Monday, July 31, 2017

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan with Links

Revision of Process Industrial Engineering - Methods, Techniques and Tools

In this month's revision plan the focus is on production process improvement which also includes many engineering processes related to production and maintenance of engineering goods and services.

Management of processes are also analyzed and redesigned by industrial engineers. If management processes, activities and policies are responsible for poor productivity, industrial engineers have to propose changes in management methods, practices and tools to improve productivity. This aspect of industrial engineering is discussed under the area - productivity management.

Process Industrial Engineering - Process Efficiency/Productivity Improvement - Process Cost Reduction

First Week

Process Industrial Engineering

Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction

Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering

Operation Analysis Sheet

    Using the Operation Analysis Sheet
    Analysis of Purpose of Operation

    Analysis of All Operations of a Process as a Step of Each Operation Analysis
    Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Standards

    Analysis of Material in Operation Analysis
    Tool Related Operation Analysis

Second Week

    Material Handling Analysis in Operations
    Operation Analysis of Setups

    Operation Analysis - Man and Machine Activity Charts
    Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis

    Operation Analysis - Analysis of Working Conditions and Method
    Operation Analysis - Common Possibilities for Operation Improvement

    Operation Analysis - Check List
    Method Study

   Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering
   Method Study - Information Collection and Recording - Chapter Contents

Third Week

Process Analysis - Questions/Check List

Installing Proposed Methods

Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Plant Layout Analysis

Flow Process Charts - Reinterpretation of Its Purpose and Utility
Industrial Engineering of Flow Production Lines - Thought Before Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo


Fourth Week

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System

Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo

Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo
Seven Waste Model and Its Extensions

Industrial Engineering of Maintenance Processes
Manufacturing System Losses Idenfied in TPM Literature

Industrial Engineering of Inspection Processes
Industrial Engineering of Material Handling Processes

Zero Defect Movement and Six Sigma Method
Process Cost Analysis - Cost Center Statement Analysis

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Updated  30 July 2017,  28 July 2016, 19 April 2015, 17 July 2014


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Modified Excerpts from the paper

Little by little, as the engineering student goes forward in education and practice,  he begins to see that the possession of certain powers enables him to conquer hesitant men and recalcitrant machines,
and also problems which involve both men and machines simultaneously. And the powers which enable him to do these things are science and engineering (convertising science into useful devices and processes). His thinking helps him in this.

I assume that no course in the industrial engineering steam would be begun before the end of the Sophomore year in college. The man who reaches the Junior year of college or technical school
must have had some training in science and mathematics or he would not be eligible to enter the industrial engineering course. He must have acquired some common-sense and scientific attitude
on his way, and the knowledge of science and common-sense so gained should be sufficient to enable him to recognize that in electing scientific management he is deliberately electing to follow a long and arduous road. The problem before us, then, when we discuss the work of men electing industrial engineering courses, is taking men with some common-sense and some knowledge of science and raising what they have to the highest possible power.

How, then, can the industrial engineer become a scientist, attain the scientific attitude of mind ?

By welding the scientific work of the classroom with the shop-work of the factory; by making the laboratory hours, hours that are spent with wage-earners striving for their daily wage. Laboratory and classroom hours alike must be filled with reality rather than with pure theory or with theory quite unrelated to the practical world.

The student must first of all, get in touch with the shop. And I insist that he can do that nowhere save in actual operating shops among men who are working for their daily wage. No shop practice in the school will produce a like result. Shop-sense is one of the most valuable possessions of the industrial
engineer. That sense comes only through actual shop practice. Once possessed it means that the man has thereafter the freedom of the shop.

To attain the desirable ends of knowledge of science and posses-sion of common-sense I propose that any course in the science of management shall consist of classroom work as outlined below and
of laboratory work carried on in actual operating shops. That means that manufacturers who are broad-minded enough to be willing to assist the college, and instructors broad-minded enough
to recognize the limitations of industry must co-operate in giving the laboratory instruction in shop practice to the students. I believe both groups of men exist and I feel that through their combined efforts the student should have an opportunity to spend the summers of his Sophomore and Junior years in actual shop practice, while three afternoons a week during the scholastic year should see him working in the shop.

What underlying thought must be before the men who make the courses ?

The industrial engineer is dealing in all cases with both men and machines. He must study "man" in his relation to his industrial environ-ment — not any single class of men, but all the men engaged in
industry. He must study "machines," not alone in their relation to their product, but also in relation to the human beings who operate them. It is his task to bring the best that modern science has to the aid and well-being of man.

It is in the development of his pupil's studies of men that the wise teacher of scientific management will work most steadfastly in correlating the allied courses, mentioned later, in psychology
and physiology, in economics and sociology, with the courses in the science of management, and with the work of living men and whir-ring machines.

The industrial engineer must recognize the presence of many factors in a problem. He must solve equations of not only two unknown quantities, but of a dozen unknown quantities, so to speak. And
the correlation of his courses in class with each other and with life will do much in the way of enabling him to do so.

When should the work begin, and how much of the student's time should it occupy ?

Direct work in industrial engineering and scientific management should begin either at the
end of two years or of four years in college. The direct and allied special classroom courses should occupy one full year of collegiate training, divided between two years' work, making a half-year's
work in scientific management during both the Junior and Senior years. The shopwork should occupy two summer vacations and three afternoons a week during each of the two years.

What courses should be offered ?

A dominant course in the science of management running through two years, allied with courses in economics, sociology, psychology, physiology, hygiene and sanitation, theory and practice
of accounting. All these should be in addition to the student's more direct work in science, mathematics, engineering, English, and foreign languages, which occupy the time of three out of the four collegiate years — if the courses are made undergraduate ones.

What should be the content of the scientific management courses given during the four half-years that comprise the Junior and Senior years of most colleges and technical schools ?

The first half-year should be devoted to a general view of four picked industries — in order that the student may see industry more or less as a whole — and to the study of the principles of
scientific management. The laboratory work for this course should consist of the broad outlined study of four plants from the time of the receipt of the first inquiry from the prospective customer to the final entry of the payment for the bill and the calculation of the cost. The classroom work for this course should be devoted to a thorough grounding in the basic principles of organization,
and to study of the principles of scientific management.

It is most essential that the student should obtain at the very start a clear realization of the difference between system and science. It is most essential also that he should come to understand that,
while certain problems solved for one industry may be solved for all industry, such general solutions cannot be presumed upon. He should know that every new business will contain new problems,
which must be solved by the use of all the knowledge of the past plus all the imaginative genius he can hope to possess. That is to say, the student must learn that a mechanism used successfully
in one place cannot be bodily transported to another with hope of instant success. By the end of the first half-year each individual taking the course should have come to realize that he is studying
the principles of a science which are applicable to every case, not memorizing a set of rules or inheriting a stock of recipes. The study of four actual operating plants will aid him greatly in this

The second half-year should be devoted in the classroom to a detailed study of the planning-room and the processes involved in getting work into the shop, of stores, routing, specifications, etc. —
planning in general, in a word. The laboratory work should consist of actual planning-room experience in the shop.

It is entirely true that there is a question as to whether planning-room experience should follow or precede shop training. It may, therefore, be a question whether planning should be put in this
course. It is my own belief that the student will master his shop theory better the third half-year from the fact that he has discovered the basic reasons of the work in the planning-room. It should be
noted, moreover, in this connection that I have assumed that the student has had a summer's experience in actual shop practice as a prerequisite of the course, and that he has had a half year of
general preliminary study.

The third half-year should be devoted to a detailed study of work in the shop (especially of the teaching work of the functional foreman), of inspection, and of task work. All of this except the
study of task work should be done in actual plants. The task work should be done on fellow-students in the shops of the school. No untrained man should ever be put on actual task-setting.

The third half-year offers a great opportunity to impress upon the student the importance of the teaching function of his work. The whole theory of functional foremanship is a theory of educa-
tion and a great part of the time of an industrial engineer must be spent in teaching the men with whom he is working. Adequate powers of expression are by no means common among our recent
graduates. The teacher of scientific management can never forget that the work of his pupils must show in the life-work of the men with whom they are dealing. The bridge-builder leaves a physical
monument largely untouched by the later thought of men. The industrial builder must educate in such a way that his work will go progressively forward in the minds of men. That is true education,
and education is true only when it obtains adequate expression.

The fourth half-year should be devoted to studies in bringing all the best that science offers to the aid of industry — to work in costs, to work in the determining of policies by studies of sales,
purchasing, and the like, and to the co-ordination of the work of the three half-years already outlined.

The course of the fourth half-year should be broad enough to give the student some concept that great movements of trade exist and that they are factors which he must meet and use. The world
is fairly well provided with men who can look after a few details.

It is very poorly provided with men who can care for great constructive work. One of the greatest industrial leaders of our time said to me the other day: "The greater the affairs of a corporation, the
smaller the number of men who can deal with them. It seems to be a true inverse proportion. There are ten men who can think in a hundred thousand dollars, to one who can think in a million,
and ten who can think in a million to one who can think in ten millions."

I should hardly expect any course to give an undergraduate a great grasp of comprehensive plans. There is, however, no reason why we should hitch our wagon to the lowest of the stars when we
can find higher ones within our reach.

In the foregoing resume of a course in the science of management I have made no reference to many subjects I should have been glad to consider, to reports and theses, to methods and policies. Considerations of brevity forbade. I must turn again to my catechism and end with three brief questions and three brief answers.

What should the allied courses teach ?

The relation of man to industry and to his general environment.

What should the college courses in English teach ?

The power of expression.

What should the work in scientific management teach ?

That scientific management is a change of mental attitude (mental attitude, now, as always, the most powerful force among men) which makes employer and employee pull together instead of apart, which brings all that is best in science to the aid of every man in industry, and which, by its substitution of exact knowledge for the chaos of guess work and ignorance, makes progressively for
justice and for the coming of the "new industrial day."

Hollis Godfrey

West Medford, Mass.

I am happy I covered some these issues in my principles of industrial engineering.
Principles of Industrial Engineering

Video Presentation









JUNE 26-29, 1912



INTRODUCTION. " Frank. B. Gilbreth



32 32 37









Walter Rautenstrauch


H. F. J. Porter 94


L. J. Johnson 108

F. P.McKibben

112 118



129 133 139 145





161 182



OF COLLEGES. " S. E. Whitaker

205 217


updated  18 June 2017, 15 August 2015

Sunday, July 30, 2017

Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction

Machine Effort Industrial Engineering

Determination of optimum cutting parameters - Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut - Development of scientific machine work

Taylor described his project of improving a machine shop productivity and below is the work he had done on machines first.

