Monday, July 31, 2017

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan with Links







Revision of Process Industrial Engineering - Methods, Techniques and Tools

In this month's revision plan the focus is on production process improvement which also includes many engineering processes related to production and maintenance of engineering goods and services.

Management of processes are also analyzed and redesigned by industrial engineers. If management processes, activities and policies are responsible for poor productivity, industrial engineers have to propose changes in management methods, practices and tools to improve productivity. This aspect of industrial engineering is discussed under the area - productivity management.

Process Industrial Engineering - Process Efficiency/Productivity Improvement - Process Cost Reduction

First Week

Process Industrial Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/02/process-industrial-engineering.html

Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/07/machine-tool-improvement-and-cutting.html

Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/approach-to-operation-analysis-as-step.html

Operation Analysis Sheet
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/operation-analysis-sheet.html

    Using the Operation Analysis Sheet
    Analysis of Purpose of Operation

    Analysis of All Operations of a Process as a Step of Each Operation Analysis
    Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Standards

    Analysis of Material in Operation Analysis
    Tool Related Operation Analysis


Second Week

    Material Handling Analysis in Operations
    Operation Analysis of Setups

    Operation Analysis - Man and Machine Activity Charts
    Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis

    Operation Analysis - Analysis of Working Conditions and Method
    Operation Analysis - Common Possibilities for Operation Improvement

    Operation Analysis - Check List
    Method Study

   Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering
   Method Study - Information Collection and Recording - Chapter Contents


Third Week

Process Analysis - Questions/Check List
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/02/process-analysis-questionscheck-list.html

Installing Proposed Methods
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/systems-installation-installing.html

Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Plant Layout Analysis

Flow Process Charts - Reinterpretation of Its Purpose and Utility
Industrial Engineering of Flow Production Lines - Thought Before Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo

SMED
Poka-Yoke


Fourth Week

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2014/02/industrial-engineering-foundation-of.html

Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/12/toyota-production-system-industrial.html


Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo
Seven Waste Model and Its Extensions

Industrial Engineering of Maintenance Processes
Manufacturing System Losses Idenfied in TPM Literature

Industrial Engineering of Inspection Processes
Industrial Engineering of Material Handling Processes

Zero Defect Movement and Six Sigma Method
Process Cost Analysis - Cost Center Statement Analysis






One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December




Updated  30 July 2017,  28 July 2016, 19 April 2015, 17 July 2014

THE TRAINING OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS - Hollis Godfrey - 1913


This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in the world by JSTOR.

Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries.

We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this
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Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early-
journal-content .

___________________________________________________


JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, 1913  - Paper

THE TRAINING OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS 


Modified Excerpts from the paper

Little by little, as the engineering student goes forward in education and practice,  he begins to see that the possession of certain powers enables him to conquer hesitant men and recalcitrant machines,
and also problems which involve both men and machines simultaneously. And the powers which enable him to do these things are science and engineering (convertising science into useful devices and processes). His thinking helps him in this.

I assume that no course in the industrial engineering steam would be begun before the end of the Sophomore year in college. The man who reaches the Junior year of college or technical school
must have had some training in science and mathematics or he would not be eligible to enter the industrial engineering course. He must have acquired some common-sense and scientific attitude
on his way, and the knowledge of science and common-sense so gained should be sufficient to enable him to recognize that in electing scientific management he is deliberately electing to follow a long and arduous road. The problem before us, then, when we discuss the work of men electing industrial engineering courses, is taking men with some common-sense and some knowledge of science and raising what they have to the highest possible power.

How, then, can the industrial engineer become a scientist, attain the scientific attitude of mind ?

By welding the scientific work of the classroom with the shop-work of the factory; by making the laboratory hours, hours that are spent with wage-earners striving for their daily wage. Laboratory and classroom hours alike must be filled with reality rather than with pure theory or with theory quite unrelated to the practical world.

The student must first of all, get in touch with the shop. And I insist that he can do that nowhere save in actual operating shops among men who are working for their daily wage. No shop practice in the school will produce a like result. Shop-sense is one of the most valuable possessions of the industrial
engineer. That sense comes only through actual shop practice. Once possessed it means that the man has thereafter the freedom of the shop.

To attain the desirable ends of knowledge of science and posses-sion of common-sense I propose that any course in the science of management shall consist of classroom work as outlined below and
of laboratory work carried on in actual operating shops. That means that manufacturers who are broad-minded enough to be willing to assist the college, and instructors broad-minded enough
to recognize the limitations of industry must co-operate in giving the laboratory instruction in shop practice to the students. I believe both groups of men exist and I feel that through their combined efforts the student should have an opportunity to spend the summers of his Sophomore and Junior years in actual shop practice, while three afternoons a week during the scholastic year should see him working in the shop.

What underlying thought must be before the men who make the courses ?

The industrial engineer is dealing in all cases with both men and machines. He must study "man" in his relation to his industrial environ-ment — not any single class of men, but all the men engaged in
industry. He must study "machines," not alone in their relation to their product, but also in relation to the human beings who operate them. It is his task to bring the best that modern science has to the aid and well-being of man.

It is in the development of his pupil's studies of men that the wise teacher of scientific management will work most steadfastly in correlating the allied courses, mentioned later, in psychology
and physiology, in economics and sociology, with the courses in the science of management, and with the work of living men and whir-ring machines.

The industrial engineer must recognize the presence of many factors in a problem. He must solve equations of not only two unknown quantities, but of a dozen unknown quantities, so to speak. And
the correlation of his courses in class with each other and with life will do much in the way of enabling him to do so.



When should the work begin, and how much of the student's time should it occupy ?

Direct work in industrial engineering and scientific management should begin either at the
end of two years or of four years in college. The direct and allied special classroom courses should occupy one full year of collegiate training, divided between two years' work, making a half-year's
work in scientific management during both the Junior and Senior years. The shopwork should occupy two summer vacations and three afternoons a week during each of the two years.

What courses should be offered ?

A dominant course in the science of management running through two years, allied with courses in economics, sociology, psychology, physiology, hygiene and sanitation, theory and practice
of accounting. All these should be in addition to the student's more direct work in science, mathematics, engineering, English, and foreign languages, which occupy the time of three out of the four collegiate years — if the courses are made undergraduate ones.

What should be the content of the scientific management courses given during the four half-years that comprise the Junior and Senior years of most colleges and technical schools ?

The first half-year should be devoted to a general view of four picked industries — in order that the student may see industry more or less as a whole — and to the study of the principles of
scientific management. The laboratory work for this course should consist of the broad outlined study of four plants from the time of the receipt of the first inquiry from the prospective customer to the final entry of the payment for the bill and the calculation of the cost. The classroom work for this course should be devoted to a thorough grounding in the basic principles of organization,
and to study of the principles of scientific management.

It is most essential that the student should obtain at the very start a clear realization of the difference between system and science. It is most essential also that he should come to understand that,
while certain problems solved for one industry may be solved for all industry, such general solutions cannot be presumed upon. He should know that every new business will contain new problems,
which must be solved by the use of all the knowledge of the past plus all the imaginative genius he can hope to possess. That is to say, the student must learn that a mechanism used successfully
in one place cannot be bodily transported to another with hope of instant success. By the end of the first half-year each individual taking the course should have come to realize that he is studying
the principles of a science which are applicable to every case, not memorizing a set of rules or inheriting a stock of recipes. The study of four actual operating plants will aid him greatly in this
realization.

The second half-year should be devoted in the classroom to a detailed study of the planning-room and the processes involved in getting work into the shop, of stores, routing, specifications, etc. —
planning in general, in a word. The laboratory work should consist of actual planning-room experience in the shop.

It is entirely true that there is a question as to whether planning-room experience should follow or precede shop training. It may, therefore, be a question whether planning should be put in this
course. It is my own belief that the student will master his shop theory better the third half-year from the fact that he has discovered the basic reasons of the work in the planning-room. It should be
noted, moreover, in this connection that I have assumed that the student has had a summer's experience in actual shop practice as a prerequisite of the course, and that he has had a half year of
general preliminary study.

The third half-year should be devoted to a detailed study of work in the shop (especially of the teaching work of the functional foreman), of inspection, and of task work. All of this except the
study of task work should be done in actual plants. The task work should be done on fellow-students in the shops of the school. No untrained man should ever be put on actual task-setting.

The third half-year offers a great opportunity to impress upon the student the importance of the teaching function of his work. The whole theory of functional foremanship is a theory of educa-
tion and a great part of the time of an industrial engineer must be spent in teaching the men with whom he is working. Adequate powers of expression are by no means common among our recent
graduates. The teacher of scientific management can never forget that the work of his pupils must show in the life-work of the men with whom they are dealing. The bridge-builder leaves a physical
monument largely untouched by the later thought of men. The industrial builder must educate in such a way that his work will go progressively forward in the minds of men. That is true education,
and education is true only when it obtains adequate expression.

The fourth half-year should be devoted to studies in bringing all the best that science offers to the aid of industry — to work in costs, to work in the determining of policies by studies of sales,
purchasing, and the like, and to the co-ordination of the work of the three half-years already outlined.

The course of the fourth half-year should be broad enough to give the student some concept that great movements of trade exist and that they are factors which he must meet and use. The world
is fairly well provided with men who can look after a few details.

It is very poorly provided with men who can care for great constructive work. One of the greatest industrial leaders of our time said to me the other day: "The greater the affairs of a corporation, the
smaller the number of men who can deal with them. It seems to be a true inverse proportion. There are ten men who can think in a hundred thousand dollars, to one who can think in a million,
and ten who can think in a million to one who can think in ten millions."

I should hardly expect any course to give an undergraduate a great grasp of comprehensive plans. There is, however, no reason why we should hitch our wagon to the lowest of the stars when we
can find higher ones within our reach.

In the foregoing resume of a course in the science of management I have made no reference to many subjects I should have been glad to consider, to reports and theses, to methods and policies. Considerations of brevity forbade. I must turn again to my catechism and end with three brief questions and three brief answers.

What should the allied courses teach ?

The relation of man to industry and to his general environment.

What should the college courses in English teach ?

The power of expression.

What should the work in scientific management teach ?

That scientific management is a change of mental attitude (mental attitude, now, as always, the most powerful force among men) which makes employer and employee pull together instead of apart, which brings all that is best in science to the aid of every man in industry, and which, by its substitution of exact knowledge for the chaos of guess work and ignorance, makes progressively for
justice and for the coming of the "new industrial day."

Hollis Godfrey

West Medford, Mass.


I am happy I covered some these issues in my principles of industrial engineering.
Principles of Industrial Engineering

Video Presentation
___________________

___________________


A SYMPOSIUM ON SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AND EFFICIENCY IN COLLEGE


ADMINISTRATION

COMPRISING AMONG OTHERS

THE PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE EFFICIENCY SESSION

OF THE TWENTIETH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE

SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF ENGINEERING

EDUCATION, HELD AT BOSTON, MASS.,

JUNE 26-29, 1912


OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY ITHACA, N. Y.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.


INTRODUCTION. " Frank. B. Gilbreth


EDUCATIONAL DEMANDS OF MODERN PROGRESS. " Harrington Emerson. 



