Wednesday, July 31, 2019

July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision

Ideas and Thoughts Fundamental to Industrial Engineering








Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao

Presentation made at IISE Annual Conference, 2017, at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017
____________________

____________________


Taylor's Industrial Engineering & Conception of IE by Other Scholars and Writers


First Week


1 July to 5 July


1 July


1. Taylor's Industrial Engineering

2. Industrial Engineering Described in Shop Management by F.W. Taylor

2  July


3. Time Study - Explanation by F.W. Taylor

4. Foundation of Scientific Management

3  July


5 & 6. Industrial Engineering and Productivity Improvement Described in Scientific Management by F.W. Taylor


4  July


7. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - - Pig Iron Handling

8. Elaborate Planning Organization - Need and Utility

5  July


9. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - Bricklaying Improvement by Gilbreth

10. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - Bicycle Balls Inspection Example

Second Week 


8 July to 12 July

8  July


11. Scientific Management in Machine Shop

12. Machine Work Study by Taylor - Art of Metal Cutting - Important Points

9  July

13. Development of Science in Mechanic Arts

14. Study of Motives of Men

15. Scientific management in its essence

16. Role of Top Management in Implementing Scientific Management

17. Scientific Management Summarized

18. Harrington Emerson - A Pioneer Industrial Engineer

19. The Twelve Principles of Efficiency - Part 1

20. The Twelve Principles of Efficiency - Part 2


Third Week


15 July to 19 July

15 July

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao

Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques


16 July

Industrial Engineering - The Concept - Developed by Going in 1911

Operation Study - Process Industrial Engineering by Arthur G. Anderson - 1928


Product Industrial Engineering




17 July

Product Industrial Engineering

Value Engineering - Introduction

18 July

Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques

Value Analysis: Approach and Job Plan

19 July

Knowledge Required for Value Engineering Application and Practice

Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) - Value Engineering Method


Fourth Week  

(22 to 26, July)

22 July

Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits

Value Engineering in Construction - Structures, Roads, Bridges


23 July
Value Engineering at the Design and Development Stage - Tata Nano Example

Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board  - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

24 July
Value Engineering - Bulletin - Information Board

Lean Product Development - Low Waste Product Development - Efficient Product Development


25 July
Design for Manufacturing

Design for Assembly

26 July

Target Costing and Industrial Engineering

Target Costing and Target Cost Management














Industrial engineering is a management activity. It is a staff activity in the management functions or activities. But its subject foundation is engineering and its main application is engineering activities, departments and engineering organizations. It focuses on cost reduction and thereby increase of sales due to lower prices and increased profits to the organization and through it increased incomes to employees of an organization apart benefit to other stakeholders of the organization. Also the managerial activities of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling are relevant in industrial engineering practice. Industrial engineers are asked to do efficiency studies managerial processes also. So they have to know the output and inputs of managerial processes and how managerial processes are carried out.

Industrial engineering programs have principles and practices of management as a course in the curriculum as industrial engineers are productivity managers of the organizations.











June - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision





One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December


2018
Received 250+ likes in the month July 2018 and August 2018 in Linkedin
https://www.linkedin.com/groups/49280/49280-6419582667892846595

2017
The post received 162 likes in the month of July 2017 in Linkedin Industrial Engineering Network Group
https://www.linkedin.com/groups/49280/49280-6286849413168095232


Updated  14 July 2019,  29 June 2019,   16 August 2018,  1 July 2018,  30 September 2017,  1 July 2017,  8 July 2016,  26 May 2016,  20 April 2015









Tuesday, July 30, 2019

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan with Links







Revision of Process Industrial Engineering - Methods, Techniques and Tools

In this month's revision plan the focus is on production/engineering  processes improvement which al includes many engineering processes related to production,  inspection, material handling, maintenance and service of engineering goods and services.

Management of processes are also analyzed and redesigned by industrial engineers. If management processes, activities and policies are responsible for poor productivity, industrial engineers have to propose changes in management methods, practices and tools to improve productivity. This aspect of industrial engineering is discussed under the area - productivity management.

Process Industrial Engineering - Process Efficiency/Productivity Improvement - Process Cost Reduction

First Week

Process Industrial Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/02/process-industrial-engineering.html

Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/07/machine-tool-improvement-and-cutting.html

Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/approach-to-operation-analysis-as-step.html

Operation Analysis Sheet
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/operation-analysis-sheet.html

Using the Operation Analysis Sheet
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/using-operation-analysis-sheet.html

Analysis of Purpose of Operation
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/analysis-of-purpose-of-operation.html

Analysis of All Operations of a Process as a Step of Each Operation Analysis
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/analysis-of-all-operations-of-process.html
Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Standards
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/analysis-of-tolerances-and-inspection.html

 Analysis of Material in Operation Analysis
 http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/analysis-of-material-in-operation.html

 Machines and Tools Related Methods Efficiency Analysis - Machine Work Study 
 http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/tool-related-operation-analysis.html



Second Week

    Material Handling Analysis in Operations
    Operation Analysis of Setups

    Operation Analysis - Man and Machine Activity Charts
    Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis

    Operation Analysis - Analysis of Working Conditions and Method
    Operation Analysis - Common Possibilities for Operation Improvement

    Operation Analysis - Check List
    Method Study

   Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering
   Method Study - Information Collection and Recording - Chapter Contents


Third Week

15 August

Process Analysis - Questions/Check List
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/02/process-analysis-questionscheck-list.html

Installing Proposed Methods
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/systems-installation-installing.html

16 August

Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/09/eliminate-combine-rearrange-simplify.html

Process and Productivity Improvement Through Smart Machines and Smart Factories
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/07/productivity-improvement-through-smart.html

17 August

Process and Productivity Improvement through incorporating Data Analytics

Plant Layout Analysis
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/07/august-industrial-engineering-knowledge.html


18 August

Flow Process Charts - Reinterpretation of Its Purpose and Utility
Industrial Engineering of Flow Production Lines - Thought Before Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo

SMED
Poka-Yoke


Fourth Week

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2014/02/industrial-engineering-foundation-of.html

Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/12/toyota-production-system-industrial.html


Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo
Seven Waste Model and Its Extensions

Industrial Engineering of Maintenance Processes
Manufacturing System Losses Idenfied in TPM Literature

Industrial Engineering of Inspection Processes
Industrial Engineering of Material Handling Processes

Zero Defect Movement and Six Sigma Method
Process Cost Analysis - Cost Center Statement Analysis


More articles

Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering



One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December




Updated 1 Augsut 2019,   16 August 2018,  30 July 2017,  28 July 2016, 19 April 2015, 17 July 2014

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Isuzu Motors - Cost Reduction


Isuzu Motors Ltd. (Japanese: いすゞ自動車株式会社)


https://www.isuzu.co.jp


Operating profit: Increase or Decrease /


Sales: Unit: JPY in billion
FY2007 H1 (April '06 to September '06)      824.7      11.9%
FY2008 H1 (April '07 to September '07)       874.5 6.0%
FY2007 (April '06 to March '07)            1,662.9 5.1%
FY2008 Forecast (April '07 to March '08)   1,750.0 5.2%

FY2008 H1 (April '07 to September '07)
Profit increase due to:
  Material cost reduction 6.3
  Improvement of profitability 3.9

Profit decrease due to:
  Sales mix (9.3)
  Facility expense (7.0)
  Economic change (3.2)

FY2008 Forecast (April '07 to March '08)

Profit increase due to:
  Material cost reduction 15.0
  Improvement of profitability 13.0

Profit decrease due to:
  Facility expense (13.0)
  Sales mix (13.0)
  Economic change (9.0)

https://www.isuzu.co.jp/world/investor/financial/2008i/f_200711e_3.html

Friday, July 26, 2019

Productivity Gain Measurement



http://www.mpc.gov.my/epgm/

e-Productivity Gain Measurement (ePGM) System is a self-assessment online tool for companies in measuring productivity at firm’s level.
ePGM assists organisations to understand productivity measurement and also provides efficiency information of the organisations.
This will assist users to observe their companies· productivity performance trend for a period of up to ten years. The system also allows the companies to  benchmark  their  performance  with  the  industry  average performance.

