Sunday, November 24, 2013

Methods Efficiency Engineering - Check List




The analysis sheet serves as a guide in  collecting information for analyzing an operation in a  process or method.

The analysis check sheet ensures that every issue connected to efficiency improvement relating to each factor is brought into the analysis.


Before any time is spent on detailed analysis, the activity and the cost of the job are considered. First, the yearly labor cost and machine costs per 0.0001 hour is established. This offers a quick means of testing the practicability of any suggested improvement. If the expected saving in decimal hours multiplied by the yearly labor and machine costs  per 0.0001 hour does not exceed the cost of adopting the suggestion, it usually will not pay to make the improvement.

The expected life of the job is also considered at this point as this is useful in engineering economic analysis.




ANALYSIS CHECK SHEET



Cost and Activity Data

Yearly activity of job
Labor rate per hour
Machine rate per hour .

Labor cost per 0.0001 hour
Expected life of job
Manual-labor content

Sketch or Photograph of Part

Description of Present Method

1. Purpose of Operation

Analysis

Is the result accomplished by the operation necessary?
If so, what makes it necessary?
Was the operation established to correct a difficulty experienced in the final assembly?
If so, did it really correct it?
Is the operation necessary because of the improper performance of a previous operation?
Was the operation established to Correct a condition that has since been corrected otherwise?
If the operation is done to improve appearance, is the added cost justified by added saleability?
Can the purpose of the operation be accomplished better in any other way?
Can the supplier of the material perform the operation more economically?



Remarks and Conclusions







2. Operations Performed on Part
(List or Operation Process Chart)

Can the operation being analyzed be eliminated by changing the procedure or the operations ?
Can it be combined with another operation ?
Can it be subdivided and the various parts added to other operations?
Can part of the operation be performed more effectively as a separate operation?
Can the operation being analyzed be performed during the idle period of another operation?
Is the sequence of operations the best possible?
Would changing the sequence affect this operation in any way?
Should this operation be done in another department to save cost or handling?
If several or all operations including the one being analyzed were performed under the group system of wage payment, would advantages accrue?
Should a more complete study of operations be made by means of an operation process chart?


Remarks and Conclusions

3. Inspection Requirements

By whom were the inspection requirements described above established?
What are the requirements of the ' preceding operation?
What are the requirements of the following operation?
Will changing the requirements of a previous operation make this operation easier to perform?
Will changing the requirements of this operation make a subsequent operation easier to perform?
Are tolerance, allowance, finish, and other requirements necessary?
Are they suitable for the purpose the part has to play in the finished product?
Can the requirements be raised to improve quality without increasing cost?
Will lowering the requirements materially reduce costs?
Can the quality of the finished product be improved in any way even beyond present requirements ?

Remarks and Conclusions


4. Material

Does the material specified appear suitable for the purpose for which it is to be used?
Could a less expensive material be substituted that would function as well?
Could a lighter gage material be used?
Is the material furnished in suitable condition for use?
Could the supplier perform additional work upon the material that would make it better suited for its use?
Is the size of the material the most economical?
If bar stock or tubing, is the material straight?
If a casting or forging, is the excess stock sufficient for machining purposes but not excessive?
Can the machinability of the material be improved by heat-treatment or in other ways?
Do castings have hard spots or burned-in core sand which should be eliminated?
Are castings properly cleaned and have all fins, gate ends, and riser bases been removed?
Is material sufficiently clean and free from rust?
If dies are coated with a preserving compound, how does this compound affect them?
Is material ordered in amounts and sizes that permit its utilization with a minimum amount of waste, scrap, or short ends?
Is material uniform and reasonably free from flaws and defects?
Is material utilized to the best advantage during processing?
Where yield from a given amount of material depends upon ability of the operator, is any record of
yield kept?
Is miscellaneous material used for assembly, such as nails, screws, wire, solder, rivets, paste, and washers, suitable?
Are the indirect or supply materials such as cutting oil, molding sand, or lubricants best suited to the job?
Are materials used in connection with the process, such as gas, fuel, oil, coal, coke, compressed air, water, electricity, acids, and paints, suitable; and is their use controlled and economical?

