Friday, December 6, 2019

CNC Machine Work Study - Productivity Improvement Based on Machine and Machine Work Redesign

Aspects of Machine to be Studied in Machine Work Study

Advanced Machine Availability
Condition of the Machine (Repair & Overhaul Need)
Improvement of the Machine
Cutting Tools
Machine Speeds
Setup Procedure
Upkeep of the machine by operator
Power consumption
Breakdowns analysis
Data Generation and Analysis

Machine Time Study - Machine Time Estimation or Calculation

Machine Time Study - Machine time study helps in locating machine related issues for in depth studies for reducing machine time required for a job.  Every industrial engineering study is begun with a observation of present time taken and at the end of the study, new reduced time is also measured. The new process plan of the job reflects the industrial engineering improvements and the reduced time for operations.

Advanced Machine Availability

As a part of Machine work study, availability of advanced machines can be ascertained and a study is done to evaluate buying the new advanced machine.

Top 5 CNC Machine Manufacturers in the World

By type, the CNC machine market is categorized into CNC lathe, CNC milling, CNC grinding machine, CNC welding, and CNC winding. CNC lathes are the most sought CNC machines, as they are multi-purpose in nature and are used in a wide range of applications. CNC machining centers are the second most employed CNC machine type. Both of them collectively encompass about 50.08% market share of CNC by volume.

Okuma Machine Selector

Ultra-Precision with the Largest Workspace, in the Smallest Footprint
Machining Large Precision Parts Is Difficult and Can Be Costly to Produce
The larger the part, the greater the chance you have of not achieving a successful result. Precisely setting-up or repositioning parts because you don’t have the machining area can lead to errors—or worse. Working on existing parts that are already of high value is stressful and risky.

Minimize your risk and get the machining right—the first time.

Transform Your Business, Reduce Rejected Parts, and Take the Stress out of Large Part, High-Tolerance Jobs
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 High speed machining with a 40,000 RPM, 3 kW HSK spindle
 Thermally balanced rigid construction with a solid granite table
 Exact precision with brushless servo motors and linear scales in all axis


Based on repair cost and operating cost, analysis is to be done regarding replacement of the machine by the same model or by a different machine.

Is it time to replace my CNC machine?
July 2, 2019

Condition of the Machine (Repair & Overhaul Need)
As  part of machine work study, the condition of the machine is to be evaluated for recommend-ing overhaul if needed.
Whether adequate maintenance is being done or not is investigated

Improvement of the Machine

Industrial engineers have to find if any improvement of machine can increase productivity.
In Toyota improvement of machines is an important activity.

Machine Work Study - Machine Improvement in Toyota Production System (TPS)


Investigate if any machine accessories are available which can increase productivity.

The Benefits of CNC Machine Tending With Collaborative Robots
By Robotics Online Marketing Team

Cutting Tools

Are appropriate cutting tools used for various operations?
Cutting tool planning is required so that tools are available when needed.

CNC Lathe Advances Breed Novel Cutting Tool Designs
A Turning Tool in a Milling Spindle

FreeTurn is a turning tool from Ceratizit ( It takes advantage of the capabilities of combination turning/milling centers to enable traditional turning operations—roughing, finishing, contour turning, face turning and longitudinal turning—to be done, without pause, with a single tool. This saves lots of time and money.
Parting in Y

Another tool designed to leverage improvements in CNC lathes is the CoroCut QD parting tool from Sandvik Coromant (

Machine Speeds: Cutting Speed, Feed, Depth of Cut

Machine speed optimization was done by F.W. Taylor.
Many research studies are being done even in the current years.
For each machine, relevant speed analysis     has to be done by industrial engineers as     part of Machine work study.

Effect of machining variables and coolant application on HSS tool temperature during turning on a CNC lathe
Article (PDF Available) in IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering 413(1):012004 · September 2018
T Ejieji
Cutting variables in the operation of a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) lathe machine can affect parameters such as the work piece, tool temperature, material surface finish, material properties and vibration. A programmable CNC lathe machine was used in this work to examine the effect of different cutting variables on HSS tool temperature. Carbon steel material of C20 carbon equivalent and ferritic stainless steel was machined at different cutting speeds, depth of cut with an HSS tool. A constant feed rate  of 7 mm/minute was maintained throughout the experiments. Temperature profiles were obtained for different depth of cut ranging between 0.5 and 2.5 mm and cutting speed range of 500 to 800 rpm.  Tool Temperatures were observed to increase with cutting speed and depth of cut. Increase in depth of cut from 0.5 to 1.5 mm resulted into a 64% increase in tool temperature while coolant application reduced tool temperature by as much as 63.2% in stainless steel. Tool life can be significantly enhanced by appropriate machining variables selection.

Setup Procedure - Single Minute CNC Setup (SMCS)

Setup time reduction is now   an important exercise related   to machines.
For each machine set up redu-ction studies have to be done by industrial engineering

Upkeep of the Machine by Operator
Scientific management of the    machine maintenance recog   nized the role of operations
   persons in machine upkeep.
Industrial engineers have to    assess the present practices    & their effect on productivity.

Power Consumption
Minimizing power consumption is an    important industrial engineering    activity.
Hence power consumption has to be    analysed and measures are taken to    eliminate waste.

