Tuesday, August 28, 2018

Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques

13 techniques proposed by L.D. Miles, the founder of value analysis and engineering


Value Analysis Techniques

Miles provided 13 ideas as value analysis techniques.
  1. Avoid generalities
  2. Get all available costs
  3. Use information from the best source
  4. Blast create and refine
  5. Use real creativity
  6. Identify and overcome roadblocks
  7. Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge
  8. Get a dollar sign on key tolerances
  9. Utilize vendors’ available functional products
  10. Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge
  11. Utilize specialty processes
  12. Utilize applicable standards
  13. Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”
The list in above order was given by Miles in his first edition of the book. The order can be changed to study the techniques in a sequential process way.

Value Analysis Techniques of Miles in a different order

Analysis techniques for creating low cost alternatives

1. Blast, Create and Refine
2. Utilize vendors’ available functional products
3. Utilize specialty processes
4. Utilize applicable standards

Information needed to start the activity and to analyze

5. Avoid generalities
6. Get all available costs
7. Use information from the best source 
8. Get a dollar sign on key tolerances

During the value engineering process use creativity and question the existing solutions

9. Use real creativity
10.Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”
This will motivate you to focus on the issue and come with alternatives

Use outside expertise also to come with value enhancing suggestions and their development 

11. Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge
12. Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge

Be ready for roadblocks after you come out with a solution

13. Identify and overcome roadblocks

Brief Explanation of the VE Analytical Techniques 

1. Blast, Create and Refine

To do blast activity, the basic functions to be accomplished by a product or a component are given the focus and alternative products, materials and processes are brought into the picture. These alternatives need not entirely accomplish all the basic functions completely. These alternatives need to qualify on the basis of accomplishing some important part of the function or functions in a very economical manner. The alternatives are in the consideration list even if they can accomplish important part of the function based on some modifications. During this activity, the amount of the function which would be accomplished by the suggested or identified alternatives and the cost involved are ascertained.

Use real creativity to generate alternatives to  improve the ideas of blast stage, to accomplish large part of the required function with accompanying increase in cost. Increase in functions obtained needs to be accounted by increase in cost.

The solution obtained in create stage is further sifted and refined by adding features which provide further functions and fully accomplish the desired function. Miles stated that this blast, create and refine technique delivered the total function with the same reliability but at a cost of one-half to one-tenth of the original for many components and products.



2. Utilize vendors’ available functional products

Number of products like special hinges, special rivets, special tapered structural shapes etc. are available to perform various functions from vendors. Available functional products (even though not standard but special) have low costs because the specialty supplier has a sufficient lead in his particular technology and sufficient volume.

But there are interfering factors that prevent engineers from using the available functional products and they design items for their products afresh. Miles identified some of them as lack of knowledge regarding the availability of the items, preference for do-it-ourselves, feeling that boss wants me to design, inhouse design shows our capability thinking, feeling that own designs are proprietary knowledge, problems of search, and feeling that we can improve over a period of time etc.

Miles recommends preparing functional product lists and specially creating lists for items that are not usually bought.

3. Utilize specialty processes and special tools

Miles defines specialty process as an applicable process which would reliably accomplish the needed function for significantly lower cost and which either exists or could, and would be developed by some one who leads in the technology involved if he understood the need for it.

Miles gaves the opinion that even persons engaged in value work take time to recognize specialty processes. In 1961, he gave the delay as three years. Other engineers take around 10 years to recognize specialty processes. The purpose of identifying and emphasizing this point in the list of VE techniques is to reduce this time lag.

Special tools also provide value opportunities. Value engineers have to be on the lookout for appearance of special tools.

4. Utilize applicable standards

Miles has written that including in the list of techniques and highlighting it may look silly, but it is a valuable technique in VE application.

The full meaning includes utilization of standard parts, parts of standard products, engineering concepts, manufacturing concepts, manufacturing processes and materials. He also emphasized that where not applicable standard items should not be used.

5. Use information from the best source

This point is relevant to the issue of overcoming roadblocks to various value suggestions. In one example, a component, a cover of an item was judged to be redundant. The designer said it was required by the customers. When the value engineer approached the sales person, he was told that only one customer uses the item with the cover and all others actually remove the cover and use it. Hence the initial idea that the cover was redundant was right. So the suggestion is that information from the best and ultimate source is to be only used for decision making in value work.