Minumum three years profit and loss account, balance sheet and manufacturing account (if prepared normally) are required to give data inputs.

Visit the site and key in the data.



Productivity of each input   - Total output/quantity of the input  (Partial productivitivy)

Multifactor productivity    =  Total output/(Quantity of specified combination of inputs)

Total Factor Productivity   =  Total output/Total input

Productivity Index  =  100*(Productivity in current year-/(Productivity in base year)

Thursday, July 25, 2019

WAVE Value Engineering


What-if Alternative Value Engineering (WAVE)

Technology of WAVE and Feature Cutter volume of manufacturing
https://www.matec-conferences.org/articles/matecconf/abs/2016/06/matecconf_icnms2016_04003/matecconf_icnms2016_04003.html

“Working-group Approach to VE” (WAVE)
https://www.sjve.org/eng/activities/research

The approach was described in Cooper and Slagmulder's book Target Costing and VAlue Engineering (p.339).

Value Engineering in Japanese バリューエンジニアリング



バリューエンジニアリング (Pronounciation:  Baryūenjiniaringu)

Japanese wikipedia on value engineering  - バリューエンジニアリング
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/バリューエンジニアリング


In order to achieve excellent VE results, compliance with the five basic principles is a prerequisite.

Principle of employer priority
Function-oriented principle
Principles of Change by Creation
Principles of team design
Principles of value improvement

VE implementation procedure


The development of VE activities includes the following VE implementation procedures. Step-by-step in this step-by-step way to solve the problem not only makes the focus of the problem clearer but also  motivates  the person performing the VE, creating a leak-free and dense creation. It is possible to present valuable alternatives.

1. Function definition

1. Gather information on VE
2. Definition of function
3. Organize functions

2. Function evaluation

4. Cost analysis by function
5. Evaluation of function
6. Selection of target field

3. Alternative drafting
7. Idea
8. Outline evaluation
9. Materialization
10. Detailed evaluation

History

The introduction to Japan was reported by the cost control inspection team dispatched by the Japan Productivity Headquarters (currently the Socioeconomic Productivity Headquarters). They brought the method and  introduced it as a method of cost reduction in 1955. It provided  opportunity to  the manufacturing industry to aim at reducing costs.

Value Engineering in Toyota


https://www.toyota.co.jp/jpn/company/history/75years/data/automotive_business/products_technology/research/cost/details.html

VE (Value Engineering) is an organizational approach that reduces costs by changing the drawings and specifications, streamlining manufacturing methods, changing suppliers, etc. by studying the costs and functions of product and material services. Activities The purpose is to obtain the necessary functions at the lowest cost.

In our company, the value analysis before production is called VE.

VA (value analysis) is an organizational approach that reduces costs by changing the drawings and specifications, streamlining manufacturing methods, changing suppliers, etc. by studying the costs and functions of products and material services. Activities The purpose is to obtain the necessary functions at the lowest cost.

In our company, the value analysis of the unit production stage is called VA.


Hitachi Ltd. is going to train 10,000 leaders in value engineering in three years
Norio Sekiya General Manager, VEC Promotion Department / Chief Engineer, VEC Planning Group, VEC Promotion Department Kazumasa Inami
2014
https://www.sjve.org/4883

Javier Masini, CVS from Mexico visited Isuzu Motor’s largest Tear Down Room in Japan
Updated:2016/08/22

On the next day of the conference, October 29th, 2015, Masini visited Isuzu Motors, Ltd. Fujisawa Plant for shop tour at their truck assembly plant and Tear Down room which is located annex to the plant. This visit was hosted by VE Promotion Group – Cost Planning Department of Isuzu Motors including M. Sugimoto (GM), K. Ogihara, Y. Watanabe, M. Adachi and N. Ando. After thorough introduction of their tear down activity which is positioned as core part of product and cost planning efforts in Isuzu, they showed around the tear down room with actual displays of various types of trucks by different manufacturers.
https://www.sjve.org/eng-topic/javier-masini-cvs-from-mexico-visited-isuzu-motors-largest-tear-down-room-in-japan


https://www.sjve.org/eng/value-engineering

https://www.plm.automation.siemens.com/global/ja/our-story/customers/siemens-ag/17602/


Isuzu Motors Ltd. (Japanese: いすゞ自動車株式会社 )

Isuzu Motors Ltd. Value Engineering

いすゞ自動車株式会社   バリューエンジニアリング
https://www.isuzu.co.jp

Target Costing and Industrial Engineering

Target costing is cost estimation and reduction methodology to achieve a target cost set in relation to the target price set by the company as an objective.

Industrial engineering tools were used by the Toyota managers in target costing exercises. Taiichi Ohno specifically mentioned the role of Industrial Engineering in improving the profitability of Toyota Motors by reducing costs.

Added on 26 July 2018

Now, I developed the term "Product Industrial Engineering" to indicate the redesign of products  carried out by industrial engineering to reduce the cost of production and distribution of the product. While "value engineering" is the first redesign technique that focused on cost reduction of a product by redesigning, we now have more tools and industrial engineers can contribute to the target costing based new product introductions as well as annual budgets.

Industrial engineers are committed to total cost industrial engineering. Total cost industrial engineering is application of engineering and engineering activity related management to reduce the cost of manufacture and distribution of a company's product and service portfolio.


Product Industrial Engineering

Study Materials




Product Industrial Engineering

Value Engineering - Introduction

Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques

Value Analysis: Approach and Job Plan

Knowledge Required for Value Engineering Application and Practice

Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) - Value Engineering Method

Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits

Value Engineering in Construction - Structures, Roads, Bridges

Value Engineering at the Design and Development Stage - Tata Nano Example

Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board  - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

Value Engineering - Bulletin - Information Board



Lean Product Development - Low Waste Product Development - Efficient Product Development



Design for Manufacturing

Design for Assembly



Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Methods of Industrial Engineering

Methods efficiency engineering and the related operation analysis examine proposed manufacturing processes and eliminate wastes or inefficiencies.

Motion economy principles based design provides for the best motion pattern that minimizes human effort.

Layout efficiency improvement takes care of layout related issues.

Value engineering takes a product and component design analysis approach to reduce costs.

Operations research optimizes various parameters subject to the given constraints.


