Sunday, October 23, 2016

Evolution of Zero Wastes Movement in Factory Production - Philosophies, Methods, Techniques, and Tools



Adam Smith described division of labor that provides Zero Waste of Skills (Certain skills are specialised by certain persons)

Charles Babbage advocated division of labor within a manufacturing process of product by by insisting that the process has to be broken into more skilled and less skilled jobs. Different persons are employed in the process to take care of more skilled and less skilled jobs. The benefit less payroll expenses and more utilization of high skilled persons.   - Zero waste of high skilled persons.

F.W. Taylor -  Efficiency improvement of factory operations - Zero waste of ability of machine - Zero waste of work capacity of operators in manual and machine supporting work.

Frank Gilbreth - Motion Study - Zero waste of motions of operators.

Maynard - MTM and MOST time measurement systems - Zero waste of manpower due to rating differences and lack of planning the motions from a design perspective.

Taiichi Ohno - Zero Inventory, Zero Overproduction, Zero Idle Time of Men (multiple machine allottment)

Shiego Shingo - Zero Changeover time and Zero Defects through Poka Yoke

Quality gurus - Zero Defects

House of Quality - Zero Customer Dissatisfaction

Six Sigma  - Zero Defects

Total Productive Management - Zero Breakdowns

Zero Accidents


The application of 7 Zeroes in improvement of Lean and Agility manufacture
INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS
DECEMBER 2013, VOL 5, NO 8
http://journal-archieves36.webs.com/263-276dec.pdf

Management of Design To Value Programme



The design-to-value approach can help  companies boost sales and profitability—but rolling it out across an entire product portfolio is no easy task.

Success factors for managing DTV 


McKInsey identied in 2013, four success factors for DTV programs: a clear vision set by top management, effective cross-functional governance, a dedicated working team, standardized tools
and processes.

Top management has to align functions across the organization involved in DTV enterprise program by developing and communicating a clear vision for the DTV program. Leaders can make that
vision actionable by developing plans that aim at stretch targets which are smart. The product level teams have to be given the responsibility of developing fact collection, idea generation, idea assessment and program implementation plans with timelines. Also there has to be plan for DTV application to specific number of products in the coming year and future years. Senior management needs to organize a structure to implement the DTV process. They need to hold review meetings as a part of directing and control functions.


Cross-functional governance


A cross-functional governance body for DTV efforts has to be created. This entity needs to include managers from all relevant functions—Product management, R&D, marketing, procurement,
finance, manufacturing, industrial engineering and product development at the corporate level and business unit level. The governance body has an important role to play early in the DTVprocess to identify the resources required to initiate and implement DTV program and provide those resources., both by ensuring that the company generates enough high-impact ideas in its
priority areas and by selecting the ideas to be implemented.

As DTV efforts progress, the governance body would monitor performance; help resolve any
conflicts among functions, emphasizing the importance of finding feasible solutions that
deliver the best value for consumers; and ensure that important projects receive sufficient funding.
Any abandoning of any specific project in the DTV project of a product needs to be approved by the cross-functional governance body.

Members of the governance body have to serve  as DTV “ambassadors” by informing the success of DTV projects and best practices to various groups in the company and mainting the positive attitude towards the initiative till it becomes a part of the accepted tool and process kit of the company.

Dedicated DTV teams


Many companies that initiated DTV failed to allocate enough employees to DTV projects. Creative
thinkers in sufficient numers are to be involved early in the project to develop sufficient number of high-impact, feasible ideas. Persons with expertise in design, value analysis, value engineering and process improvement are required in good number during rollout of specific projects based on the ideas. . The business functions or business units are to be persuaded to release people from their daily responsibilities to work on DTV, as this is a strategic initiative that will give results in the future..
In some companies top-managements mandated creating core DTV working teams for key product categories that remain intact for the duration of DTV projects. These teams for product specific categories also include experts from  marketing, R&D, purchasing, manufacturing, industrial engineering and finance.

Standardized tools and processes


The functional groups use a variety of tools or processes for design related activities performed by their group. As persons from different functions form a cross-functional team, the lack of a common
language makes alignment and collaboration difficult. The right activity at the outset has to be development of standardized tools and processes across the organization. The important techniques include marketing related activities, teardown related activities, and clean-sheet cost-modeling techniques.     

Time Frame for Expanding DTV efforts across the portfolio

It takes time for DTV efforts to generate significant results over the entire portfolio of products after the initial decision by the company to initiate the effort. It typically requires two to three years from start to finish, including embedding the approach across the product portfolio. McKinsey identified
three phases in the implementation process: : start-up, idea generation, and rollout.


The start-up phase, is  three to six months long. During this phase., the company establishes the
basic organizational and management structure for DTV and develops the necessary technical
skills and tools and work with limited number of core products.

Once a company gains confidence in its DTV technology and infrastructure, the idea generation
phase—usually a six- to nine-month start using more sophisticated tools.


During the rollout phase,  the implementation of the selected ideas are implemented in value chain activities. It may take 12 months to complete this phase initially. As the success is realized in the early product, the DTV process can be implemented in more products with a short time horizon. Many companies are now giving 12 month horizon to idea generation and implementation. At any time number of parallel projects in variety of products take place.




Based on McKinsey Note
Capturing the full potential of design to value
2013

Design To Value - Job Notifications




2016

Engineer - Design To Value

Georgia-Pacific LLC
Neenah, US-WI

Job description
Headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia-Pacific is one of the world's leading manufacturers and marketers of building products, tissue, packaging, paper, cellulose and related chemicals. The company employs more than 40,000 people at approximately 300 locations in North America, South America and Europe.