6. Get a dollar sign on key tolerances

Tolerances are required to obtain necessary fit or to allow assembly.
But many times tolerances are specified as standard practice and to give the impression of a complete drawing. Tolerances have cost.
For efficient use in value work each tolerance is to subjected to the following questions.
i) What does it cost?
ii) What function does it provide?
If the cost of tolerance is trifling, it did not be analyzed further. But if it is substantial in the process cost, it is to be analyzed.

7. Use real creativity

Creativity is generating alternatives.  Creative people believe that there are many ways of doing a thing. Miles made the observation that many creative people believe there are at least eight ways of doing a thing. They are not satisfied when they find one way.

In value analysis, creativity is to be applied as soon as the function desired is brought out in specifics. The most common obstacle to creative thinking is natural tendency to let judicial thinking work along. It interferes.  What is required is to suspend judicial thinking and let the ideas flow. Creativity is not associated with only complex problems. Even simple things can have creative alternatives. Creativity can be sustained and more alternatives can be generated in a group brainstorming.



8. Identify and overcome roadblocks

A roadblock is a decision that prevents value alternatives. The decisions could be due to lack of information, acceptance of wrong information and wrong belief on the part of the decision maker.  The value engineers have to recognize the roadblocks, and provide more correct information with proper timing and presentation so that the decision maker will use it.



9. Avoid generalities

Many times general statements are used to stop value alternatives from proceeding further. Examples given by Miles include:
* It's not practical to build dies for drop forging when quantities are less than 25,000 per order.
* It's not practical to build molds for casting in quantities of less than 5,000.
But a value engineer needs to make inquiries. Parts vary in complexity and material may make a difference.  There will be advancements in diemaking and as well as in diemaking machines. Instead stopping with general statements, value engineer needs to make specific inquiries.



10. Get all available costs

Cost data are produced in companies to support financial statements and tax statements. Hence a value engineer has to get all available costs and assess their utility for his decision making purpose. When costs are utilized for decision making they have to make economic sense. An example was given by Miles, wherein inappropriate cost allocations and decision report higher cost figures for an item.



11. Use industry experts to extend specialized knowledge

The quality of answers to value problems is dependent upon the depth of penetration of the subject matter brought to bear on the problem. It has to be noted that knowledge, techniques and processes are continually being developed in each technology and that only the specialists know of those which have become practical with the last year or two. Value engineers have to bring these experts into their value projects and try and get best answers to the attainment of functions desired.

12. Utilize and pay for vendors’ skills and knowledge

There are suppliers with skills to develop special products at low prices. They continuously upgrade their skills and are looking out for opportunities applying their technology. Users benefit by contacting them and posing their function fulfillment problems.  These suppliers spend time and come out with solutions. Whenever they come up with good value solutions, they need to be rewarded with orders. There have to fair relations between suppliers and company.

13. Use the criterion, “would I spend my money this way?”

Miles documents that an average person evaluates his personal expenditures in the following steps.
A limited amount is allocated for the purpose.
Effort is done to secure maximum use function and appearance function from the expenditure. For this, he generates number of alternatives or considers number of alternatives. He will make a comparison of relative use values, esteem values and cost to make a decision.

Design engineers, manufacturing engineers, purchasing personnel and management have to follow similar procedure for organizational decision making also.

Extension of

Updated on 29 August 2018
First published on Blog 30 March 2012 from Knol
Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/value-analysis-and-engineering/2utb2lsm2k7a/ 3887