Implementing Target Costing - IMA Note
http://www.imanet.org/docs/default-source/thought_leadership/management_control_systems/implementing_target_costing.pdf


Current Status and Challenges of Target Costing in Japanese Major Corporations
2006 Article
Masayasu Tanaka,Masao Okuhara, Masao Ariga
http://www.value-eng.org/knowledge_bank/attachments/200631.pdf


New Bibliography added on 26 July 2018

Why NYU Tandon for Industrial Engineering?

Industrial Engineers complete their programs well versed in the theories and practical application of lean manufacturing, target costing, and design for manufacturability. Our program establishes a strong foundation in the ability to create engineering processes and systems that improve quality and productivity while eliminating the waste of labor, time, and resources.
http://archive.engineering.nyu.edu/academics/online/masters/industrial-engineering (Accessed on 26 July 2018)

Study on the Strategies of Target Cost Management in the Supply Chain of Aeronautic Complex Product.
Hang-hang Chen and Li-xin Pan
2016
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=sj-FCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA502#v=onepage&q&f=false

Using Target Costing to Enhance the Operating Profit
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=-QW5CgAAQBAJ&pg=PA938#v=onepage&q&f=false
2016
Article: Research of Implementation Mode of Strategic Management Accounting.
Yang-fang Gao et al.

B. Gopalakrishnan, A. Kokatnur, D.P. Gupta, (2007) "Design and development of a target‐costing system for turning operation", Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 18 Issue: 2, pp.217-238,
https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/17410380710722917


Target Costing and Value Engineering
Robin Cooper, Regine Slagmulder
 1997 - Productivity Press
Published May 31, 1997
Reference - 359 Pages
https://www.crcpress.com/Target-Costing-and-Value-Engineering/Cooper-Slagmulder/p/book/9781563271724

May 1993
New product costing, Japanese style. (CPA in Industry )
By Margaret Lgagne and Richard Discenza
http://archives.cpajournal.com/old/14345315.htm



Target Costing, Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering Consultants

EFS Consulting, Vienna
https://efs.consulting/en/target-cost-and-cost-down/


Updated 26 July 2019,   26 July 2018,  23 July 2016, 28 November 2013

Six Cardinal Areas for Industrial Engineering - Going Industrial Engineering

The applications of system in which we are most interested in industrial engineering will relate generally to six cardinal points.

First, the general institutions and form of management;
second, the provision and custody of material; 
third, the handling and payment of labor or men "; 
fourth, the care and maintenance of tools and machinery; 
fifth, the determination and direction of operations, or manufacturing methods; 
sixth, the recording of expenditures and costs that is, of money. 
Our seventh " M " markets belong to the commercial or sales organization, and though equally
susceptible to scientific treatment are not included in the scope of this study.

System is an ideal that is more or less perfectly embodied in innumerable concrete " systems " for handling each and all of these things. There is no universally correct and specific way of doing any one of them. Always beware of the man with the panacea. Ideals and principles are fundamental and fixed; methods and systems must vary with conditions. The systems that will succeed in any given case depend on the organization adopted in, and the circumstances surrounding, that case. Many misfits and troubles have resulted from attempts to force cut-and-dried systems that had succeeded under one set of conditions and in one environment, upon a plant differently organized and environed to which these systems were not adapted at all. There are, nevertheless, fixed principles that can be formulated and should be observed in any system we may adopt in any individual case.

Management, in its broad sense, includes everything in the entire range of this discussion. In its limited sense of the governing and directing body it is ordinarily (as already said) dominated too exclusively by ideals of " line " subdivision with insufficient " staff " co-ordination. Very generally, however, a broad staff or functional segregation appears in the adoption of what is called the " three-column form" of organization; that is, the management is carried on by three co-ordinated departments financial, manufacturing, and commercial. The division is elementary and logical. First get your money, next turn it into manufactured wares, then sell the product. Below this step, however, ordinary management is unstandardized. All effective work in the improvement of efficiency must begin here, either by replacing the existing arrangement by a " functional force " or by " co-ordinating with it in an expert staff."

Materials are generally supplied through a purchasing department, whose duty it is to provide all materials and supplies in the quantity and quality required by the production department, at the most advantageous price possible; and to verify its purchases to the auditing department for payment. Materials when received pass into the custody of the stores department, at the head of which is an official known as the storeskeeper or storekeeper. In a large plant there will probably be a general storeskeeper and a sufficient number of division or assistant storeskeepers and clerks to handle the work. The duty of the stores department is to keep materials in safe custody and orderly arrangement, to supply them to the departments of the factory on requisitions from proper authority, to account for their issue, to receive them again, in partly finished or finished condition, if the routine of the factory operation so requires, and to maintain an inventory of all material on hand. Sometimes finished product is delivered from stores on order of the sales department; sometimes the shipping department is distinct. Obviously both purchasing department and stores department must be in close touch with the needs of the production department, but the discretion given either of them to query or to anticipate production-department requisitions or wants varies greatly in different cases, and may be determined by the policy of the concern or the personality of the officials chiefly concerned. It is not uncommon, however, for the stores department to be charged with responsibility for maintaining at all times a sufficient stock not only of raw materials but of finished product. The manufacturing department then works always and only upon orders issued by the stores department.

The records of materials are usually kept by requisitions made out in multiple, separate copies going to the manufacturing and accounting officials immediately concerned, and by entering each addition or withdrawal in books or on cards accompanying each lot or kind of material carried in stock. The movement of material through the factory is usually directed and recorded by tags, accompanying each piece or lot, and distinguished by serial numbers connecting them with the order or job to which they apply. Multiple copies of these memoranda, sent ahead, serve to notify responsible officials further down the line what to look for, and act as detectors for any delay or discrepancy in arrival. This system is commonly called stock tracing.

Material in process of manufacture is commonly called either stock or stores. The terms are rather loosely used, but the best authority prescribes the use of the term " stores " for raw material and " stock " for finished product. This usage, however, is not universal, and very often " rough stores " or " raw stores " is used to designate unmanufactured material, and " finished stores," manufactured
material.

Labor, which was listed as the third cardinal subject of
systematic handling, is very diversely managed. Some large
concerns have a regular labor department or employment
agency where applications are filed and examined, and by
which men are engaged in such numbers and at such times
as, the managing officials direct. In other cases the heads
of departments make their own engagements and dis-
charges. Usually the discipline and work assignments of
each employee depend upon his immediate superior, who
may be a very minor official, such as a gang boss or sub-
foreman. Many disciplinarians consider that the power of
promotion or discharge is necessary to the man in immediate command. There are, however, great dangers of in-
justice, and of the exercise of favoritism or spite disastrous
to efficiency of the working force as a whole, if too much
power is entrusted to petty officers. I think this is on the
whole the safer view to adopt. The assignment of work,
even, when not determined by general routine, is now
sometimes advantageously directed from a central works
office, where a work dispatcher has every machine in the
shop displayed before him on a board, with its jobs in hand
or accumulated systematically tabulated on slips, and he di-
rects the next movement for each man and machine on the
floor, as a train dispatcher moves the trains on a railroad.