Breakdowns Analysis
Breakdown analysis has to be done to examine the adequacy of preventive maintenance and predictive Maintenance.

Data Generation and Analysis
Information is also a resource.
Industrial engineers have to assess the adequacy of the information.
They also have to prevent waste.They have to examine the cost incurred for data collection.

Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 is increasing the role of machines and information collection and transmission in production systems.
Hence industrial engineers have to be increase their effort on machine data collection using sensors and the data analysis through edge computing and cloud computing.


10 Tips to Better CNC Turning

Machine Time Study - Machine Time Estimation or Calculation

Are Imprecise CAD/CAM Cycle Time Estimates Holding Back Efficiency?

Estimation of Machining Time for CNC Manufacturing Using Neural Computing
International Journal of Simulation Modelling 15(4):663-675 · December 2016

Mechanistic approach to predict real machining time for milling free-form geometries applying high feed rate
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, February 2010, Volume 46, Issue 9–12, pp 1103–111

COSTIMATOR® by MTI Systems Slashes Machining Cost Estimating Time, Boosting Quoting Accuracy, Consistency and Profitability

Estimating Machining Time for Turning

Milling - Estimation of Machining Time

About CNC Machining

Related Articles

Machine Work Study - Machine Improvement in Toyota Production System (TPS)

Machine Work Study - Productivity Improvement Based on Machine and Machine Work Redesign

Machine Work Study:  Methods, Techniques and Tools

Machine Work Study

Thursday, December 5, 2019

CNC Machine Productivity - Bibliography

Machine Work Study - Productivity Improvement Based on Machine and Machine Work Redesign

About CNC  Machines

Cooperating with MIT, Richard Kegg made the Cincinnati Milacron Hydrotel – the initial CNC milling machine in 1952. He patented it under the name ‘Motor Controlled Apparatus for Positioning Machine Tool’ in 1958. This was the starting point of the commercial development of the technology.


Traveling Column Machines: Three Ways Additional Travel Improves Productivity
July 2019


Increase Your CNC Machining Productivity
July 24, 2018

More Productive than CNC Swiss-Type Lathes
More than 40 percent of the parts cut on CNC Swiss-type lathes can be made on CNC multi-spindle lathes at a fraction of the cost. While more expensive, CNC multi-spindle machines can turn and mill parts up to six times faster and from standard barstock.


Investigated Information Data of CNC Machine Tool for Established Productivity of Industry 4.0
2016 5th IIAI International Congress on Advanced Applied Informatics (IIAI-AAI)


Multiple setup with Tebis means truly maximized machining capacity.

Reliable template-based programming
Maximized machining capacity with simulation
Broad range of functions and user-friendly format

Jaguar Land Rover`s Model Operations department was first introduced to Tebis in 1999. Today Jaguar Land Rover is Tebis UK's oldest and largest customer. CAD/CAM technology has completely changed work methods in this department over the past 15 years – and its processes will definitely be further optimized using Tebis in the future as well.

New Technology in CNC Automatic Lathes Drives Higher Productivity
Lorincz, Jim.Manufacturing Engineering; Dearborn Vol. 152, Iss. 5,  (May 2014): 75-76,78-80,83-86.

Enhanced work flow in CNC Machining

Increasing Productivity with Engagement-Generated Toolpaths By Alan Diehl, Surfware, Inc.
CNC machining Vol 14 Issue 47

Metal Working World - Sandvik Coromant - 3 issues in a year

Productivity Improvement of a Special Purpose Machine Using DMAIC Principles: A Case Study

Pumping Up CNC Productivity

Transform your CNC spindle speeds 10K  to 50K

Affordable, Entry-Level CAM Package Due for Launch
CAMWorksXpress runs within the SolidWorks platform and provides the high-powered features needed for efficient machining. The software package is offered in 32- and 64-bit versions and has features like automatic toolpath updates; optimized toolpaths; simple CNC-code generation; model importing from common file formats (IGES, SAT, ACIS, etc.); automatic feature recognition; a library of post processors for CNC controllers; and unlimited upgrade paths to CAMWorks.

Thesis - 2012
Methods for improving performance of process planning for CNC machining - An approach based on surveys and analytical models  - By STAFFAN ANDERBERG

Prof. (Dr). Rachayya.R.Arakerimath
Department of Mechanical Engineering, G H Raisoni College of Engg and Mgmt   Dighi Hills, Pune - 411015, India. Email : Rachayya_ait  at
Prof (Dr).V.A.Raikar
Principal Govt College of Engineering, Karawar, Karnataka, India

CNC machine tool manufacturer Okuma America Corporation has launched an interactive, web-based productivity tool to help boost productivity at manufacturing facilities.

Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate

Increasing Machine Tool Productivity With CNC Technology

S. Alex1, , A. C. Lokesh2, N. Ravikumar3
1 Student, M. Sc. [Engg.], 2 Professor, M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore 560 054 3
General Manager, Ess Enn Auto, Bangalore

Four-step process for proficient manufacturing

Reducing cycle time in cnc machines

Automated CNC programming

High Pressure Coolant System  Sandvik
These production advantages will lead to a higher utilization of the available machine and available production time and thereby maximize the payback on investment. An optimized system with high pressure coolant machining can pay for itself  in a few months. 2010

PARTS (Productivity of CNC Turning center with Milling Capability  Case Study)

Improve Titanium Milling Productivity with Secure CNC Machining

Integrated machine monitoring and adaptive control with OEE+DNC has been demonstrated using a robot to aid loading a CNC machine, offering automation for manufacturing flexibility and productivity that can increase profitability.
Memex Automation

Improving Productivity on Working with CNC machine Tools

Probes offer significant productivity improvements by reducing the downtime associated with manual set-up of tools, fixtures and work pieces, as well as increased inspection accuracy of first-off components.