By means of four quite elaborate slide-rules, which have been especially made for the purpose of determining the all-round capacity of metal-cutting machines, a careful analysis was made of every element of this machine in its relation to the work in hand. Its Pulling power at its various speeds, its feeding capacity, and its proper speeds were determined by means of the slide-rules, and changes were then made in the countershaft and driving pulleys so as to run it at its proper speed. Tools, made of high-speed steel, and of the proper shapes, were properly dressed, treated, and ground. (It should be understood, however, that in this case the high-speed steel which had heretofore been in general use in the shop was also used in our demonstration.) 

A large special slide-rule was then made, by means of which the exact speeds and feeds were indicated at which each kind of work could be done in the shortest possible time in this particular lathe. After preparing in this way so that the workman should work according to the new method, one after another, pieces of work were finished in the lathe, corresponding to the work which had been done in our preliminary trials, and the gain in time made through running the machine according to scientific principles ranged from two and one-half times the speed in the slowest instance to nine times the speed in the highest.

The change from rule-of-thumb management to scientific management involves, however, not only a study of what is the proper speed for doing the work and a remodeling of the tools and the implements in the shop (machine effort industrial engineering), but also a complete change in the movements made by operators to operate the machine.  The physical improvements in the machines are necessary to insure large gains. They are followed by improvement in the activities performed by people in combination with machines. 

It seems important to fully explain the reason why, with the aid of a slide-rule, and after having studied the art of cutting metals, it was possible for the scientifically equipped man, who had never before seen these particular jobs, and who had never worked on this machine, to do work from two and one-half to nine times as fast as it had been done before by a good mechanic who had spent his whole time for some ten to twelve years in doing this very work upon this particular machine. 

In a word, this was possible because the art of cutting metals involves a true science of no small magnitude, a science, in fact, so intricate that it is impossible for any machinist who is suited to running a lathe year in and year out either to understand it or to work according to its laws without the help of men who have made this their specialty. Men who are unfamiliar with machine-shop work are prone to look upon the manufacture of each piece as a special problem, independent of any other kind of machine-work. They are apt to think, for instance, that the problems connected with making the parts of an engine require the especial study, one may say almost the life study, of a set of engine-making mechanics, and that these problems are entirely different from those which would be met with in machining lathe or planer parts. In fact, however, a study of those elements which are peculiar either to engine parts or to lathe parts is trifling, compared with the great study of the art, or science, of cutting metals, upon a knowledge of which rests the ability to do really fast machine-work of all kinds.

The real problem is how to remove chips fast from a casting or a forging, and how to make the piece smooth and true in the shortest time, and it matters but little whether the piece being worked upon is part, say, of a marine engine, a printing-press, or an automobile. For this reason, the man with the slide rule, familiar with the science of cutting metals, who had never before seen this particular work, was able completely to distance the skilled mechanic who had made the parts of this machine his specialty for years.

It is true that whenever intelligent and educated men find that the responsibility for making progress in any of the mechanic arts rests with them, instead of upon the workmen who are actually laboring at the trade, that they almost invariably start on the road which leads to the development of a science where, in the past, has existed mere traditional or rule-of-thumb knowledge.

When men, whose education has given them the habit of generalizing and everywhere looking for laws, find themselves confronted with a multitude of problems, such as exist in every trade and which have a general similarity one to another, it is inevitable that they should try to gather these problems into certain logical groups, and then search for some general laws or rules to guide them in their solution.

Development of Science for Machine Elements

Two Important Questions regarding Machine Tools to be Answered through Scientific Research

All of these experiments were made to enable us to answer correctly the two questions which face every machinist each time that he does a piece of work in a metal-cutting machine, such as a lathe, planer, drill press, or milling machine. These two questions are:

In order to do the work in the quickest time,

1. At what cutting speed shall I run my machine? and

2. What feed shall I use?

They sound so simple that they would appear to call for merely the trained judgment of any good mechanic. In fact, however, after working 26 years, it has been found that the answer in every case involves the solution of an intricate mathematical problem, in which the effect of twelve independent variables must be determined.

Each of the twelve following variables has an important effect upon the answer. The figures which are given with each of the variables represent the effect of this element upon the cutting speed.

For example, after the first variable (A) we quote,

"The proportion is as I in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of a very soft, low-carbon steel." The meaning of this quotation is that soft steel can be cut 100 times as fast as the hard steel or chilled iron. The ratios which are given, then, after each of these elements, indicate the wide range of judgment which practically every machinist has been called upon to exercise in the past in determining the best speed at which to run the machine and the best feed to use.

(A) The quality of the metal which is to be cut; i.e., its hardness or other qualities which affect the cutting speed. The proportion is as 1 in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of very soft, low-carbon steel.

(B) The chemical composition of the steel from which the tool is made, and the heat treatment of the tool. The proportion is as 1 in tools made from tempered carbon steel to 7 in the best high-speed tools.

(C) The thickness of the shaving, or, the thickness of the spiral strip or band of metal which is to be removed by the tool. The proportion is as 1 with thickness of shaving 3/16 of an inch to 3 1/2 with thickness of shaving 1/64 of an inch.

(D) The shape or contour of the cutting edge of the tool. The proportion is as 1 in a thread tool to 6 in a broad-nosed cutting tool.

(E) Whether a copious stream of water or other cooling medium is used on the tool. The proportion is as 1 for tool running dry to 1.41 for tool cooled by a copious stream of water.

(F) The depth of the cut. The proportion is as 1 with 1/2 inch depth of cut to 1.36 with 1/8 inch depth of cut.

(G) The duration of the cut, i.e., the time which a tool must last under pressure of the shaving without being reground. The proportion is as 1 when tool is to be ground every 1 1/2 hours to 1.20 when tool is to be
ground every 20 minutes.

(H) The lip and clearance angles of the tool. The proportion is as 1 with lip angle of 68 degrees to 1.023 with lip angle of 61 degrees.

(J) The elasticity of the work and of the tool on account of producing chatter. The proportion is as 1 with tool chattering to 1.15 with tool running smoothly.

(K) The diameter of the casting or forging which is being cut.

(L) The pressure of the chip or shaving upon the cutting surface of the

(M) The pulling power and the speed and feed changes of the machine.

It may seem preposterous to many people that it should have required a period of 26 years to investigate the effect of these twelve variables upon the cutting speed of metals. To those, however, who have had personal experience as experimenters, it will be appreciated that the great difficulty of the problem lies in the fact that it contains so many variable elements. 

And in fact the great length of time consumed in making each single experiment was caused by the difficulty of holding eleven variables constant and uniform throughout the experiment, while the effect of the twelfth variable was being investigated. Holding the eleven variables constant was far more difficult than the investigation of the twelfth element.

As, one after another, the effect upon the cutting speed of each of these variables was investigated, in order that practical use could be made of this knowledge, it was necessary to find a mathematical formula which expressed in concise form the laws which had been obtained. As examples of the twelve formulae which were developed, the three following are given:

        P = 45,000  D 14/15 F 3/4

        V = 90/T 1/8

        V = 11.9/ (F 0.665(48/3 D) 0.2373 + (2.4 / (18 + 24D))

After these laws had been investigated and the various formulae which mathematically expressed them had been determined, there still remained the difficult task of how to solve one of these complicated mathematical problems quickly enough to make this knowledge available for every-day use. If a good mathematician who had these formula before him were to attempt to get the proper answer (i.e., to get the correct cutting speed and feed by working in the ordinary way) it would take him from two to six hours, say, to solve a single problem; far longer to solve the mathematical problem than would be taken in most cases by the workmen in doing the whole job in his machine. Thus a task of considerable magnitude which faced us was that of finding a quick solution of this problem, and as we made progress in its solution, the whole problem was from time to time presented by the writer to one after another of the noted mathematicians in this country. They were offered any reasonable fee for a rapid, practical method to be used in its solution. Some of these men merely glanced at it; others, for the sake of being courteous, kept it before them for some two or three weeks. They all gave us practically the same answer: that in many cases it was possible to, solve mathematical problems which contained four variables, and in some cases problems with five or six variables, but that it was manifestly impossible to solve a problem containing twelve variables in any other way than by the slow process of "trial and error."

A quick solution was, however, so much of a necessity in our every-day work of running machine-shops, that in spite of the small encouragement  received from the mathematicians, we continued at irregular periods, through a term of fifteen years, to give a large amount of time searching for a simple solution. Four or five men at various periods gave practically their whole time to this work, and finally, while we were at the Bethlehem Steel Company, the slide-rule was developed which is illustrated on Folder No. 11 of the paper "On the Art of Cutting Metals," and is described in detail in the paper presented by Mr. Carl G. Barth to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, entitled "Slide-rules for the Machine-shop, as a part of the Taylor System of Management" (Vol. XXV of The Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers). By means of this slide-rule, one of these intricate problems can be solved in less than a half minute by any good mechanics whether he understands anything about mathematics or not, thus making available for every-day, practical use the years of experimenting on the art of cutting metals. This is a good illustration of the fact that some way can always be found of making practical, everyday use of complicated scientific data, which appears to be beyond the experience and the range of the technical training of ordinary practical men. These slide-rules have been for years in constant daily use by machinists having no knowledge of mathematics.

A glance at the intricate mathematical formula which represent the laws of cutting metals should clearly show the reason why it is impossible for any machinist, without the aid of these laws, and who depends upon his personal experience, correctly to guess at the answer to the two questions,

    What speed shall I use?

    What feed shall I use?

even though he may repeat the same piece of work many times.

To return to the case of the machinist who had been working for ten to twelve years in machining the same pieces over and over again, there was but a remote chance in any of the various kinds of work which this man did that he should hit upon the one best method of doing each piece of work out of the hundreds of possible methods which lay before him. In considering this typical case, it must also be remembered that the metal-cutting machines throughout our machine-shops have practically all been speeded by their makers by guesswork, and without the knowledge obtained through a study of the art of cutting metals. In the machine-shops systematized by us we have found that there is not one machine in a hundred which is speeded by its makers at anywhere near the correct cutting speed. So that, in order to compete with the science of cutting metals, the machinist, before he could use proper speeds, would first have to put new pulleys on the countershaft of his machine, and also make in most cases changes in the shapes and treatment of his tools, etc. Many of these changes are matters entirely beyond his control, even if he knows what ought to be done.

If the reason is clear to the reader why the rule-of-thumb knowledge obtained by the machinist who is engaged on repeat work cannot possibly compete with the true science of cutting metals, it should be even more apparent why the high-class mechanic, who is called upon to do a great variety of work from day to day, is even less able to compete with this science. The high-class mechanic who does a different kind of work each day, in order to do each job in the quickest time, would need, in addition to a thorough knowledge of the art of cutting metals, a vast knowledge and experience in the quickest way of doing each kind of hand workAnd the reader, by calling to mind the gain which was made by Mr. Gilbreth through his motion and time study in laying bricks, will appreciate the great possibilities for quicker methods of doing all kinds of hand work which lie before every tradesman after he has the help which comes from a scientific motion and time study of his work.