Thursday, August 23, 2018

F.W. Taylor - Shop Management - Essays with Links

Halsey Plan - F.W. Taylor's Comments

Shop Management - Themes

1. Definition of Management 

2. Difference in Production Quantity between a first class man and an average man

3. Developing and Employing First Class People in an Organization

4. Confronting Soldiering - Slow Pace of Work

5. Halsey Plan - F.W. Taylor's Comments

6. Task Management

7. Investment for Increasing Productivity or Efficiency

8. Importance of people - organization

9. Modern Engineering and Modern Shop Management

10. Task Management - Starting and Ending Times

11. Task Work - Some More Thoughts

12. Usefulness of Gantt's system

13. Time Study by F.W. Taylor

14. Bicylcle Ball Inspection Case Study

15. Need for Functional Foremanship or Functional Organisation of Foremen

16. Functional Foremanship

17. Production Planning and Control

18. Role of Top Management in Managing Change to High Productive Shop

19. Train Operators in High Productivity One by One and Then in Small Batches

20. Organizing a Small Workshop for High Productivity

21. Introducing Functional Foremanship

22. Personal Relations Between Employers and Employed

23. Don't be in a hurry - It Takes Time to Manage Change

24. Best Practices in Shop Management

Interteresting to note

New Shop Floor Management - by Kiyoshi Suzaki

Updated 24 August 2018
29 March 2016

Productivity Methods Training - Principle of Industrial Engineering


Productivity Methods Training


Taylor emphasized the importance of training in creating a change in the systems of an organization in his writings. The following discussion is from Shop Management.

The most important and difficult task of the organizer (of change)  will be that of selecting and training the various functional foremen who are to lead and instruct the workmen, and his success will be measured principally by his ability to mold and reach these men. They cannot be found, they must be made. They must be instructed in their new functions largely, in the beginning at least, by the organizer himself; and this instruction, to be effective, should be mainly in actually doing the work. Explanation and theory will go a little way, but actual doing is needed to carry conviction.

To illustrate: For nearly two and one-half years in the large shop of the Bethlehem Steel Company, one speed boss after another was instructed in the art of cutting metals fast on a large motor-driven lathe which was especially fitted to run at any desired speed within a very wide range. The work done in this machine was entirely connected, either with the study of cutting tools or the instruction of speed bosses. It was most interesting to see these men, principally either former gang bosses or the best workmen, gradually change from their attitude of determined and positive opposition to that
in most cases of enthusiasm for, and earnest support of, the new methods. It was actually running the lathe themselves according to the new method and under the most positive and definite orders that produced the effect. The writer himself ran the lathe and instructed the first few bosses. It required from three weeks to two months for each man.

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation 

by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017



Updated on 24 August 2018
First published on 6 July 2017

Cost Reduction - Indian Companies

ET 500 List


We have a good visibility on cost reduction in FY18: Girish Wagh, Tata Motors
We are  doing value engineering (reducing the cost of a part without reducing the value to the customer) and value analysis (increase value delivered at the same cost).
9 November, 2017, Business Standard

Artificial Intelligence - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is explained by PWC as  a collective term for computer systems that can sense their environment, think, learn, and take action in response to what they’re sensing and
their objectives.

 AI is in use today in actual devices or systems like digital assistants, chatbots and machine learning
amongst others.

The intelligence included in AI can be categorized as:

Automated intelligence: Automation of manual/cognitive and routine/nonroutine tasks.
Assisted intelligence: Helping people to perform tasks faster and better.
Augmented intelligence: Helping people to make better decisions.
Autonomous intelligence: Automating decision making processes without human intervention.

More AI innovations are likely to come out of the research lab and the transformational possibilities are staggering based on the various research and development proposals announced or indicated.


Transforming manufacturing with artificial intelligence
August 22, 2018 | Written by: Dr. Jongwoon Hwang, Group Leader, KIST Europe and Marco Hüster, Business Lead AI Implementation, KIST Europe

AI applications Today?
June 24, 2018
Visual Recognition (Face recognition, automatic tagging, metadata, video indexing)
Speech to Text
Text to Speech
Language Translation
Natural Language Classification and Processing
Cognitive Content Moderation
Voice Recognition
Recommendation Engines and Semantic Search
Photo Filtering and Enhancement
Sentiment Analysis (Social media, email, etc.)
Automate Workflows
Pattern Matching and Pattern Finding

PWC Report on AI

Sizing the prize: What’s the real value of AI for your business and how can you capitalise?


