Sunday, June 30, 2019

June - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Industrial Engineering - Introduction to  Basic Principles and Techniques

Industrial Engineering - Knowledge Online Books - Catalogue

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao

Download full paper - Principles of Industrial Engineering
Proceedings - 2017 Industrial and Systems Engineering Conference


June First Week, 1 to 5 

Industrial Engineering Introduction
Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques

Functions and Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering
Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson

Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
Ergonomics - Introduction

Industrial Engineering Data and Measurements
Work Measurement

Process Industrial Engineering
Product Industrial Engineering

June 2 Week, 8 to 12

Plant Layout - Efficiency
Value Engineering - Introduction

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management in Japan
Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer

System Engineering Process and Its Management
Systems Improvement Process

June 3 week, 15 to 19

Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Productivity, Safety, Comfort, and Operator Health Management

Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
Current Research in IE

Managing Change in Improvement Projects - Comfort Zone to Comfort Zone
Supply Chain Cost Reduction

Total Improvement Management
Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina

Revision of Industrial Engineering Economics

Industrial Engineering Economics - Important Component of Industrial Engineering
Time Value of Money - Time Value of Money Calculations

June 4th Week,  22 to 26

Cash Flow Estimation for Expenditure Proposals - Depreciation and Other Related Issues
Required Rate of Return - Cost of Capital  - Required Rate of Return for Investment or Expenditure Proposal..

NPV - IRR and Other Summary Project Assessment Measures
Income Expansion Projects - Cost Reduction Projects - Replacement Decisons

Present-Worth Comparisons
Rate-of-Return Calculations

Equivalent Annual-Worth Comparisons
Expected Values and Risk of Project Revenues and Costs

Structural Analysis of Alternatives
Engineering Economic Analysis - Subject Update - Recent Case Studies

June Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professors

The blog post was liked by 200+ persons in Linked Group of IE Network in 2018



IE Techniques to be Revised

Principles of Industrial Engineering/Scientific Management by Taylor
Twelve Principles of Efficiency - Harrington Emerson
Product Design Efficiency Engineering (Value Engineering) - Application of Engineering Technology
Methods Efficiency Engineering - Operation Analysis (Maynard) - Application of Engineering Technology
    Plant Layout - Material and Man Movement Analysis and Optimization
    Innovations in Industrial Engineering by Shigeo Shingo - SMED and Poka Yoke
Operations Research - Application of Mathematical Modelling and Optimization in Technology Processes (Product and Process), Business Processes and Managerial Processes.
Application of Statistics in Industrial Engineering - Six Sigma, SPC, SPC, Forecasting
Engineering Economics - Economic Analysis of Engineering Projects - Income Enhancing Projects as well as Cost Reduction Projects - It evaluates and improves capital productivity both long term as well as short term
Human Effort Engineering - Motion study - Principles of Motion Economy, Motion Study
Ergonomics - Application of knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and bio mechanics and findings of experiments on actual working situations

Work Measurement - Productivity Measurement - Cost Measurement

Productivity Management 

High Efficiency/Productivity Systems  Industrial Engineering- Lean Systems Industrial Engineering - Toyota Production System

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

In months after June the articles prescribed have to be modified as a new scheme is started in 2015.

Industrial Engineering - Introduction to  Basic Principles and Techniques - June (28 article are included so far)

Scientific Management of Taylor  (July 17 articles)

12 Principles of Efficiency by Harrington Emerson

Motion Study

Operation Analysis - Method Study - Methods Efficiency Engineering (August 25 articles)

Work Measurement 

Value Engineering


Mathematics and Optimization

Application of Statistics for Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement

Engineering Economics

Business Process Improvement

Management Process Improvement

Productivity Management and Improvement (20 articles)

Lean Systems (December 20 articles)

Updated  25 May 2019,   2 July 2018,  31 May 2018,  4 June 2017, 29 May 2016, 26 May 2016, 16 Feb 2016

Monday, June 24, 2019

Productivity Improvement Techniques

I. Technology Based Techniques


1. CAD
2. CAM
3. Integrated CAM
4. Robotics
5. Laser beam technology
6. Energy technology
7. Group technology
8. Computer graphics
9. Emulation
10. Maintenance management
11. Rebuilding old machinery
12. Energy Conservation


13. Industry 4.0 Technology Set

II. Employee Based Techniques

1. Financial incentives
2. Financial incentives
3. Fringe benefits
4. Employee promotions
5. Job enrichment
6. Job enlargement
7. Job rotation
8. Worker participation
9. Skill enhancement
10. MBO
11. Learning curve
12. Communication
13. Working condition improvement
14. Training
15. Education
16. Role perception
17. Supervision quality
18. Recognition
19. Punishment
20. Quality circles
21. Zero defects


III. Product based techniques

1. value engineering
2. Product diversification
3. Product simplification
4. Research and Development
5. Product standardization
6. Product reliability improvement
7. Advertising and promotion

IV. Task based technques

1. Methods engineerinng
2. Work measurement
3. Job design
4. Job evaluation
5. Job safety design
6. Human factors engineering
7. Production scheduling
8. Computer aided data processing

V. Material based techniques

1. Inventory control
2. MRP
3. Materials management
4. Quality control
5. Material handling systems improvement
6. Msterial reuse and recycling


Sunday, June 23, 2019

Work Study - Work Content Analysis - Basic and Excess Work Contents

Work Content Analysis

To appreciate how work study acts to cut down costs and reduce the time of a certain activity, it is necessary to examine more closely the time and cost of activities.

The total time of a job is made up of basic work content and excess work content.

Work content means the amount of work contained in a given product made by a process measured in work-hours or machine hours.

A work-hour is the labour of one person for one hour.
A machine-hour is the running of a machine or piece of plant for one hour.

We can also think of work content of a process in similar terms.

Basic Work Content

Basic work content is the time (work-hours and machine hours) taken to manufacture the product if the design and specification were perfect, if  the process and equipment used were perfect and if there were no loss of working time from any cause whatsoever during the process period (excluding planned rest pauses). It is the irreducible minimum time theoretically required to produce one unit of output.

Excess Work Content

In practice, actual work content are in excess of basic work content due causes such as:

A. Poor Design and Specification

A1. Poor design and frequent design changes
A2. Waste of materials
A3. Incorrect quality standards (unnecessary tight tolerances)

B. Inefficient Process, Method of Manufacture or Operation

B1. Poor layout and utilization of space
B2. Inappropriate material handling
B3. Frequent stoppages as production changes from one product to another
B4. Inefficient operation
B5. Poor planning of inventory
B6. Frequent breakdowns of machines and equipment

C. Human Resource Issues

C1. Absenteeism and lateness
C2. Poor workmanship
C3. Accidents and occupational hazards

Industrial Engineering and Management Techniques to Reduce Excess Work Content

A. Poor Design and Specification

A1. Poor design and frequent design changes - Product industrial engineering
A2. Waste of materials - Material usage analysis and improvement
A3. Incorrect quality standards (unnecessary tight tolerances) - Quality Control - Tolerance cost analysis

B. Inefficient Process, Method of Manufacture or Operation

B1. Poor layout and utilization of space - Plant layout improvement
B2. Inappropriate material handling - Material handling industrial engineering
B3. Frequent stoppages as production changes from one product to another - Production planning, Setup time reduction
B4. Inefficient process and operation - Process analysis, Method study, Operation analysis
B5. Poor planning of inventory - Inventory planning
B6. Frequent breakdowns of machines and equipment - Preventive and predictive maintenance

C. Human Resource Issues

C1. Absenteeism and lateness - Personnel policies and HRM
C2. Poor workmanship - Training
C3. Accidents and occupational hazards

Flexible Manufacturing System- Introduction

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is an integrated computer-controlled complex of numerically controlled machine tools, automated material and tool handling and automated measuring and testing equipment that, with a minimum of manual intervention and short change over time, can process any product belonging to certain families of product its stated capability and to a predetermined schedule.

From: Agile Manufacturing: The 21st Century Competitive Strategy, 2001

FMS is  a solution  to overcome challenges of high product variety and small life time production while still making reliable and good quality and cost effective yields. Flexible manufacturing system has advanced as a tool to bridge the gap between high mechanized line and CNC Machines with efficient mid-volume production of a various part mix with low setup time, low work-in-process, low inventory, short manufacturing lead time, high machine utilization and high quality. FMS is especially attractive for medium and low-capacity industries such as automotive, aeronautical, steel and electronics.”

“”Flexible manufacturing system incorporates the following concepts and skills in an automated production system.

1. Flexible automation
2. Group technology
3. Computer numerical control machine tools
4. Automated material handling between machines”

Types of  FMS

“Flexible manufacturing systems can be separated into various types subject to their natures:”

“Flexible manufacturing system can be illustrious subject to the kinds of operation performed:”
a. “Processing operation. It performs some activities on a given job. Such activities convert the job from one shape to another continuous up to the final product. It enhances significance by altering the geometry, features or appearance of the initial materials.”
b. “Assembly operation. It comprises an assembly of two or more parts to make a new component which is called an assembly/subassembly. The subassemblies which are joined permanently use processes like welding, brazing, soldering , adhesive bonding, rivets, press fitting.”


“There are typical varieties of FMS based on the number of machines in the system:”
a. “Single machine cell (SMC). It consists of completely automated machines which are capable of performing unattended operations within a time period lengthier than one complete machine cycle. It
is skilful of dispensing various part mix, reacting to fluctuations in manufacture plan, and inviting introduction of a part as a new entry. It is a sequence dependent production system.”

b. “Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC). It entails two or three dispensing workstations and a material handling system. The material handling system is linked to a load/unload station. It is a simultaneous production system.”

c. An Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). “It has four or more processing work stations (typically CNC machining centers or turning centers) connected mechanically by a common part handling system and automatically by a distributed computer system. It also includes non-processing work stations that support production but do not directly participate in it e.g., part / pallet washing stations, co-ordinate measuring machines. These features significantly differentiate it from Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC).”


