Book: Productivity Through Process Analysis by Jinichi Ishiwata
Four basic principles for process improvements
1. Eliminate processes whenever possible.
2. Simplify them. (Operations analysis)
3. Combine them
4. Change the sequence
1. Eliminate - Can this be eliminated? What will happen if we eliminate it?
2. Simplify - Can this made simpler? - the task of operations analysis
3. Combine - Can two or more processes be consolidated into one?
4. Change sequence - Can this operation be switched with another one?
Big three problems in process: waste, irrationality, and inconsistency
5W1 Analysis for Product Process Analysis
Operation - Why - Who is doing it - Which machine - where - when - How
Can the layout be changed to reduce the transportation?
Can number of inspections be reduced?
Are any inspections unnecessary?
Can necessary inspections be done while the product is being processed?
Can number of delays be reduced?
Book: Motion and Time Study - Improving Productivity by Marvin E. Mundel
Checklist for Process Chart - Product Analysis
1. Reduce number of steps.
2. Arrange steps in best order.
3. Make steps as economical as possible (operation analysis).
4. Reduce handling.
5. Combine steps if economical.
6. Shorten moves.
7. Provide most economical means for moving (operation analysis)
8. Cut in-process inventory to workable minimum
9. Use minimum number of control points at most advantageous places
1. Can any step be elimitated?
a. as unnecessary. (Ask: Why is it done?)
b. By new equipment (Ask: Why is present equipment used?)
c. By changing tyhe place where it is done or kept. (Ask: Why is it done there?)
d. By changing the order of work. (Ask: Why is it done in its present order?)
e. By changing the product design. (Ask: Why is it made as it is?)
f. By changing the specifications of the incoming supply. (Ask: Why is it ordered in its present form or used at all)
2. Can any step be combined with another?
a. By changing the specifications of supplies, or of any raw material?
b. By changing the design of the product, even if only the tolerances?
c. By changing the order of the steps of production, or doing inspection at any operation station so as to avoid an inventory of faulty product?
d. By changing the equipment used (e.g., using a multifunction machine, or creating a multimachine work cell served by a single person or by a robot)/
e. By redesigning one or more work places?
3. Can steps be rearranged so as to make any shorter or easier?
4. Can any step be made easier?
Book: Motion and Time Study: Design and Measurement of Work by Ralph M. Barnes
Following approaches should be considered in developing preferred work method
A. Eliminate all unnecessary work.
B. Combine operations or elements.
C. Change the sequence of operations
D. Simplify the necessary operations