Productivity Day Presentations - 2009


Feed optimization for five-axis CNC machine tools with drive constraints
B. Sencer, Y. Altintas, E. Croft
Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Available online 18 January 2008
International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 48 (2008) 733–745
Available on Science Direct

Value Stream Mapping based Improvement in CNC Machine Shop
2007 Study - Case Study

Boosting Productivity of Machining Centers - Some Tips

Productivity Improvement by Error Proofing - Ebook

Kaizen on CNC Machine - 535

Shaping machine kaizen

Productivity improvement & line balancing in a medium scale industry.

Companies and Products for CNC Machine Productivity

CNC Machine Information

Including back bolts, clamps, vises and other modular devices.
Simple. Easy. Right.

New system machine SPECHT 450 DUO - double productivity without compromise
July 19th, 2013 - MAG introduces the new twin-spindle SPECHT 450 DUO with numerous technical innovations, outstanding technical data and market leading tool change times to maximize productity in the small engine and parts production market. Virtually replacing two entire machines while providing the highest reliability and quality levels. The new twin-spindle SPECHT 450 DUO, with only 11.2 m² of floor space and a comfortable spindle distance of 540 mm, is the smallest twin-spindle machine of the SPECHT family and is designed for the machining of mid-sized workpieces such as cylinder heads or gear housings and more

Siemens Sinumerik portfolio designed to enhance CNC machining precision, productivity and user convenience. Siemens will also be showcasing an integral CAD/CAM-CNC process  chain covering everything from design through to the finished workpiece.

Royal bar pullers have a number of advantages over bar feeders:
Bar pullers are much less expensive. The average cost of a Royal bar puller is $600, compared to $10,000 - $30,000 for a bar feeder.

VoluMill™ is a patent-pending ultra high-performance toolpath engine that significantly increases machining productivity and tool life. VoluMill is a full-featured, CAM-neutral, 2- and 3-axis toolpath engine for any geometric configuration.

Makino Horizontal 4 axis machines - Videos

Hurco Five Axis Machines

Bridgeport High Performance Vertical Machining Centers

Underused CAM features - 2007

Haas CNC Tips and Tricks

Effective Coolant recovery, swarf management, and air filtration systems

Wonderware DNC Professional provides centralized management and downloading of Numerical Control (NC) programs.

Premium Frac Pumps Triples Productivity With Kennametal Tools - Using Kennametal tools that reduce tooling costs by half

CNC Machining Emulator for Program and Process Improvement

Updated on 6 December 2019,   28 June 2019,  20 August 2018

24 June 2017,  7 Apr 2016, 20.2.2014

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

CNC Machine - Setup Time Reduction - Bibliography - Case Studies

Application of the single-minute exchange of die system to the CNC sector of a shoe mold company
Rodrigo Borges Ribeiro et al.
Cogent Engineering
Volume 6, 2019 - Issue 1


In a machine shop with  45 employees, a four-axis CNC lathe was used to make large aerospace parts that were shipped on a monthly basis.  The change over and setup for one of the routine parts was taking just under 16 hours (two shifts).  Since the set up took so long, the company was typically making 3-5 months worth of parts at a time and store them  and then ship them out of inventory.  Occasionally customers would make changes to parts, which meant that the parts that had already been made were no longer what the customer wanted.  Also as the lathe was making parts of a batch of 3-5 months, the lathe was not availabe for other current, more pressing demands.

Six employees spent five days studying the process and reducing the changeover and setup time. A target of 50% reduction was chosen (Shigeo Shingo says, separating external and internal activities will give the size of saving).

At the end of the five day event, one changeover and set up had been done in 7 hours.  Additional improvements  would take three more weeks to implement setup will take  5 to 5 1/2 hours.

Savings:  The company has four of these lathes and by applying what had been learned to all four lathes, sixty four hours per week could now be used for making parts.  With changeovers taking less than one shift, the company decided that they would make parts for that month requirement only , so the cost of parts being held in storage was eliminated.

Setup Time Reduction on CNC Shaper  2011 article

MS disseration on CNC Machine Setup Time Reduction 2009 - Haiqing Guo - MIT

CNC Programming Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Practical CNC Programming
Peter Smid
Industrial Press Inc., 2003 - Computers - 508 pages

Extraordinarily comprehensive, this popular and authoritative reference covers just about every possible subject a typical CNC programmer may encounter on a daily basis. Fully indexed to help the user quickly locate topics of interest, this "industrial strength" handbook presents most common programming subjects in great depth and is equally applicable to both CNC milling and CNC turning operations. Many advanced subjects are also covered, thus making this an unusually comprehensive reference for machinists, programmers, engineers, and supervisors. Filled with over one thousand illustrations, tables, formulas, tips, shortcuts, and practical examples, this widely respected publication is structured in a logical order that is readily adaptable to virtually all levels of CNC training, from the basic to the advanced.