“FMS is further classified based on the level of flexibility related to the manufacturing system. Two categories are depicted here:”

a. Dedicated FMS. “It is made to produce a certain variety of part styles. The product design is considered fixed. So, the system can be designed with a certain amount of process specialization to make the operation more efficient.”

b. Random order FMS. “It is able to handle the substantial variations in part configurations. To accommodate these variations, a random order FMS must be more flexible than the dedicated FMS. A random order FMS is capable of processing parts that have a higher degree of
complexity. Thus, to deal with these kinds of complexity, sophisticated computer control system is used for this FMS type.”

“A flexible manufacturing system consists of two subsystems:”
 Physical subsystem
 Control subsystem
Physical subsystem includes the following elements:
1. Workstations. “It consists of NC machines, machine-tools, inspection equipments, loading and unloading operation, and machining area. More recent Flexible manufacturing system,
however, include other types of processing equipment also.”

2. Storage-retrieval systems. “It acts as a buffer during WIP (workin-processes) and holds devices such as carousels used to store parts temporarily between work stations or operations.”
3. Material handling systems. It consists of power vehicles, various types of automated material handling equipment such as conveyors, automated guided vehicles, in floor carts and
robots are used to transport the work parts and sub-assemblies to the processing or workstation.


1. Pallets and fixtures
2. Machining centers
3. Robots
4. Inspection equipment
5. Chip removal system
6. In process storage facility
7. Material handling systems


Welding in flexible manufacturing systems

Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) process the workpiece from where it may be stored through the welding process and onto its final location in the factory. They can have several positions for loading and unloading the pallets carrying the workpieces. Systems may use one or more robots, and several different types of work- pieces can be welded one after the other, with only short changeover times. The use of buffer stocks enables production to continue completely unattended for some time. The entire facility is monitored and controlled by a supervisory computer system.

Klas Weman, in Welding Processes Handbook (Second Edition), 2012, Woodhead Publishing Series

Benefit of FMS -  Integrated structural configurations

Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) have allowed a different approach to engine design. The reduced cost of machining has made possible integrated structural configurations, with more functions assigned to the same piece of metal. The overall number of parts can thus be reduced significantly over earlier engines (by up to 40 per cent in some designs), fostering improved reliability, lower weight and increased compactness without compromising on ease of maintenance. FMS also facilitates the offering of market-adapted solutions without raising cost: individual engines can be optimized at the factory for the proposed application.

Doug Woodyard, in Pounder's Marine Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines (Ninth Edition), 2009

Lecture note on FMS

Low Cost Automation

There is a very good site offering tutorials on low cost automation

Tutorial 1. Principal Components for Low Cost Automation

The LCA is comprised of the following configuration, and this establishes the reference for the components' functionality.

LCA = Mechanism + Actuator + Controller

Fundamental technologies required for automating screw fastening process

173 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers - 9: Automating Screw Fastening - 1
174 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers -10: Automating Screw Fastening - 2

175 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers - 11: Automating Screw Fastening - 3

Related articles

Automation - Current Status and Issues

Productivity Automation Engineering

Updated on 24 June 2019, 22 February 2014

Wage Incentives - Literature Review

Productivity Incentives - Principle of Industrial Engineering

Wage incentive methods, their selection, installation and operation, by Charles Walter Lytle
Published: New York, The Ronald press company [1943]
Available on hathitrust, Record 001431848

Taylor's differential piece rate system:: This system introduced to penalize a slow worker by paying him a low piece rate for low production and to reward an efficient worker by giving him a higher piece rate for a higher production. Thus if a worker completes the work within or less than the standard time, he is paid a higher piece rate and if he does not complete the work within the standard time, he is given a lower piece rate.

Merricks multiple piece rate: Under this method, three piece rates are applied for workers with different levels of performance. Wages are paid at ordinary piece rate to those workers whose performance is less than 83% of the standard out put. 110% piece rate is given to workers whose performance is between 83% and 100% of standard. 120% of ordinary piece rate is given to those workers who produce more than 100% of the standard output.

Gants's task and bonus plan: This plan is based on careful time and motion study. A standard time is fixed for doing a particular job, worker's actual performance is compared with the standard time and his efficiency is determined. If a worker takes more time then the standard time to complete the job (Below 100%) he is given wages for the time taken by him and if a worker takes the standard time to perform job (100% efficiency), he is given wages for the standard time and bonus of 20% of wages earned. If the worker take less time than the standard time his efficiency is more than 100% and he is given wages for the actual time and bonus at the rate of 20%.

Halsey premium plan: Under this method standard time is fixed for the job and worker is given wages for the actual time taken to complete the job at the agreed rate per hour plus a bonus to one half on the wages of the time saved.
Total wages = T x R + % (S - T) R
Where, T = actual time, R = Rate per hour, S = Standard time, % = 50% otherwise mentioned in the question.

Updated on 24 June 2019,  15 July 2018
First published on 19 December 2013

Industrial Engineering and Productivity Management - NITIE Course 2019

US $421 billion Productivity Cost Reduction Benefit for Year Due to Industry 4.0 - Productivity Analysis

PWC 2016 -  Industry 4.0 Utility - Revenue and Productivity  Potential - Survey based Study

Cost reduction of 3.6% per annum is the potential of industry 4.0.

Compare 3.6% estimate with 7% growth rate in GDP the top growth country is planning.


Definition of Industrial Engineering

Pioneering Efforts of Taylor and Gilbreth 

Productivity – Definition, Types

Introduction to Productivity Improvement Techniques

Productivity Management

Work Content Analysis

Method Study - Use of Recording Techniques   

Principles of Motion Economy

Work Measurement

Plant Layout 

Material Handling

Value Engineering

Job Evaluation and Wage Incentives

Introduction to Automation in Manufacturing


Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering Or  Industrial Engineering Review of Methods

For successful work in any field, it is important to define beforehand what is to be accomplished. The goal-determination step includes:

1. General goal: Most industries have as a goal a better product for a lower cost. For industrial engineering projects, the general goals most of the times are going to be cost reduction and increased productivity.
2.After the general goals is decided the next decision is "where to start the work?" Will it be  single operation or full process.?
3. For each specific problem, a specific goal is to be determined.

Some of the specific goal alternatives are:

Eliminate time spent in obtaining and tools
Reduce discomfort of the operator
Improve the organization of the workplace
Eliminate some make-ready time.
Eliminate some put-away time.
Reduce operator delay
Reduce total cycle time.
Reduce scrap.

Principles of  Methods Efficiency Design

1. Change the material being used or contemplated to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
2. Change the present or contemplated design of product to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
3. Change the present or contemplated sequence of modification work on the material or product to help meet the goal of for operation being studied.
4. Change the equipment used or contemplated  for the operation to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
5. Change the method or hand pattern used or contemplated for the operation to help the goal for operation being studied.

(Source: Gerald Nadler, Motion and Time Study, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1955,   p.193. Nadler in turn gives credit to Marvin E. Mundel, Motion and Time Study Principles and Practice, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1950, pp. 23-26.)

Suggested Articles on Industrial Engineering

Method Study

Method Study - ILO Book Description

Process Industrial Engineering

Suggested YouTube Videos on Industrial Engineering

What is Industrial Engineering?

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor-Narayana Rao Video presentation

Functions of Industrial Engineering

Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering - Curriculum and Practice Areas

Product Industrial Engineering - Introduction

Process Industrial Engineering - Introduction

Value Engineering - Introduction - Miles Way

Value Engineering Techniques

1. Avoid Generalities

 2. Get All Available Costs

 3. Use Information from Only the Best Source

 4. Blast, Create, Refine


   6. Identify and Overcome Roadblocks

 7. Use Industry Specialists to Extend Specialized Knowledge

  8. Get a Dollar Sign on Key Tolerances

   9. Utilize Vendors’ Available Functional Products

 10. Utilize and Pay for Vendors’ Skills and Knowledge

 11. Utilize Specialty Processes

 12. Utilize Applicable Standards

 13. Use The Criterion “Would I Spend My Money This Way”


1. Engineering Chapter  - Design and Production Related Chapters

2. Product Industrial Engineering - Value Engineering - New Design Ideas, New Materials,

3. Process Industrial Engineering - New Manufacturing Ideas, Processes, Specialty Processes

4. Smart Factory Implementation Description
High Productivity Through Smart Factories - Industry 4.0 - Bulletin Board

IE & PM Course Details of 2015

Saturday, June 22, 2019

Productivity - Definition

Productivity - Definitions

Productivity was mentioned probably for the first time in an article by Quesnay in 1766.
In 1883, Littre defined productivity as the "faculty to produce," that is, the desire to produce.

In 1950, the Organisation  for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) provided the following  definition of productivity: 

"Productivity is the quotient obtained by dividing output by one of the factors of production. In this way it is possible to speak of the productivity of the capital, investment, or raw materials according to whether output is being considered in relation to capital, investment, or raw materials, etc."

Productivity may be defined as follows:
Productivity = Output/Input  (Kanawaty)
The term productivity can be used to assess or measure the extent to which a certain output can be extracted from a given input. The inputs of an enterprise are land and buildings, materials, plant machines and equipment, energy and human resources. The outputs are saleable products and services.