Remarks and Conclusions

5. Material-handling Methods

Is the time consumed in bringing the material to the work station and in removing it large in proportion to the time required to handle it at the work station?
If not, should material handling be done by operators to provide rest through change of occupation?
Should hand trucks be used?
Should electric trucks be used?
Should special racks or trays be designed to permit handling the material easily and without damage?
Where should incoming and outgoing material be located with respect to the work station?
Is a conveyor justified?
If so, what type would best be suited to the job?
Can the work stations for the successive steps of the process be moved close together and material handling accomplished by means of gravity chutes?
Can the operation be done on the conveyor?
Can a progressive assembly line be set up?
Can material be pushed from operator to operator along the surface of the bench?
Can material be dispatched from a central point by means of a conveyor?
Can material be brought to a central inspection point by conveyor?
Can weighing scales be incorporated to advantage in the conveyor?
Is the size of the material container suitable for the amount of material transported?
Can container be designed to make material more accessible?
Can container be placed at work station without removing material?
Can electric or air hoist or other lifting device be used to advantage at work station?
If overhead traveling crane is used, is service rendered prompt and adequate?
Can a pneumatic tube system be used to convey small parts or orders and paper work?
Will signals such as lights or bells notifying move men that material is ready for transportation improve service?
Can a tractor-trailer train running on a definite schedule be used?
Can an industrial railway running on tracks be used?
Can a tractor-trailer or industrial railway system be replaced by a conveyor?
If helper is needed to handle large parts at work station, can a mechanical handling means be substituted?
Can gravity be utilized by starting first operation of a series at higher than floor level?
Can scrap or waste material be handled more effectively?
Can departmental layout be changed to improve material-handling situation?
Should the material-handling problem in general receive more intensive study in the immediate future?

Remarks and Conclusions

6. Setup, Tools, and Workplace Layout



How is the job assigned to the operator?
Is the procedure such that the operator is ever without a job to do?
How are instructions imparted to the operator?
How is material secured?
How are drawings and tools secured?
How are the times at which the job is started and finished checked?
What possibilities for delays occur at drawing-, tool-, or storeroom or time clerk's office?
If operator makes his own setup, would economies be gained by providing special setup men?
Could a supply boy get tools, drawings, and material?
Is the layout of the operator's locker or tool drawer orderly so that no time is lost searching for tools or equipment?
Are the tools that the operator uses in making his setup adequate?
Is the machine set up properly?
Is the machine adjusted for proper feeds and speeds?
Is machine in repair and are belts tight and not slipping?
If vises, jigs, or fixtures are used, are they securely clamped to the machine?
Is the order in which the elements of the operation are performed correct?
Does the workplace lay out conform to the principles that govern effective work-place layouts?
Is material properly positioned?
Are tools pre-positioned?
Are the first few pieces produced checked for correctness by anyone other than the operator?
What must be done to complete operation and put away all equipment used?
Can trip to return tools to toolroom be combined with trip to get tools for next job?
How thoroughly should workplace be cleaned ?
What disposal is made of scrap, short ends, or defective parts?
If operation is performed continuously, are preliminary operations of a preparatory nature necessary the first thing in the morning?
Are adjustments to equipment on a continuous operation made by the operator?
How is material supply replenished?
If a number of miscellaneous jobs are done, can similar jobs be grouped to eliminate certain setup elements?
How are partial setups handled?
Is the operator responsible for protecting workplace overnight by covering it or locking up valuable materials?
Is the machine tool best suited to the perf ormance of the operation of all that are available?
Would the purchase of a better machine be justified?
Can the work be held in the machine by other means to better advantage?
Should a vise be used?
Should a jig be used?
Should clamps be used?
Is the jig design good from a motion economy standpoint?
Can the part be inserted and removed quickly from the jig?
Would quick-acting cam-actuated tightening mechanisms be desirable on vise, jig, or clamps?
Can ejectors for automatically removing part when vise or jig is opened be installed?
Is chuck of best type for the purpose?
Would special jaws be better?
Should a multiple fixture be provided?
Should duplicate holding means be provided so that one may be loaded while machine is making a cut on a part held in the other?
Are cutters proper?
Should high-speed steel or cemented carbide be used?
Are tools properly ground?
Is the necessary accuracy readily obtainable with tool and fixture equipment available ?
Are hand tools pre-positioned?
Are hand tools best suited to purpose?
Will ratchet, spiral, or power-driven tools save time?
Are all operators provided with the same tools?
Can a special tool be made to improve the operation?
If accurate work is necessary, are proper gages or other measuring instruments provided?
Are gages or other measuring instruments checked for accuracy from, time to time?