A Very Short History Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Cambrian Intelligence: The Early History of the New AI

Rodney Allen Brooks
MIT Press, 1999 - Computers - 199 pages
Until the mid-1980s, AI researchers assumed that an intelligent system doing high-level reasoning was necessary for the coupling of perception and action. In this traditional model, cognition mediates between perception and plans of action. Realizing that this core AI, as it was known, was illusory, Rodney A. Brooks turned the field of AI on its head by introducing the behavior-based approach to robotics. The cornerstone of behavior-based robotics is the realization that the coupling of perception and action gives rise to all the power of intelligence and that cognition is only in the eye of an observer. Behavior-based robotics has been the basis of successful applications in entertainment, service industries, agriculture, mining, and the home. It has given rise to both autonomous mobile robots and more recent humanoid robots such as Brooks' Cog.

This book represents Brooks' initial formulation of and contributions to the development of the behavior-based approach to robotics. It presents all of the key philosophical and technical ideas that put this "bottom-up" approach at the forefront of current research in not only AI but all of cognitive science.

Updated on 24 August 2018
20 February 2018

Wednesday, August 22, 2018

Engineering Optimization - Courses and Resources

Engineering Optimization - Journal - Current Issue


Source: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/geno20/current  - downloaded on 17 June 2015

Seminar Papers of   Altair



Northwestern Engineering Course

NPTEL Course

Kelvin's Law of Economic Size of Conductor (Engineering Economics by Taylor)

Optimization of Helical Spring - Gear - 2002 MS Thesis

University of Maryland Course


Seco Tools India article on metal cutting optimization

2012 Paper
On the Economics of Computer Assisted Numerically Controlled Cylindrical Turning Operations - Optimized Conditions for Maximum Rate of Profit.- - T.K. Jack and O.M.U. Etubu

A review of optimization techniques in metal cutting processes
Indrajit Mukherjee , Pradip Kumar Ray,
a Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India
Computers & Industrial Engineering
Volume 50, Issues 1–2, May 2006, Pages 15–34


Cutting Speed and Feed Rate Optimization for Minimizing
Production Time of Turning Process
S. S. K. Deepak
(Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rungta Engineering College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India)
International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER)
Vol.2, Issue.5, Sep-Oct. 2012 pp-3398-3401


Multi-objective optimization of industrial hydrogen plants
J. K. Rajesh!, S. K. Gupta",1, G. P. Rangaiah!, A. K. Ray!,*
!Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore
"Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Chemical Engineering Science 56 (2001) 999-1010

Genetic Algorithms and Engineering Optimization
Mitsuo Gen, Runwei Cheng

John Wiley & Sons, 2000 - Computers - 495 pages
A comprehensive guide to a powerful new analytical tool by two of its foremost innovators

The past decade has witnessed many exciting advances in the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) to solve optimization problems in everything from product design to scheduling and client/server networking. Aided by GAs, analysts and designers now routinely evolve solutions to complex combinatorial and multiobjective optimization problems with an ease and rapidity unthinkable withconventional methods. Despite the continued growth and refinement of this powerful analytical tool, there continues to be a lack of up-to-date guides to contemporary GA optimization principles and practices. Written by two of the world's leading experts in the field, this book fills that gap in the literature.

Taking an intuitive approach, Mitsuo Gen and Runwei Cheng employ numerous illustrations and real-world examples to help readers gain a thorough understanding of basic GA concepts-including encoding, adaptation, and genetic optimizations-and to show how GAs can be used to solve an array of constrained, combinatorial, multiobjective, and fuzzy optimization problems. Focusing on problems commonly encountered in industry-especially in manufacturing-Professors Gen and Cheng provide in-depth coverage of advanced GA techniques for:
* Reliability design
* Manufacturing cell design
* Scheduling
* Advanced transportation problems
* Network design and routing

Genetic Algorithms and Engineering Optimization is an indispensable working resource for industrial engineers and designers, as well as systems analysts, operations researchers, and management scientists working in manufacturing and related industries. It also makes an excellent primary or supplementary text for advanced courses in industrial engineering, management science, operations research, computer science, and artificial intelligence.
Google book link with preview facility

Updated  23 August 2018
18 June, 23 May 2015
First publisedh  29 6 2013

PCB Design and Manufacturing Productivity - Product and Process Industrial Engineering

PCB Manufacturing Process Explanation



Understanding PCB Manufacturing: Panelization
Nov 18, 2014

Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing Technologies



PCB  Design and Manufacturing  Productivity Related News, Articles and Papers


mSAP: The New PCB Manufacturing Imperative for 5G Smartphones
October 23, 2017


Orbotech Releases Precise 800 Automated Optical Shaping 3D Solution for PCB Manufacturers
 May 22, 2016
The new technology should attract the attention of PCB manufacturers as it’s capable of removing excess copper as well as filling in the areas where it is missing. These features are significant as it means the ‘shaping solution’ is eliminating scrap and offering substantial savings on the bottom line with a rapid recoup regarding the initial investment.