R .M . Barnes 
R.M. Barnes discussed production in chapter 1 of his book, Motion and Time Study: Design and Measurement of Work (1980). The chapter is actually titled as Productivity.
Barnes explained that in a broad sense, productivity is the ratio of output to some or all of the resources used to produce the output. Labor productivity may be defined as "output per labor hour." Capital productivity as output per unit capital input. All inputs contribute to the total productivity of the firm. The focus in motion and time study is productivity of labor, machines, equipment, and facilities.

Barnes recommends that productivity of workers is measured as a ratio between output standard time and actual labor hour input.

Productivity of capital represented by machines and other operating facilities is of importance.
Barnes identified speed of the equipment and the downtime as the two most important factors controlling productivity and costs. He mentioned steel mills as an example in this context.

Barnes, R. M., Motion and Time Study Design and Measurement of Work, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Kanawaty, Introduction to Work Study,  4th Edition,  International Labour Office, Geneva, 1992
Littre, Larousee Etymological Dictionary, 1946-49 edition.
OEEC, Terminology of Productivity, 1950.

Original knol - 566

Updated on 24 June 2019, 23 April 2012

Industry 4.0 - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)

Prof, Dariusz Plinta edited a  book collection of articles, "Advanced Industrial Engineering: Industry 4.0" and it is published by in Bielsko-Biała 2016.

He indicates that Advanced Industrial Engineering (AIE) is a major direction of current and future
Industrial engineering development in line with technological developments taking place in Europe.  AIE arises from the productivity assessment and improvement  needs of applying new innovative technologies to create better position of production companies in global and knowledge-based society. Productivity solutions for the evolving industry need a new perspective and the collection of articles in an attempt to provide the early inputs.

Industry 4.0 is a concept which is being developed very intensively in Europe especially in industrial advanced countries and more and more of its components are being developed and implemented now in production systems.  Changes are taking place in  different areas of organization's operations, with the impetus for change coming from  IT developments. The redesign of production and other engineering processes and products are driving innovation (new products and services) and improvements in productivity and quality. Therefore, the industrial revolution termed Industry 4.0  provides opportunities for companies to innovate both new products and processes. Every managers of engineering company has to notice that  some companies have already introduced them in market.

Industry 4.0 Concept

The Industry 4.0 concept was presented in 2011.  In the first publications, the most important new
 technological developments that were responsible for the emergence of revolutionary changes in engineering processes and products  were indicated.  These are:

a) Autonomous Robots,
b) Simulations and Forecasting Techniques
c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
d) Industrial Internet of Things – IoT
e) Direct communication between machines
f) Internet of Services
g) Big data and analytics
h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
i) Additive Manufacturing
j) Augmented Reality – AR
k) Virtual Reality – VR
l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
m) Digital Twin
n) Artificial Intelligence,
o) Neural Networks
p) Cybersecurity
q) Mass Customization

There technologies have to be incorporated into new software systems used for designing, testing,
process planning, manufacturing and assembly.

The evolution of production systems  follows the development of innovative technology and its direct environment, like machines, devices, methods and tools aiding the work related to preparing technical documentation, including description of product models, processes and production resources. The evolution or innovation in production systems provides  introduction of shorter production cycles, new products and manufacturing processes development, minimization of the supplies level, more efficient logistics, and the usage of effective and innovative ideas of production realization.

The main types of software used in production enterprises are linked in PLM solutions, which control different parts of the manufacturing cycle. CAD systems define what will be produced, Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) defines how it will be manufactured, ERP informs when and where it is created, whereas MES provides shop floor control and simultaneously manufacturing feedback. The stored information generally aids communication and improves making decisions, but also removes human errors from the design and the manufacturing process.

More detailed notes on Each Technology are presented as separate notes.

c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
e) Direct communication between machines
f) Internet of Services
g) Big data and analytics
h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
i) Additive Manufacturing
k) Virtual Reality – VR
l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
n) Artificial Intelligence,
o) Neural Networks
p) Cybersecurity
q) Mass Customization
r) Blockchain


In BCG's view nine  technology trends form the building blocks of Industry 4.0.


The collection and comprehensive evaluation of data from many different sources— Various machines, equipment, material handling trucks and communication devices, and business process systems will become provide significant extra support to increse revenues and decrease costs by supporting  real-time decision making as well as finding the best ways of doing things.


Robots are becoming more autonomous and mobile as their ability to work safely side by side with humans is increasing. Robots learning process is also changing with the developments in machine learning theory and practice. The robots are also being made available at lower and lower prices with  greater range of capabilities than those used in manufacturing today. Hence robotization of manufacturing is occurring.


Simulations can be used more extensively in plant operations by feeding  real-time data and experimenting on the  virtual model that mirrors the physical world. The model can include machines, products, and humans. This will make possible optimization the machine settings very quickly even  for the next product in line thus driving down machine setup times. The quality is also improved as root causes can be eliminated as identification can be done very quickly on the simulated model.


Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) consists of connections between devices both consumer and production that can pass on information and instruction between themselves.  This will allow field devices to communicate and interact both with one another and with more centralized controllers, as necessary. As the processing of information can be done very fast based on fast communication without human intervention, real time responses are possible minimizing waste and increasing optimum working conditions. The IIOT can facilitate decentralize analytics and decision making and also allow centralized analytics and decision making.


The integration capability provided by communication, analysis and action technologies will make companies, departments, functions, and capabilities much more cohesive. The cross-company, universal data-integration networks evolve and they enable automated value chains also.


There are developments in security technologies that can assure users that  the increased connectivity and use of standard communications protocols that come with Industry 4.0 does not increase the risk significantly. The risk dimension is recognized by the Industry 4.0 proponents and research and engineering efforts are being made to reduce the threats.


Development in clould storage and application capabilities are providing computing facility at a less and less cost to users. Users can utlize analytics services on vast data as they pay for the facility on a use basis only. The shared facility provides them service as well as security of data. The performance of cloud technologies is improving providing reaction times of just several milliseconds. As a result, machine data and functionality are being be deployed to the cloud. Successes of pioneer companies in this environment,  enables  more organizations to take up data-driven services for production systems.


Companies have just begun to adopt additive manufacturing ( 3-D printing). It became popular in preparing prototypes and some companies started producing even regualr production components. With Industry 4.0, where designs can be transferred to additive manufacturing devices anywhere in teh world,  these additive-manufacturing methods will be more widely used to produce small batches of customized products. Spare parts etc. can be made on demand through additive manufacturing at the users premises by the user.


Augmented-reality-based systems can be used to send repair instructions and provide practice to technicians over mobile devices. These systems are currently in their infancy. But their potential is high to provide workers with real-time information to improve decision making and work procedures thus providing faster responses to various unforeseen events in engineering systems. Waiting for an expert or knowledgeable technician to come will come down as local technicians can be trained very quick using augmented reality systems as and when the need arises.

Industrial engineers have to understand each of the technologies that are forming part of the Industry 4.0 revolution. They have to understand that engineering potential and also productivity potential. In diverse combinations, they may be more effective than when they are used alone. Research needs to be done industrial engineers to understand their productivity potential and productivity pathways related to each technology and various bundles. Then only, they can carry out systematic productivity engineering and management. In the coming posts, each technology will be explained from the perspective of industrial engineering. (Accessed on 9 January 2018)  (Visited on 9 January 2018)

Chapter of the Blog Book - Industrial Engineering 4.0 - IE in the Era of Industry 4.0 - Blog Book

Previous Chapter - Introduction to Industrial Engineering 4.0

Next Chapter - Autonomous Robots - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)

Updated 2019 - 23 June 2019
2018 - 20 February 2018,  8 January 2018

Plant Layout Lecture Notes - Video Lectures

NPTEL Lecture on Plant Layout





Plant Layout and Material Handling - Lecture Notes by Dr. Paidi Raghavulu

Food Processing Plant Design & Layout

Practical Process Plant Layout and Piping Design
IDC Technologies Pty Ltd
PO Box 1093, West Perth, Western Australia 6872
Copyright © IDC Technologies 2011. All rights reserved.

Efficiency Improvement of a Plant Layout

Design and Simulation Plant Layout Using Systematic Layout Planning
D Suhardini, W Septiani and S Fauziah
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 277, conference 1, 2017

Plant Layout & Facility Planning For Lean Manufacturing - Introduction

Software for Drawing Plant Layouts

Lecture1 P1: Product, Process, and Schedule Design



Lecture1 P2: PPS Design and Lecture 2 P1 Flow Relationships





Industrial Engineering Upload

Updated on 24 June 2019, 9 September 2014

High Productivity Through Smart Factories - Industry 4.0 - Bulletin Board

Productivity  - Productivity Science - Productivity Engineering - Productivity Management


Smart Factory Implementation - Steps, Benefits, Challenges and Road Maps

The smart factory improves manufacturing efficiency - EY.

The smart factory is no longer a futuristic vision. It can be implemented today.

The smart factory  technologies include:

Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) software
Cloud computing
The Internet of Things (IoT)
Advanced sensor technologies
3D printing
Industrial robotics
Data analytics
Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML)
Enhanced machine-to-machine (M2M) communications
Pervasive wireless connectivity.

Microsoft Dynamics’ integrated  with smart factory processes and technologies is an indispensable tool that can help manufacturers more easily and confidently deploy next-generation applications that infuse AI, predictive analytics, mixed reality, social, and mobile capabilities.

Some of the real-world results that manufacturers have experienced while working with EY on smart factory initiatives. On an average, these companies have seen a:

15 percent increase in overall OEE
20 percent boost in manufacturing throughput
35 percent reduction in unplanned downtime
45 to 80 percent improvement in employee engagement
25 to 40 percent cut in costs, primarily in energy consumption, maintenance, logistics, and material loss
Craig Lyjak
EY Global Smart Factory Leader, Operational Excellence thought leader. Digital innovator.