Remarks and Conclusions

7, Consider and Record Conclusions on Following Possibilities for Improvement

a. Install gravity delivery chutes
b. Use drop delivery
c. Compare methods if more than one operator is working on job
d. Provide correct chair for operator
e. Improve jigs or fixtures by providing ejectors, quick-acting clamps, etc.
f. Use foot-operated mechanisms
g. Arrange for two-handed operation
h. Arrange tools and parts within normal working area
i. Change layout to eliminate backtracking and to permit coupling of machines (allot multiple machines)
j. Utilize all improvements developed for other jobs

8. Working Conditions

Is light ample and sufficient at all times?
Are the eyes of the operator protected from glare and from reflections from bright surfaces?
Is lighting uniform over the working area?
Has lighting been checked by illumination expert?
Is proper temperature for maximum comfort provided at all times?
Is plant unduly cold in winter, particularly on Monday mornings?
Is plant unduly hot in summer?
Would installation of air-conditioning equipment be justified?
Can fans be used to remove heat from solder pots, furnaces, or other heat-producing equipment?
Could an air curtain be provided to protect operator from intense heat?
Is ventilation good?
Are drafts eliminated?
Can fumes, smoke, and dust be removed by an exhaust system?
Is floor warm and not damp?
If concrete floors are used, can mats or platforms be provided to make standing more comfortable?
Are drinking fountains located near-by?
Is water cool, and is there an adequate supply?
Are washrooms conveniently located?
Are facilities adequate and kept properly clean?
Are lockers provided for coats, hats, and personal belongings?
Have safety factors received due consideration?
Is floor safe, smooth but not slippery?
Is wooden equipment such as work benches in good condition and not splintery?
Are tools and moving drives and parts properly guarded?
Is there any way operator can perform operation without using safety devices or guards?
Has operator been taught safe working practices?
Is clothing of operator proper from safety standpoint?
Are workplace and surrounding space kept clear at all times?
Do plant, benches, or machines need paint?
Does plant present neat, orderly appearance at all times?
How is the amount of finished material counted?
Is there a definite check between pieces completed and pieces paid for?
Can automatic counters be used?
Is pay-roll procedure understandable?
Is the design of the part suitable for good manufacturing practices?
What clerical work is required from the operator in filling out time cards, material requisitions, and the like?
Can this work be delegated to a clerk?
What sorts of delay are likely to be encountered by the operator, and how can they be avoided?
How is defective work handled?
Should operator grind his own tools, or should this be done in toolroom?
Should order department be requested to place fewer orders for larger quantities?
What is the economic lot size for the job being analyzed ?
Are adequate performance records maintained?
Are new men properly introduced to their surroundings, and are sufficient instructions given them?
Are failures to meet standard performance requirements investigated?
Are suggestions from workers encouraged?
Do workers xinderstand the incentive plan under which they work?
Is a real interest developed in the workers in the product on which they are working?
Are working hours suitable for efficient operation?
Is the utilization of costly supply materials checked?

Remarks and conclusions

9. Method

Motion Study

Summary of Results

Describe all improvements made and savings that resulted. List additional improvements that might be made if activity increases or if other conditions change.

Yearly Saving

Other Advantages .

Cost of Analysis

Cost of Changes





Training with a practical example

Each member of the training group should be, given a copy of the analysis check sheet, and its use and purpose should be briefly described. Then an operation from the plant should be selected for analysis. One step of analysis should be taken up at a time. The discussion leader should discuss the first step in
general terms, keeping away from the case operation but bringing up examples from other operations or other industries. The group members should then be required to fill in the analysis check sheet for the step just discussed, analyzing, of course, the selected case operation.

An interesting discussion may be built around the results of the group's analysis. The discussion can lead to a new idea and one idea will lead to another, and the meetings will prove exceptionally interesting.

As a by-product of this type of training, a definite improvement in the job being analyzed may be expected. If the operation involves a fairly large yearly labor cost, the savings resulting from suggestions made by the discussion group may easily offset the cost of the training. In fact, all industrial training on the subject
of methods engineering is usually self-supporting for this same reason.


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