Friday, May 24, 2019

Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques


Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques


An explanation says principles are scientific theories or cause and effect relationships. They are of permanent nature until revised due to empirical studies and identification of new facts.

Methods are general approaches that use the scientific principle or principles for beneficial use. They are also of permanent nature.

Tools are contemporaneous ways of implementing methods.

Basic Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao

1. Develop science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.
2. Engineer methods, processes and operations to use the laws related to the work of machines, man, materials and other resources.
3. Select or assign workmen based on predefined aptitudes for various types of man - machine work.
4. Train workmen, supervisors, and engineers in the new methods.
5. Incorporate suggestions of operators, supervisors and engineers in the methods redesign on a continuous basis.
6. Plan and manage productivity at system level.

(The above subsection is added on 4 June 2016. Principles developed by Narayana Rao based on principles of scientific management by F.W. Taylor)

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao

The full paper by Prof. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao is now available for downloading from IISE 2017 Annual Conference site in prepublished format. Presentation is also available now.

https://www.xcdsystem.com/iise/program/A20a5CK/index.cfm?pgid=863&speakerid=287052

Detailed List of Principles - Presented at IISE 2017 Annual Conference at Pittsburgh on 23 May 2017.

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NRao making the presentation
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Principles of Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao - Detailed List


Clicking on the link will take you to more detailed content on the principle






Presentation Video
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Two important components of industrial engineering are System Efficiency Engineering and Human Effort Engineering. 

We can say System Industrial Engineering and Human Effort Industrial Engineering.

Even though human effort is a part of system, it is specially highlighted as human comfort, health, safety and satisfaction are special concern of industrial engineers apart from productivity subject to quality/specification/customer satisfaction maintenance.

Principles of Industrial Engineering related to various methods of industrial engineering are being assembled in these two articles

Principles of Human Effort Engineering

Principles of System Efficiency Engineering


Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering


Productivity Science - Determinants of Productivity
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/10/productivity-science-determinants-of.html

Product Industrial Engineering
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/09/product-design-industrial-engineering.html

Process Industrial Engineering
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/the-function-of-methods-efficiency.html

Industrial Engineering Optimization 
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/operations-research-efficiency.html

Industrial Engineering Statistics 
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/07/statistics-and-industrial-engineering.html

Industrial Engineering Economics
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/engineering-economics-is-efficiency.html

Human Effort Industrial Engineering
https://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/motion-study-human-effort-engineering.html

Industrial Engineering Data and Measurements
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2019/05/industrial-engineering-data-and.html

Productivity Management
https://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2019/04/productivity-management-in-operations.html

Applied Industrial Engineering
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2018/05/applied-industrial-engineering-process.html

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Presently the following are given as techniques of industrial engineering (Industrial Engineering). There is a need to convert these things into principles, methods and tools framework

 

 

Methods and Techniques of Industrial Engineering


Human Effort Engineering - Techniques

4. Application of Ergonomics and Biomechanics
5. Fatigue Studies
6. Productivity/Safety/Comfort Device Design
7. Standardization of Operator Methods
8. Operator training
9. Incentive Systems
10. Job Evaluation
11. Learning effect capture
12.  Work Measurement - Time Study, PMTS

Efficiency Improvement Techniques of Industrial engineering 

    Method Study
5. Statistical quality control , Statistical Process Control, Process Improvement using Statistical data
6. Statistical inventory control and ABC Classification Based Inventory Sytems
7. Six sigma
9. Variety reduction
10. Standardization
12. Activity based management
15. Learning effect capture and continuous improvement (Kaizen, Quality circles and suggestion schemes)
16. Standard costing and Kaizen Costing
17. 5S
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Principle of Fair Day's Work


Developing an estimate of  fair day's work makes planning, directing and control of the work of a person systematic.

Method
Work Measurement: Various tasks are to be measured for the time taken to complete them by an average skilled or trained worker.