CNC Programming Handbook has just become more valuable than ever! A new CD-ROM, packed with actual problem-solving projects and enhancing the material presented in the book, is included for the first time. Users will find programming projects and exercises for most chapters, special programming and machining projects, solutions to problems, and numerous reference files useful in CNC programming, as well as several utilities. With the majority of files in Adobe PDF, instructors will be able to quickly and easily print and distribute any of the projects, exercises, and references to their classes. Meanwhile, students and professionals will find this CD an effective self-study aid that allows them to enhance their understanding of the subject one topic at a time. Presents complete information on various programming techniques, from the basic areas to dozens of advanced concepts. Includes more than 1,000 illustrations, tables, formulas, tips, shortcuts and real-world examples. Offers unparalleled reference material useful for skills training at all levels of CNC. Presents an encyclopedic, logically organized approach to CNC programming, allowing the reader to look up a subject of interest only. Uses cross references throughout to guide the reader to the proper answer or solution to a problem.

Understanding CNC Machines, Setup and Operation
Richard N. Jackson
Clinton Gilkie

Organizational Skills Cut Machine Setup Time

CNC Machining Fundamentals

Magnetic vice

Zero point mounting kits for setup time reduction

Set up Reduction – A perfect way for productivity improvement of computer numerical control (CNC) set
up in manufacturing company
by - Patel Chintan Kumar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, C. K. Pithawala College of Engineering and Technology, Dumas Road, Surat-395007, Gujarat, India.
17 August, 2012

Benefits of Presetting systems - CNC Setup

How to reduce setup time in CNC tool grinding?

Spencer Tool Setter with CNC software program that assists your operator in accurately measuring and recording tool lengths into the CNC memory.

Setup Reduction For CNC Machining & Turning Centers CD Rom Course $239.00

Vacuum Clamping technology for cnc tools

CNC Tool Cart

Increasing CNC Production throughput with Tool Presetting with a YouTube video of 14 minutes embedded

Workstops and Gang Tool Holders for CNC

CNC Machine Productivity Series Articles

CNC Machine Productivity - Basic article

Whether to focus on saving Machine Cycle Time or Machine Setup Time to improve Shop Productivity?

Top Shops - What do they do differently?

Are you using High Speed Machining? - Above 18,000 rpm

By incorporating new CNC programming software to make full use of its new five-axis machining capabilities, Bob Lewis Machine Co. has reduced setups and programming time.
Case Study From: 4/19/2013 Modern Machine Shop

Cycle Time Reduction for Bearing House Assembly
K. Saran Kumar Reddy, T. Panneer Selvam and R. Venkatraman
Published: June 30, 2012

Mill/Turn centers or Multitasking machines.

Drastic Reduction in piece times with high performance cnc machining - 2008

To be updated  6 December 2019,   7 April 2016


PCB Design and Manufacturing Productivity - Product and Process Industrial Engineering

Printed Circuit Boards from 10,000 Feet – An Introduction for Electronics Beginners - Good information
Sam Sattel

PCB Manufacturing Process Explanation

Understanding PCB Manufacturing: Panelization
Nov 18, 2014

Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing Technologies

PCB  Design and Manufacturing  Productivity Related News, Articles and Papers


Cost vs. Price:The Economics of PCB Design

Clearance and Creepage Rules for PCB Assembly
Optimum Design Associates Blog

Should Cost Examples For PCB Assembly
OPtimum rates are lower than China rates.

Effective. Efficient. Engineered Solutions
We Exceed Customer Expectations in Quality, Delivery and Service building long term relationships based on Customer Satisfaction Index.
End-End Program Management
Faster Time to Market
Reduced BoM Costs
Cost Effective Engineering
Putting Complex Product together

Test Engineering | Electronic Design Test Engineering
Test Engineering is one of the most important tasks in production. In this stage, all electronic boards are tested to verify that the product is free of any error. Testing usually has two stages: 1. The In-Circuit-Test (ICT) checks the components and the inter-connections of the parts on a PCB. With the ICT we can detect many problems, such as poor soldering, cold solder or solder bridge, improper component value, broken parts and similar connectivity problems.

Second stage of testing - the Functional Test. 2. The Functional Test is a complex test that is designed specifically for one particular product and will check the features and functionality of that product. By performing the functional test  the chance of an error is reduced to a minimum! We consider testability in our design right from the first day. Because of the experience and skills of our engineering staff, we are able to reduce the time spent in the test engineering section, especially with high quantity production. This is critical because each minute of delay in test engineering means a delay in getting the product out of the factory and to the client! As well, we can design test facilities on board, like test pads, connectors and test interfaces. Discuss your requirements to incorporate all of them into the final board layout.

Value Engineering of PCB Cloning

Value Engineering objective

A value engineering (VE) review of PCB Cloning candidates may reveal cost drivers over and beyond the sole source restrictions. Some probable high cost drivers are: excessive material requirements such as the capacitor, resistor, inductor and integrated circuits, PCB layout drawing defects, over design, functional redundancy, tolerance restrictions, excessive performance requirements, etc.