For nearly thirty years past, time-study men connected with the management of machine-shops have been devoting their whole time to a scientific motion study, followed by accurate time study, with a stop-watch, of all of the elements connected with the machinist's work. When, therefore, the teachers, who form one section of the management, and who are cooperating with the working men, are in possession both of the science of cutting metals and of the equally elaborate motion-study and time-study science connected with this work, it is not difficult to appreciate why even the highest class mechanic is unable to do his best work without constant daily assistance from his teachers. And if this fact has been made clear to the reader, one of the important objects in writing this paper will have been realized.

It is hoped that the illustrations which have been given make it apparent why scientific management must inevitably in all cases produce overwhelmingly greater results, both for the company and its employees, than can be obtained with the management of "initiative and incentive." And it should also be clear that these results have been attained, not through a marked superiority in the mechanism of one type of management over the mechanism of another, but rather through the substitution of one set of underlying principles for a totally different set of principles, by the substitution of one philosophy for another philosophy in industrial management.

Many researchers follow the path initiated by Taylor to develop cutting speed optimization and cutting time reduction to develop better methods for various machine tools. Industrial engineers have to go through those papers and use proper cutting parameters and reduce the cutting time. Similar work needs to be carried on various other machine so that that work time is reduced to produce unit output, thereby increasing the productivity of machines.

Saturday, July 29, 2017

Friday, July 28, 2017

Process Industrial Engineering

Process Improvement - Gilbreths' View

Frank Gilbreth developed process analysis and improvement also along with motion study. In 1921, he presented a paper in ASME, on process charts. Lilian Gilbreth was a coauthor of this paper.

At the end of the paper, the conclusion made is as follows:

The procedure for making, examining and improving a process is, therefore, preferably as follows:

a.  Examine process and record with rough notes and stereoscopic diapositives the existing process in detail.

b. Have draftsman copy rough notes in form for blueprinting, photographic projection and exhibition to executives and others.

c. Show the diapositives with stereoscope and lantern slides of process charts in executives' theater to executives and workers.

d. Improve present methods by the use of —
1 Suggestion system
2 Written description of new methods or 'write-ups," "manuals," ''codes," ''written systems," as they are variously called
3 Standards
4 Standing orders
5 Motion study
6 Micromotion studies and chronocyclegraphs for obtaining and recording the One Best Way to do Work.

e. Make process chart of the process as finally adopted as a base for still further and cumulative improvement.

We see in the method described above the method study steps of record, and examine. The practice of involving the workers in analyzing the process chart which was later popularized by Alan Mogensen is also present in the method suggested by Gilbreth to improve a process.  Motion study as a later step in the process analysis method, which was emphasized by H.B. Maynard as part of the operation analysis proposed by him is also visible in the procedure described by Gilbreths.

H.B. Maynard proposed "Operation Analysis" for process improvement.

So, we can see the methods engineering and methods study which became popular subsequently were futher development of Gilbreth's process improvement procedure only.

Process Engineering

Process engineering focuses on the design, operation, control, optimization and Intensification of chemical, physical, and biological processes. Process engineering encompasses a vast range of industries, such as chemical, petrochemical, agriculture, mineral processing, advanced material, food, pharmaceutical, software development and biotechnological industries.

Process Industrial Engineering

Process engineering is an established term in engineering. Hence process industrial engineering, which represents the redesign of processes by industrial engineers to improve productivity is an appropriate term.

Methods Engineering, Operations Analysis, Method Study and Motion Study are various methods or procedures of process industrial engineering.

The process industrial engineering has to develop analysis and improvement of technical elements of a process in more detail to make industrial engineering an engineering based activity to increase productivity in engineering organizations, departments and activities.

Process industrial engineering also includes improvement of related management activities. F.W. Taylor was a pioneer in introducing many changes in management practices to improve productivity. Industrial engineering adopted the same objective. So within process industrial subject area comes the function of management process industrial engineering.

Methods efficiency engineering is the earlier proposed name. Now it is rechristened as Process Industrial Engineering. Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering are the two main components of productivity engineering which is totally dependent on the engineering knowledge of the industrial engineer.

The Function of Methods Efficiency Engineering

Methods efficiency engineering was the activity performed by F.W. Taylor and explained first in his paper "A Piece Rate System." As it evolved over the years, it became a  a logical and systematic procedure for reducing costs, increasing production without an impairment to quality.  Methods efficiency engineering may be applied with equal success to repetitive work or to jobbing work, to simple, easily understood operations or to complex, specialized jobs. It is applicable to all man machine systems, manual work or automated work.

Definition of Methods efficiency engineering.  Briefly it may be said that Methods efficiency engineering is the industrial engineering component  which is chiefly concerned with increasing the efficiency of resources used in a method.

Methods efficiency engineering is the technique that subjects each operation of a given piece of work to close analysis in order to eliminate every unnecessary operation and in order to approach the quickest and best method of performing each necessary operation; it includes the standardization of equipment, methods, and working conditions ; it trains the operator to follow the standard method; when all this has been done,  it determines by accurate measurement the number of standard hours in which an operator working with standard performance can do the job.

A methods efficiency study always begins with a careful primary analysis of existing conditions. The reason is that the existing system is taken as an effective system that is producing the required output at quality acceptable to the customers. The first factors that are considered are the number of pieces made or the yearly activity, the length of the operation, and the hourly rate of the operator or operators doing the job. This information permits the computation of the yearly cost of the job. An estimate is next made of the probable improvement that methods study can make. This in turn determines the kind and amount of methods-engineering work that can profitably be undertaken.

The method or process is recorded for the purpose of presenting the study problem clearly. Then complete information is compiled for each operation concerning such points as the purpose of the operation,tolerance requirements, material and material handling, and tools and equipment used.

As a part of methods efficiency engineering, motion study, that is study of motions of the operator is made. In motion study, each individual motion used in doing the work is considered in detail to try to shorten the motion or to eliminate it altogether.

After the new method has been devised, information and records describing the redesigned procedure must be carefully made and communicate.  If the method is available in a written form, frequent audits can be done to make sure it is being followed.

The operator or operators must next be taught to follow the new method. This may be done by verbal instructions, demonstrations at or away from the workplace, instruction sheets or operator process charts ; or by the highly successful procedure that employs motion pictures.

Explanation of the Term "Methods efficiency engineering." 

The term " Methods efficiency engineering" is of comparatively recent origin.

When trained methods efficiency engineer brings to his job an extensive knowledge of fundamental waste-eliminating practices, every body will recognize its utility in the organization.

Development of Methods efficiency engineering - History

Rate Setting History

Probably the oldest wage-payment plan to be used by man was not day work, as might be supposed, but piecework. Day work probably came into being only when one "man desired to pay another man to work for him at a variety of tasks or to retain his general services to use or not at his discretion. Servants, for example, were paid on this basis. As industry began to grow, day work was used more and more, probably because this was the easiest method of payment where a variety of work was handled. Supervision was direct in most cases, labor was plentiful, and fear of dismissal furnished the incentive to produce.

At the same time, piecework payment was used in a number of instances. The weaver who worked a loom in his own home was paid for what he produced and not for the number of hours he spent at work. In the case of piecework, some plan that encouraged a definite output by the workers was felt necessary.  Incentive plans came into existence.  He was using records of past performance and his own judgment of what a man could accomplish if he worked with an honest effort to fix piece rates.

These two factors proved to be utterly unreliable. Records of past performance told only how much was produced and gave no indication of the conditions under which the work was done or of the method used by the operator. Under the stimulus of an incentive, the operator could almost always devise a better method and, by working steadily with a good effort, could make earnings that often exceeded those of the foreman. The various problems associate with these incentive plans,  defeated the purpose of incentives which was to stimulate production.

All this time, competition was becoming increasingly keen. The need for incentives was felt most strongly, and the importance of proper rate setting caused a search for a better way of handling the matter. Thus the position of rate setter was established. The new setup gave somewhat better results, but conditions were far from satisfactory. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, therefore, the more progressive plants began to feel the need for a better, fairer, and more accurate method of handling the rate question. The problem was attacked independently in a number of plants in USA and abroad, and various solutions were offered which have contributed to a greater or lesser extent to methods-engineering practices. One attack, for example, was to attempt to equalize the inconsistencies of poor rate setting by the wage-payment plan; and this led to the development of such well-known plans as the Halsey premium plan and, later, the Rowan plan.

Taylor's Pioneering Efforts in Methods Improvement

Taylor used stop watch time study of understand the best practices of doing work at elemental level. Through the study of work and output using time study, Taylor found that some were following improper methods, many did not take full advantage of their tools and equipment, and all were subject to many interruptions. Hence, Taylor often found that a man could do two or three times as much as he had previously done in a day. Taylor carefully selected individual workman, guided, trained and made them produce the expected output under the guidance of  management or supervision specialists. As one person produced according to the expected output, he trained one more man. In this manner gradually more and more operators were trained to produce the increased output. Since those days, time study has increased the productivity of industry manyfold. It has resulted in improved conditions, standardization, reduced costs, better production control, and better satisfied labor wherever it has been properly applied, and it has been applied to nearly every class of work.

Taylor' s system was to give the workman a definite task to be accomplished in a definite time in a definite manner. The workman was told in detail how to do the job. The method was established by careful study.

Taylor's original procedure forms the basis of methods engineering. It has been improved upon by those who came after him, as is the case when any new science is developed.
Taylor stressed the importance of improving method of doing the job and he used stop watch time study for that purpose. Frank B. Gilbreth  stressed the importance of the detailed study of methods and thereby made a distinct contribution to methods efficiency engineering . As an apprentice bricklayer, he became impressed with the fact that most brick- layers had their own way of doing a job. Being very observant, he noticed further that each worker had three ways of doing the same job: one that he taught to other inexperienced workers, one that he used when working slowly, and one that he used when working at his normal speed. Gilbreth became interested in the reasons underlying this, analyzed the work of number operators and developed the technique of motion study. The Gilbreths established a laboratory and studied motions by laboratory methods. As a result, they made a number of fundamental discoveries and originated the concept of therbligs, or basic divisions of accomplishment. They were the first to recognize that there are certain definite principles which govern efficient working practices, and they developed several techniques for studying the motions used in performing operations. Of these, the motion study made with the aid of motion pictures, often called the "micromotion technique' is the best known and most used. Of the originality, soundness, and value of their contribution to methods engineering, there can be no question.

As has been pointed out, Taylor's original work forms the basis of modern Methods efficiency engineering. Paralally, the developments made by the Gilbreths were  incorporated.