IBM Watson Studio Streams Flows: Ingest data from IoT Devices - Part 1



IBM Developer
Published on 17 Jun 2019
The video shows how to ingest data from IoT devices using streams flows in Watson Studio and the Watson IoT platform.
This is part 1 of a 2 part series that shows how to use data from IoT devices to create a billing application for a utility company.

Watch part 2 here:

Get the sample from Github:

Streams Flows resources:

The Four Levels of a Smart Factory Evolution
Willem Sundblad-  writes about the challenges facing the manufacturing industry.

Available Data, Accessible Data, Active Data, Actionable Data

What’s the full value of Smart Manufacturing?
Digital manufacturing increases productivity, performance, flexibility and efficiency which ultimately makes companies stronger economically and sustainable. Prospective gains in production volumes and performance, while reducing overhead, operating and capital costs, are important drivers for manufacturers to invest in a smart manufacturing approach
Ericsson’s Tallinn, Estonia factory gets a digital transformation
The Ericsson Tallinn manufacturing site has set out an ambitious digital transformation program to improve operational efficiency, workplace health and safety, and cooperation with the Product Design Unit to secure integration of design with the manufacturing process.

Smart Factory Lab at Scania’s - Exploring New Emerging Technologies

Smart Factory Solutions - Solution Providers

IBM Smart Factory Solutions

TOYODA IoE ENGINEERING - Smart Factory Solution

The IoE Smart Factory revolution has shop owners searching for end-to-end data management solutions, both hardware and software, to provide a synchronous and autonomous flow of data from robot, to machine, to person. Factory interconnection provides managers the ability to monitor and interpret data from all levels of the facility, including, but not limited to worker productivity, tool life, spindle load, maintenance, energy-costs, robots efficiency, cells, and more. All of this data is gathered with one main goal in mind: ensuring that your floor is maximizing all resources, both equipment and people, for a leaner production process.
JTEKT Toyoda Americas Corporation
316 W. University Drive
Arlington Heights, IL 60004
Phone: 847-253-0340
Fax: 847-253-0540

SEW EuroDrive Smart factory assembly and smart factory production Solution

Panasonic - Smart Factory Solutions - India

Panasonic Ramps Up Its Smart Factory Solutions Business in India
With the smart factory solutions, Panasonic aims to be the one stop solution for all SMT, welding and digital manufacturing needs. Panasonic's recently introduced solution, iLNB can communicate with the entire line of machinery and can automate up to 70-80% of manual processes, thereby improving productivity ensuring quality control and supporting actual production process

Infosys High Tech practice
Improve quality with in-process control tools
The Infosys High Tech practice streamlines manufacturing, fabrication and assembly processes using Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM) and Manufacturing Execution systems (MES) based on Industry 4.0 principles.

Fujitsu intelligent manufacturing solutions

We know how to apply new technologies such as IoT, AI, machine-learning, RPA and Cloud services. Connecting industrial machines and devices to the internet through the Cloud is a major step in simplifying business processes, and with our range of trusted cloud solutions, we make it easy for you to adopt Cloud in a cost-effective and well-governed way.

From sourcing, procurement, processing, and manufacturing, to distribution, warehousing, customer service, and sales, we can help you to improve efficiency, increase throughput, reduce inventory, view processes, and address production bottlenecks in real-time.

Renishaw Smart Machining Centers and Other Hardware and Software

PTC's Digital Manufacturing Solutions suite

Smart Factory Implementation Examples

DREAM SITES - Okuma Smart Factories

Okuma has built futuristic Dream Site factories to deliver high-quality, highly-efficient production of machine tools. These smart factories  utilise the latest IoT practices to achieve small volume customisation with mass production efficiencies.

Danfoss factory among world’s smartest

The World Economic Forum identifies 16 of the world’s most advanced smart factories – so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution production sites. Danfoss’ factory in Wuqing, China, is one of them.
the Forum has selected from a group of more than 1,000 factories.
Compared to two years ago, employee productivity has gone up by 30 percent, scrap costs down by 20 percent, and customer complaints by 57.

KYOCERA to Build New Facility in Shiga, Japan to Produce Automated Equipment for "Smart Factory"
The facility will develop company’s own production equipment to strengthen its use of robotics and AI technology
"By reforming production processes, we aim to double productivity,” Further, the company aims to achieve higher growth and profitability by reducing costs while reforming its production processes.
Construction begins: April 2019; Operation starts: April 2020

Schneider Electric Smart Factory at Cavite, Phillipines

Smart Factory YouTube Videos 2019

A visit to the TRUMPF Smart Factory in Chicago
Published on 11 Jun 2019

Amatrol's Smart Factory trainer!
Teach a full range of Industry 4.0 skills and the latest in automated manufacturing
Published on 24 May 2019

HARTING's Smart Factory

Published on 1 Apr 2019

Smart manufacturing in Garo Polska (Bossard Poland)
Published on 20 Mar 2019

Building up the World Class Smart Manufacturing Factory Through Digital Transformation
Schneider Electric
Published on 28 Feb 2019
In 2018, Schneider Electric set up the goal to remain double-digit annual growth in the factory’s operation efficiency. Under the guidance of lean manufacturing, Schneider Electric Wuhan Factory has made a comprehensive digital upgrade of the whole shop floor.


Lighthouse Smart Factories - WEF

WEF judged these nine factories as lighthouses for others to model their smart factory implementation. 7 more were added later making a list of 16 in total

Bayer Pharmaceuticals Division (Garbagnate, Italy): At a time of major volume growth for the site, the company has deployed a digital twin-based scheduling programme to drive improvements in its quality-control lab.

Bosch Automotive (Wuxi, China): Advanced data analytics are helping the company to “deeply understand and eliminate output losses, simulate and optimise process settings, and predict machine interruptions before they occur”.

Haier (Qingdao, China): Artificial intelligence has been at the heart of work to create an ‘order-to-make’ mass customisation platform and a remote, AI-supported intelligent cloud platform for predictive maintenance.

Johnson & Johnson DePuy Synthes (Cork, Ireland): The factory has used IoT technology to create digital twins of physical assets for advanced machine insights, lower operating costs, and machine downtime reductions.

Phoenix Contact (Bad Pyrmont/Blomberg, Germany): ‘Customer-driven digital twinning’ has involved creating digital copies of each customer’s specifications, cutting production times by 30 percent.

Proctor & Gamble (Rakona, Czech Republic): The factory has developed a Web-based analytics model for supply chain improvements, speeding up time to market, and increasing inventory efficiency and customer satisfaction.

Schneider Electric (Le Vaudreuil, France): Operators have increased visibility into operations, maintenance, and energy use, leading to energy cost reductions of 10 percent and maintenance cost reductions of 30 percent.

Siemens Industrial Automation Products (Chengdu, China): A new platform for flexible production takes customer orders and immediately allocates resources and schedules production time, leading to 100 percent compliance and 100 percent traceability.

Fast Radius/UPS (Chicago, US): Industrial-grade 3D printing is helping to tackle demand for fast-turnaround times and mass customisation of products, while a centralised, proprietary operating system drives real-time analytics and orchestrates design, production, and global fulfilment.

ZF's Model Factory Features Smart Interfaces Between Delivery and Production Logistics

Are you ready for the smart manufacturing revolution? - PWC

NOVEMBER 6, 2018
Smart manufacturing can lead to gains in productivity, performance, output, and market share as well as better control and visibility in the supply chain, and digital innovation can help manufacturers create capacity to enable more profitable growth.

Two current examples
Fujitsu plant in Augsburg, Germany
At Adidas’ new “speed factories” in Germany and Atlanta, automated production lines are able to make and ship a pair of expensive, customized cross-trainers from start to finish in about five hours. By comparison, in Adidas’ less digital factories the process takes several weeks.

Korea to built 30,000 factories by 2022

Technology Trends 2018 Accenture

Citizen AI - Extended Reality - Data Veracity - Frictionless Business - Internet of Thinking

Prof Vittal Prabhu, Prof of IE of Penn State in India during 2018-19

The research project for which he was granted the Fulbright Fellowship is titled “Smart Systems Engineering: Applications in Manufacturing and Service Industries.”

Future of Driverless Vehicles

Tidfore and FLSmidth cooperate in bulk material handling equipment intelligentizing

Innovations for the Digital Production of the Future - Volkswagen


Siemens CEO on Industry 4.0

Cube Automation,212,0,0,html/Smart-Factoree-Overview

We Deliver Results in Productivity


Industry 4.0 and Smart Factory Logistics by Bossard
Proven Productivity

Smart Factory YouTube Videos - 2018

KUKA - The Heart of Smart Factories | The Future of Production
KUKA - Robots & Automation
Published on 18 Jul 2018


Smart Machines

Smart Vertical Center - a compact machine designed for high - performance and unsurpassed value
The Smart series are designed for high productivity, compact design and environmental considerations. They provide high efficiency machining thanks to the No. 40 taper spindle with maximum spindle speed of 12000 rpm and high speed feed rates.

Smart Chocolate Factory: increased productivity and quality - Bühler
April 2017

Smart Chocolate Factory: increased productivity and quality
It is increasingly important for chocolate producers that their plants operate at full capacity. At the Interpack trade show, Bühler is demonstrating how the use of digital services and IoT technologies offers significant gains in efficiency: "With more intelligent process control, we can further improve productivity and achieve even more consistency in product quality,"


The Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, South Korea (MOTIE) announced on March 10, 2016 that it has assisted in the construction of smart factories in 1,240 small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Smart factories are  defined as facilities that are fully automated based on information technology. The smart facilities have improved the SMEs’  productivity by approximately 25%.



