Friday, May 26, 2017

40 Years with NITIE: 1977 - 2017 - Narayana Rao Kambhampati

5.15 am 26 May 2017 (Indian Standard Time)

Yesterday only I returned from a trip to Pittsburgh USA. I reached home by 10.30 pm on 25 May 2017. I started from Pittsburgh at 5.50 am on 24 May 2017 (US Eastern Time) and travelled to Chicago first and from there took the Delhi direct flight operated by Air India.

On 23 May 2017, I made a presentation on Principles of Industrial Engineering in the Annual Conference of Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE).  Industrial engineering as an academic discipline started in 1907 at Penn State University. A book with the title "Principles of Industrial Engineering" was authored by C.B. Going. But principles of industrial engineering were not declared so far in the industrial engineering literature. My deep thinking on industrial engineering that spanned the period 1994 to 2016, suddenly gave me the idea on 4 July 2016. I made my blog post on that day on the topic. I took one more year to go to the world's premier platform and make a presentation on the issue. This completes my 40 years association with NITIE (National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai, India). I joined NITIE in 1977 and started learning industrial engineering in more earnestness. We had industrial engineering as a subject in our undergraduate programme at JNTU College of Engineering, Kakinada. But more serious and focused learning started in 1977. So in forty years, I moved from learning to telling. On 23 May 2017, I was explaining about industrial engineering to consultants from Maynard group (now with Accenture) and to a group of students from Penn State. A man from India, going and explaining industrial engineering to pioneers of industrial engineering in the birth state of industrial engineering. I thought I shall write about my journey during this 40 year period. Thus begins this writing adventure.

I present below the video made by my daughter on the presentation. My daughter's friend took photographs of the slides with her mobile phone. I shall add them also later.

Principles of Industrial Engineering Presented by Professor K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao (Author of this blog) on 23 May 2017 at the Annual Conference of Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers in Pittsburgh, USA.  Industrial Engineering is a management subject or discipline with Engineering as the foundation. Its primary application area is engineering systems. It augmented application area is any system.  INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING IS SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING AND HUMAN EFFORT ENGINEERING (Definition by Narayana Rao - Published in Udyog Pragati, Jounral of NITIE in 2006)


Principles of Industrial Engineering

An explanation says principles are scientific theories or cause and effect relationships. They are of permanent nature until revised due to empirical studies and identification of new facts.

Methods are general approaches that use the scientific principle or principles for beneficial use. They are also of permanent nature.

Tools are contemporaneous ways of implementing methods.

Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao

1. Develop science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.
2. Engineer methods, processes and operations to use the laws related to the work of machines, man, materials and other resources.
3. Select or assign workmen based on predefined aptitudes for various types of man - machine work.
4. Train workmen, supervisors, and engineers in the new methods.
5. Incorporate suggestions of operators, supervisors and engineers in the methods redesign on a continuous basis.
6. Plan and manage productivity at system level.

(The principles were developed on 4 June 2016 at Kakinada where I went for a holiday to celebrate my 60th birthday and with mother, brothers and sisters and other relatives). The principles were  developed by Narayana Rao based on principles of scientific management by F.W. Taylor)

Principles of Industrial Engineering

Presented during the Annual Conference of IISE 2017 at Pittsburgh on 23 May 2017

1. Productivity science
2. Productivity engineering
3. Ind Engineering is applicable to all branches of engineering
4. Principles of machine utilization economy are to be developed for all resources used in engineering systems.
5. Industrial engineering optimization
6. Industrial engineering economics
7. Implementation team membership and leadership
8. Human effort engineering for increasing productivity
9. Principles of motion economy to be used in all IE studies in the area of human effort engineering
10. Operator comfort and health are to be taken care of.
11. Work measurement
12. Selection of operators
13. Training of operators, supervisors and engineers
14. Productivity training and education to all
15. Employee involvement in continuous improvement of processes and products for productivity improvement.
16. Productivity incentives
17. Hearty cooperation
18. Productivity Management
19. System level focus for productivity
20. Productivity measurement
21. Cost measurement

The writing was started on 26 May 2017 (Indian Standard Time)

Updated 27 May 2017

Thursday, May 4, 2017

Design Thinking and Industrial Engineering

Do industrial engineers need design thinking?

Design Thinking for Managers
Design Thinking can do for organic growth and innovation what TQM did for quality.

Industrial engineers redesign product and processes. Hence development in design process, design thinking is relevant for industrial engineers.

Today I came across an interersting article on design thinking.

Published on April 22, 2017 by Manoj Kothari, Director & Chief Design Strategist - Turian Labs on Linkedin.

He emphasizes four points:  Empathic Inquiry, Abductive Reasoning, Visual Thinking or Creative Visualization and Iterative Prototyping.

Empathic inquiry is to go and stand in the posture of the users. Go and sit in the posture of the user. Understand the users' requirement from the their point of view. Go and use the item as they are using. Don't come with an ideal way of using it all the 8 hours or more a users uses an item. Understand why he does a thing the way he does it.

Aductive reasoning: Imagine various possibilities.

Visual thinking: Don't use only words to express. Use pictures and visuals.

Iterative prototyping - Once again don't limit yourself to picture or a design drawing. Convert it into prototype that can be seen as a 3D shape and handled.

I think industrial engineers have to accept all the four points and incorporate rate them into their design process.

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Optimization Uses Existing Technologies Only

Optimization uses existing technologies only but combines them into a combination that maximizes output or profit or minimizes cost. When a firm is not optimizing its resource combination to produce maximum output of specified products, it is leaving money on the table.
If any component is improved in its function through technology change, there can be further improvement in the output of the optimized system. Invention of new alloys etc. are technological developments.

Industrial Engineering involves search for alternative engineering solutions that provide productivity and thereby cost reduction. Industrial engineering is not the same as optimization. Industrial engineering when doing product engineering understand the present design of the product (if using value analysis and engineering method, they do functional analysis of the components of the product) and come out with low cost value alternatives. The low cost value alternative ideas are engineering into components and product that is less costly but provides all the functions that the earlier design is providing. In the redesign of components/product industrial engineering use optimization.  Similarly in process industrial engineering, industrial engineers  record the process in appropriate charts (earlier 5 method flow process chart is used, now seven waste identifying process chart can be used) and analyze each step to come out with alternative engineering ideas that are incorporated into the process. Once again optimization is used make sure the most optimal combination is used at every step of the new technology.

In Industrial engineering, engineering alternatives come first and then optimization.
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