Motion study was improved further.  Better designs of industrial motion-picture equipment permit the wider use of the motion picture at a greatly reduced cost. The element of time has been tied in with the concept of therbligs, or basic divisions of accomplishment, thus offering a new and valuable approach to methods study. The leveling principle permits adjusting the time data obtained from a study taken on any kind of performance over a wide range to a standard level with a high degree of accuracy, thus permitting the setting of accurate and consistent rates. Finally, time-formula derivation has been developed to a point that makes possible the quick and accurate setting of a large number of rates or time allowances with a minimum of engineering effort. This later became pre-determined motion system. MTM and MOSt are widely used predetermined motion time systems.

Methods Efficiency Engineering Procedure

Methods efficiency engineering is now  a carefully planned, systematic procedure. Standard process charts have been developed to a state of greater flexibility and have become more useful for analysis purposes.

Economic Function of Methods efficiency engineering

Under modern business conditions, one of the major problems which faces the managers of industry is that of constantly reducing costs. Markets are restricted for any product  because many individuals are economically unable to purchase the product at the current market price. Even in periods of prosperity, millions of people are able to supply themselves with only the barest necessities of life because of high prices of many items.

In any country, there are the fewest individuals in the highest group of income  and the greatest number of people are in the lowest group with some groups of people at intermediate income levels. At each level, there is a group with a certain purchasing power.

The consumers at any economic levels but the highest few have only a limited amount to spend. All kinds of products are offered to them in various enticing ways. Competition as a result is keen and ruthless. The only way an industrial unit an hope to survive under these conditions is constantly to seek to keep production costs as low as possible.

Taylor's "Shop Management" paper described methods that gave lower production cost and higher income to operators. Cost reduction methods aim at waste elimination in machine work and man work so that greater production is secured with less effort.

Methods efficiency engineering is primarily concerned with devising methods that increase production and reduce costs. Hence, it plays an important role in determining the competitive position of a plant. As competition appears to be become keener,  Methods efficiency engineering becomes increasingly important.

Methods efficiency engineering in an industrial unit can never be considered as completed. Costs that are satisfactory and competitive today become excessive in a comparatively short time because of the improved developments of other units of the industry. If the producer who is in a good competitive position today decides that his costs have reached rock bottom and that no further attempt to improve them is necessary, within a short while he is likely to find himself facing loss of his commercial standing as owner of an efficiently managed plant. Only by constantly seeking to improve can any unit safeguard its competitive position. Conditions in industry are never static, and steady progress is the only sure way to success.

Cost-reduction work is important as a factor for survival, but it  also expands the industry and the firm. There are  various economic strata of society. Assume that a certain company is manufacturing a product that, although universally desirable, is priced so high that only those individuals in group C or higher can purchase it. The market for the product is thus rather limited. If, however, properly conducted cost-reduction work permits the lowering of the selling price so that the individuals in group D can purchase the product, the market is at once greatly expanded, perhaps doubled or even tripled. Henry Ford was among the first to combine recognition of this principle with the courage to act upon it.

In actual practice, society is not divided into definite groups, but incomes range, in small steps, from next to nothing to the highest. Hence, each time the selling price of a product is reduced, even though it is as little as 1 per cent, the product is brought within the reach of more people. Therefore, it may be seen that cost reduction as a means of increasing the distribution of the product is at all times important.

Methods efficiency engineering and Shop Supervisors

The methods efficiency man is by no means the only one who takes an interest in establishing economic costs and improving methods. The foremen, the tool designers, and the other shop supervisors all realize the importance of keeping costs upon a competitive level. Very often they make worth-while improvements in manufacturing methods. The differences between the methods efficiency man and the other shop supervisors are two. In the first place, the methods man devotes all his time to methods work, whereas the other supervisors have numerous duties, which force them to consider methods work as incidental to their major activities. In the second place, the methods, man conducts his methods studies systematically and makes improvements as the result of applying a carefully developed technique. This technique is based upon a large amount of specialized knowledge which can be acquired only by special study and training. Therefore, unless a course in Methods efficiency engineering has been given to the other shop supervisors, their improvements are less certain and are due more to inspiration than to deliberate intent.

For these reasons, the major part of methods improvement is usually made by methods engineers. This is not a necessary condition, however; for the principles that they use can be learned by the other supervisors and can be applied, in part at least, during the course of their other work. Certain progressive organizations have realized this and have given methodsengineering training in more or less detail to their various key supervisors. The results, as may be expected, have been gratifying, and methods-improvement work has received a marked impetus (Maynard 1938).

It is hoped that this technique will be used by shop supervisors such as foremen, tool designers, and so on, as well as by methods engineers; for if the principles of methods efficiency work are understood throughout an organization, that organization will be in a good position to meet competition, depressions, or any other economic disturbances which may come its way.

Alan Mogensen advocated work simplification methodology. In this method, he used to conduct methods work shops based on process chart to supervisors and operators and used to improve processes with the involvement of the trainees. He was very successful in this endeavor for three decades and his method was adopted by Training Within Industry (TWI) program and then from them by Toyota Motors. Now, industrial engineering is being taught in undergraduate engineering programs to make all engineers practice industrial engineering and also to train their supervisors and operators. But in undergraduate programs, only mechanical branch and other branches are not teaching. It is important that it is taught in all engineering branches.

Adopted based on the first chapter of Maynard's Operation Analysis

Full Knol Book - Method Study: Methods Efficiency Engineering - Knol Book
Next Article - Process Analysis and Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering

August month Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan is completely focused on Process Industrial Engineering

Process Industrial Engineering - Article Index  - Presently it contains the copy of August revision plan. More articles are to be added to this index.

Updated 30 July 2017,   19 July 2017,  26 March 2017, 7 February 2017
Revision made on 23 Nov 2013
Revision made on 16 Feb 2014, 11 April 2015

Thursday, July 27, 2017

Prohibition Policy in Bihar

There is an editorial in today's Economic Times (27 July 2017)

Editorial in 27 July 2017 TheEconomic Times

BJP the gainer, as Nitish Kumar recalibrates
July 26, 2017, 11:42 PM IST ET Edit in ET Editorials | India, politics | ET

The last sentence

In all this, Kumar has demonstrated that he is one of India’s most ruthless — and flexible — politicians. We would urge Kumar to show similar flexibility and scrap, or at the very least partially reverse, his prohibition policy, which can only be enforced by using the coercive power of the state and a concomitant violation of civil liberties.

Should Nitish Kumar scrap prohibition policy as suggested by the Editor of Economic Times?

After prohibition, Bihar aims for dowry-free villages

Political analysts believe that after successfully imposing prohibition on liquor in Bihar, chief minister Nitish Kumar is now raising the bar in an attempt to emerge as a social reformer.
Updated: Jul 16, 2017
Reena Sopam, Hindustan Times, Patna

Prohibition in Bihar: Supreme Court extends deadline for liquor disposal till 31 July
29 May

Why prohibition has worked in Bihar?

D. N. Sahaya | New Delhi
April 28, 2017
The writer is ex-Governor, Chattisgarh and Tripura and former chairman, A. N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies, Patna.

Tough Implementation of Prohibition in Bihar

The Bihar model of prohibition seems to have taken off with a bang, with around 44,000 people put behind bars and over 10 lakh litres of liquor seized, during its one-year of enforcement since April 1, 2016.
1 April 2017

Somebody is unhappy that media is not writing against prohibition and its strict implementation.
Bihar’s liquor war: Prisoners of prohibition and the conspiracy of silence
By opinionbihar March 9, 2017

PM asks people of Bihar to support the prohibition policy


PM Modi praises Nitish Kumar for ‘remarkable ability’ over prohibition policy in Bihar
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Thursday praised Bihar chief minister Nitish Kumar over his controversial move to ban liquor in the state despite objections from all quarters, calling it a “courageous step”.
Jan 05, 2017
HT Correspondent
Hindustan Times, Patna

PM urged to put ban on sale of alcohol across the country.

Bihar CM, while addressing his recent anti-liquor campaigns in different states especially Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, urged the PM to put ban on sale of alcohol across the country.
A former governor of Assam and Tamil Nadu, Bhishma Narain Singh, who hails from BJP-ruled Jharkhand, supported Nitish Kumar and requested the Prime Minister Narendra Modi to announce complete ban on alcohol and tobacco across the country on the occasion of International Yoga Day on June 21.
Jun 20, 2016

The Bihar Prohibition And Excise Act, 2016

National consensus on prohibition sought
Dec 25, 2001
Chennai: Ambedkar People's Movement (APM) president and former Chennai mayor Vai Balasundaram on tuesday appealed to the centre and state governments to evolve a national consensus on implementation of prohibition in the country.

Monday, July 24, 2017

The Complete Business Process Handbook - Book Information

The Complete Business Process Handbook: Body of Knowledge from Process Modeling to BPM, Volume 1

Mark von Rosing, Henrik von Scheel, August-Wilhelm Scheer
Morgan Kaufmann, 06-Dec-2014 - Business & Economics - 776 pages

The Complete Business Process Handbook is the most comprehensive body of knowledge on business processes with revealing new research. Written as a practical guide for Executives, Practitioners, Managers and Students by the authorities that have shaped the way we think and work with process today. It stands out as a masterpiece, being part of the BPM bachelor and master degree curriculum at universities around the world, with revealing academic research and insight from the leaders in the market.

This book provides everything you need to know about the processes and frameworks, methods, and approaches to implement BPM. Through real-world examples, best practices, LEADing practices and advice from experts, readers will understand how BPM works and how to best use it to their advantage. Cases from industry leaders and innovators show how early adopters of LEADing Practices improved their businesses by using BPM technology and methodology. As the first of three volumes, this book represents the most comprehensive body of knowledge published on business process. Following closely behind, the second volume uniquely bridges theory with how BPM is applied today with the most extensive information on extended BPM. The third volume will explore award winning real-life examples of leading business process practices and how it can be replaced to your advantage.