Allegro PCB DesignTrue DFM Technology
Real-time DFM checks ensure manufacturability

Design for Manufacturability of Rigid Multi-Layer Boards
By: Tom Hausherr 

Knowledge based tool for conducting design


mSAP: The New PCB Manufacturing Imperative for 5G Smartphones
October 23, 2017


Orbotech Releases Precise 800 Automated Optical Shaping 3D Solution for PCB Manufacturers
 May 22, 2016
The new technology should attract the attention of PCB manufacturers as it’s capable of removing excess copper as well as filling in the areas where it is missing. These features are significant as it means the ‘shaping solution’ is eliminating scrap and offering substantial savings on the bottom line with a rapid recoup regarding the initial investment.

The Biggest PCB Manufacturing Trends We’ve Seen This Year
AUGUST 18, 2016

What You Need To Know About PCB Design & Manufacturing
Jul 25, 2016
Interesting article with some references

PCBs Fabrication Methods
GUIDE: PCBs Fabrication Methods


Eight steps for efficient PCB manufacturing and assembly – Part One
By Michael Ford,   Posted: May 18, 2015




Selecting PCB Materials for High-Frequency
By John Coonrod, Rogers Corporation, Advanced Circuit Materials Division
March/April 2012
Microwave Engineering europe



YouTube Video - PCB Design to Manufacture


Horng-Hai Loh, Ming-Sing Lu, "Printed circuit board inspection using image analysis", Industrial Automation and Control: Emerging Technologies 1995. International IEEE/IAS Conference on, pp. 673-677, 1995.

This paper presents an inspection system for the defects on surface mounted device (SMD) printed circuit boards (PCBs). There are five types of defects, namely, missing component, misalignment, wrong orientation of IC chip, wrong parts and poor solder joints. Different algorithms are developed to detect these faults. Vision system has been introduced into almost every level of PCB manufacturing. They include PCB pattern inspection machines, SMD mounter with visual positioning, mounted SMD visual inspection machines, soldering inspection machines, assembled PCB visual inspection machines etc. Most of these vision systems achieve significant benefits.


Vision systems for PCB manufacturing in Japan
S. Hata

Abstract: Current vision systems in Japanese printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing lines are described. Vision systems have been introduced into almost every level of PCB manufacturing in Japan. They include mask pattern inspection machines, PCB pattern inspection machines, surface-mount device (SMD) mounters with visual positioning, mounted SMD visual inspection machines, soldering inspection machines, and assembled PCB visual inspection machines. Most of these vision systems were integrated successfully and achieved significant benefits.
Published in: [Proceedings] IECON '90: 16th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
Date of Conference: 27-30 Nov. 1990

Updated on 5 December 2019, 22 August 2018

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Value Engineering - Research - Dissertations and Papers

The Lawrence D. Miles Value Engineering Reference Center Collection


Construction Research Congress 2018
Improving Creativity in the Value Engineering Process for Green Building Construction
Joel Ochieng Wao, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE


Applying Risk Analysis, Value Engineering, and Other Innovative Solutions for Project Delivery (2017)

PDF]cost reduction using value analysis for auto rickshaw ... - IRAJ › journal › journal_file › journal_pdf
Feb 17, 2017 - Abstract— Value Engineering defines a process in which the value of the product can be increased by ... In this study, Value Engineering Job Plan (VEJP).

Value Analysis Canada 2017 Conference Papers

Effects of Value Engineering on the Sustainability of New Facilities on University Campuses: A Case Study Analysis of Project and Facility Managers’ Perceptions and Experiences
Carey Hewett, B.A., M.B.A.
Dissertation In Higher Education Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
Dean of the Graduate School
August 2017


Value Analysis Canada 2017 Value Summit Papers

da Silva de Santis SH, Dedini FG, Marcicano JPP, de Santis VC (2016) Lean Manufacturing and Value Engineering, Two Concepts for Sustainable Management. J Textile Sci Eng 6:280.


PDF]Creating Total Value Engineering Through Combining Design ... › cgi › viewcontent
by DR Christensen - ‎2014 - ‎Related articles
Jul 8, 2014 - DFSS constructs demonstrate a total value engineering construct. ... who wrote a research paper in association with another paper I wrote on case study

An Improved Effective Cost Review Process for Value Engineering
D. S. Joo and J. I. Park
Department of Industrial Engineering, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749, Republic of Korea
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 682051, 16 pages

Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE also have to come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. This paper reports on its  introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas.

Jessup, S., Mitchell, C. (2013) :Developing a standard approach to the Value Engineering process for the Civil Engineering Industry: A Theoretical, Case Study and Industry Perspective. CEEC General Assembly Brussels 25-27 April 2013

The Implementation and Effectiveness of Value Engineering in the United Arab Emirates
Ratnam Jeyakumar
University of Glamorgan / Prifysgol Morgannwg
Faculty of Advanced Technology
for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
February, 2013

Value Engineering Synergies with Lean Six Sigma: Combining Methodologies for Enhanced Results
Jay Mandelbaum, Anthony Hermes, Donald Parker, Heather Williams
CRC Press, 11-May-2012 - Business & Economics - 212 pages
Lean Six Sigma (LSS), Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), and Value Engineering (VE) have a proven track record of success for solving problems and improving efficiency. Depending on the situation, integrating these approaches can provide results that exceed the benefits of each individual approach. Value Engineering Synergies with Lean Six Sigma: Combining Methodologies for Enhanced Results describes how to integrate these dynamic tools to achieve unprecedented improvements and break down the organizational stovepipes that can occur when different offices are assigned responsibility for different problem-solving methods.