The Biggest PCB Manufacturing Trends We’ve Seen This Year
AUGUST 18, 2016

What You Need To Know About PCB Design & Manufacturing
Jul 25, 2016
Interesting article with some references

PCBs Fabrication Methods
GUIDE: PCBs Fabrication Methods


Eight steps for efficient PCB manufacturing and assembly – Part One
By Michael Ford,   Posted: May 18, 2015






YouTube Video - PCB Design to Manufacture



Horng-Hai Loh, Ming-Sing Lu, "Printed circuit board inspection using image analysis", Industrial Automation and Control: Emerging Technologies 1995. International IEEE/IAS Conference on, pp. 673-677, 1995.

This paper presents an inspection system for the defects on surface mounted device (SMD) printed circuit boards (PCBs). There are five types of defects, namely, missing component, misalignment, wrong orientation of IC chip, wrong parts and poor solder joints. Different algorithms are developed to detect these faults. Vision system has been introduced into almost every level of PCB manufacturing. They include PCB pattern inspection machines, SMD mounter with visual positioning, mounted SMD visual inspection machines, soldering inspection machines, assembled PCB visual inspection machines etc. Most of these vision systems achieve significant benefits.


Vision systems for PCB manufacturing in Japan
S. Hata

Abstract: Current vision systems in Japanese printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing lines are described. Vision systems have been introduced into almost every level of PCB manufacturing in Japan. They include mask pattern inspection machines, PCB pattern inspection machines, surface-mount device (SMD) mounters with visual positioning, mounted SMD visual inspection machines, soldering inspection machines, and assembled PCB visual inspection machines. Most of these vision systems were integrated successfully and achieved significant benefits.
Published in: [Proceedings] IECON '90: 16th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
Date of Conference: 27-30 Nov. 1990

Sunday, August 19, 2018

Manufacturing Processes - Recent Introductory Textbook Topics

Manufacturing Processes

Individuals who will be involved in design and manufacturing of finished products need to understand the grand spectrum of manufacturing technology. Comprehensive and fundamental, Manufacturing Technology: Materials, Processes, and Equipment introduces and elaborates on the field of manufacturing technology—its processes, materials, tooling, and equipment. The book emphasizes the fundamentals of processes, their capabilities, typical applications, advantages, and limitations. Thorough and insightful, it provides mathematical modeling and equations as needed to enhance the basic understanding of the material at hand.

Designed for upper-level undergraduates in mechanical, industrial, manufacturing, and materials engineering disciplines, this book covers complete manufacturing technology courses taught in engineering colleges and institutions worldwide. The book also addresses the needs of production and manufacturing engineers and technologists participating in related industries.

Manufacturing Technology: Materials, Processes, and Equipment
Helmi A. Youssef, Hassan A. El-Hofy, Mahmoud H. Ahmed

March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
Reference - 948 Pages

Heat Treatment of Metals and Alloys
Heat Treatment of Steels
Basic Heat Treatment Operations of Steels
Heat Treatment of Cast Iron
Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Alloys and Stainless Steels
(Precipitation Hardening)

Smelting of Metallic Materials
Smelting of Ferrous Metals
Smelting and Extraction of Nonferrous Metals

Casting of Metallic Materials
Introduction and Classification
Historical Development of Casting
Expendable Mold Casting Processes
Permanent Mold Castings
Melting Furnaces
Cleaning and Finishing of Castings
Quality of Castings
Modeling of Casting

Fundamentals of Metal Forming
Simple Stresses and Strains
Two- and Three-Dimensional Stresses and Strains
Yield Criteria
General Plastic Stress–Strain Relations (Theory of Plasticity)
Effect of Temperature on Plastic Deformation
Cold, Warm, and Hot Forming
Effect of Strain Rate on Plastic Deformation
Effect of Friction and Lubrication in Metal Forming