Learn what Business Process is and how to get started
Comprehensive historical process evolution
In-depth look at the Process Anatomy, Semantics and Ontology
Find out how to link Strategy to Operation with value driven BPM
Uncover how to establish a way of Thinking, Working, Modelling and Implementation
Explore comprehensive Frameworks, Methods and Approaches
How to build BPM competencies and establish a Center of Excellence
Discover how to apply Social BPM, Sustainable and Evidence based BPM
Learn how Value & Performance Measurement and Management
Learn how to roll-out and deploy process
Explore how to enable Process Owners, Roles and Knowledge Workers
Discover how to Process and Application Modelling
Uncover Process Lifecycle, Maturity, Alignment and Continuous Improvement
Practical continuous improvement with the way of Governance
Future BPM trends that will affect business
Explore the BPM Body of Knowledge

Anderson, A.G. (1928), Industrial Engineering and Factory Management - Book Information

Book available for reading at$b33572;view=1up;seq=25

The book by Anderson was referred to in:

Frank Gilbreth and health care delivery method study driven learning
Towill, Denis RAuthor InformationView Profile. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance; Bradford22.4 (2009): 417-40

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Design for Assembly (DFA)

Design for Manufacturing

Basic DFA Guidelines

Minimise part count by incorporating multiple functions into single parts
Modularise multiple parts into single subassemblies
Assemble in open space, not in confined spaces; never bury important components
Make parts such that it is easy to identify how they should be oriented for insertion
Prefer self-locating parts
Standardise to reduce part variety
Maximise part symmetry
Design in geometric or weight polar properties if nonsymmetric
Eliminate tangly parts
Color code parts that are different but shaped similarly
Prevent nesting of parts; prefer stacked assemblies
Provide orienting features on nonsymmetries
Design the mating features for easy insertion
Provide alignment features
Insert new parts into an assembly from above
Eliminate re-orientation of both parts and assemblies
Eliminate fasteners
Place fasteners away from obstructions; design in fastener access
Deep channels should be sufficiently wide to provide access to fastening tools; eliminate channels if possible
Provide flats for uniform fastening and fastening ease
Ensure sufficient space between fasteners and other features for a fastening tool
Prefer easily handled parts

Case Studies

Motorola University Teaches Smarter, Faster Product Designs - Laptop DFA

Boothroyd and Dewhurst’s DFA Software Drives Cost Savings for Motorola's DS9208 Scanner
Presented by: Chris Foley
At the International Forum on Design For Manufacture and Assembly
June 13-15, 2011, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

Simplifying Veterinary Device Relieves Maturing Product Symptoms
DFMA guides IDEXX subassembly redesign, radically reducing parts, weight, assembly time, and cost

Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599

Videos of Boothroyd Dewhurst Inc.

DFMA Q&A - Design for Assembly

Assembly of IBM Proprinter, Design for Assembly

Boothroyd Dewhurst Inc.

Product Design Efficiency Engineering - Component of Industrial Engineering

Updated 25 July 2017,  13 August 2016, 27 June 2016

Design for Manufacturing

Design for Manufacturing

1. Estimate the Manufacturing Costs
2. Reduce the Cost of Components
3. Reduce the Cost of Assembly
4. Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production
5. Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on other Factors

Designing Products for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA)

Product design has to ensure that manufacturing and assembly feasibility and cost are appropriately considered in the design process.

Reducing the number of parts is an important concern of DFMA. For this purpose for each separate part, the following questions are to be answered by the designer.

1. Does the part move relative to all other parts?
2. Must the part be made of different material?
3. Must the part be separate from all other parts to allow the disassembly of the product for adjustment or maintenance?

DFM Guideline
A1) Understand manufacturing problems/issues of current/past products
A3) Eliminate overconstraints to minimize tolerance demands.

P1) Adhere to specific process design guidelines.
P2) Avoid right/left hand parts.
P3) Design parts with symmetry.
P4) If part symmetry is not possible, make parts very asymmetrical.
P5) Design for fixturing.
P6) Minimize tooling complexity by concurrently designing tooling.
P8) Specify optimal tolerances for a Robust Design.
P9) Specify quality parts from reliable sources.
P10) Minimize Setups.
P11) Minimize Cutting Tools.
P12) Understand tolerance step functions and specify tolerances wisely.

Technologies to reduce production costs

Sep 11, 2005 Leslie Gordon

Software that optimizes product design

Companies can slash costs by improving the design process at its beginning. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) software includes a design-for-manufacture module, with which engineers obtain early cost estimates on parts or products, and a design-for-assembly module, which they employ to determine the best methods to manufacture products.

Engineers use the software where a design idea might still be scribbled on a napkin. Or, they use it to re-examine fully finished products to ensure design efficiency. For example, engineers take a part's geometry and determine whether the part should be made from a casting, or be machined, or injection-molded. During this process, the software draws from its large database, containing thousands of manufacturing processes, materials, and machinery, which was developed over many years in conjunction with companies such as GM and Ford.

Engineers also evaluate each assembly's function and the relationship between parts. They simplify and streamline designs repeatedly until achieving a minimum per/piece cost. For example, in one application, engineers slashed labor time by streamlining a product design to eliminate assembly screws.

Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production - David M. Anderson - Book Information

Recent Linkedin Article
26 July 2016
What is Design for Manufacturing or Design for Assembly





Updated 25 July 2017,  13 July 2017,  30 July 2016,  27 June 2016

Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

Industrial engineers have to take every idea that can give cost reduction, evaluate it for technical and economic feasibility and develop it for practical implementation in their product design and  manufacturing activities.
This activity of industrial engineering can be termed technology efficiency engineering.
Value engineering is a technique focusing on product designs.
Methods efficiency engineering, especially operation analysis explained by H.B. Maynard is an IE technique with focus on manufacturing processes

A Compendium of Information on Selected Low-cost Building Materials
UN-HABITAT, 1988 - Building materials - 106 pages


July 2017

Thin, low-cost material acts as air conditioner for structures
The new material could provide an eco-friendly means of supplementary cooling for thermoelectric power plants,
July 4, 2017
Jun 2017
TURKU, Finland, June 13, 2017
Researchers at the University of Turku in Finland have developed a low-cost synthetic material that emits luminescence closer to sunlight than that of the currently used lanthanides.

November 2014

24 November 2014

General Motors developed a low cost aluminum welding process

New Clean, Low Cost Aluminum Production Technology from Infinium

Key advantages of the technology: 1) virtually eliminating CO2 emissions, which currently create 7-10 lb CO2 for every lb of aluminum produced, 2) enabling 3x-5x higher production output per footprint, and 3) reducing the cost by halving the energy required and eliminating the need for consumable graphite anodes.

ARPA-E declared the technology as winner of its Light Metals Systems program on September 19, 2013 for the Aluminum category.  The objective of ARPA-E's METALS program is to find cost-effective and energy-efficient manufacturing techniques to process and recycle metals domestically.

For aluminum, Infinium says, it can reduce processing costs by 30 to 50 percent. Making these metals much cheaper could, for one thing, transform car-making. The process will be commercially available in 2016

Low Cost Stainless Steel for Corrosion Resistance - AK Steel 400

Typical applications include heat exchangers, display racks, gas range burner rings, office furniture and other uses where corrosion resistance at minimum cost is important.
AK Steel Corporation, West Chester, OH 45069

September 2014

Mini 3D Printer Offers Multiple Materials at Low Cost

Among consumer 3D printers, the upcoming Lulzbot Mini will be slightly more expensive than its competitors (it aims to retail for about $1400), but it promises to print in a range of materials. In addition to the ABS plastic and PLA plastic that are most common consumer 3D printing materials, the Lulzbot Mini will also be able to print in nylon, heavy plastics and polycarbonates. The Lulzbot Mini is still in development, but at Maker Faire 2014 in Queens, New York a prototype of the upcoming printer, nicknamed "Begonia." was displayed. The final Lulzbot Mini is scheduled to go on sale later this year.,news-19593.html

20 August 2014
eMemory Provides Tailor-Made MTP Solutions in Low-Cost Green Process Platforms,

Hsinchu, Taiwan -- Aug. 20, 2014 – eMemory is  an embedded non-volatile memory (eNVM) industry leader,  For bulk consumer micro-controller unit (MCU) applications, it focuses on low-cost, low power consumption and high flexibility for circuit designs, eMemory applies its technical advantages to eliminate redundant cells and assists foundry partners to simplify manufacturing processes and design tailor-made green process platforms.

eMemory, by removing redundant on-chip cells,  is able to help customers to simply process and reduce mask layers from 27, as typically required, down to less than 15 mask layers  creating a 30% or greater cost savings.

18 August 2014

Cheaper Solar Cells Using Recycled Lead from Car Batteries

In recent years, researchers have worked on solar cells that use a compound called perovskite. The cells have quickly achieved over 19 percent efficiency in converting sunlight to usable electricity,
A study, published in Energy and Environmental Science, shows that these solar cells can be built  using recycled lead. The solar cells only need thin sheets of perovskite (about half a micrometer thick), and the lead from just one car battery could make enough solar panels to power 30 households.

These cell are. definitely cheaper,  study co-author and W.M. Keck Professor of Energy at MIT Angela Belcher said. “And the efficiencies right now are at almost 20 percent, which is competing with the 20 to 25 percent in silicon.” This increase from single-digit efficiency has only taken a couple of years, she said, while silicon took a decade to reach its peak efficiency.

23 June 2014
Eliminating Use of Rare Metals for Cracking of Ammonia to produce Hydrogen for Cars

Researchers at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK are proposing a new type of process that is an alternative to the use of rare or transition metal catalysts for the cracking of ammonia (NH3) to produce hydrogen. A paper on the process appears in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The new process decomposes ammonia using the concurrent stoichiometric decomposition and regeneration of sodium amide (NaNH2) via sodium metal (Na).

May 2014

LTGS Brick, low cost construction material
Compared to a traditional brick fired at 1000°C in a kiln, the LTGS brick needs about eight times less energy for an equivalent strength.

April 2014
Houses costing less than $5,000 in China - 3D Printing
A Chinese company has demonstrated the capabilities of its giant 3D printer by rapidly constructing 10 houses in less than 24 hours. Built from predominantly recycled materials, these homes cost less than US$5,000 and could be rolled out en masse to ease housing crises in developing countries.

Low Cost Process to Produce MEG from Carbon Dioxide

A new process to convert carbon dioxide to chemicals has been unveiled by New Jersey-based Liquid Light Corp, a startup co-founded by Princeton University chemistry professor, Andrew Bocarsly, and a former graduate student, Emily Cole.

Its initial focus has been on ethylene glycol (MEG) which has a $27 billion market.
Whereas other processes to manufacture MEG require $617 to $1,113 of feedstocks derived from natural gas, oil or corn, Liquid Light says its process requires $125 or less of CO2 to make a ton of MEG  that will sell for $700 to $1,400 per ton.


12-year-old builds low-cost Lego braille printer

Shubham Banerjee, a California seventh grader, developed for a science fair project, $350 braille printers. The commercial ones can cost upwards of $2,000.
The better way he came up with involved the clever use of a $350 Lego Mindstorms EV3 kit along with a few bucks worth of hardware from Home Depot. He calls his creation the Braigo.
The Braigo Facebook page is constantly updated with details of the project.

Solar Power at 11 cents per kWh

Target  6 cents per kWh
Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced that the SunShot Initiative program is already 60 percent of the way toward its goal of bringing the average price for a utility-scale solar power plant down to the target price of six cents per kilowatt-hour.
It means it is now available at 11 cents by the end of 2013. That’s now less than the average price of electricity in the U.S., which is about 12 cents per kWh, according to the Energy Information Administration.