The book identifies opportunities where readers can integrate these approaches to go beyond what is currently possible with the individual approaches. Explaining the VE methodology, it supplies a high-level discussion of LSS and DFSS. Next, it compares VE with LSS and identifies the different opportunities for synergies that can provide your organization with a competitive edge.


Value Engineering - An Opportunity for Consulting Engineering to Redefine their Role
MSc Construction Project Management Dissertation,
Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland

Joseph C. Cantwell, P.E., William R. King, Robert T. Lorand, P.E.
Science Applications International Corporation
Online available - Do Google search

On the Integration of Value Engineering in the Procurement of
Public Housing in the State of Kuwait
A thesis submitted to The University of Manchester for the degree of
PhD by Talal Alazemi
in the Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences
School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering

Implementing a Value Based Approach to Software Assessment and Improvement
Pasi Ojala
Univerisity of Oulu

Using Value-Engineering Analysis + TRIZ Method For Improving The Stripping Grain-Harvesting Machine
Editor | On 18, Sep 2003

By: Peter Chuksin, Alexander Skuratovich, Nikolay Shpakovsky
This article was first published in Russian on the site

Value Engineering for Small Transportation Projects
MS in Civil Engineering Thesis
Worcester Polytechnic Institute


Loughborough University Institutional Repository

A good thesis having historical account of value engineering development from L.D. Miles.

An investigative study of value engineering in the United States of America and its relationship to
United Kingdom cost control procedures

• 1992 A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.

Angela Catherine Palmer

Google search for "value engineering" research reveals interesting papers for the period 1991 to 2000.

2001 to 2010

2011 to 2011  Check for the three decades

Updated  2019 - 4 December 2019,   5 November 2019.  24 March 2019

2018 - 26 June 2018

  28 June.  26 June 2015
Posted  5 May 2012

Radar Cost Estimation and Reduction - Industrial Engineering - Articles and Case Studies

Radar principles and technologies - Tutorials

MMIC or MM IC is an important component used in large number in Radars. It is used in T/R modules.
MMIC Technology - Cost Estimation and Reduction - Industrial Engineering - Articles and Cases

Cost Issues in LRDR System

“The choice of S-Band for LRDR was a compromise: S-Band was assessed to provide acceptable performance for much lower cost than an X-Band (~10 GHz) system at the same sensitivity and field of view. Trade study analysis indicated that although discrimination performance at X-Band would be superior, it was not sufficiently better than the performance at S-Band to justify the cost differential."  Interesting site.

Radar Innovations - Raytheon - 24 April 2019

Cost Reduction in the Department of Defense
Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1965

Cost Reduction Journal - US DOD - 1967

Value engineering of diodes used SMA Radars
Principles and Applications of Value Engineering: Course Book
United States. Army Management Engineering Training Agency, United States. Department of Defense
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968 - Value analysis (Cost control) - 74 pages

Committee on Weather Radar Technology Beyond NEXRA

Reiichi Yamada, Andrew Piloto, Edward Graddy, Gerardo Aguirre, Mark Eblen, and
 Arne Knudsen
Kyocera America, Inc.
San Diego, CA., 92123, USA.

Total ownership cost reduction case study : AEGIS radar phase shifters

MPARadar Cost Issues

TR Module Cost Issues - 2007


An Assessment of Concepts and Systems
for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in
Comparison to Other Alternatives
Chapter on cost estimation

"Improvements made to the PATRIOT radar cooling pump this past fiscal year extended its service life by six times and resulted in $16 million in cost savings,"  Tom Reynolds, command value engineering and life cycle cost reduction manager at AMCOM.
The U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM)

MMIC and TR Module Cost
Transmit Receive Modules for Radar and Communication Systems
Front Cover
Rick Sturdivant, Mike Harris
Artech House, 2016 - Technology & Engineering - 268 pages

NKE2632 Solid State S-Band Marine Radar User Manual Instruction Manual Reference Part 5 Japan Radio

Technology Trends for Future Radar
November 14, 2017 Johannes van Bezouwen and Dr. Michael Brandfass, HENSOLDT Sensors GmbH

Next-gen military radar system design innovations

Low-Cost Mini Radar: Design Prototyping and Tests
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2017, Article ID 8029364, 15 pages
Research Article
Dario Tarchi,1 Michele Vespe,1 Ciro Gioia,1 Francesco Sermi,1 Vladimir Kyovtorov,1 and Giorgio Guglieri2

Breaking Through the Cost Barrier for Phased Arrays
November 14, 2018 Doug Carlson, MACOM

Sensors (Basel). 2018 Aug; 18(8): 2569.
Published online 2018 Aug 6. doi: 10.3390/s18082569
An X-band Bi-Directional Transmit/Receive Module for a Phased Array System in 65-nm CMOS
Van-Viet Nguyen,1 Hyohyun Nam,1 Young Joe Choe,1 Bok-Hyung Lee,2 and Jung-Dong Park1,*


Customer Problem:
A surveillance radar with outdated, proprietary computer hardware and software had limited performance and limited technical refresh capability, had also led to decreased reliability, maintainability, and availability, rendering the radar ineffective, and/or inoperable at critical times, resulting in valuable data losses during execution of costly flight and ground test activities.  A solution is being developed

The Value Engineering (VE) Team used the VE methodology.  Efforts identified decommissioned government furnished equipment, which were inexpensively purchased from an alternate government agency and applied toward future builds of radars.