Published on 3 Dec 2015
MES can improve your shop floor productivity by over 30%. FORCAM MES relies on real-time data processing and machine data collection in order to identify potential of optimisation. User-friendly reports and visaulisation help you monitor work orders throughout the manufacturing process and keep trace all production related data. The Smart Data generated ensures that you can stay pro-active and make sure production is on track and up to the quality standards your customers expect.

Smart Factory - A Step towards the Next Generation of Manufacturing

Lucke D., Constantinescu C., Westkämper E. (2008) Smart Factory - A Step towards the Next Generation of Manufacturing. In: Mitsuishi M., Ueda K., Kimura F. (eds) Manufacturing Systems and Technologies for the New Frontier. Springer, London

PDF Files

Smart Manufacturing Leadership Council
Building the Science of Manufacturing Enterprise, 2011

Smart Process Manufacturing
(More files on this site)

Smart Factory - Mobile Computing

Factory of Tomorrow will be Smart - Intel

Updated 2019 - 22 June 2019
2018 - 20 May 2018,   22 February, 8 January 2018,
12 December 2017, 12  July  2017

Smart Factory Implementation - Steps, Benefits, Challenges and Road Maps

High Productivity Through Smart Factories - Industry 4.0 - Bulletin Board

Smart Factory Implementation and Process Innovation

A Preliminary Maturity Model for Leveraging Digitalization in ManufacturingMoving to smart factories presents specific challenges that can be addressed through a structured approach focused on people, processes, and technologies.
David R. Sjödin, Vinit Parida, Markus Leksell & Aleksandar Petrovic
Research-Technology Management
Volume 61, 2018 - Issue 5

What is a Smart Factory?

The development of new digital technologies connected to the Internet of Things termed as a group as Industry 4.0, advances in artificial intelligence and automation are enabling a new wave of innovation in manufacturing. The smart industrial equipment that is being now made available by incorporating new digital technologies, communicates with users and with other machines, participates in automated processes that require little or no human intervention that even communicate tween the factory floor and the market are generating dynamic process innovations.  
Hence smart factories are emerging. "Smart factory is a connected and flexible manufacturing system that uses a continuous stream of data from connected operations and production systems to learn,  adapt and respond to new demands."

The automotive manufacturers like Tesla and Scania  have  established a smart factories  in which a network of devices, sensors, and robots work together with people within an integrated system to produce cars and batteries more efficiently.

Many firms now are interested to understand and build smart factories. But  as yet published research on  key challenges, activities and capabilities required to support a successful smart factory implementation are in a nascent stage. This study of  five smart factory implementations  operated by two automotive manufacturers  identifies  key challenges related to smart factory implementation and proposes a maturity model for smart factory implementation.

Challenges for Smart Factory Implementation

Challenges fell into three broad categories: people challenges, technology challenges, and process challenges.

Based on the  analysis of interview data, the authors proposed  three over­arching principles underlying a successful smart factory implementation:

  • Cultivate digital people
  • Introduce Agile processes 
  • Configure modular technology

Smart factory maturity model

Level 1. Understanding Connected technologies
Level 2. Structured data gathering and sharing
Level 3. Real-time process analytics and optimization
Level 4. Smart and predictable manufacturing

Benefits of Smart Factory Implementation

Increased process efficiency
Lower operational cost
Increased product quality
Increased safety and sustainability

Explore - Technology Exploration - Applied Industrial Engineering

Process Step of Applied Industrial Engineering - Industrial Engineering 4.0

Monitor - Explore - Analyze - Develop - Optimize - Participate - Install - Improve

Any new technology that is found to be relevant to the operations of the company needs to be explored further by industrial engineers of the organization to understand it and assess its productivity improvement potential.

Cooke and Mayes (1996)  in their book, discussed the issues involved in understanding new technology.

Technology information related to three categories is to be acquired. The categories are: knowledge based information, skills-based information, and equipment based information.

Related reading

New Technology - Understanding, Analysis and Improvement by Industrial Engineers

IoT Technology - Exploration - Industrial Engineering Point of View

Blockchain Technology - Exploration - Industrial Engineering Point of View

Smart Factory Lab at Scania’s - Exploring New Emerging Technologies

Updated on 23 June 2019, 16 June 2018

Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - Bulletin Board

Principles of Industrial Engineering

Paper Available Online - Free Download
Proceedings - 2017 Industrial and Systems Engineering Conference

Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

The plans are liked by hundreds of professional industrial engineers in the Linked communities of industrial engineering

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

June - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan  (Industrial Engineering Fundamentals)


Data-Driven Productivity

26th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA May 7-9, 2019
Edited by John W. Sutherland, Steven J. Skerlos, Fu Zhao
Volume 80,
Pages 1-774 (2019), Open Access Papers

Boom Lift

Productivity Improving - Cost Reducing 3PL Solutions from Mahindra Logistics Ltd.

MAHINDRA LOGISTICS leading the way with asset-light integrated supply-chain solutions
May 23, 2019
Interview with Sushil Rathi, COO, MLL, PGDIE(NITIE)

Third-Party Logistics or 3PL concept has actually originated from the automotive sector. 3PL services now include shipping the components to the manufacturing plant, storing them, getting them to the assembly line and finally taking the end product to the market. Now a typical automobile plant’s job is to assemble the vehicle. All sub-assemblies and components  comes from the suppliers. It is the logistics partner who brings all required sub-assemblies and components to the assembly line. This makes logistics one of the key function areas in automotive industry today. To cater to auto sector, MLL made Auto & Engineering (A&E) as one integrated business vertical. It provides value-added services with many innovations and a unique approach that emphasizes service and productivity (total cost reduction). It offers many value-added services like multi-modal transportation, warehousing solutions, stores and linefeed services, yard management, large contractual workforce management, just-in-time services, aftermarket logistics, return logistics, layout and process design support.

One Innovation explained in detail:

Final Assembly of tractors at stock-yards. 

Instead of moving fully-built 5-6 tractors, components like tires, wheels, chimneys and other large components are transported separately to the stockyards. More tractors in SKD format are transported per vehicle and final assembly is done at the stockyard. This process redesign helped bring the logistics cost down for the customer.   They are also able to deliver to their customers faster.

Bundle Redesign to increase Truck Space Utilization

Suggested to the client  to reduce the size of their TMT bars’ bundle size so as to accommodate more packets in the new higher load truck, reducing the cost of logistics by 10% which can be passed on to the end customers.

MLL serves over 350 corporate customers across various industries like Automobile, Engineering, Consumer Goods and E-commerce. It has  a set of 40 engineers working on the solutions and the processes. Automation is an important area for innovation.

We have to improve our work habits, productivity levels to compete with China: NR Narayana Murthy

How a High Tech Electronics Company Saved Millions by Attacking their Mechanical Spend
The aPriori Customer profiled in this Case Study is in the High Tech Electronics (HTE) industry vertical, and focuses on the design and manufacture of networking equipment, servers and switches.

ASM International enhances ALD productivity with new 300 mm XP8 Quad Chamber Module

ASM International enhances ALD productivity with new very competetive 300 mm XP8 Quad Chamber Module providing:
High productivity platform for PEALD and PECVD Processing of up to 16 wafers at a time.
The XP8 architecture enables integrated processing using both DCMs and QCMs for flexibility and productivity optimization.

Agile Velocity Is Not a Measure of Productivity
Posted On March 18, 2019  By Lean Agile Training

Book Series "Increasing Productivity in Software Development"

3D printer that prints solid, 100% dense, precise, and strong metal objects


3D Printing process: Selective Powder Deposition (SPD)

Build volume: about 285x240x97mm (or any custom size)

Pourer diameter: 1mm, 2mm (or any custom size)

Layer height: 0.1 to 1.0mm (user configurable in GUI)

Min width of a detail: one pourer diameter

Min height of a detail: one layer height

Powders cost: $2 to $16 per kg.

To meet the growing demand, we are starting to look for business partners who would manufacture and sell the printers under their own brand name. We will provide the manufacturing files, the controller board with the firmware, and the iro_ui slicer software. The printers shall have a label, saying "Licensed by". Contact us for the details.


What metals are supported?
The printer itself is material agnostic, and can pour any powder that flows though a small hole. In theory, SPD should work with any metal combinations where the infill metal has lower melting temperature than the powder. But different metals might require different baking temperatures and different fluxes. In theory, for not-very-reactive metals, such as iron, copper, nickel, tin, zinc, lead, molybdenum, manganese, cobalt, tungsten, palladium, cadmium, silver, gold, platinum - we can use coke (carbon) as a flux. So far, we have tried carbon steel, brass , bronze, copper-iron, and copper-nickel. For other alloys, which contain silicon, aluminum, chromium, vanadium, magnesium, or titanium - a different flux should be used. Suggestions are welcome.

What's the shrinkage?
There is no shrinkage. The metal powder is not sintered, but infused with infill metal. So, the size and shape is preserved.

What's the print time?
Print time very much depends on the size and complexity of the object. Rough average would be about 24 hours.

Is there any post-processing required?
Yes. After filling the crucible with the powders, you would need to bake it in a kiln.