Blood Sugar Test at Rs. 2 Cost in India

A low cost testing device which promises to be a boon for diabetic patients by detecting their sugar level in less than a minute with much lesser amount of blood will be available in the next six to 12 months.
Indian Council for Medical-supported research in IIT, Mumbai, and Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, had developed two devices and testing strips for the estimation of blood glucose.
Testing blood sugar levels from this device will take just about a minute and may cost less than Rs 2 and require 1,000 times less blood than what glucose meters currently use.

Microsoft said to cut Windows price 70% to push low-cost devices
Manufacturers will be charged $15 to license Windows 8.1 and preinstall it on devices that retail for less than $250, instead of the usual fee of $50

HyperSolar makes further progress in Low Cost Solar Powered Hydrogen Production
Its artificial photosynthesis technology is now capable of producing 1.2 volt open circuit voltage for use in direct solar hydrogen production.
The theoretical voltage for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen is 1.23 volts, and approximately 1.5 volts in real-world systems. 

Texas Instruments CC2500
Low-Cost Low-Power 2.4 GHz RF Transceiver

Nvidia launches low-cost, low-power Maxwell GPU
Nvidia has unveiled its new Maxwell GPU architecture, promising high-performance and Full HD gaming at a reasonable cost and with low power consumption.

Low-Cost, Acid/Alkaline-Resistant, and Fluorine-Free Superhydrophobic Fabric Coating from Onionlike Carbon Microspheres Converted from Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate

Carrier iQ brings low-cost Big Data analytics to telecommunications market
Carrier iQ, a pioneer in mobile intelligence, today announced the worldwide availability of iQ xPlore SmartStart. iQ xPlore SmartStart provides mobile network operators (MNOs) with a no-hassle path to understanding the customers' experience using device-sourced big data analytics.

Stratasys Introduces 3D Printer to Provide Low Cost Entry to Advanced Digital Dentistry
the Objet Eden260V Dental Advantage 3D Printer produces surgical guides and dental models in-house directly from intraoral scanner output.

A Low Cost Cardiovascular Diagnostic Instrument For Rural Healthcare

A Low-Cost, 3D Wireless Sensor Network Testbed

The Windfreak SynthNV is a 34.4MHz to 4.4GHz software tunable RF signal generator controlled and powered by a PC running Windows XP, Windows 7, or Android via its USB port. It includes an on board RF power detector which can be used with the sweep function as a basic RF network analyzer.

Low-Cost Earth-Imaging Micro-Satellites

Low-Cost Robots from Indian Manufacturers for use by  Indian SMEs

5 Feb 2014
SUST students invent low-cost method to purify seawater
Two students of Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST) have invented a method to purify seawater using local technology.

Citroen C4 Cactus Ushers In A New Kind Of Low Cost Car

Karton Group Brings Low-Cost Cardboard Furniture to the Masses


A simple, low-cost CVD route to thin films of BiFeO3 for efficient water photo-oxidation!divAbstract

Moss Bay EDA, Intercept unleash low-cost EMC sol'n
ntercept Technology has joined forces with Moss Bay EDA to release what they say is a low cost electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) solution.

Shark Bot India's cheapest 3D printer to be launched by  Kunhar Peripherals.

Digigram Lowers Barriers to Live Video Streaming With Low-Cost AQILIM *FIT/LE Broadcast-Quality Encoder
New Encoder Enables Use of Live Streaming in Growing Array of applications
DMN Newswire--2014-2-3--
Digigram announced the release of the AQILIM *FIT/LE professional video encoder, an intuitive and cost-effective solution for high-quality live event broadcasting over an IPTV network or multiscreen video distribution over the Internet.

APS Elastomers Compounds Low Cost TPUs For Shoe Heels And Wheel Applications

In addition to thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), APS Elastomers offers other thermoplastic elastomer raw materials (TPEs) such as styrenic-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE-S), thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), thermoplastic polyester elastomers (COPE) and fluoropolymers (PVDF).
For information contact: Marketing Department, APS Elastomers, 30735 Cypress Road, Suite 400, Romulus, MI 48174. Email:, Web:

New Low-Cost Anti-Soiling Solar Panel Coating Can Optimize Efficiency
New coating for solar panels developed by researchers from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has shown the remarkable ability to repel various types of liquids, including water, as well as solid particles, which are known to reduce energy efficiency

Pegasus Touch Laser SLA 3D Printer: Low cost, High Quality
by Full Spectrum Laser
383 backers $819,535 pledged of $100,000 goal

Bajaj Auto unveils low cost car RE 60

Manufacturing relocating from China to cheaper locales like Southeast Asia.
China is losing its competitive edge as a low-cost manufacturing base, new data suggest, with makers of everything from handbags to shirts to basic electronic components relocating to cheaper locales like Southeast Asia. FDI is showing decline.

BeetleCopter, the low-cost alternative for wildlife photography
A British photographer and entrepreneur has developed drone technology for shooting documentary-quality wildlife footage at extremely low cost.


Fujitsu Laboratories and Furukawa Electric Develop Low-Cost Multi-Fiber Optical Connector

The conventional method of connecting optical fibers requires high-precision polishing that aligns the tips of the fibers, making the cost of this process considerable. Fujitsu Laboratories and Furukawa Electric have developed a connector  with a spring mechanism that obviates the need for this polishing process, slashing by more than half the cost required to connect optical fibers.

Bubble CPAP, a Low Cost Alternative for Treating Neonates with Severe Respiratory Illness developed Rice University Engineering Students

Frugally Engineered Car - Success in European Markets also
Euro 7,700 car Logan of Renault is a success.


LT1097 Low Cost, Low Power Precision Op Amp


British women to have £1,000 'no-frills' IVF: Budget procedure inspired by Alka-Seltzer to be available within weeks.
Newly developed method economises on expensive drugs and incubators
Instead it uses cheap test-tube set and reaction inspired by hangover pills

China Seeks Low-Cost Production... In the US (Pt. 2)

New Low-Cost Design of Staircase Climbing Wheelchair

Large Aperture at Low Cost Three-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Range Sensor Using Scanning MEMS Micromirrors and Synchronous Detector Switching

New low-cost gas sensor technology from TTP uses speed of sound
TTP’s SonicSense delivers accurate gas sensing at a fraction of the cost of existing methods.
Drawing on TTP’s expertise in nonlinear acoustics and piezoelectric technology, the new SonicSense devices will cost between £3 and £6 each in volume production. TTP is investigating a wide range of industrial and medical applications, from gas safety and process control to respiratory monitoring and anaesthesia

Low-Cost High-Volume Scale Up of CVD Films and Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications

Low Cost Hearing Aid

Rishikesh Kumar, a B.Sc student developed a hearing aid for just Rs 80. He used a micro-receptor along with a transistor mounted on a small box which catches sound. Through an earphone, the set-up sent it to the person's ear. A rechargeable battery was also added to the box which provided power to the device and gave a back-up of 12-13 hours.

P2084A: Low Cost Frequency Multiplier

Development of a Low-Cost, Portable, 12-Lead ECG Machine

 for Health- Care Centres Across Rural India
Citation: Mehta P, Sudheer KM (2013) Development of a Low-Cost, Portable, 12- Lead ECG Machine for Health-Care Centres Across Rural India. J Med Diagn Meth 2:120. doi: 10.4172/2168-9784.1000120
Pourus Mehta
Electronics Division
Bhabha Atomic Research CentreM
OD Lab, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India
E-mail: pdmehta @

Frugal Engineering: The Mantra To Design Resource-efficient Embedded Systems and Chips
Optimization in designing embedded systems

JATCO,a Nissan subsidiary.  the world’s leading manufacturer of continuously variable transmissions,is developing a standard automatic transmission to compete in lower-cost countries such as India.

Low Cost 3D Depth and Thermal Sensors


Snom Introduces Low Cost Gigabit Ethernet VoIP Phone
 “Gigabit Ethernet is typically a hallmark of more expensive phones, but Snom is delivering that capability at $139 (MSRP)."

28.1 2014

Low Cost 3D Printing Book for Free Download

Low Cost 3D Printing for Science
Low Cost 3D Printing for Education
Low Cost 3D Printing for Sustainable Development

low-cost irrigation systems for rural farmers
KB Drip system, provides low cost micro-irrigation technology that helps small farmers increase their yields by as much as 50%.  The company selling the system estimates that each system increases net additional income for user farmer households by $400 US per year.

Low-cost preparation of high-k expanded graphite/carbon nanotube/cyanate ester composites with low dielectric loss and low percolation threshold

PulsedLight Develops Low-Cost New Optical Ranging Sensor Technology for Drones and Robots

Inert Low Cost Flow Meter for OEM Applications

The Low-Cost High-Flow Exhaust - Part Two for Car


The ADXL185B z-axis sensor and the ADXL189B x-axis sensor are g range configurable, integrated single-axis satellite sensors, compliant with the PSI5 Version 1.3 specification. The ADXL185B/ADXL189B enable low cost solutions for front and side impact airbag satellite sensor applications.

Lemken offers a low-cost four-furrow plough
 It needs a tractor up to about 170hp and the four-furrow model costs £16,411.

Low Cost Price Gps Vehicle Tracking System Rs: 3999

IIT students developed low cost water filter
The laboratory prototype uses 120 gm of filtering material based on composite nano-materials, which is enough to produce 3,600 litres of completely clean drinking water. Assuming daily use of 10 litres of drinking water, the filter is good enough for an entire year for the family. Going by the estimate of inventors, the filter will cost Rs 500 whereas the cost of the cartridge will be Rs 150.

One step closer to low cost solar cells
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology - OIST
 An OIST research team led by Yabing Qi is investigating solar cells based on organic materials that have electrodes both flexible and transparent, enabling the fabrication of these solar cells at a low cost.
The main component for fabricating Flextrodes is PET, the same inexpensive and readily available plastic that comprises disposable drink bottles.  The possibility of this technology being available for widespread public use may be just around the corner. Perhaps the next window decoration you put up will be one composed of organic solar cells, providing not just nice aesthetics, but clean energy as well.

Google Search Link for Low Cost Material  - All results of this search were included in this post.

28.1 2014

Low Cost 3D Printing Book for Free Download

Low Cost 3D Printing for Science
Low Cost 3D Printing for Education
Low Cost 3D Printing for Sustainable Development

ORNL makes low-cost carbon fibre available to US companies

Low Cost, Net Shape Fabrication of Rhenium and High Temperature Materials for Rocket
Engine Components

Vacuum Plasma Spray techniques (VPS) have been developed to reduce the cost and fabrication
time of metal and ceramic rocket engine components. Refractory metals and ceramics such as
Re, Hf, W, W/Re, HfC, and HfN are being used for their high melting temperatures and chemical
stability. However, the difficulty of forming these materials into complex shapes has limited
their application in the past. The VPS technique involves spraying material onto a mandrel of the
desired shape and subsequently removing the mandrel. A primary advantage of VPS forming
over other powder metallurgy techniques is that near-net-shape spray forming of components
significantly simplifies and reduces the cost of fabrication due to the high material utilization and
reduction of laborious machining.