The VE Program avoided major and costly redesign and accelerated the production and fielding of new radar units, as well as improved the availability of cost-effective radar components and assemblies resulting in a saving of over $116M.

Design Technology of Synthetic Aperture Radar

Jiaguo Lu
John Wiley & Sons, 26-Aug-2019 - Technology & Engineering - 336 pages


Radar developments in India

Principles and Techniques of Modern Radar Systems
Swayam Course

ISRO Tender TR Module

Govt - of India Tender

Value Engineering Books - Bibliography

Value Engineering: Analysis And Methodology
By Del Younker

Target Costing and Value Engineering
By Robin Cooper
Preview available.

Value Engineering: A Plan for Invention
By Richard Park
Routledge, 01-Nov-2017 - Business & Economics - 352 pages

Techniques Of Training In Value Engineering: Trainers Manual
By R.G.Chaudhari
Notion Press, 05-Jul-2018 - Technology & Engineering - 276 pages

Value Engineering Mastermind: From Concept to Value Engineering Certification
By Anil Kumar Mukhopadhyaya

Cost Reduction Analysis: Tools and Strategies
By Steven M. Bragg

Target Cost Management: The Ladder to Global Survival and Success
By Jim Rains

Reducing Process Costs with Lean, Six Sigma, and Value Engineering Techniques
By Kim H. Pries, Jon M. Quigley

Value Engineering Synergies with Lean Six Sigma: Combining Methodologies for Enhanced Results
Jay Mandelbaum, Anthony Hermes, Donald Parker, Heather Williams
CRC Press, 11-May-2012 - Business & Economics - 212 pages

Updated on  4 December 2019, 26 July 2019, 18 August 2018

Monday, December 2, 2019

Cost Reduction - Electronics Product

Cost Measurement - Principle of Industrial Engineering


21 Cost Measurement


Cost Measurement - Principle of Industrial Engineering

Productivity improvement has to lead to decreased cost at the unit level for products. The ultimate proof of productivity improvement is the reduced unit cost reflected in the reported unit cost of products. As cost accounting is a well-developed independent area now with statutory bodies in many countries, industrial engineers have to work in cooperation with them to get the representative cost figures that are reliable for decision making.

Industrial engineers have to know at the start of the year, the unit cost figures of various products being produced in their organizations. They have to be involved in measuring the costs at the end of the period. Their contribution is reflected in the reduction shown in the unit costs at the end of the year. The value of the work of IEs to the company is the cost reduced over the year.

Measurement of costs today is the responsibility of cost accounting department.  But it only provides the proof for the effective industrial engineering work.

Industrial engineers must learn cost measurement and they should be able to visualize how costs incurred daily become unit costs of products. Their cost reduction also first focuses on various resources used in daily work. But any saving of resource has to become a reduction in some product's unit cost. The IE must be able to see the future consequence of his current action clearly and check whether it happened or not according to his plan at the end of the period.

The cost measurement is done through cost estimating also. There are organizations that give the responsibility of cost estimating for marketing purposes to industrial engineering. It is a rational decisions and industrial engineers can provide cost estimates that reflect the current reduces cost estimates for various components and processes and give the organization the competitive edge in pricing.

Industrial Engineering Accompanied by Cost Estimating

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation 

by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017


Updated on 3 December 2019,  4 June 2019, 28 June 2017

December - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


Remember The Best Events of 2019 and Feel Happy. Feel Good About Past and Hope will Appear for the Future

Remembering Positive Events provide energy to do good.

Positive thoughts beget positive resolve, positive resolve takes you forward towards auspicious results - Prime Minister Narendra Modi

Top 10 Blogs on Industrial Engineering

New Technology Industrial Engineering  -  Industrial Engineering 4.0

Applied Industrial Engineering

IE in New Technologies - IE with New Technologies

Implementation of  Industrial Engineering Principles and Techniques in New Technologies (Engineering Processes) and Business Processes

1. Additive Manufacturing Productivity

Assembly Design Framework for Additive Manufacturing Based on Axiomatic Design Concept
Yosep Oh, University at Buffalo; Sara Behdad, University at Buffalo, SUNY


AM productivity

According to the design for assembly (DFA) concept, design features should be integrated into a few physical parts to reduce design complexity.  However, building up a single product can have some negative effects on the AM productivity by increasing buildup time and cost. In this paper, a design framework using the assembly concept is proposed with the aim of letting the AM productivity reach an allowable level. The design framework is developed based on an Axiomatic Design (AD) approach, where AM productivity elements including buildup time, assembly time and the amount of support are considered as non-functional requirements (nFRs). The AM productivity is assessed by the Information Axiom to choose the best design. The proposed design framework can help engineers design and evaluate AM products.

Interesting references cited in the paper

* Thomas, D.S. and Gilbert, S.W., 2014, Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Additive Manufacturing - A Literature Review and Discussion, NIST.
* Oh, Y. and Behdad, S., 2016, Assembly Based Part Design to Improve the Additive Manufacturing
Productivity: Process Time, Cost and Surface Roughness, ASME IDETC, Charlotte, NC, USA.
* Zhang, Y., Bernard, A., Gupta, R.K. and Harik, R., 2014, Evaluating the Design for Additive Manufacturing: A Process Planning Perspective, Procedia CIRP, 21, 144–150.
* Thompson, M.K., 2013, Improving the Requirements Process in Axiomatic Design Theory, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 62, 115–118.