PRACTICE VERSUS THEORY IN THE SCIENCE OP MANAGEMENT. " F. A. Parklmrst


32 32 37

EDUCATION AND EFFICIENT LIVING. " Meyer Bloomfield

THE ENGINEER AS A MANAGER. " H. L. Gantt


THE MEN WHO SUCCEED IN SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. " H. K. Hathaway

THE PLACE OF THE COLLEGE IN COLLECTING AND CONSERVING THE DATA OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. " Wilfred Lewis

AN AUXILIARY TO COLLEGES IN THE TRAINING OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGERS." E. T. Kent

TEACHING SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING SCHOOLS." R. B. Wolf

THE TEACHING OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING SCHOOLS." Hollis Godfrey 


TEACHING THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. " 

Walter Rautenstrauch

82 TEACHING SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE TECHNICAL SCHOOLS.

H. F. J. Porter 94

A BROADENED VIEW OF EFFICIENCY IN ENGINEERING INSTRUCTION.

L. J. Johnson 108

ABSENCES FROM CLASSES ONE MEASURE OF INEFFICIENCY."
F. P.McKibben

112 118

THE PROBLEM OF EFFICIENCY IN TEACHING. " W. A. Hillebrand ....


THE ADMINISTRATION OF COLLEGE SHOP LABORATORIES. " W. F. M. Goss

129 133 139 145

SETTING TASKS FOR COLLEGE MEN. " S. E. Thompson

DEPARTMENTAL ORGANIZATION AND EFFICIENCY. " Hugo Diemer

ACADEMIC EFFICIENCY." William Kent

OPERATING ENGINEERING SCHOOLS UNDER SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. " H. Wade Hibbard

161 182

EFFICIENCY IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION. " G. H. Shepard

THE APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT TO THE OPERATION

OF COLLEGES. " S. E. Whitaker

205 217

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE COLLEGES. " E. F. Palmer iii





http://www.forgottenbooks.com/readbook_text/A_Symposium_on_Scientific_Management_and_Efficiency_in_College_1000331586/1

updated  18 June 2017, 15 August 2015

Sunday, July 30, 2017

Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction



Machine Effort Industrial Engineering


Determination of optimum cutting parameters - Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut - Development of scientific machine work

Taylor described his project of improving a machine shop productivity and below is the work he had done on machines first.

By means of four quite elaborate slide-rules, which have been especially made for the purpose of determining the all-round capacity of metal-cutting machines, a careful analysis was made of every element of this machine in its relation to the work in hand. Its Pulling power at its various speeds, its feeding capacity, and its proper speeds were determined by means of the slide-rules, and changes were then made in the countershaft and driving pulleys so as to run it at its proper speed. Tools, made of high-speed steel, and of the proper shapes, were properly dressed, treated, and ground. (It should be understood, however, that in this case the high-speed steel which had heretofore been in general use in the shop was also used in our demonstration.) 

A large special slide-rule was then made, by means of which the exact speeds and feeds were indicated at which each kind of work could be done in the shortest possible time in this particular lathe. After preparing in this way so that the workman should work according to the new method, one after another, pieces of work were finished in the lathe, corresponding to the work which had been done in our preliminary trials, and the gain in time made through running the machine according to scientific principles ranged from two and one-half times the speed in the slowest instance to nine times the speed in the highest.

The change from rule-of-thumb management to scientific management involves, however, not only a study of what is the proper speed for doing the work and a remodeling of the tools and the implements in the shop (machine effort industrial engineering), but also a complete change in the movements made by operators to operate the machine.  The physical improvements in the machines are necessary to insure large gains. They are followed by improvement in the activities performed by people in combination with machines. 

It seems important to fully explain the reason why, with the aid of a slide-rule, and after having studied the art of cutting metals, it was possible for the scientifically equipped man, who had never before seen these particular jobs, and who had never worked on this machine, to do work from two and one-half to nine times as fast as it had been done before by a good mechanic who had spent his whole time for some ten to twelve years in doing this very work upon this particular machine. 

In a word, this was possible because the art of cutting metals involves a true science of no small magnitude, a science, in fact, so intricate that it is impossible for any machinist who is suited to running a lathe year in and year out either to understand it or to work according to its laws without the help of men who have made this their specialty. Men who are unfamiliar with machine-shop work are prone to look upon the manufacture of each piece as a special problem, independent of any other kind of machine-work. They are apt to think, for instance, that the problems connected with making the parts of an engine require the especial study, one may say almost the life study, of a set of engine-making mechanics, and that these problems are entirely different from those which would be met with in machining lathe or planer parts. In fact, however, a study of those elements which are peculiar either to engine parts or to lathe parts is trifling, compared with the great study of the art, or science, of cutting metals, upon a knowledge of which rests the ability to do really fast machine-work of all kinds.

The real problem is how to remove chips fast from a casting or a forging, and how to make the piece smooth and true in the shortest time, and it matters but little whether the piece being worked upon is part, say, of a marine engine, a printing-press, or an automobile. For this reason, the man with the slide rule, familiar with the science of cutting metals, who had never before seen this particular work, was able completely to distance the skilled mechanic who had made the parts of this machine his specialty for years.

It is true that whenever intelligent and educated men find that the responsibility for making progress in any of the mechanic arts rests with them, instead of upon the workmen who are actually laboring at the trade, that they almost invariably start on the road which leads to the development of a science where, in the past, has existed mere traditional or rule-of-thumb knowledge.

When men, whose education has given them the habit of generalizing and everywhere looking for laws, find themselves confronted with a multitude of problems, such as exist in every trade and which have a general similarity one to another, it is inevitable that they should try to gather these problems into certain logical groups, and then search for some general laws or rules to guide them in their solution.

Development of Science for Machine Elements

Two Important Questions regarding Machine Tools to be Answered through Scientific Research


All of these experiments were made to enable us to answer correctly the two questions which face every machinist each time that he does a piece of work in a metal-cutting machine, such as a lathe, planer, drill press, or milling machine. These two questions are:

In order to do the work in the quickest time,

1. At what cutting speed shall I run my machine? and

2. What feed shall I use?

They sound so simple that they would appear to call for merely the trained judgment of any good mechanic. In fact, however, after working 26 years, it has been found that the answer in every case involves the solution of an intricate mathematical problem, in which the effect of twelve independent variables must be determined.

Each of the twelve following variables has an important effect upon the answer. The figures which are given with each of the variables represent the effect of this element upon the cutting speed.

For example, after the first variable (A) we quote,

"The proportion is as I in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of a very soft, low-carbon steel." The meaning of this quotation is that soft steel can be cut 100 times as fast as the hard steel or chilled iron. The ratios which are given, then, after each of these elements, indicate the wide range of judgment which practically every machinist has been called upon to exercise in the past in determining the best speed at which to run the machine and the best feed to use.

(A) The quality of the metal which is to be cut; i.e., its hardness or other qualities which affect the cutting speed. The proportion is as 1 in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of very soft, low-carbon steel.

(B) The chemical composition of the steel from which the tool is made, and the heat treatment of the tool. The proportion is as 1 in tools made from tempered carbon steel to 7 in the best high-speed tools.

(C) The thickness of the shaving, or, the thickness of the spiral strip or band of metal which is to be removed by the tool. The proportion is as 1 with thickness of shaving 3/16 of an inch to 3 1/2 with thickness of shaving 1/64 of an inch.

(D) The shape or contour of the cutting edge of the tool. The proportion is as 1 in a thread tool to 6 in a broad-nosed cutting tool.

(E) Whether a copious stream of water or other cooling medium is used on the tool. The proportion is as 1 for tool running dry to 1.41 for tool cooled by a copious stream of water.

(F) The depth of the cut. The proportion is as 1 with 1/2 inch depth of cut to 1.36 with 1/8 inch depth of cut.

(G) The duration of the cut, i.e., the time which a tool must last under pressure of the shaving without being reground. The proportion is as 1 when tool is to be ground every 1 1/2 hours to 1.20 when tool is to be
ground every 20 minutes.

(H) The lip and clearance angles of the tool. The proportion is as 1 with lip angle of 68 degrees to 1.023 with lip angle of 61 degrees.

(J) The elasticity of the work and of the tool on account of producing chatter. The proportion is as 1 with tool chattering to 1.15 with tool running smoothly.

(K) The diameter of the casting or forging which is being cut.

(L) The pressure of the chip or shaving upon the cutting surface of the
tool.

(M) The pulling power and the speed and feed changes of the machine.

It may seem preposterous to many people that it should have required a period of 26 years to investigate the effect of these twelve variables upon the cutting speed of metals. To those, however, who have had personal experience as experimenters, it will be appreciated that the great difficulty of the problem lies in the fact that it contains so many variable elements. 

And in fact the great length of time consumed in making each single experiment was caused by the difficulty of holding eleven variables constant and uniform throughout the experiment, while the effect of the twelfth variable was being investigated. Holding the eleven variables constant was far more difficult than the investigation of the twelfth element.

As, one after another, the effect upon the cutting speed of each of these variables was investigated, in order that practical use could be made of this knowledge, it was necessary to find a mathematical formula which expressed in concise form the laws which had been obtained. As examples of the twelve formulae which were developed, the three following are given:

        P = 45,000  D 14/15 F 3/4

        V = 90/T 1/8

        V = 11.9/ (F 0.665(48/3 D) 0.2373 + (2.4 / (18 + 24D))

After these laws had been investigated and the various formulae which mathematically expressed them had been determined, there still remained the difficult task of how to solve one of these complicated mathematical problems quickly enough to make this knowledge available for every-day use. If a good mathematician who had these formula before him were to attempt to get the proper answer (i.e., to get the correct cutting speed and feed by working in the ordinary way) it would take him from two to six hours, say, to solve a single problem; far longer to solve the mathematical problem than would be taken in most cases by the workmen in doing the whole job in his machine. Thus a task of considerable magnitude which faced us was that of finding a quick solution of this problem, and as we made progress in its solution, the whole problem was from time to time presented by the writer to one after another of the noted mathematicians in this country. They were offered any reasonable fee for a rapid, practical method to be used in its solution. Some of these men merely glanced at it; others, for the sake of being courteous, kept it before them for some two or three weeks. They all gave us practically the same answer: that in many cases it was possible to, solve mathematical problems which contained four variables, and in some cases problems with five or six variables, but that it was manifestly impossible to solve a problem containing twelve variables in any other way than by the slow process of "trial and error."

A quick solution was, however, so much of a necessity in our every-day work of running machine-shops, that in spite of the small encouragement  received from the mathematicians, we continued at irregular periods, through a term of fifteen years, to give a large amount of time searching for a simple solution. Four or five men at various periods gave practically their whole time to this work, and finally, while we were at the Bethlehem Steel Company, the slide-rule was developed which is illustrated on Folder No. 11 of the paper "On the Art of Cutting Metals," and is described in detail in the paper presented by Mr. Carl G. Barth to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, entitled "Slide-rules for the Machine-shop, as a part of the Taylor System of Management" (Vol. XXV of The Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers). By means of this slide-rule, one of these intricate problems can be solved in less than a half minute by any good mechanics whether he understands anything about mathematics or not, thus making available for every-day, practical use the years of experimenting on the art of cutting metals. This is a good illustration of the fact that some way can always be found of making practical, everyday use of complicated scientific data, which appears to be beyond the experience and the range of the technical training of ordinary practical men. These slide-rules have been for years in constant daily use by machinists having no knowledge of mathematics.

A glance at the intricate mathematical formula which represent the laws of cutting metals should clearly show the reason why it is impossible for any machinist, without the aid of these laws, and who depends upon his personal experience, correctly to guess at the answer to the two questions,

    What speed shall I use?

    What feed shall I use?

even though he may repeat the same piece of work many times.