The individual jobs are usually designated by numbers
connecting them with the work to which they apply. The
time each man works is usually recorded by a representative
of the accounting or auditing or cost department, called a
time clerk or a timekeeper. Very generally each workman
registers his entrance and departure by punching a time
clock or some similar automatic recording device, so that
the total time for which he is paid is indisputable. The
division of his time among various jobs (if his work is of
such character that it is divided among several jobs) is
noted either by himself, by his foreman, or by the time
clerk, who then makes frequent rounds of the shop and
visits every man often enough to keep close track. These
time records, like the material records, are usually kept on
individual cards, which can be assembled afterwards for
such tabulations and cost determinations as are desired and
may be kept as long as deemed advisable for further ref-
erence. The system of payment is determined by the man-
agement in the light of such appreciation as the managers
may have of the virtue and benefits of the several advanced
wage systems, and under such limitations as the prejudices
of the men or the effective restriction of the union may re-
quire.



The fourth cardinal point listed for systematic direction
was the care and maintenance of tools and machinery. The
larger mechanical equipment, power transmission, etc., is too
often left more or less vaguely to the engineering or me-
chanical department, from whom it devolves upon the fore-
men. There is, however, a generally recognized and almost
universally established institution called the tool room,
which has two separate functions; one is the custody and
issue of small tools, which are provided, ground, kept in
order, and given out to the men as needed, account being
kept by hanging a brass check representing the tool on a
hook bearing the workman's number. The other and
larger function 'of the tool room is the making of standard
and special tools, jigs, fixtures, etc., and the repair of ma-
chines and machinery. The province of the tool room,
however, is seldom extended widely enough and the tool-
maker's knowledge of the most efficient operation of ma-
chines and of the principal causes of waste and loss of time
is seldom deep enough, or his authority to institute re-
forms and is seldom great enough, to make the tool room
adequate to drive the plant at its highest capacity. Here
is an opportunity for most profitable use of the staff specialist.

The direction of methods, our fifth cardinal point, is in a still more unsatisfactory condition. It is left sometimes to the men running the machines, sometimes to their foreman or to a special functional foreman, sometimes to the tool room, sometimes to the drafting room, and sometimes to the engineering department or mechanical department at large. Here is another broad field for the staff specialist.

Systematic supervision of money matters, our sixth car-
dinal point in manufacturing organization, exists in two di-
rections. Both are based, in part at least, on the same data,
but their scope and purpose are quite diverse. The first of
these functions is exercised by the auditor's department. Its purpose is simply to connect every expenditure with an ac-
tual bona fide transaction material bought and vouched
for, wages paid for services proved, royalties paid on a veri-
fied contract, machines purchased, buildings erected, etc.
Time and material tickets coming from the shop are merely
vouchers to the auditor, to warrant his O. K. of requisitions
on the treasurer for the payment of bills or the drawing of
payroll checks. Beyond this, he is not in the least concerned
officially. If John Smith is certified on the payroll for 60
hours, as proved by the time clock, and at 25 cents an hour
as certified by his general foreman, the auditor approves
his payroll check for $15 without further question.

But the second department concerned in money matters
has a different function; this is the cost department. The
time and material cards, having served as auditor's vouch-
ers if necessary, are taken in hand by the cost department
and sorted by numbers so that all cards belonging to any
particular job, machine, or desired item of product fall to-
gether. From these the complete material and labor cost
of any piece or product (or by proper prearrangement, of
any part of a unit of product or of any operation upon any
part) can be figured up and recorded. It is part of the
function of the cost department not merely to connect ex-
penditures with certain manufacturing accounts as the audi-
tor does, but to determine by comparison whether the ex-
penditure and the thing secured by it are in fair proportion.
The auditor went no farther than to find that John Smith
put in 60 hours by the clock. The cost department divides
up this 60 hours, job by job, and it can or should compare
John Smith's time on each job with recorded times made by
other men on the same jobs. If he has been soldiering and
has done altogether in 60 hours only what the records show
that other men have previously done in 25 hours, the facts
are made clear and proper action can be taken.

The cost department, properly conducted, may thus become a mine of valuable information, first for the shop superintendent in helping him to prove the comparative worth of his men, and next for the commercial or sales organization, because it shows not only what margin of profit exists and affords a guide to possibilities of meeting competition, but it also permits close estimates to be made on new work, by a comparison with similar jobs in the past and by compiling unit prices from which the costs of new models may be built up. 


Updated on 26 July 2019, 18 September 2013

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Engineering Handbook - Richard C. Dorf - 2018 Information

The Engineering Handbook - Richard C. Dorf - 2018 Book Information


The Engineering Handbook

Richard C. Dorf
CRC Press, 03-Oct-2018 - Technology & Engineering - 3080 pages

First published in 1995, The Engineering Handbook quickly became the definitive engineering reference. Although it remains a bestseller, the many advances realized in traditional engineering fields along with the emergence and rapid growth of fields such as biomedical engineering, computer engineering, and nanotechnology mean that the time has come to bring this standard-setting reference up to date.

New in the Second Edition

19 completely new chapters addressing important topics in bioinstrumentation, control systems, nanotechnology, image and signal processing, electronics, environmental systems, structural systems
131 chapters fully revised and updated
Expanded lists of engineering associations and societies


The Engineering Handbook, Second Edition is designed to enlighten experts in areas outside their own specialties, to refresh the knowledge of mature practitioners, and to educate engineering novices. Whether you work in industry, government, or academia, this is simply the best, most useful engineering reference you can have in your personal, office, or institutional library.


https://books.google.co.in/books?id=l_TLBQAAQBAJ



https://www.crcpress.com/The-Engineering-Handbook/Dorf/p/book/9780849315862


Table of Contents


STATICS

Force-System Resultants and Equilibrium, Russell Hibbeler
Centroids and Distributed Forces- Walter Pilkey and L. Kitis
Moments of Inertia, J.L. Meriam


MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Reactions, Thalia Anagnos
Bending Stresses in Beams, James M. Gere
Shear Stresses in Beams, James M. Gere
Shear and Moment Diagrams, George R. Buchanan
Columns, Loren W. Zachary and John B. Ligon
Pressure Vessels, Som Chattopadhyay et al
Axial Loads and Torsion, Nelson R. Bauld Jr.
Fracture Mechanics, Ted L. Anderson


DYNAMICS AND VIBRATION

Dynamics of Particles: Kinematics and Kinetics, Bruce Karnopp and Stephen Birn
Dynamics of Rigid Bodies: Kinematics and Kinetics, Ashraf A. Zeid and R. Beck
Free Vibration, Natural Frequencies, and Mode Shapes, Daniel A. Mendelsohn
Forced Vibrations, Arthur W. Leissa
Lumped versus Distributed Parameter Systems, Bulent Ovunc
Applications of Structural and Dynamic Principles, Anthony J. Kalinowski
Vibration Computations and Nomographs- Daniel Inman
Test Equipment and Measuring Instruments, Terrence W. Baird


KINEMATICS AND MECHANISMS

Linkages and Cams- Michael McCarthy and Gregory L. Long
Tribology: Friction, Wear, and Lubrication, Bharat Bhushan
Machine Elements, Gordon R. Pennock
Crankshaft Journal Bearings, P.K. Subramanyan
Fluid Sealing in Machines, Mechnical Devices, and Apparatus, Alan O. Lebeck


STRUCTURES

Loads, Peter Gergely
Wind Effects, Timothy A. Reinhold and Ben L. Sill
Earthquake Effects, Charles Scawthorn
Structural Analysis, Eric M. Lui
Structural Steel, William T. Segui
Concrete, Edward G. Nawy
Timber, Donald E. Breyer
Mason Design, James Amrhein
NEW! Nonlinear Dynamics of Continuous Mass Structural Systems, Bulent Ovunc
NEW! Scour of Bridge Foundations, Everett V. Richardson


