Monday, May 22, 2017

Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques

An explanation says principles are scientific theories or cause and effect relationships. They are of permanent nature until revised due to empirical studies and identification of new facts.

Methods are general approaches that use the scientific principle or principles for beneficial use. They are also of permanent nature.

Tools are contemporaneous ways of implementing methods.

Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao

1. Develop science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.
2. Engineer methods, processes and operations to use the laws related to the work of machines, man, materials and other resources.
3. Select or assign workmen based on predefined aptitudes for various types of man - machine work.
4. Train workmen, supervisors, and engineers in the new methods.
5. Incorporate suggestions of operators, supervisors and engineers in the methods redesign on a continuous basis.
6. Plan and manage productivity at system level.

(The above subsection is added on 4 June 2016. Principles developed by Narayana Rao based on principles of scientific management by F.W. Taylor)

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao

The full paper by Prof. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao is now available for downloading from IISE 2017 Annual Conference site in prepublished format. Presentation is also available now.

Detailed List of Principles - Presented at IISE 2017 Annual Conference at Pittsburgh on 23 May 2017.


NRao making the presentation

Principles of Industrial Engineering

1. Productivity science
2. Productivity engineering
3. Ind Engg applicable to all branches of engineering
4. Principles of machine utilization economy to be developed for all resources used in engineering systems.
5. Industrial engineering optimization
6. Industrial engineering economics
7. Implementation team membership and leadership
8. Human effort engineering for increasing productivity
9. Principles of motion economy to be used in all IE studies in the area of human effort engineering
10. Operator comfort and health are to be taken care of.
11. Work measurement
12. Selection of operators
13. Training of operators, supervisors and engineers
14. Productivity training and education to all
15. Employee involvement in continuous improvement of processes and products for productivity improvement.
16. Productivity incentives
17. Hearty cooperation
18. Productivity Management
19. System level focus for productivity
20. Productivity measurement
21. Cost measurement

Presentation Video


Principles of Industrial Engineering related to various methods of industrial engineering are being assembled in these two articles

Principles of Human Effort Engineering

Principles of System Efficiency Engineering


Presently the following are given as techniques of industrial engineering (Industrial Engineering). There is a need to convert these things into principles, methods and tools framework



Methods and Techniques of Industrial Engineering

Human Effort Engineering - Techniques

4. Application of Ergonomics and Biomechanics
5. Fatigue Studies
6. Productivity/Safety/Comfort Device Design
7. Standardization of Operator Methods
8. Operator training
9. Incentive Systems
10. Job Evaluation
11. Learning effect capture
12.  Work Measurement - Time Study, PMTS

Efficiency Improvement Techniques of Industrial engineering 

    Method Study
5. Statistical quality control , Statistical Process Control, Process Improvement using Statistical data
6. Statistical inventory control and ABC Classification Based Inventory Sytems
7. Six sigma
9. Variety reduction
10. Standardization
12. Activity based management
15. Learning effect capture and continuous improvement (Kaizen, Quality circles and suggestion schemes)
16. Standard costing and Kaizen Costing
17. 5S

Principle of Fair Day's Work

Developing an estimate of  fair day's work makes planning, directing and control of the work of a person systematic.

Work Measurement: Various tasks are to be measured for the time taken to complete them by an average skilled or trained worker.

Stop watch time study, MTM, Standard data methods

Principles of Motion Economy

List of Principles of Motion Economy

Motion analysis

Videotaping of work

Principles of Industrial Engineering

Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management

First. The development of a true science (of work or operation or task).
Second. The scientific selection of the workman.
Third. His scientific education and development.
Fourth. Intimate friendly cooperation between the management and the men.

Harrington Emerson's Principles of Efficiency

1. Clearly defined ideals.
2. Common sense
3. Competent counsel
4. Discipline
5. The fair deal
6. Reliable, immediate and adequate records
7. Despatching
8. Standards and schedules
9. Standardized conditions
10. Standardized operations
11. Written standard-practice instructions
12. Efficiency-reward

Gilbreth's Principles of Motion Economy

        Principles of Motion Economy - Some More Details
        Principles of Motion Economy - YouTube Videos

Principle: There should be a definite and fixed place for all tools and materials
Principle:  Layout must facilitate efficiency

Method: 5S

Tools: 5S audit

Principle: The hands should be relieved of all work that can be done more advantageously by a jig, a fixture, or a foot-operated device.
Method: Jig and Fixture design

ECRS Method

        Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes

Miles' Principles of Value Engineering

Avoid generalities
Get all available costs
Use information from the best source
Blast create and refine
Use real creativity
Identify and overcome roadblocks
Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge
Get a dollar sign on key tolerances
Utilize vendors’ available functional products
Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge
Utilize specialty processes
Utilize applicable standards
Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”

Principles of Ergonomics

1. Work in neutral postures
2. Reduce excessive forces
3. Keep everything in easy reach
4. Work at proper heights
5. Reduce excessive motions
6. Minimize fatigue and static load
7. Minimize pressure points
8. Provide clearance
9. Move exercise and stretch
10. Maintain a comfortable environment

     Good explanation with illustrations is available in

Principle of Difference in Productivity
    In group of workers, there can be a difference of 100% between the least productive worker and the most productive worker.

Principles relating Wage differentials (incentives - efficiency reward)  and Motivation
    The productive workers have to be recognized and compensated through higher wages in the form of incentives for the extra production. Otherwise, they lose the motivation and produce only an amount equal to low productive workers.

Principles of Engineering Economics
    Every investment or expenditure proposal of an industrial engineer must contribute to profits or return on the investment or expenditure exceeding the cost of capital.

Principles of System Optimization
     There are mathematical methods that help industrial engineers to set system parameters that result in minimum costs or maximum profits with the given data (cost and return figures and alternative values for variables)

Principles Statistics
      The mass of data can be understood by converting it into probability distribution. Important conclusions can be made from the data by converting it into bar diagram, histogram and other graphical aids.

Principles of Mathematical Modeling
       System parameter design problems can be solved by first converting the system description into mathematical expressions and equations.

Principle of Cooperation

It should be stated here emphatically that there is nothing that can permanently bring about results from scientific management, and the economies that it is possible to effect by it, unless the organisation is supported by the hearty co-operation of the men. Without this there is no scientific management. - Gilbreth in Applied Motion Study, Book. Page No. 29-30

An Interesting Book published in 1921
What industrial engineering includes; for industrial executives; 101 things to do, 1001 results others secured
Author: Knoeppel, C.E., & co. (New York). Full book can be downloaded from Archive.Org

Functions of Industrial Engineering   25 July 2017

The Purpose, Philosophy, Principles and Methods of Industrial Engineering - Video Presentation by Prof. Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.



Related Article

Basic Concepts, Principles and Methods of Industrial Engineering

Original Knol - 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2056

Updated  23 May 2017 (Detailed principles of engineering added) 15 June 2016


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  2. Capability Maturity Model for Industrial Engineering - Industrial Engineering Capability Maturity Model (IECMM)

    Proposed by Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. (29 November 2013)

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