To return to the case of the machinist who had been working for ten to twelve years in machining the same pieces over and over again, there was but a remote chance in any of the various kinds of work which this man did that he should hit upon the one best method of doing each piece of work out of the hundreds of possible methods which lay before him. In considering this typical case, it must also be remembered that the metal-cutting machines throughout our machine-shops have practically all been speeded by their makers by guesswork, and without the knowledge obtained through a study of the art of cutting metals. In the machine-shops systematized by us we have found that there is not one machine in a hundred which is speeded by its makers at anywhere near the correct cutting speed. So that, in order to compete with the science of cutting metals, the machinist, before he could use proper speeds, would first have to put new pulleys on the countershaft of his machine, and also make in most cases changes in the shapes and treatment of his tools, etc. Many of these changes are matters entirely beyond his control, even if he knows what ought to be done.

If the reason is clear to the reader why the rule-of-thumb knowledge obtained by the machinist who is engaged on repeat work cannot possibly compete with the true science of cutting metals, it should be even more apparent why the high-class mechanic, who is called upon to do a great variety of work from day to day, is even less able to compete with this science. The high-class mechanic who does a different kind of work each day, in order to do each job in the quickest time, would need, in addition to a thorough knowledge of the art of cutting metals, a vast knowledge and experience in the quickest way of doing each kind of hand workAnd the reader, by calling to mind the gain which was made by Mr. Gilbreth through his motion and time study in laying bricks, will appreciate the great possibilities for quicker methods of doing all kinds of hand work which lie before every tradesman after he has the help which comes from a scientific motion and time study of his work.

For nearly thirty years past, time-study men connected with the management of machine-shops have been devoting their whole time to a scientific motion study, followed by accurate time study, with a stop-watch, of all of the elements connected with the machinist's work. When, therefore, the teachers, who form one section of the management, and who are cooperating with the working men, are in possession both of the science of cutting metals and of the equally elaborate motion-study and time-study science connected with this work, it is not difficult to appreciate why even the highest class mechanic is unable to do his best work without constant daily assistance from his teachers. And if this fact has been made clear to the reader, one of the important objects in writing this paper will have been realized.

It is hoped that the illustrations which have been given make it apparent why scientific management must inevitably in all cases produce overwhelmingly greater results, both for the company and its employees, than can be obtained with the management of "initiative and incentive." And it should also be clear that these results have been attained, not through a marked superiority in the mechanism of one type of management over the mechanism of another, but rather through the substitution of one set of underlying principles for a totally different set of principles, by the substitution of one philosophy for another philosophy in industrial management.

Many researchers follow the path initiated by Taylor to develop cutting speed optimization and cutting time reduction to develop better methods for various machine tools. Industrial engineers have to go through those papers and use proper cutting parameters and reduce the cutting time. Similar work needs to be carried on various other machine so that that work time is reduced to produce unit output, thereby increasing the productivity of machines.

Saturday, July 29, 2017

The present state of the art of industrial management - 1912 - Report Information



The 99 page report is available with Stevens S.C. Williams Library for online download. It is available as jpg page pictures


http://stevens.cdmhost.com/cdm/ref/collection/p4100coll1/id/2423




012A001

Productivity Science - Principle of Industrial Engineering



TAYLOR - NARAYANA RAO PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Develop a science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.


The productivity science developed is the foundation for industrial engineering in productivity engineering and productivity management phases.




1-Productivity Science



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Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao - Presentation at 2017 IISE Annual Conference - Pittsburgh, USA

23 May 2017

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Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao - Detailed List

Clicking on the link will take you to more detailed content on the principle




The full paper on the principles by Prof. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao is now available for downloading from IISE 2017 Annual Conference site in prepublished format.

Readings on the topic of Productivity Science


From Taylor's First Paper Publication to 1950


Development of Science for Working of Machines

Scientific Management in Machine Shop

Development of Science for Working of Man - Motions

Development of Science in Mechanic Arts

H.M. Wilcox
The definition of the word science is knowledge duly arranged and systematized.
The present state of the art of industrial management : majority and minority report of sub-committee on administration ; including discussion (page 1164)
Author American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Subcommittee on Administration.
1912
http://stevens.cdmhost.com/cdm/ref/collection/p4100coll1/id/2423

Oxford Dictionary - Organized body of knowledge that has been accumulated on a subject

Modern Period - 1951 onwards


A GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY OF PRODUCTIVITY
RICHARD O. MASON
Journal International Journal of General Systems
Volume 5, 1979 - Issue 1
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03081077908960885


Productivity in the Services Sector
Barry P. Bosworth and Jack E. Triplett, January 1, 2000
https://www.brookings.edu/research/productivity-in-the-services-sector/

Productivity in Public and Nonprofit Organizations
Margo Berman
Routledge, 18-Dec-2014 - First published 2006, Business & Economics - 240 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=2kPfBQAAQBAJ

‘Smarter, Faster, Better’: The New Science of Productivity
2 June 2016
http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-new-science-of-productivity/


The Science of Economic Development and Growth: The Theory of Factor Proportions: The Theory of Factor Proportions
C.C. Onyemelukwe
Routledge, 08-Jul-2016 - Business & Economics - 384 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=6mulDAAAQBAJ

The New Science of Sales Force Productivity
Dianne Ledingham, Mark Kovac, Heidi Locke Simon
Harvard Business Review, THE SEPTEMBER 2006 ISSUE



The International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management aims to address new developments in productivity science, performance measurement and management and to improve individual, group and organizational performance.
IJPPM is the official journal of the World Confederation of Productivity Science
http://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/products/journals/journals.htm?id=ijppm

Updated  30 July 2017,  10 July 2017,  9 July 2017, 29 June 2017

Friday, July 28, 2017

Process Industrial Engineering



Process Improvement - Gilbreths' View


Frank Gilbreth developed process analysis and improvement also along with motion study. In 1921, he presented a paper in ASME, on process charts. Lilian Gilbreth was a coauthor of this paper.

https://engineering.purdue.edu/IE/GilbrethLibrary/gilbrethproject/processcharts.pdf


At the end of the paper, the conclusion made is as follows:

The procedure for making, examining and improving a process is, therefore, preferably as follows:

a.  Examine process and record with rough notes and stereoscopic diapositives the existing process in detail.

b. Have draftsman copy rough notes in form for blueprinting, photographic projection and exhibition to executives and others.

c. Show the diapositives with stereoscope and lantern slides of process charts in executives' theater to executives and workers.

d. Improve present methods by the use of —
1 Suggestion system
2 Written description of new methods or 'write-ups," "manuals," ''codes," ''written systems," as they are variously called
3 Standards
4 Standing orders
5 Motion study
6 Micromotion studies and chronocyclegraphs for obtaining and recording the One Best Way to do Work.

e. Make process chart of the process as finally adopted as a base for still further and cumulative improvement.


We see in the method described above the method study steps of record, and examine. The practice of involving the workers in analyzing the process chart which was later popularized by Alan Mogensen is also present in the method suggested by Gilbreth to improve a process.  Motion study as a later step in the process analysis method, which was emphasized by H.B. Maynard as part of the operation analysis proposed by him is also visible in the procedure described by Gilbreths.

H.B. Maynard proposed "Operation Analysis" for process improvement.

So, we can see the methods engineering and methods study which became popular subsequently were futher development of Gilbreth's process improvement procedure only.


Process Engineering


Process engineering focuses on the design, operation, control, optimization and Intensification of chemical, physical, and biological processes. Process engineering encompasses a vast range of industries, such as chemical, petrochemical, agriculture, mineral processing, advanced material, food, pharmaceutical, software development and biotechnological industries.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_engineering

http://web.iitd.ac.in/~pmpandey/Process_engg_html/Process%20Engineering_introduction.pdf

http://www.sampe.org/

http://www.tudelft.nl/en/study/master-of-science/master-programmes/chemical-engineering/track-process-engineering/

http://www.princeton.edu/cbe/research/process/

Process Industrial Engineering


Process engineering is an established term in engineering. Hence process industrial engineering, which represents the redesign of processes by industrial engineers to improve productivity is an appropriate term.


Methods Engineering, Operations Analysis, Method Study and Motion Study are various methods or procedures of process industrial engineering.

The process industrial engineering has to develop analysis and improvement of technical elements of a process in more detail to make industrial engineering an engineering based activity to increase productivity in engineering organizations, departments and activities.

Process industrial engineering also includes improvement of related management activities. F.W. Taylor was a pioneer in introducing many changes in management practices to improve productivity. Industrial engineering adopted the same objective. So within process industrial subject area comes the function of management process industrial engineering.


Methods efficiency engineering is the earlier proposed name. Now it is rechristened as Process Industrial Engineering. Product Industrial Engineering and Process Industrial Engineering are the two main components of productivity engineering which is totally dependent on the engineering knowledge of the industrial engineer.

The Function of Methods Efficiency Engineering




Methods efficiency engineering was the activity performed by F.W. Taylor and explained first in his paper "A Piece Rate System." As it evolved over the years, it became a  a logical and systematic procedure for reducing costs, increasing production without an impairment to quality.  Methods efficiency engineering may be applied with equal success to repetitive work or to jobbing work, to simple, easily understood operations or to complex, specialized jobs. It is applicable to all man machine systems, manual work or automated work.

Definition of Methods efficiency engineering.  Briefly it may be said that Methods efficiency engineering is the industrial engineering component  which is chiefly concerned with increasing the efficiency of resources used in a method.


Methods efficiency engineering is the technique that subjects each operation of a given piece of work to close analysis in order to eliminate every unnecessary operation and in order to approach the quickest and best method of performing each necessary operation; it includes the standardization of equipment, methods, and working conditions ; it trains the operator to follow the standard method; when all this has been done,  it determines by accurate measurement the number of standard hours in which an operator working with standard performance can do the job.

A methods efficiency study always begins with a careful primary analysis of existing conditions. The reason is that the existing system is taken as an effective system that is producing the required output at quality acceptable to the customers. The first factors that are considered are the number of pieces made or the yearly activity, the length of the operation, and the hourly rate of the operator or operators doing the job. This information permits the computation of the yearly cost of the job. An estimate is next made of the probable improvement that methods study can make. This in turn determines the kind and amount of methods-engineering work that can profitably be undertaken.

The method or process is recorded for the purpose of presenting the study problem clearly. Then complete information is compiled for each operation concerning such points as the purpose of the operation,tolerance requirements, material and material handling, and tools and equipment used.

As a part of methods efficiency engineering, motion study, that is study of motions of the operator is made. In motion study, each individual motion used in doing the work is considered in detail to try to shorten the motion or to eliminate it altogether.

After the new method has been devised, information and records describing the redesigned procedure must be carefully made and communicate.  If the method is available in a written form, frequent audits can be done to make sure it is being followed.

The operator or operators must next be taught to follow the new method. This may be done by verbal instructions, demonstrations at or away from the workplace, instruction sheets or operator process charts ; or by the highly successful procedure that employs motion pictures.


Explanation of the Term "Methods efficiency engineering." 


The term " Methods efficiency engineering" is of comparatively recent origin.

When trained methods efficiency engineer brings to his job an extensive knowledge of fundamental waste-eliminating practices, every body will recognize its utility in the organization.

Development of Methods efficiency engineering - History


Rate Setting History


Probably the oldest wage-payment plan to be used by man was not day work, as might be supposed, but piecework. Day work probably came into being only when one "man desired to pay another man to work for him at a variety of tasks or to retain his general services to use or not at his discretion. Servants, for example, were paid on this basis. As industry began to grow, day work was used more and more, probably because this was the easiest method of payment where a variety of work was handled. Supervision was direct in most cases, labor was plentiful, and fear of dismissal furnished the incentive to produce.