What's the baking temperature?
The baking temperature must be in-between melting temperatures of the infill metal and the metal powder. Pure copper infill metal melts at 1084°C. Pure iron powder melts at 1538°C. So, to print with copper-iron the temperature must be between 1084°C and 1538°C. For example 1184°C. For carbon steel, the melting temperature of the infill metal depends on the carbon content. There are many resources on the Internet that assist with calculation of melting temperatures of different alloys. For example this one: this one. For example, for carbon steel infill metal with 4.3% carbon, the baking temperature must be between 1147°C and 1538°C. For example 1250°C. The carbon content of the resulting 3D print is the proportional average of the carbon content of the powder and the infill. For example, with iron powder with apparent density of 3 g/cm3, and infill metal with 4.3% carbon, the carbon content of the resulting 3D print would be around 2.6%

What's the baking hold time?
The hold time should be sufficient for the heat to get to the middle of the crucible and melt the infill metal. The minimum hold time depends on the size and thermal conductivity of the crucible, the mass, and the difference between the melting temperature of the infill metal and your baking temperature. For copper-iron or copper-nickel, with baking temperature of 1184°C, and the crucible shown in the video, the hold time of 2 hours was sufficient.

What kind of kiln is required?
For copper infill metal, your kiln should be able to go above the copper melting temperature, which is 1084°C, so most pottery kilns would work. A kiln with programmable digital controller is preferred, because it can be programmed to go slowly though quarts inversion temperature, which is useful if you use a clay crucible. A new pottery kiln might cost you about $1000. A used one you might find for a few hundred dollars on Craig's List, if you look for a while. For carbon steel the minimum required temperature would depend on the carbon content, from 1147°C to 1538°C.

How can I buy the printer? How much does it cost?
You can order the printer by email. The standard size costs $5000 plus shipping. (On June 1st, 2019, the price will go up to $6000.) The price of a custom size printer depends on the size. It's likely that in the near future we'll have a second standard size with print volume of 610x610x380 mm.

Where can I buy the consumables? (metal powders, support powders, infill metal, and crucibles)
You can buy consumables from 3rd parties. The powders should be able to flow though 0.9mm hole. For that, they should be spherical enough, and have particle size of about 50-150 microns. The powders and the infill metal shouldn't have too many impurities. For example, oxygen cause babbles in the printed object. The crucibles should be able to withstand the baking temperature. It's probably better to buy consumables specifically intended for SPD process. We prefer consumables from - please contact them directly. Their phone number is on their home page.

What are the practical applications for SPD?
There are many. One is to print molds in tool steel (for plastic injection molding) with conformal cooling channels. Another, is to print large objects, like a car engine block, or even huge once, like a vault door.

Management Process Industrial Engineering - Part 1



Interesting Google Book Links

IE as CEO - Panel Discussion

Purdue Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering 4.0 - IE in the Era of Industry 4.0

Industrial Engineering 4.0

Industry 4.0 - IIoT Technology - Industrial Engineering - Productivity Science

Industry 4.0 - IIoT - Productivity Engineering

Industry 4.0 - IIoT - Productivity Management

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

The plans are liked by hundreds of professional industrial engineers in the Linked communities of industrial engineering

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December


Technology and Manufacturing News

Design for Manufacture MArch Degree
This programme teaches students how to place their design skills in the context of fast-evolving developments in construction, fabrication, assembly and automation.

Special Issue "Sustainable Industrial Engineering along Product-Service Life Cycle/Supply Chain"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

The practical application of the principles of industrial ... Society of industrial engineers. - 1920

Corporate Author: Society of industrial engineers.
Published: [Chicago, The Frederick H. Jaenicken co., printers, 1920]
Full book available for reading

Engineering Management 2005

A suitable employment for industrial engineers

Cost Excellence & Productivity Manager (OFS),-TX/

McKinsey Article
Zero-based productivity: Going granular and end-to-end across the supply chain
March 2019

CIM Courses @ PSU

Advances in Mechanical Engineering
0.848 Impact Factor
Table of Contents
Volume 11 Issue 3, March 2019

Industrial Engineer
The Boeing Company

Date posted 03/13/2019
Location Huntsville Alabama United States

Position Responsibilities:

Supporting product and process design teams throughout all phases of product life-cycle

Applying basic Industrial Engineering concepts, techniques, analysis and decision tools to promote and implement changes in manufacturing, engineering and service operations.

Developing models, data bases and spreadsheets to analyze data (e.g., statistics, operations research, engineering economics), and provide summary analysis and metrics as directed by higher level employees for consultation to customers (e.g., management, departments, suppliers).

Applying basic industrial engineering techniques and concepts to product and process design teams throughout all phases of product life-cycle, resulting in a robust product design and work statement that meets program requirements.

Research, design, develop, improve, and implement processes as directed to enhance schedule performance, lower cost, and improve quality, through the application of Lean and other Industrial Engineering concepts for large scale systems integration and asset utilization.

Utilize engineering methods (e.g., mathematical models, simulation, statistics) to assist in developing optimal process designs and efficient utilization of resources (e.g., facilities, personnel, materials, equipment) in the creation and validation of products.

Analyze and support the design of the value stream, including capability, capacity (e.g., make/buy, supplier selection, risk analysis, supplier performance), throughput, work flow and logistics (e.g., critical path, lead-time, transportation, factory layout).

A suitable employment for industrial engineers

Cost Excellence & Productivity Manager (OFS),-TX/

McKinsey Article
Zero-based productivity: Going granular and end-to-end across the supply chain
March 2019

Process Line Productivity - Benefit from New Innovations

Labor Productivity and Costs
US Department of Labor Page
Labor productivity is a measure of economic performance that compares the amount of goods and services produced (output) with the number of hours worked to produce those goods and services. The BLS also publishes measures of multifactor productivity.
Read: Productivity in Transit: A New Measure of Labor Productivity for Urban Transit Systems

Driving Productivity Growth Through Innovation in High Value Manufacturing
With leadership from two of the N8 universities, Sheffield City Region and the Lancaster Local Enterprise Partnership area have collaborated to produce a Science and Innovation Audit (SIA) describing the regions strengths in High Value Manufacturing.

This vision, of a “Northern Advanced Manufacturing Innovation Corridor”, will drive productivity and innovation by bringing together existing and emerging capital assets and research programmes.

Metal Printing - 100 Times Faster

Desktop Metal plans to sell two different types of machines: a relatively inexpensive “desktop” model suitable for designers and engineers fabricating prototypes, and the other  that is fast and large enough for manufacturing on commercial scale. Several innovations facilitate the development of these machines based on  Sachs’s original invention and  the development of very high-speed ink-jet printing for depositing the binder. Successively printing about 1,500 layers, each 50 micrometers thick and deposited in a few seconds, the production-scale printer can build up a 500-cubic-inch part in an hour. That’s about 100 times faster than a laser-based 3-D printer can make metal parts.


Manufacturing Engineering Process Control Automation
November 2018 Issue

Additive Hybrid Machine Tool Advancements Springing Up
October 16, 2018 by Robb Hudson - CEO, Mitsui Seiki USA, Inc.

Improvement Is Not Optional - It is done periodically per a schedule

No matter how busy this shop gets, it continues to pull teams of employees out of production so they can focus on solving problems to make incremental process changes. The advances add up. Today, this is a very different shop than it once was.

 Peter Zelinski
Article Post: 9/1/2014

Workholding’s Clever New Concepts: Part II
May 1, 2007 by Robert B. Aronson - Senior Editor
Don’t overlook this path to productivity

Automatic magazine bar feeders
For those turning parts from barstock, automatic magazine bar feeders can provide an affordable way to achieve manufacturing efficiency.

Zero Base Budgeting for Productivity - McKinsey July/August 2018 Articles

Call for Productivity Improvement by CEO - Boeing

Free Issue of IJPR with articles on Smart Manufacturing

January 2018

PRONTO Quick Jaw Change System for productivity



Robots manufacturing  shoe uppers 20 times faster than humans.

Using the Grabit robotic system’s electroadhesion technology, Nike is able to manufacture its shoe uppers 20 times faster than humans.
January 24, 2018

Benefits Of an Industry 4.0 CMMS

Reducing maintenance costs
Reducing asset downtime and asset failure

Top-10 Inspiring TED Talks: Productivity, Creativity and Balance

Productivity Improvement Using AI, Robots and Lidar

Doxel's  business is making construction cheaper, and their method  is combining massive amounts of data with deep-learning techniques.

 Using autonomous robots equipped with lidar, Doxel scans construction sites every day to track progress and check that things have been installed correctly.  In a recent pilot study on a medical office building, Doxel says it managed to increase labor productivity on the project by a staggering 38 percent.



What is Azure Cost Management?

How to Build a Motion-Sensored IoT ''Smart'' Pumpkin


December 2017

Innovative, High Productivity Fiber Laser Tube Cutting

TruLaser Tube 5000 fiber laser tube cutting machine from TRUMPF is the world’s first tube cutting machine with a solid-state laser to eliminate the need for a fully enclosed housing, making it quick and easy to load individual tubes and profiles or to remove finished parts while the machine is in operation.
December 30, 2017

TruLaser Tube 5000 fiber laser tube cutting machine is one more example of Product Productivity Engineering

It's time to select new leaders for IISE board for future

Measuring and Improving Productivity: A New Quantitative Approach
By Radovilsky, Zinovy D.; Gotcher, J. William
Industrial Management, Vol. 34, No. 3, May/June 1992

a. What are the factors that affect productivity?

b. How do we measure these factors?

c. What is the appropriate approach to analyze these factors?

d. What is the model that can be used for predicting productivity growth while varying the factors' values?

We attempted to analyze productivity in connection with losses which occurred during the production process.

