Friday, April 5, 2019

Creativity - Fourth Eye - Book Summary



Ch.1 The Landscape of Creativity


Creativity Abilities

Ideational fluency

Ability to provide a large variety of solutions.

Originality

Ability to notice the unexplained and incongruent

Ability to go into the roots of a phenomenon by unravelling its causes. Also ability to visualize its consequences

Ability ot elaboratee on a theme.

Ability to go behind the surface features of a problem and see what the real problem is

The list of abilities are:  fluency, flexibility, originality, problem sensitivity, the ability to grasp the causes and visualise the consequences, the ability to elaborate, the ability to restructure problems.

Can creativity be increased

It can be increased.

Torrance suggested certain principles of teacher behaviour in class rooms to increase creativity.

Teacher should show respect for unusual questions.
Be respectful towards imaginative, unusual ideas.
Show pupils their ideas have value
Occasionally let pupils do something for practice without the threat of evaluation.
Tie in evaluation with causes and consequences that is emphasize the reasons for evaluation.



Techniques of Creativity(Once again explained in details in Chapter Chapter 5)

Brainstorming (Osborn)
Attribute analysis
Synectics

Chapter 2 The Creative Process


Stages of Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, and Verification

Mechanisms of Convergent thinking

Mechanisms of Divergent thinking


1. First develop a working definition of the problem. Define the problem
2. Search for the solutions and make a list beginning with the most familiar.
3. Use associative thinking to bring to consciousness more and more far out alternatives. It is stretching the brain to make go deep into its long-term memory. Once put into the search mode the brain may keep working when a person goes into sleep.
4. Restructure the original problem by examining the constraints to relax them appropriately. Under relaxed assumptions, a solution may be found.
5. Evaluate solutions to get further ideas for continuing search in the external environment:  published information as well as interaction with others.
6. Allow the mind to synthesize imaginary solutions - thinking like if a such machine is available.
7. Brain storming - Self as well as group. develop solutions one from another. Don't evaluate and express. But keep improving or modifying the suggested solutions



Chapter 3. The Creative Personality


Traits Congenial to Creativity

Courage and independence

Risk taking

Persistence

Self-sufficiency

Inquisitiveness

Complexity

Motivation and Creativity - Strategies for Changing Motivation

Awareness - Awareness initiates action.  It is knowledge in Knowledge- Attitude-Behaviour model.

Role Model - A role model who was earlier in a similar stage or state, but changed his behaviour and achieved success can provide motivation for change. Similarly expectations of near and dear and higher-ups can provide motivation.

Actions - Small successes can provide motivation to keep doing similar activities.

Reinforcement: Rewards strongly consolidate the behaviour that is rewarded.

Some common blocks to divergent thinking and creative functioning

1. Fear of failure
2. Allergy to ambiguity
3. Touchiness - fear of humiliation and rejection.
4. Confornity
5. Resouce Myopia: The inability to see the resources at one's disposal is a common block to creativity.
6. Starved sensibility
7. Rigidity

Ch. 4. The Armoury of the Creative


Abilities of Divergent Thinking

fluency, flexibility, originality, problem sensitivity, the ability to grasp the causes and visualise the consequences, the ability to elaborate, the ability to restructure problems.

Ch.5 Techniques of Creative Problem Solving


Brainstorming

Attribute Listing

Checklist of Questions

Synetics

Ch. 6 The Creative Environment


Pagano provides the following guidelines for creativity-inducing teaching methodology applicable equally at school, home and possibly at work.


1. Active involvement of the learner
2. Positive democratic environment
3. Ego-building support (praise, acceptance, understanding for innovative ideas or efforts
4. Encouragement to curiosity and experimentation
5. Opportunities for children to interact with creative people.

Low tension environment
Expectations of the powerful
Emphasis on self-discovery
Home environment
Environmental stimulation
Work environment

Ch. 7  Creative Encounters


Tools of Creative Interaction

1. Effective listening
2. Empathy
3. Clarificatory questions
4. Feedback
5. Evocative questions
6. analogies
7. Converging to a solution or conclusion

Ch. 8. The Management of Creativity


Organizational Design for Innovation

Organizational Structure, Management systems and Practices

Culture of the Organization's Staff

Ch. 9. The Design of a Creative Society


A creative society respects the best traditions and carefully records them for posterity because they are inheritance of past creativity.  In a creative society,  traditions are loved and studied for their core vitality, but not allowed to obstruct the search for fresh forms.

The Characteristics of a Creative Society described by authors

1. Toynbee
2. Abram T. Collier
3. Silvano Arieti
4. H.G. Barnett

A model of a creative society

1. Society needs certain kinds of resources.
2. Norms that facilitate creativity, innovation, and experimentation
3. A large number must have autonomy.
4. Society needs to have stimulating events and experiences that spur creativity
5. Institutions that promote creativity - Government, Large enterprises and Institutions of higher learning

The book has nine chapters.


Updated 6 April 2019, 12 January 2019




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