At the same time, piecework payment was used in a number of instances. The weaver who worked a loom in his own home was paid for what he produced and not for the number of hours he spent at work. In the case of piecework, some plan that encouraged a definite output by the workers was felt necessary.  Incentive plans came into existence.  He was using records of past performance and his own judgment of what a man could accomplish if he worked with an honest effort to fix piece rates.

These two factors proved to be utterly unreliable. Records of past performance told only how much was produced and gave no indication of the conditions under which the work was done or of the method used by the operator. Under the stimulus of an incentive, the operator could almost always devise a better method and, by working steadily with a good effort, could make earnings that often exceeded those of the foreman. The various problems associate with these incentive plans,  defeated the purpose of incentives which was to stimulate production.

All this time, competition was becoming increasingly keen. The need for incentives was felt most strongly, and the importance of proper rate setting caused a search for a better way of handling the matter. Thus the position of rate setter was established. The new setup gave somewhat better results, but conditions were far from satisfactory. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, therefore, the more progressive plants began to feel the need for a better, fairer, and more accurate method of handling the rate question. The problem was attacked independently in a number of plants in USA and abroad, and various solutions were offered which have contributed to a greater or lesser extent to methods-engineering practices. One attack, for example, was to attempt to equalize the inconsistencies of poor rate setting by the wage-payment plan; and this led to the development of such well-known plans as the Halsey premium plan and, later, the Rowan plan.

Taylor's Pioneering Efforts in Methods Improvement


Taylor used stop watch time study of understand the best practices of doing work at elemental level. Through the study of work and output using time study, Taylor found that some were following improper methods, many did not take full advantage of their tools and equipment, and all were subject to many interruptions. Hence, Taylor often found that a man could do two or three times as much as he had previously done in a day. Taylor carefully selected individual workman, guided, trained and made them produce the expected output under the guidance of  management or supervision specialists. As one person produced according to the expected output, he trained one more man. In this manner gradually more and more operators were trained to produce the increased output. Since those days, time study has increased the productivity of industry manyfold. It has resulted in improved conditions, standardization, reduced costs, better production control, and better satisfied labor wherever it has been properly applied, and it has been applied to nearly every class of work.

Taylor' s system was to give the workman a definite task to be accomplished in a definite time in a definite manner. The workman was told in detail how to do the job. The method was established by careful study.

Taylor's original procedure forms the basis of methods engineering. It has been improved upon by those who came after him, as is the case when any new science is developed.
Taylor stressed the importance of improving method of doing the job and he used stop watch time study for that purpose. Frank B. Gilbreth  stressed the importance of the detailed study of methods and thereby made a distinct contribution to methods efficiency engineering . As an apprentice bricklayer, he became impressed with the fact that most brick- layers had their own way of doing a job. Being very observant, he noticed further that each worker had three ways of doing the same job: one that he taught to other inexperienced workers, one that he used when working slowly, and one that he used when working at his normal speed. Gilbreth became interested in the reasons underlying this, analyzed the work of number operators and developed the technique of motion study. The Gilbreths established a laboratory and studied motions by laboratory methods. As a result, they made a number of fundamental discoveries and originated the concept of therbligs, or basic divisions of accomplishment. They were the first to recognize that there are certain definite principles which govern efficient working practices, and they developed several techniques for studying the motions used in performing operations. Of these, the motion study made with the aid of motion pictures, often called the "micromotion technique' is the best known and most used. Of the originality, soundness, and value of their contribution to methods engineering, there can be no question.

As has been pointed out, Taylor's original work forms the basis of modern Methods efficiency engineering. Paralally, the developments made by the Gilbreths were  incorporated.

Motion study was improved further.  Better designs of industrial motion-picture equipment permit the wider use of the motion picture at a greatly reduced cost. The element of time has been tied in with the concept of therbligs, or basic divisions of accomplishment, thus offering a new and valuable approach to methods study. The leveling principle permits adjusting the time data obtained from a study taken on any kind of performance over a wide range to a standard level with a high degree of accuracy, thus permitting the setting of accurate and consistent rates. Finally, time-formula derivation has been developed to a point that makes possible the quick and accurate setting of a large number of rates or time allowances with a minimum of engineering effort. This later became pre-determined motion system. MTM and MOSt are widely used predetermined motion time systems.

Methods Efficiency Engineering Procedure


Methods efficiency engineering is now  a carefully planned, systematic procedure. Standard process charts have been developed to a state of greater flexibility and have become more useful for analysis purposes.

Economic Function of Methods efficiency engineering


Under modern business conditions, one of the major problems which faces the managers of industry is that of constantly reducing costs. Markets are restricted for any product  because many individuals are economically unable to purchase the product at the current market price. Even in periods of prosperity, millions of people are able to supply themselves with only the barest necessities of life because of high prices of many items.

In any country, there are the fewest individuals in the highest group of income  and the greatest number of people are in the lowest group with some groups of people at intermediate income levels. At each level, there is a group with a certain purchasing power.


The consumers at any economic levels but the highest few have only a limited amount to spend. All kinds of products are offered to them in various enticing ways. Competition as a result is keen and ruthless. The only way an industrial unit an hope to survive under these conditions is constantly to seek to keep production costs as low as possible.

Taylor's "Shop Management" paper described methods that gave lower production cost and higher income to operators. Cost reduction methods aim at waste elimination in machine work and man work so that greater production is secured with less effort.

Methods efficiency engineering is primarily concerned with devising methods that increase production and reduce costs. Hence, it plays an important role in determining the competitive position of a plant. As competition appears to be become keener,  Methods efficiency engineering becomes increasingly important.

Methods efficiency engineering in an industrial unit can never be considered as completed. Costs that are satisfactory and competitive today become excessive in a comparatively short time because of the improved developments of other units of the industry. If the producer who is in a good competitive position today decides that his costs have reached rock bottom and that no further attempt to improve them is necessary, within a short while he is likely to find himself facing loss of his commercial standing as owner of an efficiently managed plant. Only by constantly seeking to improve can any unit safeguard its competitive position. Conditions in industry are never static, and steady progress is the only sure way to success.

Cost-reduction work is important as a factor for survival, but it  also expands the industry and the firm. There are  various economic strata of society. Assume that a certain company is manufacturing a product that, although universally desirable, is priced so high that only those individuals in group C or higher can purchase it. The market for the product is thus rather limited. If, however, properly conducted cost-reduction work permits the lowering of the selling price so that the individuals in group D can purchase the product, the market is at once greatly expanded, perhaps doubled or even tripled. Henry Ford was among the first to combine recognition of this principle with the courage to act upon it.

In actual practice, society is not divided into definite groups, but incomes range, in small steps, from next to nothing to the highest. Hence, each time the selling price of a product is reduced, even though it is as little as 1 per cent, the product is brought within the reach of more people. Therefore, it may be seen that cost reduction as a means of increasing the distribution of the product is at all times important.

Methods efficiency engineering and Shop Supervisors


The methods efficiency man is by no means the only one who takes an interest in establishing economic costs and improving methods. The foremen, the tool designers, and the other shop supervisors all realize the importance of keeping costs upon a competitive level. Very often they make worth-while improvements in manufacturing methods. The differences between the methods efficiency man and the other shop supervisors are two. In the first place, the methods man devotes all his time to methods work, whereas the other supervisors have numerous duties, which force them to consider methods work as incidental to their major activities. In the second place, the methods, man conducts his methods studies systematically and makes improvements as the result of applying a carefully developed technique. This technique is based upon a large amount of specialized knowledge which can be acquired only by special study and training. Therefore, unless a course in Methods efficiency engineering has been given to the other shop supervisors, their improvements are less certain and are due more to inspiration than to deliberate intent.

For these reasons, the major part of methods improvement is usually made by methods engineers. This is not a necessary condition, however; for the principles that they use can be learned by the other supervisors and can be applied, in part at least, during the course of their other work. Certain progressive organizations have realized this and have given methodsengineering training in more or less detail to their various key supervisors. The results, as may be expected, have been gratifying, and methods-improvement work has received a marked impetus (Maynard 1938).

It is hoped that this technique will be used by shop supervisors such as foremen, tool designers, and so on, as well as by methods engineers; for if the principles of methods efficiency work are understood throughout an organization, that organization will be in a good position to meet competition, depressions, or any other economic disturbances which may come its way.

Alan Mogensen advocated work simplification methodology. In this method, he used to conduct methods work shops based on process chart to supervisors and operators and used to improve processes with the involvement of the trainees. He was very successful in this endeavor for three decades and his method was adopted by Training Within Industry (TWI) program and then from them by Toyota Motors. Now, industrial engineering is being taught in undergraduate engineering programs to make all engineers practice industrial engineering and also to train their supervisors and operators. But in undergraduate programs, only mechanical branch and other branches are not teaching. It is important that it is taught in all engineering branches.


Adopted based on the first chapter of Maynard's Operation Analysis

Full Knol Book - Method Study: Methods Efficiency Engineering - Knol Book
Next Article - Process Analysis and Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering




August month Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan is completely focused on Process Industrial Engineering

Process Industrial Engineering - Article Index  - Presently it contains the copy of August revision plan. More articles are to be added to this index.



Updated 30 July 2017,   19 July 2017,  26 March 2017, 7 February 2017
Revision made on 23 Nov 2013
Revision made on 16 Feb 2014, 11 April 2015


Thursday, July 27, 2017

Prohibition Policy in Bihar


There is an editorial in today's Economic Times (27 July 2017)  http://blogs.economictimes.indiatimes.com/et-editorials/90300/

Editorial in 27 July 2017 TheEconomic Times

BJP the gainer, as Nitish Kumar recalibrates
July 26, 2017, 11:42 PM IST ET Edit in ET Editorials | India, politics | ET

The last sentence

In all this, Kumar has demonstrated that he is one of India’s most ruthless — and flexible — politicians. We would urge Kumar to show similar flexibility and scrap, or at the very least partially reverse, his prohibition policy, which can only be enforced by using the coercive power of the state and a concomitant violation of civil liberties.

Should Nitish Kumar scrap prohibition policy as suggested by the Editor of Economic Times?


After prohibition, Bihar aims for dowry-free villages

Political analysts believe that after successfully imposing prohibition on liquor in Bihar, chief minister Nitish Kumar is now raising the bar in an attempt to emerge as a social reformer.
Updated: Jul 16, 2017
Reena Sopam, Hindustan Times, Patna
http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/after-prohibition-bihar-aims-to-have-dowry-free-villages-to-rope-in-mukhiyas-religious-leaders-in-campaign/story-StjGXRGNjrnGNsZ9c7KFuL.html



Prohibition in Bihar: Supreme Court extends deadline for liquor disposal till 31 July
29 May
http://www.firstpost.com/india/prohibition-in-bihar-supreme-court-extends-deadline-for-liquor-disposal-till-31-july-3493679.html


Why prohibition has worked in Bihar?