Select Bibliography on Productivity
Quantitative Techniques in Production and Productivity
By D. Thakur

November 2017

“Industry 4.0, Leapfrog Opportunity for India” - Productivity Week Theme - India 2018

Productivity Solutions - Franklin Covey - Personal Improvement

Productivity Research Network
NUS Business School

Lancaster University Management School
Lancaster, United Kingdom

Productivity Features of New Ford Truck

October 2017

Four theories to explain the UK’s productivity woes

What is productivity? And why does it matter that it is falling again?
What does this mean for ordinary people? Why should it concern us (UK Economy)? And what can we do about it?

September 2017

Boosting productivity - Research identifies small changes that lead to big improvements in performance
By Heather Stringer
September 2017, Vol 48, No. 8

Productivity in the UK - Research Brief for Parliament
September 20, 2017

July 2017

Functions of Industrial Engineering

June 2017

A good description and discussion on Industrial Engineering and Systems Engineering and combining the two in practice.
Chapter 1 of  Handbook of |Industrial and Systems Engineering, Second Edition, Ed. by Adedeji Badiru.

The First 50 Years of the Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering at the University of Michigan: 1955–2005
Don B. Chaffin;view=fulltext

Top 20 Personal Productivity Blogs

10 Must-Follow Productivity Gurus and Their Top Tips

May 2017

Principles of Industrial Engineering Presented in IISE Conference



OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2017
You can download the full statistics and content.

April 2017

Productivity of Government Activities - McKinsey Report

"If all countries were to match the productivity improvements already demonstrated in government activities, the world’s governments could potentially save as much as $3.5 trillion a year by 2021—equivalent to the entire global fiscal gap."

Gone with the Headwinds : Global Productivity

IMF Staff Discussion Notes No. 17/04
Author/Editor:Gustavo Adler ; Romain A Duval ; Davide Furceri ; Sinem Kiliç Çelik ; Ksenia Koloskova ; Marcos Poplawski-Ribeiro Publication Date: April 3, 2017 Electronic Access:Free Full Text (PDF file size is 1736 KB)

Productivity growth—the key driver of living standards—fell sharply following the global financial crisis and has remained sluggish since, adding to a slowdown already in train before. Building on new research, this note finds that the productivity slowdown reflects both crisis legacies and structural headwinds.

March 2017

Understanding US productivity trends from the bottom-up
Joseph Parilla and Mark Muro, 2017

Productivity remains a critical source of prosperity.  Since 2004, productivity has been expanding at its slowest clip in the post-war era. Its causes—from declining breakthroughs in major technologies, to inefficiencies in major sectors like education, healthcare, and housing, to simply a mismeasurement issue—remain the subject of much debate.

March 2017

THE COMING PRODUCTIVITY BOOM: Transforming the Physical Economy with Information


December 2016

CEOs recognize the importance of Productivity

At the leadership level, executives of US manufacturers clearly recognize the importance of productivity. In a recent BCG study, more than 90% of the executives surveyed cited productivity as one of their top five most important corporate initiatives.
Productivity Now: A Call to Action for US Manufacturers, BCG Persepctives
DECEMBER 14, 2016

The Power of Productivity: An Assessment of UK Firms and Factors Contributing to
Productivity Enhancement
Dr Alexander Grous
London School of Economics and Political Science, December, 2016

November 2016

See entire issue of Journal of Industrial Engineering Sep - Oct 1964 for role of IEs in various types of organizations.

August 2016

Productivity as the key to economic growth and development (English)

June 2016

UK Government's Productivity Plan Review 2015-16

Investment Association UK's Productivity Plan 2016

Boosting competitiveness, managing costs and reducing emissions

Links between weak investment and the slowdown in productivity and potential output growth across the OECD
Patrice Ollivaud, Yvan Guillemette, David Turner - OECD, France
08 June 2016

May 2016

US productivity slips for first time in three decades
Prospect of wage stagnation
MAY 26, 2016

April 2016

Why Has the Cyclicality of Productivity Changed?
What Does It Mean?

Industrial Engineers – Improving Processes for More Efficiency

by Brian Rooney
October 20, 2015
Interesting writeup

Workshop Presentations on Benchmarking Project Efficiency, 30.01.2015

Center for Productivity Innovation
UT Knoxville

News on Industrial Engineering in Africa


Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

In months after June the articles prescribed have to be modified as a new scheme is started in 2015.

July 2015
New Metal Property reduces cutting force by half and speeds machining - Industrial engineering faculty of Purdue involved in research on machining,-eerie-effect-may-lead-to-manufacturing-advances.html

June 2015

Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Applications 2015
Mitsuo Gen, Kuinam J Kim, Xiaoxia Huang
Springer, Jan 1, 2015 - 1085 pages
This volume provides a complete record of presentations made at "Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Applications 2015 "(ICIMSA 2015), and provides the reader with a snapshot of current knowledge and state-of-the-art results in industrial engineering, management science and applications. The goal of ICIMSA is to provide an excellent international forum for researchers and practitioners from both academia and industry to share cutting-edge developments in the field and to exchange and distribute the latest research and theories from the international community. The conference is held every year, making it an ideal platform for people to share their views and experiences in industrial engineering, management science and applications related fields.

IIE Transations - Index to All Volumes

D.R. Towill P. Childerhouse, (2011),"Industrial engineering priorities for improved demand chain
performance", International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 60 Iss 3 pp. 202 -
Permanent link to this document:

IE Course Notes by Prof Sam ADEJUYIGBE

(With special reference to Power Projects Construction)
Dr. B. Kuberudu, , Ch.Sreenivasa Rao , and  B.Sridhar
International Journal of Advanced Technology in Engineering and Science
Volume No 03, Special Issue No. 01, March 2015

ARGON has developped a service that allows for very fast scanning of fuel tanks with immediate feedback for adjusting the cooling fixture. The procedure has saved TI Lokeren (Belgium) up to 80% in time and material cost for the process approval for a Volvo fuel tank. Additionally the total geometry of the fuel tank is captured so no areas are overlooked.

"Thanks to ARGON we have significantly decreased our costs and increased the dimensional quality of our products" says Michel De Clercq, Industrial Engineering Manager of TI Automotive Lokeren.

A New Curriculum for Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management for BS and MS Degrees
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
Volume 102, 22 November 2013, Pages 560–567
6th International Forum on Engineering Education (IFEE 2012)

Comparing Engineering Management and Industrial Engineering programs;jsessionid=mnzrqmht8zf6?url=file%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%2FE%3A%2Fsearch%2Fconference%2F21%2FAC%25201997Paper137.pdf&index=conference_papers&space=129746797203605791716676178&type=application%2Fpdf&charset=

May 2015

Recent Advances in Industrial Engineering - Articles - Springer Collection

Articles on Lean Manufactuing and Product Development by S. Vinodh, NIT Trichy

March 2015

IEOM International Conference on Operations Excellence and Service Engineering, September 10-11, 2015, Orlando, USA

What is Operational Excellence in Manufacturing and Supply Chain?

November 2014

Industrial Engineering Strategy  -  Companies have define their industrial engineering strategy. Do they intend to benefit from it? By how amount? Through what organization structure? How many industrial engineers will they employ? What tools they will emphasize? What are the bottle neck areas in the plant? etc.

Faculty Directory of IE Faculty Members

Compiling a directory of faculty members in top IE programs and institutes. This is the first step to compile research output in the area of IE in recent years.

Industrial Engineering Professors - Faculty - Top IE Programs and Institutes

July 2014
July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

19 June 2014

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - Started on 17 June 2014

A division of Aldevron, a biotech company has invited researchers from University of Wisconsin-Madison to study its processes and improve the speed. The normal focus in biotech companies is to make efforts to improve yield.

26 Feb

New Lessons from Toyota - 2014 

Deryl Sturdevant,  Retired as president and CEO of Canadian Autoparts Toyota (CAPTIN)
The two pillars of the Toyota Production System are the philosophy of continuous improvement (kaizen) and training, skilling  and empowerment for people, particularly line workers. Involvement of line workers in improvement activities in a systematic manner rather than in a sporadic manner through suggestions schemes is a special feature of TPS. The line management is responsible for improvement on a continuous basis apart from the staff help. It is an American idea implemented very well in Japan.  Evaluation tools keep upgrading the bar every year in Toyota.

Rank-and-file workers know far more any particular tool than do executives. The job of executives is to understand how all the tools combine to make an effective and efficient system.

For creating any change, you need knowledge and passion. With lean journey also it is the same. You need knowledge and passion.

SMED activity is still going on in Toyota. In making an aluminum-alloy wheel five years ago, changeover required about four or five hours. But now, the process was modified so that the changeover time is down to less than an hour.

One of the basic Toyota approaches: Try and perfect any improvement before you recommend implementing it elsewhere. But once again as a principle, perfection is a moving target.

The Lean System of Motivation

Bringing lean thinking to energy
Beset by rising costs, resource-intensive manufacturers are applying lean-management thinking in new ways to reduce the amount of energy used in production, to increase resource productivity—or both.
McKinsey Article - Feb 2014

The Remedy: Bringing Lean Thinking Out of the Factory to Transform the Entire Organization

21 Feb

Industrial Engineering - Productivity Enhancing Technology Development

1000th Published Post in Industrial Engineering Knowledge Center Blog
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering.
Technology is a subsystem in the Systems made efficient by industrial engineers. Hence creating efficient technology or more productive technology is a task of industrial engineering

19 Feb 2014

The Productivity Manual: Methods and Activities for Involving Employees in Productivity Improvement

Elizabeth A. Smith, Taylor & Francis, 1995 - Business & Economics - 234 pages
Managers and supervisors will appreciate the manual's straightfoward, problem-solving approach. Trainers will benefit from the quantitive and qualitive techniques for measuring, analyzing, and reporting organizational and personnel achievements.
Google Book Link

PepsiCo’s (PEP) productivity plan

PepsiCo’s (PEP) productivity plan from 2015 through 2019 will result in cost savings of $1 billion a year, About 40 percent  will come from labor cuts. Under the plan, PepsiCo will increase investment in manufacturing automation, close some manufacturing facilities, reengineer its distribution network in developed markets to be more efficient, share more back-office services, and simplify organization.
Productivity at the company hasn’t kept pace with sales growth. There are opportunities because of previous investments made in information systems, to make supply chain more efficient and go-to-market systems more efficient.
PepsiCo employed 278,000 employees in fiscal 2012, down from 297,000 a year earlier.