Tool
Stop watch time study, MTM, Standard data methods


Principles of Motion Economy

List of Principles of Motion Economy

Method
Motion analysis

Tools
Videotaping of work




Principles of Industrial Engineering - Various Subjects




Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management


Principles of Scientific Management - Taylor


The managers following scientific management thought do the following things.

First. They develop a science for each element of a man's work, which replaces the old rule-of.-thumb method.

Second. They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could.

Third. They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed.

Fourth. There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men.

First. The development of a true science (of work or operation or task).
Second. The scientific selection of the workman.  His scientific education and development.
Third. Intimate friendly cooperation between the management and the men.
Fourth: Both management and workmen have equal responsibility for effectiveness and efficiency of various tasks.

Harrington Emerson's Principles of Efficiency


1. Clearly defined ideals.
2. Common sense
3. Competent counsel
4. Discipline
5. The fair deal
6. Reliable, immediate and adequate records
7. Despatching
8. Standards and schedules
9. Standardized conditions
10. Standardized operations
11. Written standard-practice instructions
12. Efficiency-reward


Gilbreth's Principles of Motion Economy


        Principles of Motion Economy - Some More Details
        Principles of Motion Economy - YouTube Videos

Principle: There should be a definite and fixed place for all tools and materials
Principle:  Layout must facilitate efficiency

Method: 5S

Tools: 5S audit


Principle: The hands should be relieved of all work that can be done more advantageously by a jig, a fixture, or a foot-operated device.
Method: Jig and Fixture design


ECRS Method


        Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes

Miles' Principles of Value Engineering


Avoid generalities
Get all available costs
Use information from the best source
Blast create and refine
Use real creativity
Identify and overcome roadblocks
Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge
Get a dollar sign on key tolerances
Utilize vendors’ available functional products
Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge
Utilize specialty processes
Utilize applicable standards
Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”

Principles of Ergonomics


1. Work in neutral postures
2. Reduce excessive forces
3. Keep everything in easy reach
4. Work at proper heights
5. Reduce excessive motions
6. Minimize fatigue and static load
7. Minimize pressure points
8. Provide clearance
9. Move exercise and stretch
10. Maintain a comfortable environment

     Good explanation with illustrations is available in  
     http://www.danmacleod.com/ErgoForYou/10_principles_of_ergonomics.htm

Principle of Difference in Productivity
    In group of workers, there can be a difference of 100% between the least productive worker and the most productive worker.

Principles relating Wage differentials (incentives - efficiency reward)  and Motivation
    The productive workers have to be recognized and compensated through higher wages in the form of incentives for the extra production. Otherwise, they lose the motivation and produce only an amount equal to low productive workers.

Principles of Engineering Economics
    Every investment or expenditure proposal of an industrial engineer must contribute to profits or return on the investment or expenditure exceeding the cost of capital.

Principles of System Optimization
     There are mathematical methods that help industrial engineers to set system parameters that result in minimum costs or maximum profits with the given data (cost and return figures and alternative values for variables)

Principles Statistics
      The mass of data can be understood by converting it into probability distribution. Important conclusions can be made from the data by converting it into bar diagram, histogram and other graphical aids.

Principles of Mathematical Modeling
       System parameter design problems can be solved by first converting the system description into mathematical expressions and equations.


Principle of Cooperation

It should be stated here emphatically that there is nothing that can permanently bring about results from scientific management, and the economies that it is possible to effect by it, unless the organisation is supported by the hearty co-operation of the men. Without this there is no scientific management. - Gilbreth in Applied Motion Study, Book. Page No. 29-30


An Interesting Book published in 1921
What industrial engineering includes; for industrial executives; 101 things to do, 1001 results others secured
Author: Knoeppel, C.E., & co. (New York). Full book can be downloaded from Archive.Org


Functions of Industrial Engineering   25 July 2017

The Purpose, Philosophy, Principles and Methods of Industrial Engineering - Video Presentation by Prof. Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.

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Related Article

Basic Concepts, Principles and Methods of Industrial Engineering

Original Knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/industrial-engineering-principles/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2056


Updated 25 May 2019,  23 May 2017 (Detailed principles of engineering added) 15 June 2016

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