D. N. Sahaya | New Delhi
April 28, 2017
The writer is ex-Governor, Chattisgarh and Tripura and former chairman, A. N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies, Patna.
http://www.thestatesman.com/opinion/why-prohibition-has-worked-in-bihar-1493329920.html

Tough Implementation of Prohibition in Bihar

The Bihar model of prohibition seems to have taken off with a bang, with around 44,000 people put behind bars and over 10 lakh litres of liquor seized, during its one-year of enforcement since April 1, 2016.
1 April 2017
http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-bihar-walks-a-tough-line-in-first-year-of-total-prohibition-2377348

Somebody is unhappy that media is not writing against prohibition and its strict implementation.
Bihar’s liquor war: Prisoners of prohibition and the conspiracy of silence
By opinionbihar March 9, 2017
http://www.opindia.com/2017/03/bihars-liquor-war-prisoners-of-prohibition-and-the-conspiracy-of-silence/

PM asks people of Bihar to support the prohibition policy

PATNA, JANUARY 05, 2017
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/Modi-says-cheers-to-Nitish%E2%80%99s-liquor-ban/article16992313.ece

PM Modi praises Nitish Kumar for ‘remarkable ability’ over prohibition policy in Bihar
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Thursday praised Bihar chief minister Nitish Kumar over his controversial move to ban liquor in the state despite objections from all quarters, calling it a “courageous step”.
Jan 05, 2017
HT Correspondent
Hindustan Times, Patna
http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pm-narendra-modi-praises-nitish-kumar-for-his-prohibition-policy-in-bihar/story-2EFiHIYKYGCkXD8JW0rU0K.html


PM urged to put ban on sale of alcohol across the country.

Bihar CM, while addressing his recent anti-liquor campaigns in different states especially Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, urged the PM to put ban on sale of alcohol across the country.
A former governor of Assam and Tamil Nadu, Bhishma Narain Singh, who hails from BJP-ruled Jharkhand, supported Nitish Kumar and requested the Prime Minister Narendra Modi to announce complete ban on alcohol and tobacco across the country on the occasion of International Yoga Day on June 21.
Jun 20, 2016
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Nitish-Kumar-asks-Narendra-Modi-to-ban-alcohol-across-country/articleshow/52838603.cms


The Bihar Prohibition And Excise Act, 2016
http://nyaaya.in/law/858/the-bihar-prohibition-and-excise-act-2016/


National consensus on prohibition sought
Dec 25, 2001
Chennai: Ambedkar People's Movement (APM) president and former Chennai mayor Vai Balasundaram on tuesday appealed to the centre and state governments to evolve a national consensus on implementation of prohibition in the country.
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/National-consensus-on-prohibition-sought/articleshow/1035208499.cms?

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Functions of Industrial Engineering








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The functions of management are currently given as Planning, Organizing, Resourcing, Executing and Control.

What are functions of Industrial Engineering (IE)?


Industrial engineering has the following functions:

Research in Industrial Engineering
Productivity Science
Productivity Engineering
Productivity Management
Communication, Training and Implementation
Productivity Measurement
Review



Research in Industrial Engineering


Industrial engineering has emerged out of shop management and scientific management developed and promoted by F.W. Taylor. Development of science related to production systems or work systems consisting of machines and men is the foundation for this subject. Hence research is an important function of industrial engineering. Industrial engineers are to be taught scientific research method and process so that they can understand the research papers published by IE researchers and also undertake research related to local applications.


Productivity Science


Research propositions and the tests of research propositions are to be consolidated into scientific theories related to various issues of interest in the field of industrial engineering.

Productivity Engineering


Redesign of engineering processes to make them more productive is productivity engineering. The two important outputs of engineering processes are products or services and processes to produce those goods and services. Redesign of human actions also is part of productivity engineering. Productivity engineering is driven forward by productivity science. Improvement iterations take place within productivity engineering itself due to inventions taking place.

Productivity Management


Productivity management consists of activities of industrial engineers in the field of management. These activities have two objectives. One objective is to assess various management policies, programs and processes for the impact on productivity of engineering processes. Where they do not have desirable effects, industrial engineers have to propose redesign of them.

The second objective is the management of productivity in organizations. Industrial engineers are responsibility for managing the productivity. They have to plan for productivity improvement, organize for it, acquire resources for it, executive productivity improvement projects and activities and control them to achieve the planned goals.

Productivity science gives impetus for developing management methods that increase productivity. Thus productivity science is an input to productivity engineering and productivity management.


Communication, Training and Implementation


Industrial engineering is carried out as staff activity. The redesigns of the IE projects are to be communicated to various persons in the organization to establish its feasibility and also get them approved by competent authorities for funding. Then, industrial engineers have to train various persons in the new methods. Even though, they are a staff function, they have to be part of implementation teams and their work is not over till implementation is done.

Productivity Measurement


Measurement of productivity is an important function. After productivity improvement projects are implemented, measurements have to validate the improvement. Also past measurements or new measurements become the basis for planning productivity improvement programs.

Review


Based on the productivity measurements, a review of situation is to be made to take decisions regarding future efforts in the area of productivity. The results of review become the sources for further research, productivity engineering and productivity management activities.


The principles of industrial engineering proposed by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao - Presented at the 2017 Annual Conference of Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE) - at Pittsburgh, USA are the basis for deriving the functions of industrial engineering


Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao 

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Compare and find the agreement of many scholars, departments of industrial engineering with the above explanation


University of Pretoria
http://www.up.ac.za/en/industrial-and-systems-engineering/article/45515/the-industrial-engineering-profession

Monday, July 24, 2017

Industrial Engineering - Bulletin Board



The earlier Blog URL:  http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/02/industrial-engineering-bulletin-board.html

_________________________________________________________________________________

Industrial Engineering Knol Books by Narayana Rao


_______________________________________________________________________________

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December


The Purpose, Philosophy, Principles and Methods of Industrial Engineering
Masters in Industrial Engineering Programme Orientation Address 2016
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____________________



Interesting work in Industrial Engineering being done by

https://www.linkedin.com/in/spmishra16/


Random Selection of Industrial Engineering Articles for the Day

Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/industrial-engineering-principles.html


Industrial Engineers - Share at least one productivity idea of yours every year


Contribute Brainstorming Bits for Productivity Improvement.

I suggest that all industrial engineering participating in productivity improvement contribute at least one productivity initiative of theirs every year through a blog post, social media entry or email in a group. The blog post can be in their own blog, on a blog of their company or it can be submitted to blogs of their institute or professional associations. The social media posts can be on their profile, a page, or in a community. That way the community will have multiple examples of productivity improvement in the entire global economy and some of these examples act as brainstorming particles that excite others to think and implement productivity measures in their organizations. By sharing only one idea every year, every industrial engineer engaging in productivity improvement can energize the entire profession.

I am very happy that Mr. Keven McManus, a regular author in Industrial Engineer magazine supported the idea in FaceBook Community of IISE.


NIFT should focus on Industrial Engineering http://news.apparelresources.com/events-news/nift-should-focus-on-industrial-engineering/

Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board - 2014 - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

Branding for Industrial Engineering


Industrial Engineering Strategy

Industrial Engineering of Technical Processes

  Manufacturing Systems Industrial Engineering
  Material Handling Systems Industrial Engineering
Quality and Inspection Systems Industrial Engineering
Storage and Warehouse  Systems Industrial Engineering
Supply Chain Systems Industrial Engineering
Logistics Systems Industrial Engineering
  Information Systems Industrial Engineering
Lean Manufacturing Systems Industrial Engineering
    Maintenance System Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering of Business Processes

Marketing and Selling Processes  Industrial Engineering
Purchase Processes  Industrial Engineering
Accounting Processes  Industrial Engineering
Customer Service Processes  Industrial Engineering
Human Resource Recruitment  Process Industrial Engineering

Continued in 

Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - Bulletin Board - February 2014


November 2014
Industrial Engineering Strategy - Decisions to be taken by top management
Toyota Production Industrial Engineering updated by adding all chapters of the book


July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - Started on 17 June 2014


February 2014

Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer - Contribution to Industrial Engineering  Updated on 18.2.2014

3 Feb 2014
IntelliJ IDEA 13 Wins Jolt Productivity Award for Coding Tools 2014!
Dr. Dobb’s Journal named IntelliJ IDEA 13 the winner of the Jolt Productivity Award for Coding Tools 2014, an annual award given to the best IDEs and coding tools.
http://www.drdobbs.com/joltawards/jolt-awards-coding-tools/240165725?pgno=6

January 2014


31.1.2014

Vacuum drying - increased moulding productivity - Plastics Processing

“Vacuum drying is six times faster than with desiccant systems, which not only makes possible much shorter cold startups but also reduces the risk of material degradation, since resin is exposed to elevated temperature for 80% less time,” said Mr. Smith. “This remarkable drying speed is attributable to a far more efficient method for extracting moisture from resin pellets — so much more efficient that vacuum dryers reduce energy consumption by up to 60% in comparison with desiccant dryers.”
http://www.eppm.com/machinery/vacuum-dryer-claims-increased-moulding-productivity/


Solutions to Drive Warehouse Productivity
In this webcast, Eric Hepburn, Vice President of Distribution Center Management for Penske Logistics, shares proven techniques on how to devise a labor management strategy that can make a huge impact on your distribution operations.
http://www.dcvelocity.com/videocasts/?videocast_id=53

30.1.2014


Three reasons why blogging helps research productivity
http://www.scilogs.com/expiscor/three-reasons-why-blogging-helps-research-productivity/


Efficient cooling system improves productivity in plastic moulding


As cooling time is the biggest factor in plastic moulding cycle and one of the deciding factors for the quality requirements, better control upon the same will improve the productivity to a great extent.
Analysis of cooling performance at regular intervals is always advisable to maintain and/or improve the cooling efficiency.
The pump/s, pipe diameter and cooling tower are selected accordingly and the design is optimised. Design can be optimised for new plants and for modification of existing plant.
http://www.business-standard.com/content/b2b-chemicals/efficient-cooling-system-improves-productivity-in-plastic-moulding-114012900974_1.html



Wave Walker Boosts Productivity
WaveWalker can considerably boost productivity in tasks such as drilling and pipeline and cable-laying.
http://www.marinelink.com/news/productivity-walker363586.aspx

Bangladesh boosts garment productivity with SewEasy System for industrial engineering
The SewEasy SMV estimation system, established on PMTS technology serves factories since 1996, and is based on MTM.
http://www.ft.lk/2014/01/30/bangladesh-boosts-garment-productivity-with-seweasy-system-for-industrial-engineering/


Remarkable increase in productivity with the new SEHO SelectLine
SEHO Systems GmbH, a worldwide leading manufacturer of automated soldering systems and customer-specific solutions, will present the new SEHO SelectLine selective soldering system
http://www.globalsmt.net/smt/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=21145&Itemid=413


H.C. Starck's Newton facility awarded Industry Week's 2013 Best Plants
The global supplier of technology metals was able to reduce waste, optimize productivity, streamline processes, improve efficiencies, and reduce cost.
http://www.thefabricator.com/news/shopmanagement/h-c-starck-s-newton-facility-awarded-i-industry-week-i-s-2013-best-plants



29.1.2014

Productivity and Online Learning


The Need for Greater Productivity through Online Learning, Part 1
http://wcetblog.wordpress.com/2014/01/21/greater-productivity-part-1/
The Need for Greater Productivity through Online Learning, Part 2
http://wcetblog.wordpress.com/2014/01/23/greater-productivity-part-2/
The Need for Greater Productivity through Online Learning, Further Thoughts
http://wcetblog.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/the-need-for-greater-productivity-through-online-learning-further-thoughts/


Productivity Commission of New Zealand suggests 25 recommendations that it believed would boost the productivity of the services sector
http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/industries/9663187/Productivity-Commission-suggests-overhaul