Moving towards lowest cost fish production
S.K.Retting Presentation

Reduce the energy required by existing hydraulic injection moulding machines by up to 50 %

ENGEL's new retrofit solution ecodriveR is reasonably priced, can be fitted with little hassle and reduces the energy required by existing hydraulic injec-tion moulding machines by up to 50 %, increasing their cost-effectiveness sig-nificantly as a result. ENGEL has been a leading developer of energy-efficient drive concepts for many years now


Lightweight Steel Twist Beam Achieves 30 Percent Mass Reduction At Lower Cost Than Alternative Materials in Automobiles

"U-Beam" design – based on a tubular shape using advanced steels – achieves a 30 percent mass reduction relative to the baseline assembly, at a modest 15 percent cost increase, considerably less than the cost of similar weight savings from materials like aluminum.

Pilot-Scale Evaluation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Adsorption Using Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials for Removal of Pesticides and Organic Matter in Drinking Water Production

Low Cost Beers from Cassava

NRL Develops Low Cost, High Efficiency Solar Sensor

Research scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Electronics Science and Technology Division have developed a novel low cost, highly efficient spectral sensor for field analysis of solar cell irradiance performance and spectral distribution.

3-Year Project for Low-Cost OLEDs in Germany

Conventional OLEDs are manufactured using expensive vacuum processes, but a collaboration of researchers from cynora GmbH, Novaled AG and the University of Regensburg aim to explore new functional soluble materials for inexpensive OLED production under the cyCESH project, which began June 1, 2013


Inkjet Catalyst Printing and Electroless Copper Deposition for Low-Cost
Patterned Microwave Passive Devices on Paper
Benjamin S. Cook,1† Yunnan Fang,2† Sangkil Kim,1  Taoran Le,1  W. Brandon Goodwin,2
Kenneth H. Sandhage,2,3,* and Manos M. Tentzeris1,*
1 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA

A scalable, low-cost process for fabricating copper-based microwave components on flexible, paper-based
substrates is demonstrated. This low-cost copper patterning process is readily scalable and may be used to generate a variety of copper-based microwave devices on flexible, paper-based substrates.
Electronic Materials Letters, Vol. 0, No. 0 (0000), pp. 1-8

High Performance and Low Cost PVC Composited Material

Low Cost Asymmetric Thin Film as Accelerating Wound Healing Material

Indium tin oxide synthesized by a low cost route as SEGFET pH sensor

Indium tin oxide (ITO) has emerged as important engineering materials, since their versatile optical and electronic properties have found application in many fields including optoelectronics and photonics

Low Cost Precision Cleaving of Semiconductor Wafers and Other Materials
Researchers  have developed a high-throughput, low cost method for precise cleavage of silicon, germanium and virtually any material. This approach harnesses electromagnetic forces for cleaving standard cylindrical ingots and wafers along certain crystallographic planes. The process results in nearly zero material loss and can be scaled for high throughput on low-cost equipment that is easy to maintain. This invention could be used for kerfless cleaving of silicon and has general industrial applications for almost any material that requires precise cleaving. The inventors have built a prototype processing chamber and are testing its performance in cleaving 100 mm diameter silicon and germanium.
AUTM Association of University Technology Managers

Coconut shells as low cost filling material for anaerobic filters in rural areas

Low-Cost Bricks From Recycled Paper Mill Waste
Made from 90% recycled paper mill waste (RPMW) and 10% cement, the mixture is mechanically mixed and pressed into molds and then cured in the sun.
Blocks made from these cast-off materials are half the cost of normal bricks and much lighter.

Japan has now found large deposits of rare earth materials in the ocean. The find was made by professor Yasuhiro Kato and his team from Tokyo University in Japan's Exclusive Economic Zone around the island of Minami-Torishima. This can lead to reduction of price rare earth materials by China once Japan starts mining from the ocean.

PCB Surface Finishes & Cost Effective Pb Free Assembly Materials

Low-cost all solid-state rechargeable batteries for Electric Vehicles.

Solid Power is developing ultra high energy, inherently safe and low-cost all solid-state rechargeable batteries. Our technology enables batteries that run considerably longer on a single charge as compared to current Li-ion batteries. Further, our battery material's inherent safety eliminates the need for the various safety features commonly associated with lithium-ion batteries, thus resulting in considerably lighter, less complex and less costly battery systems. Finally, our battery materials are made from exceptionally cost-effective and Earth-abundant materials resulting in further cost reductions. Specific attributes of our battery technology includes:
A specific energy (Wh/kg) that is nearly 3-times greater than current Li-ion batteries
Low-cost ceramic ceramic precursor materials
Materials that are inherently non-volatile and non-flammable

A Low Cost and Efficient Solar-Thermal System (2013)
A recyclable copper piping system was used for the indirect heating part of the system so as to keep costs low. Phase change materials were utilized for the storage tank to ensure the water kept its heat even when not being heated with solar energy. Finally, a Fresnel lens was used for the solar tracking device, which helps the system collect the full potential of solar energy.

Wonder nanomaterial created from low-cost chemical
It is named the Multi-use Titanium Dioxide (TiO2). The material is formed by turning titanium dioxide crystals into patented nanofibres, which can then be easily fabricated into patented flexible filter membranes which include a combination of carbon, copper, zinc or tin, depending on the specific end product needed.
The material is capable of concurrently producing both hydrogen and clean water when exposed to sunlight, desalinating water as a high flux forward osmosis membrane, being made into a low-cost flexible solar cell to generate electricity and doubling battery life when used as the anode in lithium ion batteries.

“HBLED Grade AlN A New Low Cost Ceramic Material for High Power Semiconductor Applications based on Aluminum Nitride
The new HBLED grade AlN has a thermal conductivity of 100 W/m-K.
AlN (95%) has a thermal conductivity of  170 W/m-K

Low-cost LEDs for saving energy and improving health
Gallium nitride has been described as “the most important semiconductor since silicon” and is used in energy-saving LED lighting. A new £1million growth facility will allow Cambridge researchers to further reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of LEDs, with potentially huge cost-saving implications.

Large-Area Low-Cost Gold Nanostructures through Colloidal

Isis3D creates low-cost, high-quality desktop 3D Printer for everyone

The Isis3D features 20 Micron positional accuracy and "easy to use and remove" support material.
The Isis One desktop 3D printer is available for pre-order for US$2,199 (EUR1,659 / GBP1,407).

Lower-cost graphene-like material developed by Queen's University chemists

Researchers at Queen's University have discovered a cheaper method for making a substance similar to graphene, a wonder material discovered in 2004. Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms, arranged in a lattice pattern, with a wide range of applications including mobile device screens, solar cells, aircraft components, hydrogen fuel cells, and fast-charging lithium-ion batteries.

Low-Cost & High Performance Silicon Interposers and Packages (LSIP)

The Low-Cost Silicon Interposer (LSIP) industry consortium at Georgia Tech is addressing the limitations of current organic packages as well as wafer-based silicon interposers that are being produced in wafer fabs.


Lowering the Weight, Volume and Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries with High Rate Separators
The cell using the Dreamweaver separator is 19% lighter, has 25% less volume, has 40% lower foil costs and 58% lower separator costs, resulting in 27% lower total material costs. For higher power cells, the savings could be up to 27% of material costs. For common automotive batteries, the savings could be 21 – 110 kg and $880 - $4,675/automobile.

Low Cost Graphene & 2D Layered Material Inks for Printed Electronics
Cambridge Graphene Platform's inks are composed of chemically pristine graphene (or other 2D materials), are produced with a scalable production process, require no post-processing and are suitable for many coating techniques.

New material could lower cost and improve organic photovoltaics
UK start-up Oxford Photovoltaics is working to commercialise a new material which could lead to low-cost organic photovoltaic (OPV) panels. Peroskite could lead to cheaper, more efficient OPV cells. Recent efficiency increases up to 15%  indicate that it could be used in OPVs to improve the cost, and the efficiency of the panel.

How to Build a Low-Cost High-Efficiency Inverter

Low cost polymer LEDs and solar cells
The new plasmonic material, can be applied to both polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs), with world-record high performance, through a simple and cheap process.

Low-Cost Housing for the Urban Poor in Akure, Nigeria: Materials and Techniques of Construction

Cost Reduction of 3D Printing Raw Material Plastic filament

$250 Filament Extruder that turns plastic pellets into filament for 3D printing process.
Use: Producing 392 chess pieces in a particular color requires one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of plastic. One spool of commercially available filament costs  about $50. A kilogram of pellets can be converted into filament for a cost of  $10. Buying 25 kilograms of pellets in bulk means one kg of filament can be had at cost of just $5.

Read more: How an 83-Year-Old Inventor Beat the High Cost of 3D Printing |

Arsenic bioremediation by low cost materials derived from Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana) and Walnut (Juglans regia)more by Amir Habib
Ecological Engineering 51 (2013) 88–94

Water-based chemical synthesis of low cost CIGS thin films

Currently, the conversion efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) based solar cells is exceeding 20%. However, conventional vacuum based fabrication of thin film is expensive and not easy for mass production. In order to produce CIGS thin film solar cells in a cost effective way, a solution based synthetic method, which employs water as a solvent was developed.

Perovskites: The Emergence of a New Era for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells

The adsorption technique is effective and economical to application level. But the regular commercial activated carbon is expensive. Low cost adsorbent prepared from Neem leaves. From the experimental finding it has been observed that the adsorbent material can be used successfully for removal of color. The maximum removal efficiency was observed up to 80% for prepared Neem leaves at optimum value of parameter.

The natural fibre is an effective adsorbent for cationic pollutants, it can be equally effective for anionic pollutant following surface modification.

Pages 9 to 11

Low-Cost Permanent Magnet Material in PM Synchronous Machines

Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) are considered a viable option in various types of applications.
But,  the main reason for the high price of PMSMs is the use of expensive neodymium or samarium-cobalt magnets.  Many parties are seeking for opportunities to use ferrites instead. In the case of multiple pole machines using ferrites in the outer rotor approach, with its low rotor yoke height, offers an interesting alternative. The air gap diameter of these machines can be made larger than in conventional inner rotor type motors without increasing the machine outer dimensions. In this paper, an outer rotor PMSM with ferrite magnets is analyzed and tested.

High Efficient  Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal System (CSP) with low cost materials

Low Cost Photobioreactor for Algae cultivation

DIY Plywood Flooring for High Gloss, Low Cost

The right type of wood and ply can make plywood a very practical flooring choice. It made for an affordable, clean and warm floor for their master bedroom.