FLUID MECHANICS

Incompressible Fluids, Alan T. McDonald
Compressible Flow, Afshin Ghajar
The Rheology of Non-Newtonian Fluids, Deepak Doraiswamy
Airfoils/Wings, Bruce R. Munson and Dennis J. Cronin
Boundary Layers, Ed Braun and Pao-lien Wang
Values, Blake P. Tullis and J. Paul Tullis
Pumps and Fans, Robert F. Boehm
Two-Phase Flow, Richard T. Lahey
Basic Mixing Principles for Various Types of Fluid Mixing Applications, James Y. Oldshue, Jr.
Fluid Measurement Techniques, Sherif A. Sherif


THERMODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

The First Law of Thermodynamics, Richard E. Sonntag
Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy, Noam Lior
The Thermodynamics of Solutions, Stanley Sandler and Opdyke Hasan Orbey
Thermodynamics of Surface, William B. Krantz
Phase Equilibrium, Benjamin Kyle
Thermodynamic Cycles, William Cook
Heat Transfer, Yildiz Bayazitoglu and Udaya B. Sathuvalli
Heat Exchangers, M.M. Ohadi
Industrial Combustion- Charles E. Baukal, Jr.
Air Conditioning-Kreider, Victor W. Goldschmidt and Curtis J. Wahlberg
Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Randall Barron
Heat Transfer to Non-Newtonian Fluids, E.F. Matthys
Heat Pipes, Jay M Ochterbeck


SEPARATION PROCESSES
Distillation, James R. Fair
Absorption and Stripping, James R. Fair
Extraction, Vincent Van Brunt
Adsorption, Shivaji Sircar
Crystallization and Evaporation, Richard C. Bennett
Membrane Separation, Theodore T. Moore, et al.
Solid-Liquid Separation, Shiao-Hung Chiang
Other Separation Processes, William C. Corder and Simon P. Hanson

FUELS AND ENERGY CONVERSION
Fuels, Safwat M.A. Moustafa
Solar Electric Systems, Roger Messenger, Jerry Ventre, and Thomas Mancini
Internal Combustion Engines, Alan A. Kornhauser
Gas Turbines, Lee S. Langston and George Opdyke, Jr.
Nuclear Power Systems, David M. Woodall and Scott W. Heaberlin
Power Plants, Mohammed M. El-Wakil
Wind Energy, Kyle K. Wetzel
Hydraulic Turbines, Roger E.A. Arndt
Steam Turbines and Generators, Otakar Jonas
Cogeneration: Combined Heat and Power Systems, Moncef Krarti
Electric Machines, Iqbal Husain
NEW! Fuel Cells, Greg Hoogers


KINETICS AND REACTION ENGINEERING

Reaction Kinetics, K. H. Lin
Chemical Reaction Engineering, H. Scott Fogler
The Scaleup of Chemical Reaction Systems from Laboratory to Plant, J.B. Cropley


GEOTECHNICAL

Soil Mechanics, Braja M.Das


TRANSPORTATION

Transportation Planning, Michael D. Meyer
Design of Transportation Facilities, John Leonard II and Michael D. Meyer
Operations and Environmental Impacts, Paul W. Shuldiner and Kenneth B. Black
Transportation Systems, Paul Schonfeld
Intelligent Transportation Systems, Yorgos J. Stephanedes


COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING

Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering, John B. Herbich


ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS AND MANAGEMENT

Drinking Water Treatment, Appiah Amirtharajah and S. Casey Jones
Air Pollution, F. Chris Alley and C. David Cooper
Wastewater Treatment and Current Trends, Frank R. Spellman
Solid Wastes, Ross E. McKinney
Hazardous Waste Management, Harold M. Cota and David Wallenstein
Soil Remediation, Ronald C. Sims and J. Karl C. Nieman
NEW! Urban Storm Water Design and Management, James F. Thompson and Philip B. Bedient


WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

Hydraulics, Barbara Hauser
Hydrology, Vijay P. Singh
Sedimentation, Everett V. Richardson


LINEAR SYSTEMS AND MODELS

Transfer Functions and Laplace Transforms, Nelson C. Dorny
Block Diagrams, Taan ElAli
Signal Flow Analysis, Partha P. Banerjee
Linear State-Space Models, Boyd D. Schimel and Walter J. Grantham
Frequency Response, Paul Neudorfer and Pierre Gehlen
Convolution Integral, Rodger E. Ziemer
Stability Analysis, Ray Stefani
z Transform and Digital Systems, Rolf Johansson


CIRCUITS

Passive Components, Henry Domingos
RL, RC, and RLC Circuits, Michael D. Ciletti
Node Equations and Mesh Equations, James A. Svoboda
Sinusoidal Excitation and Phasors, Muhammad H. Rashid
Three-Phase Circuits, Norman Balabanian
Filters (Passive), Albert J. Rosa
Power Distribution, Robert Broadwater et al.
Analyzing and Solving Problems Associated with Electromagnetic Interference, Arindam Maitra et al.
Electromagnetics, M.N.O. Sadiku and C.M. Akujobi


ELECTRONICS

Operational Amplifiers, Paul J. Hurst
Active RC Filters, Michael A. Soderstrand
Diodes and Transistors, Sid Soclof
Analog Integrated Circuits, Sid Soclof
Optoelectronic Devices, Sid Soclof
Power Electronics, Kaushik S. Rajashekara and Timothy L. Skvarenina
A/D and D/A Convertors- Rex T. Baird and Jerry C. Hamann
Superconductivity, Kevin A. Devlin and Terry P. Orlando
Embedded Systems-on-Chips, Wayne Wolf
NEW! Electronic Data Analysis Using PSpice and MATLAB, John Attia
NEW! Electronic Packaging, Glenn Blackwell
NEW! Microwave and RF Engineering, Mike Golio


DIGITAL SYSTEMS

Logic Devices, Richard S. Sandige
Counters and State Machines (Sequencers), Barry Wilkinson
Microprocessors and Microcontrollers, Michael A. Soderstrand
Memory Systems, Richard S. Sandige
Computer-Aided Design and Simulation, Michael D. Ciletti
Logic Analyzers, Samiha Mourad and Mary Sue Haydt


COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

Transforms and Fast Algorithms, Alexander Poularikas
Digital Filters, Bruce W. Bomar and Rosemary L. Smith
Analog and Digital Communications, Tolga Duman
Coding, Scott L. Miller and Leon W. Couch II
Computer Communication Networks, John N. Daigle
Satellites and Aerospace, Samuel W. Fordyce and William W. Wu
Mobile and Portable Radio Communication- Rias Muhamed et al.
Communications, Joseph Palais
NEW! Digital Image Processing, Jonathon Randall and Ling Guan
NEW! Complex Envelope Representation for Modulated Signals, Leon W. Couch II


COMPUTERS

Computer Organization: Architecture, Vojin G. Oklobdzija
Operating Systems, Pao-lien Wang
Programming Languages, Jens Palsberg
Input/Output Devices, Chih-Kong Ken Yang
Memory and Storage Systems, Peter J. Varman
NEW! Nanocomputers, Nanoarchitectures, and NanoICS, Sergey Lyshevski
NEW! Software Engineering, Phillip A. Laplante
NEW! Human-Computer Interface Design, and Mansour Rahimi, Jennifer MacLean, Greg Placencia


MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

Sensors and Transducers, Rosemary L. Smith
Measurement Errors and Uncertainty, Steve. J. Harrison and Ron Dieck
Signal Conditioning, Steve Dyer
Telemetry, Stephen Horan
Recording Instruments, Tim Chinowsky
Bioinstrumentation, Wolf W. von Maltzahn and Karsten Meyer-Waarden
NEW! G (LabVIEW) Software Engineering, Christopher Relf
NEW! Sensors, Halit Eren
NEW! AC Electrokinetics of Particles, Michael Pycraft Hughes et al.
NEW! Biomedical Engineering, Joseph D. Bronzino

SURVEYING

Quality Control, N.W.J. Hazelton and Boudewijn H.W. van Gelder
Elevation, Steven D. Johnson
Distance Measurements, N.W.J. Hazelton and R. Ben Buckner
Directions, Bon DeWitt
Photogrammetry and Topographic Mapping-Arlinghaus et al
Surveying Computations, H.W. van Gelder
Satellite Surveying, H.W. van Gelder and Robert Austin
Surveying Applications for Geographic Information Systems, Baxter E. Vieux and James F. Thompson
Remote Sensing, Jonathan W. Chipman et al.


CONTROL SYSTEMS

Principles of Feedback Control, Hitay Ozbay
Root Locus, D. Subbaram Naidu
Nyquist Criterion and Stability, Norman Nise
System Compensation, Frances H. Raven
Process Control, Thomas Marlin
Digital Control, Michael J. Piovoso
Robots and Control, Thomas R. Kurfess and Mark L. Nagurka
State Variable Feedback, Thomas Vincent
NEW! Nonlinear Control Systems, Andrea Serrani
NEW! Introduction to Mechatronics, Robert H. Bishop


MANUFACTURING

Types of Manufacturing, Richard Schonberger
Quality, Matthew P. Stephens and Joseph F. Kmec
Flexible Manufacturing, Andrew Kusiak and Chang-Xue Jack Feng
Managing for Value, Edward Knod   - Value Engineering
Design, Modeling, and Prototyping, William L. Chapman and A. Terry Bahill
Materials Processing and Manufacturing Methods, Chang-Xue Jack Feng
Machine Tools and Processes, Yung C. Shin
Ergonomics and Human Factors, Waldemar Karwowski
Pressure and Vacuum, Peter J. Biltoft et al
Food Engineering, R. Paul Singh
Agricultural Engineering, David J. Hills
System Reliability, Rama Ramakumar
NEW! Computer Integrated Manufacturing: A Data Mining Approach, Bruno Agard & Andrew Kusiak


AERONAUTICAL AND AEROSPACE

Aerodynamics, John F. Donovan
Response to Atmospheric Disturbances, Ronald A. Hess
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Ramesh K. Agarwal
Aeronautical and Space Engineering Materials, Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn
Propulsion Systems, Jan C. Monk
Aircraft Performance and Design, Francis Joseph Hale
Spacecraft and Mission Design, Wallace T. Fowler

SAFETY

Hazard Identification and Control, Mansour Rahimi
Regulations and Standards, A. Keith Furr


ENGINEERING ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

Present Worth Analysis, Walter Short
Project Analysis Using Rate-of-Return Criteria, Robert Beaves
Project Selection from Alternatives-Hendrickson and McNeil
Depreciation and Corporate Taxes, Chris Hendrickson and Tung Au
Financing and Leasing, Charles Fazzi
Risk Analysis and Management, Bilal M. Ayyub
Sensitivity Analysis, Harold E Marshall
Life-Cycle Costing, Wolter J. Fabrycky and Benjamin S. Blanchard
Project Evaluation and Selection, Hans J. Thamhain
Critical Path Method, John L. Richards
Intellectual Property: Patents, Trade Secrets, Copyrights, Trademarks and License, David Rabinowitz and Steven M. Hoffberg


MATERIALS ENGINEERING
Properties of Solids, James F. Shackelford
Failure Analysis, James F. Shackelford
Liquids and Gases, Bruce Poling
Biomaterials, Scott Hazelwood and Bruce R. Martin

MATHEMATICS

General Mathematics, William Ames
Linear Algebra Matrices, George Cain
Vector Algebra and Calculus, George Cain
Complex Variables, George Cain
Difference Equations, William Ames
Differential Equations, William Ames
Integral Equations, William Ames
Integral Transforms, William Ames
Integral Transforms, William Ames
Chaos, Fractals and Julia Sets, Anca Deliu
Calculus of Variations, William Ames
Probability and Statistics, Y.L. Tong
Optimization, George Cain
Numerical Methods, William Ames
Dimensional Analysis, William Ames
Computer Graphics Visualization, Richard S. Gallegher
APPENDIX
Mathematical Tables and Formulae

Target Costing and Value Engineering - Robin Cooper - 1997 - Information

Target Costing and Value Engineering - Robin Cooper - 1997 - Book Information


Target Costing and Value Engineering

Robin Cooper
Routledge, 19-Oct-2017 - Business & Economics - 359 pages



Effective cost management must start at the design stage. As much as 90-95% of a product's costs are added in the design process. That is why effective cost management programs focus on design and manufacturing. The primary cost management method to control cost during design is a combination of target costing and value engineering.

Target Costing Objectives:

Identify the cost at which your product must be manufactured at if it is to earn its profit margin at its expected target selling price.
Break the target cost down to its component level and have your suppliers find ways to deliver the components they sell you at the set target prices while still making adequate returns.

Value Engineering:

The connection to function: An organized effort and team based approach to analyze the functions of goods and services that the design stage, and find ways to achieve those functions in a manner that allows the firm to meet its target costs.

The result: Added value for your company (development costs on-line with added value for your company; development costs on-line with selling prices) and added value for your customer (higher quality products that meet, possibly even exceed, customer expectations.)


https://books.google.co.in/books?id=wro6DwAAQBAJ

Value Analysis and Engineering - Online Book

Engineering Processes Improvement - Experiments and Data Analytics


How to improve processes using the large quantities of data that are routinely collected from process systems.

Book giving some answers

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Visualizing Process Data
2. Univariate Data Analysis
3. Process Monitoring
4. Least Squares Modelling Review
5. Design and Analysis of Experiments
6. Latent Variable Modelling

https://learnche.org/pid/preface/index
“This work is the copyright of Kevin Dunn.”

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Design for Manufacturing




Design for Manufacturing - Natasha Baker
Supplyframe
Streamed live on 1 Mar 2019
_______________

_______________
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9G5eKnJmIgQ


Design for Manufacturing

1. Estimate the Manufacturing Costs
2. Reduce the Cost of Components
3. Reduce the Cost of Assembly
4. Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production
5. Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on other Factors

Designing Products for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA)

Product design has to ensure that manufacturing and assembly feasibility and cost are appropriately considered in the design process.

Reducing the number of parts is an important concern of DFMA. For this purpose for each separate part, the following questions are to be answered by the designer.

1. Does the part move relative to all other parts?
2. Must the part be made of different material?
3. Must the part be separate from all other parts to allow the disassembly of the product for adjustment or maintenance?