Tap behavioural economics for productivity boost
Businesses must select leaders and managers who can engage their employees
http://www.businesstimes.com.sg/premium/editorial-opinion/opinion/tap-behavioural-economics-productivity-boost-20140129

Preparing For Productivity: The Rise Of The Maintenance Planner
http://www.facilitiesnet.com/maintenanceoperations/article/Preparing-for-Productivity-The-Rise-of-the-Maintenance-Planner--14695#

Guide to assessing productivity in your organisation - Productivity South Africa
Download the Guide to assessing productivity in your organisation - (139KB)


The Domino N600i
The only digital colour label press that combines
the productivity of flexo with the flexibility of digital printing
http://www.domino-printing.com/N600i/N600i-Colour-Digital-Label-Press.html

Resource Productivity of Japanese Manufacturing Subsidiaries in the Philippines: A Comparative Case Study.
Source: DLSU Business & Economics Review . Jul2011, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p15-28. 14p. 5 Charts.
Author(s): Cortez, Michael Angelo A.
(EBSCO Host)

Industrial Productivity
What determines how much a worker can produce in different periods and in different countries? The answer is found in the study of a sensitive ratio between the cost of labor and the cost of machinery
By Seymour Melman
Scientific American Volume 193, Issue 1


3M™ High Productivity Pad 7300, 20 in, 5/case
http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_US/Facilities-Care-Cleaning-NA/commercial-cleaning/cleaning-supplies/~/3M-High-Productivity-Pad-7300-20-in-5-case?N=4294929802+6702276&Nr=AND(hrcy_id%3AGSMS2G8GX9gs_F2TPJQMRJ6_N2RL3FHWVK_GPD0K8BC31gv)&rt=d


Value Engineering of Ventilator

Productivity and IE in Stock and Commodity Exchange Trading


Integrated production planning and control: A multi-objective optimization model
Cheng Wang, Xiao-Bing Liu
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management
Vol 6, No 4 (2013)
http://www.jiem.org/index.php/jiem/article/view/771


A Novel Optimization Method on Logistics Operation for Warehouse & Port Enterprises Based on Game Theory
Junyang Li, Xiaomin Zhu, Runtong Zhang
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management
Vol 6, No 4 (2013)
http://www.jiem.org/index.php/jiem/article/view/597



2014 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications(ICIEA 2014)

Papers on the following topics will be presented in oral and poster sessions:
· Decision Analysis and Methods
· E-Business and E-Commerce
· Engineering Economy and Cost Analysis
· Engineering Education and Training
· Global Manufacturing and Management
· Healthcare Systems and Management
· Human Factors
· Information Processing and Engineering
· Intelligent Systems
· Manufacturing Systems
· Operations Research
· Production Planning and Control
· Project Management
· Quality Control and Management
· Reliability and Maintenance Engineering
· Safety, Security and Risk Management
· Service Innovation and Management
· Supply Chain Management
· Systems Modeling and Simulation
· Technology and Knowledge Management

Conference papers will be selected to be published in Journal of Industrial and Intelligent Information (JIII, ISSN: 2301-3745, 10.12720/jiii, www.jiii.org).


28.1.2014


Rokla Rockwheel cutting unit increases productivity in abrasive material mining
http://www.im-mining.com/2014/01/28/rokla-rockwheel-cutting-unit-increases-productivity-in-abrasive-material/

Productivity From Packaging Line Solutions
Rennco is a manufacturer of semi-automatic and fully automatic vertical bagging machines and medical device heat sealing systems
http://goarticles.com/article/Productivity-From-Packaging-Line-Solutions/8349528/

Low-cost and more versatile robots to increase productivity
Rise of the machines: Robots on the factory floor
Vanguard Plastics in Southington, Conn., has put a robot named Baxter($25,000) in its plant to work side by side with some of the 22 people on its floor.
http://www.cnbc.com/id/101362018

New Inserts Boost Productivity in a Wide Range of Tough Turning Applications
Walter's new geometries bring production efficiencies for turning high temperature alloys, titanium machining and tough roughing jobs.
http://www.fabricatingandmetalworking.com/2014/01/new-inserts-boost-productivity-in-a-wide-range-of-tough-turning-applications/

Drum Debarker — Continuous Wood Feeding And Other Productivity-Boosting Mechanisms
http://chasseurs-orages.org/drum-debarker-continuous-wood-feeding-and-other-productivity-boosting-mechanisms/

Reduce press downtime between jobs in stamping machines
http://www.thefabricator.com/article/stamping/cutting-time-between-coils

How We Increased Productivity on the Shop Floor
By PAUL DOWNS
Paul Downs founded Paul Downs Cabinetmakers in 1986. It is based outside Philadelphia.
http://boss.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/27/how-we-increased-productivity-on-the-shop-floor/?partner=rss&emc=rss

Tips for Maximizing Productivity and Decreasing Costs in Welding Job Shops
http://www.millerwelds.com/resources/articles/tips-for-maximizing-productivity-and-decreasing-costs-in-job-shops

Analysis of buffered assembly line productivity
Ryspek Usubamatov, Abd Alsalam Alsalameh, Rosmaini Ahmad, Abdul Rahman Riza, (2014) "Analysis of buffered assembly line productivity", Assembly Automation, Vol. 34 Iss: 1, pp.34 - 40
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17104126&show=abstract


Comprehensive, quantitative bioprocess productivity monitoring using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and chemometrics.
Analyst, 2014, Accepted Manuscript
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/an/c4an00007b#!divAbstract

InfoPrint Productivity Tracker
Insights to help drive out cost
https://www.infoprint.com/internet/ipww.nsf/vwWebPublished/swip_infoprint-productivity-tracker_en


Converged infrastructure boosts Oracle DBA productivity
Converged infrastructure boosts DBA productivity, according to a new Wikibon report. Wikibon’s research examined Oracle database administrators (DBAs) in particular and found that highly converged infrastructure lowered costs and raised productivity between 40 and 50 percent.
http://siliconangle.com/blog/2014/01/27/converged-infrastructure-boosts-oracle-dba-productivity/



27.1.2014

$1 billion Soros backed fund for Supply Chain Efficiency Improvement Projects

Niedermaier, CEO of New York-based Tau Investment Management has teamed up with investor Alexander Soros— the son of billionaire financier George Soros to raise $1 billion  to revamp the vast number of firms that form supply chains for various products. He said firms participating in supply chains are full of inefficiencies and outdated equipment that can be upgraded for a nice profit. His Tau Investments has chosen as its first target textile and apparel manufacturing in emerging markets, a $1 trillion industry.
http://www.cnbc.com/id/101359907

Management and Productivity
http://www.economist.com/news/business/21594223-it-no-longer-just-plausible-theory-good-management-boosts-productivity-measuring

Decreasing workplace transparency can increase productivity.

Harvard Business School Assistant Professor Ethan S. Bernstein shows that decreasing the observation of employees can increase their productivity.  His paper "Transparency Paradox: A Role for Privacy in Organizational Learning and Operational Control"  won the 2013 Best Published Paper Award from both the Academy of Management's Organization and Management Theory Division and Organizational Behavior Division.
http://forbesindia.com/article/harvard/hiding-from-managers-can-increase-your-productivity/36859/1

Tivoli Storage Productivity Center - IBM
Tivoli Storage Productivity Center simplifies the following data and storage management processes:
Storage administration options where you can choose from an advanced GUI or VMware plug-in. It also includes Cognos® Business Intelligence and pre-designed reports.
Storage and device management to give you fast deployment with agent-less device management – while intelligent presets improve provisioning consistency and control.
Integrated performance management features end-to-end views, including devices, SAN fabrics and storage systems. The server-centric view of storage infrastructure enables fast troubleshooting.
Data replication management that enables you to have remote mirror, snapshot and copy management and supports Windows, Linux, UNIX and System z data.
http://www-03.ibm.com/software/products/en/tivostorprodcent/


Increasing  the productivity of sales force.by simplifying the Insurance form filling process

Tata AIA Life Insurance Company Ltd today said it has implemented a host of new processes that will make life insurance simpler and increase the productivity of its sales force.
Tata AIA Life is one of the first insurance companies in India to fully switch over to a ‘Standard Proposal Form’ for all products consequently offering convenience in making completion of applications faster and easier for the customers. This also makes the agent sales kit lighter since different proposal forms for different products would not be required any further.
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/companies/tata-aia-life-aims-to-enhance-productivity/article5620363.ece

Productivity in Germany

Highest 111.June 2012
102.3 in November 2013
http://www.tradingeconomics.com/germany/productivity

Impact of Temperature and Climate Variability on Milk Productivity of Bovines
Mitigation Measures - India
http://www.ndri.res.in/PanApps/chapters/2.pdf

22 Productivity Principles From Proverbs

http://www.churchleaders.com/worship/worship-articles/172409-eric-mckiddie-productivity-principles-from-proverbs.html?p=1

Improving field service productivity with tablet pcs
http://www.motioncomputing.com/downloads/Marketing_Brochures/industries/industry_fieldservice_web.pdf



Modern Compass Improves Oilfield Productivity, Cuts Costs

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) comments that multiple reservoirs of oil and gas can be now be accessed from a single platform by drilling vertically and then horizontally, but drill operators need to know which way their drill bits are going to maxi­mize production and avoid collisions with other wells. One way to accomplish this important task is to install a magnetometer—a sort of modern-day compass—in a drill-string instrument package that follows the drill bit.
http://www.bpnews.com/index.php/in-the-news/97-modern-compass-improves-oilfield-productivity-cuts-costs


ATC 900 the most productive tire changer solution on the market

The dual-disc bead breaker, center clamp system and automatic demounting tool make the ATC 900 the most productive tire changer solution on the market. Leverless demounting and powered wheel lift reduce technician fatigue and opportunity for injury. Dual disc bead breakers and servo positioned and electronically synchronized so the technician can efficiently maintain a safe and ergonomic bay position.
http://www.johnbean.ca/tc-atc-900.asp

December 2013

Industrial Engineering of Warehouses - Efficiency Improvement of warehouses
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/12/warehouse-industrial-engineering.html


The New role of Industrial Engineering  by Jan Kosturiak and Robert Debnar (Article in 2008)
Practices in USA, Europe and Japan Compared and Changing Directions Identified.

The American school of Industrial Engineering combines statistical methods in quality, mathematics and optimisation methods of operation research, simulation and  the methods for work analysis and facilities layout planning. The base of the methods of the Japanese school of Industrial Engineering is the Toyota Production System oriented on waste elimination in the entire value stream. But also Japanese universities and companies incorporated simulation, mathematics and operation research programmes into the traditional Industrial Engineering methods. In an  issue of Harvard Business review, Toyota´s President Katsuaki Watanabe emphasizes the importance of combining continuous improvement (Kaizen) with radical innovations (Kakushin).

 The traditional focus of Industrial Engineering is on process analysis and improvement.  and also the human aspects related to flexibility, productivity and creativity.

 Information technology is being increasingly integrated into IE courses and alongside the basic subjects that deal with hard facts, there are more and more classes looking at issues of teamwork, people motivation, communication skills, emotional intelligence and ethics.




USA

Europe

Japan

Focus of Industrial Engineering

Systems Optimisation, Statistical Process Control, Simulation, Bottleneck Management, Project Management  - USA

Complex process optimisation, CIM, CAD/CAM, Flexible Automation, Systems Engineering, Digital Factory - Europe

Waste Elimination, Simplification, Visualisation, Low Cost Automation,  Common Sense, Lean, TPS, Kaizen - Japan

Typical Role of the Industrial Engineer

Systems Integrator, Optimiser, Process Improvement and re-engineering - USA

Production Process Optimisation, - Europe

Lean Manager, Teacher, Trainer, - Japan

Who are the Industrial Engineers?