Bulk Forming of Metallic Materials
Classification of Forming Processes
Forging Processes
Rolling Processes
Rod, Wire, and Tube Drawing

Sheet Metal Forming Processes
Introduction and Classification
Shearing Processes
Bending Processes
Stretch Forming
Deep Drawing
Rubber Pad Forming (Flexible-Die Forming)
Hydroforming (Fluid-Forming Processes)
Superplastic Forming of Sheets
Blow Forming and Vacuum Forming
Thermoforming Methods
Sheet Metal Formability

High-Velocity Forming and High-Energy-Rate Forming
Introduction and Classification
Characteristics of HVF and HERF Processes
High-Velocity Forming Machines
High-Energy-Rate Forming Processes
Future of HVF and HERF

Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Ceramic Materials
Historical Development of Powder Metallurgy
Metal Powder Production
Powder Metal Characterization
Blending and Mixing of Powders
Powder Compaction
Secondary Operations
Ceramic Materials
Ceramic Manufacturing Processes

Polymeric Materials and Their Processing

Historical Development of Polymeric Materials
Thermoplastic Polymers (Thermoplastics TP)
Thermosetting Polymers (Thermosets)
Thermoplastic Elastomers
Processing of Polymeric Materials

Composite Materials and Their Fabrication Processes

Classification and Characteristics of Composites
Fiber-Reinforced Composites
Particulate Composite Materials
Laminated Composite Materials
Combinations of Composite Materials
Fabrication of Composite Materials
Molding Processes
Prepreg Fabrication
Filament Winding

Fundamentals of Traditional Machining Processes

Basics of Chipping Processes
Basics of Abrasion Processes

Machine Tools for Traditional Machining

General Purpose Machine Tools
Special Purpose Machine Tools

Fundamentals of Nontraditional Machining Process

Classification of Nontraditional Machining Processes
Jet Machining
Ultrasonic Machining
Chemical Machining
Electrochemical Machining
Electrochemical Grinding
Electric Discharge Machining
Electron Beam Machining
Laser Beam Machining
Plasma Arc Cutting
Concluding Characteristics of NTMPS

Numerical Control of Machine Tools

NC Concepts
Movements in CNC Systems
Control of NC Machine Tools
CNC Machine Tools
Input Units
CNC Instructions
Program Format
Features of CNC Systems
Part Programming

Industrial Robots and Hexapods

Industrial Robots

Surface Technology

Surface Smoothing
Surface Cleaning
Surface Protection
Roll Burnishing and Ballizing

Joining Processes

Fusion Welding
Solid-State Welding
Solid–Liquid State Welding
Welding of Plastics
Metallurgy of Welded Joints
Welding Defects
Welding Quality Control
Mechanical Joining

Advanced Manufacturing Techniques

Near Net Shape Manufacturing
Microfabrication Technology
Semiconductor Device Fabrication
Sustainable and Green Manufacturing

Materials, Processes, and Design for Manufacturing

Function, Material, Process, and Shape Interaction
Manufacturing Process Capabilities
Process Selection Factors
Manufacturing Process Selection
Design for Manufacturing

Quality Control

Statistical Quality Control
Total Quality Control
The ISO 9000 Standard
Dimensional Control
Measuring Quality Characteristics
Measuring Tools and Equipment
Coordinate-Measuring Machine
Surface Measurements
Nondestructive Testing and Inspection
Destructive Testing

Automation in Manufacturing Technology

Mechanization versus Automation
Automation and Production Quantity
Necessity for Introducing Automation
Manufacturing Systems
Flexible Manufacturing Systems
Computer Integrated Manufacturing.
Integrated Manufacturing Production System-Lean Production
Adaptive Control
Smart Manufacturing and Artificial Intelligence
Factory of Future
Concluding Remarks Related to Automated Manufacturing

2011 Edition


Updated on 20 August 2018
21 March 2018

CNC Machine Productivity - Bibliography

About CNC  Machines



Multiple setup with Tebis means truly maximized machining capacity.