Project: Plywood flooring for a bedroom; Size: 160 square feet; Budget: $700; about $4.35 per square foot

Graphene-like MoS2 as a low-cost counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on asprepared
MoS2 as the counter electrode material provided overall energy conversion efficiencies of 2.9% (100 mW cm-2), while
analogous DSCs based on a platinum counter electrode provided efficiencies of 5.2%. Considering that the Pt-free catalytic layer was
prepared by drying at 120 ºC, this material opens up an alternative to low-cost, less energy-intensive Pt-free counter electrodes.

New Low-Cost, Transparent Electrodes
researchers report creating a sturdy, transparent, and indium-free electrode from silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) that could replace indium-based electrodes in some applications.
"Silver and titanium are much more abundant than indium in the earth's crust, and so we anticipate that electronic devices based on silver and titanium dioxide would be a more sustainable materials system and be manufactured at a low cost,"

Low-cost Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts Rival Platinum for Hydrogen Evolution
Published: 12 March 2013

The electrocatalytic production of hydrogen from water is a key process that may lead to the feasibility of hydrogen-powered energy production devices.  The most efficient catalyst for this process is currently platinum; however,its cost is high. In their paper published in Energy & Environmental Science, researchers at Brookhaven National Lab have examined a new, inexpensive molybdenum carbide catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes that is easy to produce and has superior hydrogen evolution properties.

Google search results page 8

An inexpensive new way to grow thin films of a material prized in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries

Engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed an inexpensive new way to grow thin films of a material prized in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries
The UC Berkeley researchers demonstrated that indium phosphide, a III-V compound, could be grown on thin sheets of metal foil in a process that is faster and cheaper than traditional methods, yet still comparable in opto-electronic characteristics.

Automotive Parts 3D Printed Using Low-Cost Titanium Powders

 3D printing with metal has been prohibitively expensive because titanium powders currently sell for $200 - $400 per kilogram, until now. Metalysis has developed a new way of producing low-cost titanium powder.
The Metalysis process could reduce the price of titanium by as much as 75%, making titanium almost as cheap as specialty steels. We believe that titanium made by the Metalysis process could replace the current use of aluminium and steel in many products.
In addition to titanium, Metalysis is developing tantalum powder and will use its technology to produce a wide range of specialist metals (including rare earths).

Effective enhancement of electrochemical performance for low-cost cathode material Li1.231Mn0.615Ni0.154O2 via a novel facile hydrothermal modification

Journal of Power Sources, Volume 246, 15 January 2014, Pages 569–573

Engineered Material Systems Introduces Low-Cost Conductive Adhesive for Die Attach Applications
DELAWARE, OH ― October 2013 ― Engineered Material Systems, a leading global supplier of electronic materials for circuit assembly applications, debuts its CA-165 Low-Cost Conductive Adhesive designed for chip-on-board or general die attach applications in circuit assembly, photonics or camera modules.

ECM CA-165 is approximately half the cost of a pure silver-filled die attach adhesive

Preparation of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using Coal Tar Pitch, a Low-Cost Material, for Printable Devices

We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules.

Page 7

Sustainable Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment by Sorption Using Low-cost Materials
The research showed that coconut shell (CS) can be an important low-cost sorbent for copper removal from inorganic wastewater. However, arsenic removal was only possible with iron-oxide-coated sand (IOCS).

New low-cost, high-energy batteries could be powered by rhubarb, plants
Rhubarb and other simple green plants could be the source of materials for a new generation of batteries with the potential to transform energy systems, according to new research by Harvard University.

Scientists create a low-cost, long-lasting water splitter made of silicon and nickel
Stanford University scientists have created a silicon-based water splitter that is both low-cost and corrosion-free. that could help pave the way for large-scale production of clean hydrogen fuel from sunlight.

Novel materials and system designs for low cost, efficient and durable PEM electrolysers
The electrolyser will demonstrate a capability to produce hydrogen with an efficiency of at least 75% (LHV) at rated capacity with a stack cost below €2,500/Nm3h-1 and a target lifetime in excess of 40,000 hours (< 15 μVh-1 voltage increase at constant load).

A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors
we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term ‘carbomorph’ and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer. 

Oxford Photovoltaics, an Oxford University spin-out, has reported a new high of 15.4% efficiency for its perovskite solar cells.
The improved efficiency represents a significant step forward in the scale-up and commercialisation of low-cost, efficient, flat-junction perovskite solar cells that can be readily incorporated into glass building facades.

Scientists develop low-cost techniques for 'earthquake-proofing' homes
Researchers at Imperial are developing techniques for improving traditional construction methods used by people in rural communities in Latin America, so that they are more able to withstand earthquakes. The aim of the project is to show people how they can build homes more robustly while still using traditional materials in a sustainable and low cost way.

Page 6
Using Earthbags for Low Cost, Disaster Resistant Housing

A low cost, controllable method for accurately polishing (semi)conducting materials

R&D on Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Composites for Energy Applications

Low-cost  titanium for 3D printing

Taking the ore material - the titanium oxide - and bunging it into a salt bath that's a mix of calcium salts and other chemicals at a very high temperature and  passing  electricity through it and it makes the titanium straight from the ore. This way, the researchers found  a way to convert rutile sand into titanium directly. at very low cost. You're then left with the powder you need to consolidate the material and  probably one of the best of ways converting this power into solid objects is 3D printing.

High-quality, lower-cost nanofibers

 Using a small amount of well-placed double-walled carbon nanotubes, provided by collaborator MER Corp., to guide the formation and orientation of the nanocrystalline graphitic structure, they found they can use UNL-developed nanomanufacturing processes to create high-quality continuous carbon nanofibers.
The new fabrication process creates the greatest structural improvements at low temperatures, contributing to its potential low cost and ease in manufacturing.,+lower-cost+nanofibers+

Pages 3 to 5

Development of Sustainable, Ultra-Low Cost Construction Materials
The combination of internally cured RCA and integration of natural reinforcement materials allows for the production of concrete that is comparable to virgin aggregate as a construction material.

Using Trap Grease as a Low Cost Material for Biodiesel Feedstock Production

Hemp fiber used to develop low-cost graphene-like nanomaterial.

Researchers from the University of Alberta developed a new low-cost process to turn hemp bast fibers into graphene-like materials that can be used in energy storage electronics. A part of the hemp plant called the bast, which is usually thrown away during industrial hemp production as a waste product is used. It is a nanocomposite made up of layers of lignin, hemicellulose, and crystalline cellulose. If you process it the right way, it separates into sheets similar to graphene.

Low-cost, open-source 3D metal printer in development

Joshua Pearce and his team at Michigan Tech developed a 3D metal printer as work in process and raw. However it is ‘low-cost’ with a parts list price totalling under $1,500 worth of materials.

Quinones - Low Cost Material for Energy Storage Batteries

Vanadium, the material typically used now, in energy storage battery costs about $80 per kilowatt-hour. Michael Aziz, a professor of materials and energy technologies at Harvard University, says the quinones will cut the energy storage material costs down to just $27 per kilowatt-hour.

Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Low Cost Materials

International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)
Volume 2, Issue 11, May 2013

Low-Cost Snap Cure Conductive Adhesive For Photovoltaic Stringing And Bussing Applications
Engineered Material Systems (EMS), a leading global supplier of electronic materials for photovoltaic applications, is pleased to debut its CA-175 Snap Cure Conductive Adhesive for ribbon stringing and bussing in photovoltaic applications

Consistent blast furnace operation whilst using low cost raw materials 

(Consistent BF)
The industrial experience with regard to using nut coke, ferrous fines and injected coals as important low cost raw materials was raised from test campaigns and operational modifications at five blast furnace plants.

Alternative Walling System for Low Cost Housing by Using Bamboo
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE)
ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-6, May 2013

Low-cost Solutions For Dynamic Window Materials

The cost of AZO (aluminum-doped zinc oxide) is about 25% of ITO

Silicide Nanopowders as Low-Cost and High-Performance Thermoelectric Materials

Google search pages 1 and 2
Rather than using custom laminates here, 3XA uses low cost press board and plywood, which not only reduce fabrication and building costs,

Engineers at Oregon State University have determined that ethylene glycol, commonly used in antifreeze products, can be a low-cost solvent that functions well in a “continuous flow” reactor – an approach to making thin-film solar cells that is easily scaled up for mass production at industrial levels.

Low Cost Bricks
Seth Eyeru, a builder with Eco-Construct Uganda Limited says earth blocks are also known as compressed stabilised earth block (CSEB), stabilised soil blocks (SSB), stabilised earth blocks (SEB) and are produced from stabilised soil which is slightly moistened, poured into a press and then compressed either with a manual or motorised press.

Asian Scientist (Jul. 24, 2013) – Korean researchers have developed a new plasmonic material for low cost polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) and polymer solar cell (PSC) applications. The new material, synthesized through a simple and cheap process, offers significantly enhanced performance over materials currently used in optoelectronic devices (OEDs).

Sand as a low-cost support for titanium dioxide photocatalysts
the deposition of TiO2 as coatings on grains of sand presents an effective low-cost approach to providing enhanced levels of available catalyst surface area while maintaining easy material recoverability from treated water for titanium dioxide photocatalysts for environmental remediation.

Low cost Indigenous raw materials for making sanitary napkins
Innovator: Mr Jaydeep Mandal, Aakar Innovations Pvt. Ltd.
Proposal Description
The technology is raw material for making Biodegradable Sanitary Napkins from indigenous pulps
(Bagasse (Sugarcane waste), Bamboo stem, Knit-wear waste, banana stem, Water Hyacinth etc.)
as an absorbent material and bio-degradable & compostable plastic.

Low Cost Environmental Remediation Catalyst
Innovator: Mr Bharat Lodha, Battelle Science and Technology India Pvt Ltd.
Proposal Description
The technology is a catalyst material for environmental remediation application. The technology
utilizes an engineered mixture of natural-protein (novel catalyst) with zero valent iron, which
improves the degradation of recalcitrant contaminants in soil and water. The cost of the developed
catalyst material is very low as compared to existing catalysts (Pd, Pt, Ni, Co etc.).

Low Cost Composites for Cars
 These cars are expected to be built on a new kind of material called poly-diallyl-phthalate (PDP), which is used for industrial applications.  Tata

LTGS Brick, low cost construction material
This brick uses a very cheap material available in great quantity: lateritic clay earth. This special and abundant earth, mixed with a simple geopolymer binder is compressed to give the shape of a brick then heated in a furnace. Heated at 85°C, LTGS brick is water stable and has enough compressive strength to build a wall. Heated at 250°C, it resists to freezing. At 450°C, its strength increases more, so that it is possible to manufacture structural elements like beams for doors and windows.

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Updated 24 July 2017, 29 November 2014