Industrial Engineering Department, Operation Management - USA

Department of Work and Process Organisation, Production Planning Department _ Europe

Hancho – Supervisor on Shop Floor, Every Employee from CEO to the Worker on the Line has some IE Skills - Japan


Leading  associations and organizations

Institute of Industrial Engineers, Maynard´s, Lean Institute, MIT, Purdue University, Goldratt Institute - USA

REFA, MTM, Fraunhofer - Europe

Toyota, Nissan, Omron, JMA, JUSE - Japan

Some IE  Leaders

Babbage Towne, Hasley, Gantt, Taylor, Gillbreth, Ford, Deming, Shewhart, Pritsker, White, Malcom

Fayol, Mitrofanov, Altschuller, Schulmpeter, T.Baťa, J.Baťa, Warnecke

Toyota, Suzaki, Imai, Takeda, Shingo, Ishikawa, Taguchi, Ohno, Monden





Focus on the “empolyee´s muscles” (performance – physical intelligence) and brains (kaizen – mental intelligence) shifting to  Focus on the employee´s heart (self motivation, emotional intelligence)  and soul (moral and ethics – soul intelligence)

Management philosophy
Trade Off Thinking - High Quality OR Low Cost, Affordable OR Customized to Breakthrough Thinking, High Quality AND Low Cost, Affordable AND Customized

Improvement Concepts
Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, TOC shifting to Systematic Innovation, Lean Product Development

Management principles
Management by objectives, process and project management shifting to  Management by opportunities, company as a  living organism


Mass customisation,  individualisation, global competition, fast overcoming of traditional rules and standards mean that many change processes are running in companies world wide under the slogan “give your customer what he wants – but faster than your competitors”.

There are three fundamental concepts in industrial engineering focused on customer value:

1. Lean Management

2. Theory of Constraints based Total Productivity Management

3. Six Sigma

Over the last decade, many companies have tried to copy Toyota‘s principles. They are applying methods for waste elimination from production and business processes, they compare benchmark indicators like value added index or working hours per product. But the essence of Toyota’s excellence is not yet captured . Toyota has been developing this system consistently for over 50 years. Toyota has developed a system of knowledge which creates reusable knowledge, maintains it, and leverages its use in the future. Nobody from Toyota employees wrote a handbook of the Toyota Production System, this is the business of other management gurus. The values and principles of the Toyota Production System are developed in the minds and daily jobs of all the employees. All the knowledge gained throughout the design or production process, what works and what doesn’t work, could be captured and consistently applied for all future projects. Toyota doesn´t call its system “lean”, but it is lean, Toyota doesn´t speak about knowledge management, but it does it!

The lean concept originated in Toyota is oriented on waste identification and elimination from the whole process chain (Value Stream Management). In other words – lean focus is the maximisation of added value in all the production, logistical, administrative and development processes. TOC (Theory of Constraints) is based on the identification and elimination of the system´s constraints with the goal ongoing throughput improvement. The throughput is defined as the rate at which the organisation generates money through sales. In other words, throughput is the added value in the process chain per time unit. The Six Sigma philosophy identifies and eliminates variation from the value stream so that defects approach zero and quality delights the customer. Six Sigma, Lean and TOC continuously improve knowledge in pursuit of perfection and involve and empower the employees.

Many companies are oriented on low cost strategies. But some cost attack programmes or the transfering of production facilities to low cost countries showed that it is not the right and strategic solution. In recent years, many West European and US manufacturing firms have moved their production plants to the low cost countries. Over time, they recognised that they had lost some competitive advantages because some departments were physically separated (e.g. product design and development, production engineering, production, logistics) and the communication and co-operation between them was limited. Also many cultural differences reduced the effects of the low cost location. Not even the massive implementation of lean management, Six Sigma or other world class concepts can sometimes bring any radical improvement. Company success is not only in the optimisation of current processes (doing right things right).


 What is the new role of industrial engineering in coming years?

1. The industrial engineer will still focus on value stream improvement, but not only in manufacturing. Administrative, product development, customer service and logistical processes offer huge improvement potential.

2. The integration of traditional concepts for process improvement like Lean, Six Sigma and TOC. These concepts for waste elimination, reduction of process variation and throughput increase will be combined with concepts for customer value creation.

3. Today, the typical job position of industrial engineers is in the production and logistics departments. In the future, the industrial engineers will penetrate into the departments for product and process development and innovation management, where the higher opportunities to reduce costs, eliminate waste and improve quality rather than production are.

4. Industrial engineers have to increase their orientation on the people. Not only in the traditional sense – ergonomics, but also in the areas of emotional intelligence, co-operation, knowledge management, coaching, training, leadership, communication, etc. The companies should be able to solve the following important questions regarding knowledge management: How to share, communicate and develop the best corporate practices in the organisation? How to transfer knowledge between employees on the projects and actions in the company? How to increase and measure knowledge? How to change knowledge into innovation as fast as possible?

5. The design and development of teamwork in the entire company – this is the crucial competence of industrial engineers for the future. They need to work in  the creative teams of strong individuals, focused on innovation ability.  The other important task is to work in  multi-cultural teams in the global production networks.

6. Work analysis and measurement is the traditional competence of industrial engineers. New opportunities for this discipline are in logistics, distribution, office, and product and process development.

7. Industrial engineers will penetrate from production departments to other company areas. There are many new application fields for traditional IE methods – e.g. 5S in information systems, simulation and value stream management of supply chain networks, simplification and streamlining of management processes – waste in meetings, reporting, etc.


The most used methods and concepts of industrial eingineering in the industrial companies are  – Value Stream Industrial Engineering  (not only in production processes, but also in office, logistical chains and product development processes),  – Work Analysis and Measurement (in European companies more traditional methods are used MTM or UAS, American companies use MOST more often),  – Computer simulation (in Europe EM Plant or Witness, in US companies more often, Arena, Automod, etc.),  – TPM based waste elimination - Total Productivity Management based on TOC  – Quality in process – SPC, poka yoke, andon, jidoka, stop line  – 5S and Quick Changeover  – Different Systematic Problems Solving Approaches – Kaizen (individual improvement ideas, workshops, quick win activities, Improvement Projects with DMAIC methodology  – Planning of U shaped  Lines with one piece flow and Low Cost Intelligent Automation (LCIA) concepts  – Team work, visual management, management by objectives  – Pull systems in production and logistics (internal and external milk run concepts)  – Traditional IE problem solving methods – FMEA, QFD, Project Management, A3 reports, etc. -
http://www.ai-online.com/Adv/Previous/show_issue.php?id=2244#sthash.JUZRM87e.dpuf



Productivity Solutions - Corus
http://www.fdm-uk.co.uk/corus-case-study.html


November 2013



Toyota Production System can be described as Just in Time Quality Production System.
Quality denotes customer acceptance and zero defects.
A defect in JIT system is very costly. Hence, good amount of effort goes into defect prevention activity in Toyota system.
What is the communication system used for ensuring just in time production. Customer has to inform the supplier what he wants and when he wants.

EM - The Trade Magazine on Efficient Manufacturing
http://www.efficientmanufacturing.in/pi-india/index.php?StoryID=437

October 2013

An Interesting Book published in 1921
What industrial engineering includes; for industrial executives; 101 things to do, 1001 results others secured
Author: Knoeppel, C.E., & co. (New York). Full book can be downloaded from Archive.Org

Wearable technology for warehouse

Industrial Engineering - History  article published

September 2013

It should be stated here emphatically that there is nothing that can permanently bring about results from scientific management, and the economies that it is possible to effect by it, unless the organisation is supported by the hearty co-operation of the men. Without this there is no scientific management. - Gilbreth in Applied Motion Study, Book. Page No. 29-30


Frugal Engineering - Product design for Bottom of the pyramid consumers - An emerging paradigm. Industrial engineers have to understand and contribute to it as value engineering is an important component of it.      Frugal Engineering - Introduction Note - Bibliography and Case Studies

How to Make a Pareto Chart using Excel Pivot Table

Economically Efficient Design of Products and Production Processes - Presentation Transcript

How to Get Your Trucks Loaded by the End of the Week
http://blog.eisbrennerproductivitygroup.com/blog/bid/331188/process-improvement-plan-tip-of-the-month-loading-trucks?utm_campaign=Loading+Trucks&utm_source=linkedin&utm_medium=social&utm_content=1431326

Walmart ready to give loans to Bangladesh companies for improving safety. It procures from 280 firms in Bangladesh.
http://www.livemint.com/Companies/xtrIzpopi01i9MOrbsu8aN/WalMart-ready-to-loan-50-million-to-Bangladesh-factories.html#!

August 2013

Taylor's Contribution to Industrial Engineering in Shop Management and Scientific Management

F.W. Taylor's Shop Management Classified into Themes

Defintion of Management - F.W. Taylor
Difference in Production Quantity between a first class man and an average man - F.W. Taylor
Developing and Employing First Class People in an Organization
Confronting Soldiering - Slow Pace of Work
Halsey Plan - F.W. Taylor's Comments
Task Management


Plant Layout Optimization - Case Studies
http://www.raymondnet.com/AGRCo-Articles/Presentations/awi2004.pdf


July 2013


31.7.2013
Laboratories to accompany Intro to IE Course
http://iris.lib.neu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=ind_eng_capstone

24.7.2013

North Eastern University's Allen Soyster, former IIE President
________________

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Robots operating CNC Machines
http://www.universal-robots.com/GB/Cases/Sky_Engineering.aspx
Video included in the web page.


Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study
Daniel F. Moreira and Helena M. Ramos
Journal of Energy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 620698, 9 pages
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/energy/2013/620698/

Accounts Payable Automation DHL EXEL Supply Chain - IBM ECM Presentation

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Door Handle Assembly on Conveyor
________________

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May 2013



9.5.2013
An interesting note on productivity of knowledge workers.
Knowledge at Wharton article
Productivity in the modern office: A Matter of impact
http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=3250

10.3.2013
http://www.myopencourses.com/  has some interesting subjects including ergonomics by Prof Debkumar Chakraborty, IIT Guwahati. Check the site.