DFM Guideline
A1) Understand manufacturing problems/issues of current/past products
A3) Eliminate overconstraints to minimize tolerance demands.

P1) Adhere to specific process design guidelines.
P2) Avoid right/left hand parts.
P3) Design parts with symmetry.
P4) If part symmetry is not possible, make parts very asymmetrical.
P5) Design for fixturing.
P6) Minimize tooling complexity by concurrently designing tooling.
P8) Specify optimal tolerances for a Robust Design.
P9) Specify quality parts from reliable sources.
P10) Minimize Setups.
P11) Minimize Cutting Tools.
P12) Understand tolerance step functions and specify tolerances wisely.
http://www.design4manufacturability.com/DFM_article.htm

DFM in Plastic Injection Moulding
https://news.ewmfg.com/blog/manufacturing/dfm-design-for-manufacturing


Technologies to reduce production costs

Sep 11, 2005 Leslie Gordon

Software that optimizes product design

Companies can slash costs by improving the design process at its beginning. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) software includes a design-for-manufacture module, with which engineers obtain early cost estimates on parts or products, and a design-for-assembly module, which they employ to determine the best methods to manufacture products.

Engineers use the software where a design idea might still be scribbled on a napkin. Or, they use it to re-examine fully finished products to ensure design efficiency. For example, engineers take a part's geometry and determine whether the part should be made from a casting, or be machined, or injection-molded. During this process, the software draws from its large database, containing thousands of manufacturing processes, materials, and machinery, which was developed over many years in conjunction with companies such as GM and Ford.

Engineers also evaluate each assembly's function and the relationship between parts. They simplify and streamline designs repeatedly until achieving a minimum per/piece cost. For example, in one application, engineers slashed labor time by streamlining a product design to eliminate assembly screws.

http://americanmachinist.com/features/technologies-reduce-production-costs










Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production - David M. Anderson - Book Information
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2014/03/design-for-manufacturability-how-to-use.html

Recent Linkedin Article
26 July 2016
What is Design for Manufacturing or Design for Assembly
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-design-manufacturing-dfm-assembly-dfa-declan-scullion


_________________


________________
SME


________________


________________
SME


Updated 24 July 2019,  25 July 2018, 25 July 2017,  13 July 2017,  30 July 2016,  27 June 2016

Value Engineering - Bulletin - Information Board



2019



Value Analysis Tear-down: A New Process for Product Development and Innovation
Yoshihiko Sato, J. Jerry Kaufman
Industrial Press Inc., 2005 - Technology & Engineering - 206 pages
This book presents, for the first time, a new technology for improving products and innovating new and better products, first developed in Japan by Yoshihiko Sato. Value analysis tear-down combines traditional tear-down with the technologies of value analysis and value engineering. Within a few years of its public announcement in Japan, value analysis tear-down was adopted by all eleven Japanese automobile manufacturers, and many of the Japanese consumer electronics manufacturers. Jerry Kaufman, based in Houston, Texas, is a recognized authority and author on value engineering and value management, and has contributed much that is in these technologies to the process described in this book. The result of his collaboration with Mr. Sato is a process that helps engineers and managers reduce product cost, improve quality, continuously improve existing products, and discover opportunities for innovative change.
The first "how-to-do-it" book in English, it is written specifically for professionals in product engineering, manufacturing engineering, and value engineering; and the managers of these professionals, including plant managers, production managers, manufacturing executives, and research and development executives. It will also be useful to manufacturing, marketing, and management people concerned with product improvement, innovation, and improving their company's competitive position. Value analysis tear-down can be applied in many service and other industries, as well as in manufacturing; wherever there are physical components to be improved or invented.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=UTZJhEzgpXcC

Value: Its Measurement, Design, and Management
M. Larry Shillito, David J. De Marle
John Wiley & Sons, 13-Jul-1992 - Technology & Engineering - 368 pages
Written for people of various professions and offering a modern approach to using value analysis for product development, this is a structured process that unites interdisciplinary teams in an organization to select and analyze projects in terms of investment potential and to integrate quality and productivity. It contains four sections that describe the nature, measurement, design and management of value.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=e01LfamiCpUC

Design to Cost
Jack V. Michaels, William P. Wood
John Wiley & Sons, 26-Jun-1989 - Business & Economics - 432 pages
How to accurately estimate, in advance, the cost of producing products or services by means of the design-to-cost method, which systematically constrains design goals according to available funds. This book shows how to use value engineering, cost estimating, and cost control to devise, and adhere to, realistic cost goals. Touches on techniques from management methods to specific engineering approaches, and provides actual case studies of projects and services that have now become affordable through the application of the design-to-cost method.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=XXIJTb7P2koC

August 31, 2017
SAVE (Society of American Value Engineers), USA conferred on Tata Steel ‘The Arthur E. Mudge Award for Outstanding Accomplishment in Industry’ for the year 2017 during the SAVE Value Summit 2017 at Philadelphia, USA.
https://www.avenuemail.in/jamshedpur/tata-steel-bags-save-international-awards/112102/

Managing for Value - Chapter in Handbook
Edward M. Knod, Jr.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=l_TLBQAAQBAJ&pg=SA99-PA1105#v=onepage&q&f=false

OPEN ACCESS
Value engineering application in a high rise building (a case study in Bali)
Putri Arumsari and Ricco Tanachi
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/195/1/012015

Course Name: Product Design using Value Engineering
https://nptel.ac.in/noc/individual_course.php?id=noc19-me51

Value Engineering Enhances Design and Controls Production Costs.
The Motorcycle Tire Changer
https://www.assemblymag.com/articles/94751-value-engineering-enhances-design-and-controls-production-costs

Capital project value improvement in the 21st century: Trillions of dollars in the offing

August 2018 | Article
if PVI best practices were implemented at scale, an annual benefit on the order of $1 trillion is possible.

PVI is a systematic method used to improve a project’s financial value or cashflow. This process most often involves reducing its capital or operating expenditure; increasing its output; or accelerating its completion date so it becomes profitable more quickly. The crux of PVI lies in a comprehensive, “no stone left unturned” approach to identifying and evaluating creative alternatives to a project’s economics, with the goal of achieving a higher project return
https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/capital-projects-and-infrastructure/our-insights/capital-project-value-improvement-in-the-21st-century-trillions-of-dollars-in-the-offing

satven.com
VALUE ANALYSIS & VALUE ENGINEERING (VAVE)
In this current competitive automotive world, cutting down the cost & improving the function for the same cost is the key in winning over the competition. Satven has been supporting its customer for Value Engineering & Value Analysis with a classical VAVE approach through Functional Analysis, FAST methodology, Cost/worth for each function & identification of function for cost reduction & brain storming for idea generation with a cross-function team of Design, Manufacturing experts for identified functions/parts.
https://satyamventure.com/solutions/product-development/value-analysis-value-engineering/


2018


An interesting paper

An Improved Effective Cost Review Process for Value Engineering
D. S. Joo and J. I. Park
Department of Industrial Engineering, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749, Republic of Korea
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 682051, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/682051
Copyright © 2014 D. S. Joo and J. I. Park. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/682051/

_________________

_________________


Value Engineering and Function Analysis: Frameworks for Innovation in Antenna Systems
Open Access
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 20
http://www.mdpi.com/2078-1547/9/1/20/htm

Aug. 15, 2017

DoD Announces Recipients of Value Engineering Achievement Awards
https://www.defense.gov/News/Article/Article/1279151/dod-announces-recipients-of-value-engineering-achievement-awards/

Best Practices in the Value Engineering Program

https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ve/portaltopractices.cfm

Procedia Computer Science
Volume 28, 2014, Pages 781-788
open access
Procedia Computer Science
Extended Model for Integrated Value Engineering☆
Florian G.H.Behncke Sebastian Maisen bacher MaikMaurer
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050914001562


Corporate Value Engineering/Management Policy
https://www.valuefoundation.org/policy.htm

Value Engineering Theory: Lecture Outline and Reading Supplement
Donald E. Parker
Miles Value Foundation - Business & Economics - 188 pages

This publication is designed to be part of a University level course on Value Engineering Theory. As Such, it is presented in two sections:

Section one of this publication contains an eleven-part reading supplement to Larry Miles’ book, “Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering”.

