.60 nozzle up to 23 mm3/s, and a 0.80 nozzle can deposit up to 24 mm3/s.

Professional 3D printer, the SLM Solutions 500HL gives deposition rates for its two-laser version as 55 cubic centimeters/hour, and its four-laser version as 105 cubic centimeters/hour.

Comparison of FDM, SLA and SLM

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

Fused Deposition Modeling is the most widely used form of 3D printing at the consumer level. ,  FDM 3D printers build parts by melting and extruding thermoplastic filament, which a print nozzle deposits layer by layer in the build area. FDM works with a range of standard thermoplastics, such as ABS, PLA, and their various blends. The technique is well-suited for basic proof-of-concept models, as well as quick and low-cost prototyping of simple parts. .

Stereolithography (SLA)

Stereolithography was the world’s first 3D printing technology, invented in the 1980s, and is one of the most popular technologies for professionals. SLA uses a laser to cure liquid resin into hardened plastic in a process called photopolymerization. SLA parts have the highest resolution and accuracy, the clearest details, and the smoothest surface finish of all plastic 3D printing technologies.  Material manufacturers have created innovative SLA resin formulations with a wide range of optical, mechanical, and thermal properties to match those of standard, engineering, and industrial thermoplastics.

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

Selective laser sintering is the most common additive manufacturing technology for industrial applications. SLS 3D printers use a high-powered laser to fuse small particles of polymer powder. The unfused powder supports the part during printing and eliminates the need for dedicated support structures. SLS is ideal for complex geometries, including interior features, undercuts, thin walls, and negative features. Parts produced with SLS printing have excellent mechanical characteristics, with strength resembling that of injection-molded parts.


Beyond prototyping: Scaling up to additive manufacturing for production
Charlie Wood
Friday, September 28, 2018

Design for Additive Manufacturing
David Rosen
Georgia Institute of Technology
Conference Paper, January  2014

Igor Yadroitsev, Ina Yadroitsava, Philippe Bertrand, Igor Smurov, (2012) "Factor analysis of selective laser melting process parameters and geometrical characteristics of synthesized single tracks", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 18 Issue: 3, pp.201-208,

Paper available for review in the Google Book

Nowadays to increase productivity of SLM process, high laser power up to 400 W and high scanning speed up to 3 m/s are used.

Smaller thickness of layer allows for better accuracy of the manufactured part. But increases manufacturing time. (page 122 of the book)

Updated on 7 March 2019,   2 Feb 2019 29 January 2019,
5 October 2018, 4 August 2017


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