UK's Productivity’s Lost Decade – And How To Avoid Another
Strong GDP and employment growth throughout 2013 has highlighted productivity’s continued weakness. At the onset of the recession in Q1 2008, productivity initially fell. However, it has not recovered and remains 4% below the pre-crisis peak on an output per hour basis. Productivity has now fallen back to where it was in Q4 2005. Without improvements, we will have lived through almost a decade of stagnant productivity.

Getting Lean with Your Healthcare Practice:
Five Tips for Improving Provider Productivity with an EHR
EHR - Electronic Health Records

Introduction to Software Productivity
Galorath Incorporated
2010 presentation

Book Review: Growing the Productivity of Government Services by Patrick Dunleavy and Leandro Carrera
In this book Patrick Dunleavy and Leandro Carrera ask why government productivity has been so neglected in the study of economics and public management. Chapters cover customs regulation, tax services, and the need to embrace digital change, and the book concludes with some clear and practical advice.

12 Feb 2014

Productivity Day in India

It is important to study carefully the definition of management by Koontz and O'Donnell

"Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims."

Also they say in the chapter on productivity,

"In reality this entire book on management is about productivity."

Are management professionals and professors following that idea?



 THE WORLD'S TOP 10 MOST INNOVATIVE Solutions from COMPANIES IN PRODUCTIVITY Improvement of people in general

NitroDesk Announces Cockpit Mobile Productivity Management Solution
Cockpit allows for management of TouchDown corporate data container

Committed to sustainable productivity
Atlas Copco is a world-leading provider of sustainable productivity solutions. We serve customers in more than 180 countries with products and service focused on productivity, energy efficiency, safety and ergonomics.

Photoshop Keyboard Eliminates Shortcuts For Increased Productivity
The Shortcut-S is a computer keyboard created specifically for designers that use Photoshop and other graphics and video software. The keyboard has 319 tactile keys that are customizable.!vr6Gl

9 Feb 2014

11 Ways to Improve Your IT Team's Productivity

What is Lean Management?

Lean Management is management with simultaneous emphasis on customer satisfaction or goal achievement and productivity or resource consumption.

Liquid Lean: Developing Lean Culture in the Process Industries

Published: February 24, 2010 by Productivity Press Content:346 Pages |
Author(s):Raymond C. Floyd

Forth International Productivity Cartoon Festival: 

No. 164, 6th Boostan St., Opposite White Tower ( Burj-e-Sefid) , Pasdaran Ave., Tehran, Iran.,-iran-2014

The programme is a collaboration between BCA Academy and The Singapore Contractors Association Ltd (SCAL).  It caters to the specific needs of the contractors and builders in managing construction productivity. The course will be conducted over 12 sessions.  Each session will last for 3 hours in the evening, once a week.

Wide range of connectors with molded-on control cables, guarantees high productivity for your machines and systems, even in the most rugged conditions.

Designed for harsh environments, especially "no-contact" zones in the food industry, the new generation of connectors supplements the proven connectors of the M12 Food & Beverage Classic Line.

Labour Productivity in Coal Mining Sector in India: With Special to Major Coal Mining
The production of coal has increased from 35 million tons in 1951 to 409.3 million tons in 2004. At the same time, the Average Daily Employment (ADE) has increased from 352 thousand in 1951 to 405 thousand in 2004.

Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK)
Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK) is an easy-to-use, comprehensive content development, deployment and maintenance platform designed to increase project, programme and user productivity. With over 4 million users globally, it features out-of-the-box integration with core systems and the ability to support any application.

Productivity & Efficiency at Forefront of LexisNexis at LegalTech New York 2014
Portfolio of integrated analytical, workflow and productivity solutions drives insights and better outcomes for law firms and legal departments
“Driving efficiency and productivity is at the core of our business,” said Bob Romeo, CEO of Research & Litigation Solutions at LexisNexis.

Role of information literacy in agricultural productivity and food security: An international perspective
80th IFLA General Conference and Assembly, Lyon, France in August 2014

German firm to train farmers in productivity in Uganda

The National Center for Transportation Systems Productivity and Management (NCTSPM)
conducts transportation related research in the areas of safety, state-of-good-repair, and economic competitiveness. NCTSPM is a collaboration between Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia Transportation Institute, Florida International University, University of Central Florida, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and each university’s state Department of Transportation.

Port productivity: Handling freight more efficiently
February 5, 2014|By Doreen Hemlock, Sun Sentinel
Some 140 port experts from around the nation met in Fort Lauderdale this week to discuss ways to boost port productivity in a conference.

Productivity Improvement - Manufacturing Process Improvement Consulting by Maverick
As your productivity improvement consultant, MAVERICK begins by evaluating the current state of your operations regarding man, machine, material and methods — lean manufacturing’s 4M perspective on improving production processes. Then we compare benchmark findings with best-in-class operations and help you close the gaps. Because we are able to leverage the experience of 500 professionals working across the country — noting what works and what doesn’t — we’re able to incorporate best practices that might not be obvious otherwise.
Columbia, IL (World HQ)
265 Admiral Trost Drive
PO Box 470
Columbia, IL 62236

The Lean CFO: Architect of the Lean Management System

Published: September 16, 2013 by Productivity Press Content:151 Pages
Author(s):Nicholas S. Katko

5 Feb 2014

2014 Asia-Pacific Productivity Conference

The Centre for Efficiency and Productivity Analysis (CEPA) in the School of Economics at The University of Queensland is pleased to invite you to attend the 10th Asia Pacific Productivity Conference (APPC) from 8 -11 July 2014 in Brisbane, Australia.
Conference Dates: Jul 8, 2014 to Jul 11, 2014
Deadline for paper submissions: Feb 15, 2014
Deadline for participant registration: Thursday, May 15, 2014
The conference will consist of theoretical and applied sessions, as well as special-focus sessions targeting specific industries and topics. This will include topics on efficiency and productivity in industries such as the banking and energy sectors, regulated industries, agriculture, USA productivity, EU and APEC productivity, Asia-KLEMS and many more.

Heidelberg India fixing productivity with maintenance tips
Heidelberg India hosted a seminar on key maintenance and advanced trouble shooting techniques in sheetfed offset printing in Kochi.
Haribabu, head of customer service at Heidelberg addressed the audience on activities required for a print-shop, and how such efforts promote best results in print production through his presentation on ‘benefits of maintenance’.,heidelberg-india-fixing-productivity-with-maintenance-tips.aspx

Improving productivity and profitability
Maintenance can help American businesses avoid losing more than $500 billion every year to equipment breakdowns or inefficiencies.

Variable-speed drive gives Energy Savings + Productivity Improvements - ABB
 While there is a gradual improvement in those willing to invest in drives, there still remains some 90 percent of installed motors that are not speed controlled. A further 95 percent of the 11 million motors installed in the UK are oversized. Savings of more than 50 percent can be achieved by the use of a drive on these applications.

Global Total factor productivity (TFP) dipped below zero in 2013

Total factor productivity (TFP), that is, how well labour inputs combine with capital inputs to generate output, was also low, dipping below zero in 2013

DAVE: a tool for software QA productivity
DAVE stands for DAta VErification. The way it works is rather simple: first, the user chooses the environments (dev, test or prod). Second, they enter either the email address or the order key/id of the customer they’re trying to verify and press the Submit button


. It adopted and integrated lean manufacturing and continuous improvement principles into its culture and work processes. During this journey, it was determined that SFI's welding operations at its Memphis plant needed to be radically revamped and updated.

SFI's welders have been using the Lincoln Power Wave® machines and Power Feed™ wire feeders for nearly a year now and have seen a consistent 15-percent productivity gain.

4 February 2014

Professionalism in precision sheet metal manufacturing
A commitment to reducing waste and making key investments helps DeWys Manufacturing earn The FABRICATOR’s 2014 Industry Award

The Powermax125, a professional-grade plasma metal cutting and gouging system, that works as hard as you do. With the maximum power and performance for air plasma in our line, the Powermax125 severs 57 mm (2-1/4") thick metals at 125 mm/min (5 ipm). With 100% duty cycle and Powermax reliability, it is ready for the most demanding cutting and gouging jobs.

Increasing Marketing Productivity and ROI with Tealium iQ - Case Study

The McKinsey Infrastructure and Capital Productivity Academy (MICA)

Productivity and Efficiency of Groundnut Farming in Northern Taraba State, Nigeria
G.B. Taphee, A.A.U. Jongur

The Construction Productivity Handbook

Textura-PQM Software Helps Subcontractors Improve Efficiency and Enhance Productivity

Improving productivity, efficiency and safety through automation and reliable communication infrastructure Editor | February 3, 2014

Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - January 2014

Updated  2019,  27 Jan 2019,  5 January 2019

2018,  5 October,  22 July,  13 July 2018,  30 June 2018,  24 June, 11 June 2018, 16 May,  8 May,  26 January,   23 January,  1 January 2018,

31 December 2017, 8 December 2017,  27 November 2017,  10 June 2017,  12 June 2016,  27 May 2016