2. Biomanufacturing (Biotechnology) Productivity

Productivity in Biomanufacturing

Researchers are examining the possibility of taking  advantage of the natural differences in productivity among cells that are used in biomanufacturing. They foster mutations to create genetic variability and then use microchips to analyze the behavior of individual cells, choosing the most prolific for larger-scale production.

3. Productivity and Nanotech

Productive Nanotech Systems


OSRAM Boosts LED Chip Productivity With Nanotechnology
Aug 27, 2014

4. Electric Batteries and Productivity Applications

Productivity and Industrial Engineering (IE) in Battery Manufacturing

Nano One Enhances Pilot Productivity and Files a New Patent

Vancouver B.C. Dr. Stephen Campbell, Principal Scientist at Nano One Materials, today announced that Nano One has filed a patent related to yield improvements in its process for the manufacture of lithium metal oxide cathode materials for use in advanced lithium ion batteries.
August 2017

5. IoT and Productivity

McKinsey Global Institute Report
JUNE 2015
You can donwload the report from the web

How the Internet of Things will reshape future production systems
By Vineet Gupta and Rainer Ulrich
September 2017

6. New Technology and Equipment for Productivity

Virtual reality (VR) training simulator.

How Does Technology Affect Productivity?
Apr 9, 2014

 AIM's March 2014 Business Confidence Survey asked two questions.
1. "Has technology allowed your company to produce more goods or provide more services than a decade ago with the same or fewer employees?
2. Can you quantify the economic effect?"

62 percent of the employers who responded said "yes" to the first question.

Among them only some could quantify the benefits. The gains reported in productivity were in  the 10-25 percent range. At the limits,  one manufacturer doubled output without adding workers, and a non-profit service provider more than tripled productivity.

Regarding profit improvement, some manufacturers remarked  that productivity improvements did not strengthen their bottom lines due to downward pressure on prices.  Some  companies in services industries cited offsetting costs from new regulations.

Trend 5: Technology enables greater productivity in infrastructure industry

7. Productivity in Hotels

New JW Marriott hotel rides on technology for productivity
25 March 2017

The 634-room luxury hotel has "taken the initiative to implement new technologies and processes to improve the efficiency of its operations, as well as the overall guest experience" One of the systems  is the (hotel's) use of the Knowledge Touch rostering system to better manage and allocate manpower during peak periods by analysing business volume and needs. the hotel has also adopted Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track and replace worn-out items such as linen in hotel rooms and  has freed up valuable manpower for more productive uses .

JW Marriott Resort Saves $100K with Push-to-Talk Tech

8. Industrial Engineering with New Materials
Engineering Materials for Cost Reduction


9. Smart Manufacturing for Electronics Products

10. Inspection in the age of smart manufacturing
Tom Austin-Morgan, 05 November 2018

Smart Inspection Systems: Techniques and Applications of Intelligent Vision
Duc T. Pham, R J Alcock
Elsevier, 09-Dec-2002 - Technology & Engineering - 240 pages


Interesting New Articles Posted in 2019

Industrial Engineering of Inputs, Process and Output (IPO)

Productivity Science of Machine - Machining - F.W. Taylor

Production System Industrial Engineering

Machine Work Study - Study Areas - 2018 Presentation

Industrial Engineering Accompanied by Cost Estimating

80 - 20 Rule in Industrial Engineering - 80% Engineering - 20% Human Motions and Movements

Engineering Process Productivity Improvement - Process Charts - Industrial Engineering Analysis

Articles on Industrial Engineering - Toyota Production System Innovations (Lean System)

Toyota Production system (lean manufacturing system) is built on Industrial engineering with the additional focus on rational reduction of inventory. The flow process chart used in IE has two columns for temporary delay and permanent delay. But these were not tackled aggressively earlier. In Toyota, these two wastes were tackled with special attention and focus and systems with less inventory and also other resources came into existence.

Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo
Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo

The SMED System: Shigeo Shingo's Explanation
 Fundamentals of Lean - MIT Courseware

Lean Manufacturing - MIT Courseware

Enterprise Transition to Lean - Road Map -  MIT Courseware
Lean Supply Chain Management -  MIT Courseware

Lean Product Development - MIT Courseware
Lean Engineering  - MIT Courseware


A Case Study Improvement of a Testing Process by Combining Lean Management, Industrial Engineering and Automation Methods

More Articles on Lean

11. Enterprise Interactions - Wastes -  MIT Courseware

12. People and Organization Issues in Lean Enterprises - MIT Courseware

13. Strategy and Enterprise in Lean Enterprises - MIT Courseware

14. Lean Enterprise - Self Assessment Tools - MIT Courseware

15. Information Systems - MIT Courseware

16. Knowledge Management - MIT Courseware

17. Leadership  - MIT Courseware

18. Lean Enterprise Integration - MIT Courseware

19. Lean Enterprise Architecting  - MIT Courseware

20 Lean Enterprise Case - Lockheed Martin -

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Updated  3 December 2019,, 1 December 2017,  11 September 2016,  4 January 2015