10.2.2013

An Interesting paper on Innovation and TQM relation. A good matrix of man, machine, material, method, culture was given in the paper


Process Techno - Innovation Using TQM in Developing Countries Empirical Study of Deming Prize Winners

 The companies studied are Indian companies

By Fasil Taddese(1), Hiroshi Osada(2)

1 (Ph.D Student) Graduate School of Innovation Management, Tokyo institute of Technology. Japan. Tel: +81-3-90-9818-6778. E-mail: fasil.t.aa   at m.titech.ac.jp
2 (Ph.D) Professor of Management of Technology. Graduate School of Innovation Management, Tokyo Institute of Technology. Japan. Tel: +81-3-3454-8979. E-mail: hosada  at mot.titech.ac.jp
http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0718-27242010000200005&script=sci_arttext




Productivity Improving Technologies - Wikipedia Article - Good article
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity_improving_technologies_(historical)


1994 Ergonomics Conference Proceedings VI - Good description of methods engineering class room exercise is there in it.
Google Book Link - http://books.google.co.in/books?id=v996lADepAEC


1.2.2013
Manufacturing Design for Productivity - Airconditioner Assembly Line
A good report with good literature review
http://www.belgeler.com/blg/n9o/manufacturing-design-for-productivity-optimization-of-assembly-line-for-air-conditioning-control-panels-verimlilik-iin-retim-tasarimi-klima-kontrol-paneli-montaj-bandi-optimizasyonu

26.12.2012
26 December 1791 - Birthday of Charles Babbage Industrial Engineering Pioneer - http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/purpose-and-evolution-of-industrial.html

24.11.2012
News Resources for Food manufacturers to improve their productivity
http://www.spring.gov.sg/NewsEvents/PR/Pages/New-Resources-for-Food-Manufacturers-to-Improve-Productivity-20121012.aspx

25.10.2012
Google Book Link for the book The Dynamics of Progress; Time, Method and Measure
Rationalising production, human activity are discussed in detail in this book
http://books.google.com/books?id=xlzCWmXguwsC

3.9.2012
A good presentation on Basis of Industrial Engineering - Methods Improvement and Work Measurement - 235 slides
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/8ce8ad310b4c2e3f572763fb.html



28.8.2012

USC Viterbi Daniel Epstein Department of Industrial Engineering


With the formation of the new Daniel J. Epstein Institute, the Epstein Department is uniquely positioned to be the thought leader in shifting the industrial engineering profession paradigm from cost and time minimization to one that includes quality of life factors as well.


Stan Settles
Epstein Department Chair


27.8.2012

A Collection - Cost Reduction - Concepts Papers, Cases, Reports and News
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/08/cost-reduction-concept-papers-cases.html
updated


25.8.2012
Addressing the potential rebound effect of efficiency improvement in a polyethelene plastic bag production company.

Daphne Anne Patricio,  Jerrick Christopher Dy, and Dr. Anna Bella Siriban-Manalang
Industrial Engineering Department, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

Dr. Anna Bella Siriban-Manalang is now a very popular speaker in various global forums on lean systems and sustainability.
http://apiems.net/archive/apiems2010/pdf/MM/333.pdf
(emails of writers available in the paper)



25.7.2012
http://eng.rmutsb.ac.th/events/industrial/data/Work%20Study/principles%20of%20motion%20economy.pdf

Part handling aids
soft drop chute
http://www.indiamart.com/novanative-plastix-solutions/part-handling-aids.html

22.7.2012
Physiology of Race Walking
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/07/physiology-of-race-walking.html

11.7.2012
Ergonomics - Knol Book  more chapters added to the book

7.7.2012
Birthday of Frank Gilbreth - Our appreciation of Gilbreth for his contribution to  development of a discipline.
Bricklaying System - Book by Gilbreth
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=DL_DjA0Px04C - It is a full view book

Let Industrial Engineering Be Your Guide on the Road to Foodservice Design Efficiency
http://www.fesmag.com/home-highlights/9989-let-industrial-engineering-be-your-guide-on-the-road-to-foodservice-design-efficiency


5.7.2012
University of Tennessee - Global IE student education and project camp
More than 90 students from developing countries will converge on the University of Tennessee campus this month for a College of Engineering program to learn cutting-edge industrial engineering practices  in the area lean systems and gain cultural experiences.
http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2012/jul/03/higher-education-briefs-july-4/

1.7.2012
July 7 is Frank Gilbreth's Birthday. Knowledge day for Industrial Engineering

Interesting Articles


Democracy or Seduction? The Demonization of Scientific Management and the
Deification of Human Relations By Kyle Bruce 2009
http://www.rockarch.org/publications/resrep/bruce.pdf

Critical Theorising, Taylorist Practice, and ILO Chrys Nyland, Confernce paper, 2001
http://www.management.ac.nz/ejrot/cmsconference/2001/Papers/Management%20Knowledge/Nyland.pdf

The Politics of Management Thought: A Case Study of the Harvard Business School and the Human Relations School, Ellen S. OConnor, Stanford,
Academy of Management Review, January 1999
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/259040

Elton Mayo on Hawthorne Studies
http://reussirlem1info.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/eltonmayostudiudecaz.pdf

27.6.2012
An interesting article by Juran
The Taylor System and Quality Control
http://www.juran.com/elifeline/elifefiles/2009/11/Taylor-System-and-Quality-Control_JMJuran-94.pdf

One more article of interest
http://agileviews.chagrinriverconsulting.com/2009/01/02/fred-taylor-and-scientific-management.aspx

Quality Wars - Google Book
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=MpQR01fTv7YC

16.6.2012
Sakamoto, Shigeyasu, "Process Design Concept: A New Approach to IE", Industrial Engineering, March 1989, pp. 31-34.

In this article Sakamoto advocated process design based on the management requirements or the system requirements. My opinion is that designing a system based on requirements is the job of experts in that discipline. For example forging experts would design forging process and welding expert would design welding process. Industrial engineers enter the picture only after the initial visioning of the process was done by the concerned field experts.


15.6.2012
Paper: The New Role of Industrial Engineers may not include Traditional Industrial Engineering Practices
Michael Sanders and Kenneth Morrison
http://search.asee.org/search/fetch;jsessionid=djkl88nc1vdx?url=file%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%2FE%3A%2Fsearch%2Fconference%2F28%2FAC%25202004Paper826.pdf

Competencies for Industrial Engineers
Training.gov.au document
http://training.gov.au/Training/Details/MEM23083A

High Velocity SAS Coding: Application of IE to software Development
http://www.wuss.org/proceedings08/08WUSS%20Proceedings/papers/app/app09.pdf

Implementation of industrial engineering principles to improve a Mercedes Benz vehicle service centre
http://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/10814

Piloting Lean Principles at Intermountain Health Care
http://www.oahhs.org/quality/lean-transformation/200505-1.pdf

14.6.2012
Book Information

Kaizen for Quick Changeover
by Keisuke Arai, Kenichi Sekine
Google book link
http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Kaizen_for_Quick_Changeover.html?id=dKZBFGYJrhY


13.6.2012
2nd International Conference on Industrial Engineering (ICIE) at SVNIT Surat, 20-22 February 2013
http://pithadia.blogspot.in/2012/06/2nd-international-conference-on.html

12.6.2012
Articles in Japanese - Translate using Google translate and read them
Analysis techniques for efficient transportation layout
http://monoist.atmarkit.co.jp/mn/articles/1101/13/news109.html
See all its pages


27.4.2012
____________________ ____________________
Industrial Automation and Control  NPTEL Video Lecture Series Play List
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxMdDsud5vg&feature=BFa&list=PL0A716BE00290E413

19.4.2012
Introduction to Industrial Engineering by Jane M. Fraser is now available at
http://ie.binus.ac.id/2012/03/22/introduction-to-industrial-engineering/

3.4.2012
Productivity improvement initiatives of Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority, Pakistan

 20.3.2012

Miniature V-8 engines
Industrial engineering students are to be encouraged to take up similar production activities on hobby basis.


17.3.2012

Funding of Value Engineering Projects through Corporate versus Business Unit Level - Cisco case study - 2008 - MS thesis  MIT

Cost Analysis for Light Duty Vehicles - Analysis for EPA - 2009 analysis


8.11.2011

Twinkle, Twinkle India's NITIE  Poem incorporating IE tools and principles

Process action teams at Boeing article 2007 Boeing News

Engineering Ergonomics at Boeing article 2007 Boeing News
Mechanism of ballistic movement
Ph d Thesis

29.6.2011

What is Industrial Engineering? Article By KVSSNRao
What is Industrial Engineering? Videos
What is industrial engineering? Going's Answer in 1911 (Summary)
What is industrial engineering? Going's Explanation in 1911 (Full chapter)

What is industrial engineering?
1934 article
https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/35164/OS_ENG_v18_i02_007.pdf?sequence=3

Evolution of Industrial Engineering
Link to access the article
NC State University article.
Interesting point. Emphasizes discrete mathematics

26.6.2011
Hindu education plus article on IE and IE B.Tech and M.Tech programmes in India
http://www.hindu.com/edu/2008/07/08/stories/2008070850090300.htm

New knols


15.5.2011
2011 - Knol Day of Economics - 15th May - Birthday of Paul Samuelson
Economics is an important for industrial engineers.

Industrial engineering directs the efficient conduct of manufacturing, construction, transportation, or even commercial enterprises of any undertaking, indeed in which human labor is directed to accomplishing any kind of work . Industrial engineering has drawn upon mechanical engineering, upon economics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, accountancy, to fuse from these older sciences a distinct body of science of its own . It is the inclusion of the economic and the human elements especially that differentiates industrial engineering from the older established branches of the profession (Going, 1911)

IEs have to remember economists and their contribution to improving engineering economics.


Emmy Aware Winning Video on Industrial Engineering from University of Buffalo.

___________________

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZpPDoLX_9K4

Article on the video on IIE website
http://www.iienet2.org/details.aspx?id=24404
___________________


26.4.2011
Department of Industrial Engineering, ICAI Engineering School, Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid
http://esd.mit.edu/careers/icai-posting.pdf  (Job advertisemet in 2009)
3.3.2011
Software for Motion Economy

Generating Economic Motion Plans for Manual Operations - Masters Thesis (Computer Engineering)
http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12606524/index.pdf


6.2.2011

IE Conference, India, February 2011

West Bengal University of Technology (WBUT)
BF 142 , Sector-1, Salt Lake City,
Kolkata 700064,

The 1st National Conference on Industrial Engineering (NCIE-2011) is being organized by the Department of Industrial Engineering & Management at West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata India. The focus of the conference is on recent advances in the area of Industrial Engineering & Management in improving the productivity of industrial firms.

Paper Submission Deadline: 5th February 2011
Registration Deadline: 12th February 2011
Conference Date: 17th and 18th February 2011


Industrial Engineering Knol Books



1.11.2010
---------------
 New Concept to be explored
---------------

6.2.2010

Interesting links on value engineering

DoD value engineering handbook

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Europe District value engineering program identified more than $150 million in potential savings on projects in fiscal 2009 – the most ever identified in a fiscal year to date.
The biggest contributors to the windfall include $21 million in accepted savings from a Missile Defense Agency site in Poland and $18 million in potential savings from a family housing project at Wiesbaden.

23.1.2010

Recent Knols Posted


4.12.2009
A case study of use to industrial engineers
Handling Plastics in a Materials Recovery Facility Appendix A
Optimization of Actual Operations
Appendix A Material Recovery Facility Case Studies
28.9.2009

Job announcement for Industrial Engineering Manager in Linkedin

Industrial Engineering Manager
Extensive Meat Background (5-10 Years) with experience in Time and Motion Studies. It is a Corporate Position and is based out in KY.
Posted in linkedin around 22.8.2009
13.7.2009

Task Analysis

A small presentation on task analysis by Prof. Alan Hedge, Cornell University, 2008


Message from a Past IIE President - December 2008


Article "Leading the Way: The Future of Industrial Engineering is in our Hands", by Louis Martin-Vega, Dean of Engineering at North Carolina State University, Industrial Engineer, December 2008.

He outlined four challenges for the profession

1. All IEs need to expand their roles as advocates of IE.
2. All IEs have to try harder to intersect with sister engineering disciplines.
3. Increase domain expertise in emerging areas like energy and environment managment.
4. Use modern educational tools in IE curriculums.




BOOKS

Ergonomics in manufacturing

 By Waldemar Karwowski, Gavriel Salvendy
3/6/2009

Industrial Engineering Blogs

3/6/2009

Knols on Industrial Engineering

Written by

Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.


By Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.

Updated  26 July 2017,  18 June 2016,  12 June 2016,  3 Jan 2015