Engineer - Design to Value


This engineering role will have the opportunity to develop and lead initiatives for Georgia Pacific’s motion activated enMotion® dispensers as well as other innovative products. This position will be located in the iNNOVATION institute ® located in Neenah, Wisconsin. The iNNOVATION institute is the center for research and development for many market leading brands including Dixie®, Angel Soft®, Quilted Northern® and Brawny®. Neenah is conveniently located between Oshkosh and Appleton in the Fox Valley.


Responsibilities:
• Identify, solutions, and lead the implementation of opportunities for customer value creation and total cost reduction.
• Develop and implement injection molded plastic strategies.
• Manage external and internal design, development, and testing resources.
• Lead a cross functional team to define scope of work including safety, quality, performance, and cost requirements and validates that they are met.
• Create and manage a detailed project schedule including engineering development, tooling, and product launch activities.

Basic Qualifications:
• Bachelor or higher degree in engineering
• Minimum 5 years of experience developing and/or producing consumer products. (E.g. small appliances, medical devices, etc.)
• Available to travel up to 10%, including occasional international travel

Preferred Qualifications:
• Master of Business Administration, MBA
• Project management certification, PMI PMP
• Working knowledge of commercialization processes (concept generation through manufacturing)
• Understands financial modeling and value analysis

Knowledge - Skills - Abilities:
• Ability to work on cross-functional teams located in different locations
• Build relationships with key internal and external partners on technical development objectives
• Lead in a cross-functional team environment to develop and document project scope.
• Play a lead role in process disruption troubleshooting, with a particular eye toward systematic improvements
• Experience with Solid Works CAD development software
• Experience with plastic injection molding, thermoforming and metal component development and manufacturing processes
• Experience with electro-mechanical device assembly processes
• Experience with product lifecycle cost analysis including material, manufacturing costs, assembly costs, logistics costs, packaging costs, etc.
• Foster a culture of innovation that motivates and inspires the organization to achieve technology and commercial results. Reduce time to market of product revisions
• Experience with FMEA, finite element analysis, kinematics, and other electronic risk assessment or design validation tools
• Strong focus on product quality and customer satisfaction
• Assist in the root cause analysis of Quality Complaints
• Excellent oral and written communication skills with the proven ability to interact with all levels of management

We are an equal opportunity employer. Minority/Female/Disabled/Veteran.
https://www.linkedin.com/jobs/view/18315435


Friday, October 21, 2016

Warehouse Industrial Engineering - Warehouse Efficiency Improvement - Bibliography


http://www.dhl-discoverlogistics.com/cms/en/course/tasks_functions/warehouse/key_indicators.jsp



2015

https://iwla1891.com/2015/09/16/essentials-of-warehouse-arnold-maltz-explores-future-warehousing-decision-drivers/

2013

Lessons learned during the lengthy search for the perfect methodology
By Russell D. Meller and Lisa M. Thomas
Industrial Engineer Engineering and Management Solutions at Work
December 2013    |    Volume: 45    |    Number: 12



The Productivity Trifecta of Warehouse Optimization: Engineered Labor, Slotting, and Task Interleaving
By Tom Kozenski
http://www.parcelindustry.com/ME2/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=Publishing&mod=Publications%3A%3AArticle&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=A41003337D6F4CA0BAB1995D9DA66C41


2012

http://www.industryweek.com/warehousing-and-distribution/improve-efficiency-within-warehouse

http://www.forte-industries.com/media/16794/increasing_warehouse_productivity_2012.pdf


2010

Facility design: Achieving overall efficiency in the
warehouse environment
The South African Breweries (SAB) Limpopo warehouse (depot) functionally serves as a buffer
(decoupler) for material flow received from various plants namely Polokwane, Rosslyn, Chamdor and
Alrode. Viewed from this perspective the buffering  function of a warehouse seeks to ensure SAB is able to service customer's needs efficiently.  The SAB warehouse executes the following basic functions: receiving,
storage, order picking and shipping.
http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/16554/Serote_Facility(2010).pdf?sequence=1


“Warehouse efficiency at Topa verpakking”

The problem definition of this research is: “How can non value adding activities be reduced to
improve the efficiency in the distribution center of Topa verpakking? “. The word efficiency is defined
as doing the thing right which is usually measured as the output per unit input.

http://essay.utwente.nl/60724/1/MSc_Gerben_Stouwdam.pdf

WAREHOUSE REDESIGN OF FACILITY LAYOUT, RACKING SYSTEM AND ITEM CLASSIFICATION AT SUNRIZE TACKLE INC
http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=imesp



2008
Warehousing in theory and practice

A case study at ÖoB, Clas Ohlson, Stadium, Åhlens

Some of the recent developments in the warehousing led to the development of new
warehousing concept called a “Retail Warehouse”. In a retail warehouse, the floor space
is used for warehousing as well as the retail store. These types of warehouses are
equipped with tall racks and the items which are ready for sale are placed at the bottom
of the racks and the products which are wrapped, packaged and palletized are placed in
the top parts. This concept cuts down the costs involved in warehousing and eliminates
the total concept of warehouse.

2005
Charley Johnston, Senior Process Improvement Engineering
http://www.fortna.com/newsletter/Newsletter2Q05.pdf


2004
Digital age warehousing
http://www.industryweek.com/planning-amp-forecasting/digital-age-warehousing


http://www.werc.org/assets/1/workflow_staging/Publications/411.PDF

1992

https://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/some-propositions-about-outsourcing-the-logistics-function

Updated  24 October, 2016