Section two contains the reading assignment and content of the eleven basic lectures for the course.

The objectives are to introduce the concept of value engineering and demonstrate its application and techniques.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=NDFbDwAAQBAJ


Value Engineering: Theory and Practice in Industry
Thomas R. King
Miles Value Foundation - Value analysis (Cost control) - 195 pages


This book, along with an instructor's guide (available at www.valuefoundation.org) was developed to support a 3-credit hour university course on Value Engineering principles.

The objective of the course is to introduce the concept of value engineering and demonstrate its techniques and application. The course of study provides practical knowledge in specialized techniques that comprise the value engineering methodology and the manner in which they are applied through a systematic job plan approach.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=ZDFbDwAAQBAJ


Lawrence D. Miles Foundation - Value Education Resources
https://www.valuefoundation.org/Educate-Ed-Resources.htm

Celestine Aguwa Ph.D.
Value Engineering Faculty, Wayne State University
https://engineering.wayne.edu/profile/bd4891


Developing a Standard Approach to the Value Engineering Process for the Civil Engineering Industry: a Theoretical, Case Study and Industry Perspective.
Charles Anthony Mitchell, Dublin Institute of Technology
2013
https://arrow.dit.ie/beschreccon/39/


July 2017

Value Engineering is not just an engineering initiative - Total Value Engineering
__________________

__________________

Your Career as Cost and Value Engineer at Siemens
__________________

__________________
by Siemens

June 2017
Holokit For Low-Cost Mixed Reality
Amber Garage introduce the Holokit - a low cost solution for Mixed Reality.
Jun 4, 2017
https://www.vrfocus.com/2017/06/holokit-for-low-cost-mixed-reality/


April 2017

2016 SAVE  Value Summit Keynote - Christine Furstoss - General Electric

__________________


__________________
Save International

March 2017

Value-Engineering Boosts Returns for Utility-Scale Solar Projects
https://www.terrasmart.com/value-engineering-boosts-returns-utility-scale-solar-projects/


Value Engineering and the Price of Steel
http://www.jcmetalworks.co.uk/value-engineering-and-the-price-of-steel.html

Value Engineering in Fire Design – Protecting Lives and Saving Costs
http://www.fdsconsult.com/value-engineering-fire-design-protecting-lives-saving-costs/




2016

December 2016

Value engineering services  play a central role in Hittech’s relationship with the customer
https://www.bits-chips.nl/artikel/value-engineering-plays-a-central-role-in-hittechs-relationship-with-the-customer-48615.html

Value engineering of solar power system
http://bci-engineering.com/case-study/value-engineering-for-solar/

"Tata Steel has been conferred with Vasant Rao Trophy by Indian Value Engineering Society (INVEST) for excellence in Systematic Application of Value Engineering at Engineering & Projects
http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/business/companies/tata-steel-bags-3-awardsvalue-engineering-919669.html

New plastic material developed to aid value engineering
http://www.protechplastics.net/clients/case-study-value-engineering/


Department of Defense Value Engineering Achievement Awards program - 2016
AMCOM engineers completed 119 projects claiming a record $304 million in savings and cost avoidance for local organizations
https://www.army.mil/article/179767/amcom_commander_recognizes_employees_who_excel_with_value_engineering

October 2014
Value Engineering of Bicycle
Imported bicycle from a low cost source - China costs $1,200.
A new design to cost only $250 in Netherlands
http://www.fastcodesign.com/3037472/wanted/can-a-bike-be-both-cheap-and-beautiful


2012
Value Engineering Synergies with Lean Six Sigma: Combining Methodologies for Enhanced Results
Jay Mandelbaum, Anthony Hermes, Donald Parker, Heather Williams
CRC Press, 11-May-2012 - Business & Economics - 212 pages
Lean Six Sigma (LSS), Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), and Value Engineering (VE) have a proven track record of success for solving problems and improving efficiency. Depending on the situation, integrating these approaches can provide results that exceed the benefits of each individual approach. Value Engineering Synergies with Lean Six Sigma: Combining Methodologies for Enhanced Results describes how to integrate these dynamic tools to achieve unprecedented improvements and break down the organizational stovepipes that can occur when different offices are assigned responsibility for different problem-solving methods.

The book identifies opportunities where readers can integrate these approaches to go beyond what is currently possible with the individual approaches. Explaining the VE methodology, it supplies a high-level discussion of LSS and DFSS. Next, it compares VE with LSS and identifies the different opportunities for synergies that can provide your organization with a competitive edge.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Jbs722QOTnQC

June 2012
Value Engineering case studies - Chougule and Kallurkar
http://www.ijest.info/docs/IJEST12-04-05-157.pdf
May 2012
Case studies of knob, Hand wheel, bearing assembly, dial bracket, recorder gear used in universal testing machine


May 2012

VE prize entry - Columbia river crossing value engineering study
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/02B6F365-34E4-4477-8AF0-F8A2A7CC1C43/0/CRC.pdf

Series Rating Circuit Breakers in Panel Boards - Value Engineering Opportunity
http://www.geindustrial.com/publibrary/checkout/Series-Rating?TNR=White%20Papers|Series-Rating|generic
White paper from GE

Magnesium has value engineering applications where weight reduction is the objective
http://www.dynacast.com/uploadedFiles/Docs/55274%20DYN%20Magnesium.pdf

Alaska Class Ferry - Preliminary Value Analysis Study
http://www.dot.state.ak.us/amhs/alaska_class/documents/acf_prelim_ve_study.pdf

VE Study for Closing Waste Packages for containing TAD Canisters
http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublications/Documents/3395034.pdf

Using Lean Ideas in VE projects
Surface Water Study
http://www.icwp.org/2012/gages/SurfaceWaterValueEngrReportMay2010.pdf


January 2012

S Stock Value Engineering - Presentation - London Underground Railway
http://www.imeche.org/Libraries/Knowledge/Rolling_stock_lecture_slides.sflb.ashx


2009
Value engineering proposal for a fuel additive
http://greenmyfleet.com/reduce-consumption/fuelefficencyadditives/178-usap-value-engineering-change-proposal.html

Updated 2019 - 22 April
2018 - 24 July,  23 June

 24 July 2017, 13 June 2017,  5 June 2017,  28 June 2015