Reliable template-based programming
Maximized machining capacity with simulation
Broad range of functions and user-friendly format

Jaguar Land Rover`s Model Operations department was first introduced to Tebis in 1999. Today Jaguar Land Rover is Tebis UK's oldest and largest customer. CAD/CAM technology has completely changed work methods in this department over the past 15 years – and its processes will definitely be further optimized using Tebis in the future as well.


Enhanced work flow in CNC Machining

Increasing Productivity with Engagement-Generated Toolpaths By Alan Diehl, Surfware, Inc.
CNC machining Vol 14 Issue 47

Metal Working World - Sandvik Coromant - 3 issues in a year

Productivity Improvement of a Special Purpose Machine Using DMAIC Principles: A Case Study

Pumping Up CNC Productivity

Transform your CNC spindle speeds 10K  to 50K

Affordable, Entry-Level CAM Package Due for Launch
CAMWorksXpress runs within the SolidWorks platform and provides the high-powered features needed for efficient machining. The software package is offered in 32- and 64-bit versions and has features like automatic toolpath updates; optimized toolpaths; simple CNC-code generation; model importing from common file formats (IGES, SAT, ACIS, etc.); automatic feature recognition; a library of post processors for CNC controllers; and unlimited upgrade paths to CAMWorks.

Thesis - 2012
Methods for improving performance of process planning for CNC machining - An approach based on surveys and analytical models  - By STAFFAN ANDERBERG

Prof. (Dr). Rachayya.R.Arakerimath
Department of Mechanical Engineering, G H Raisoni College of Engg and Mgmt   Dighi Hills, Pune - 411015, India. Email : Rachayya_ait  at rediffmail.com
Prof (Dr).V.A.Raikar
Principal Govt College of Engineering, Karawar, Karnataka, India

CNC machine tool manufacturer Okuma America Corporation has launched an interactive, web-based productivity tool to help boost productivity at manufacturing facilities.

Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate

Increasing Machine Tool Productivity With CNC Technology

S. Alex1, , A. C. Lokesh2, N. Ravikumar3
1 Student, M. Sc. [Engg.], 2 Professor, M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore 560 054 3
General Manager, Ess Enn Auto, Bangalore

Four-step process for proficient manufacturing

Reducing cycle time in cnc machines

Automated CNC programming

High Pressure Coolant System  Sandvik
These production advantages will lead to a higher utilization of the available machine and available production time and thereby maximize the payback on investment. An optimized system with high pressure coolant machining can pay for itself  in a few months. 2010

PARTS (Productivity of CNC Turning center with Milling Capability  Case Study)

Improve Titanium Milling Productivity with Secure CNC Machining

Integrated machine monitoring and adaptive control with OEE+DNC has been demonstrated using a robot to aid loading a CNC machine, offering automation for manufacturing flexibility and productivity that can increase profitability.
Memex Automation

Improving Productivity on Working with CNC machine Tools

Probes offer significant productivity improvements by reducing the downtime associated with manual set-up of tools, fixtures and work pieces, as well as increased inspection accuracy of first-off components.

Productivity Day Presentations - 2009


Feed optimization for five-axis CNC machine tools with drive constraints
B. Sencer, Y. Altintas, E. Croft
Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Available online 18 January 2008
International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 48 (2008) 733–745
Available on Science Direct

Value Stream Mapping based Improvement in CNC Machine Shop
2007 Study - Case Study

Boosting Productivity of Machining Centers - Some Tips

Productivity Improvement by Error Proofing - Ebook

Kaizen on CNC Machine - 535

Shaping machine kaizen

Productivity improvement & line balancing in a medium scale industry.

Companies and Products for CNC Machine Productivity

CNC Machine Information

Including back bolts, clamps, vises and other modular devices.
Simple. Easy. Right.

New system machine SPECHT 450 DUO - double productivity without compromise
July 19th, 2013 - MAG introduces the new twin-spindle SPECHT 450 DUO with numerous technical innovations, outstanding technical data and market leading tool change times to maximize productity in the small engine and parts production market. Virtually replacing two entire machines while providing the highest reliability and quality levels. The new twin-spindle SPECHT 450 DUO, with only 11.2 m² of floor space and a comfortable spindle distance of 540 mm, is the smallest twin-spindle machine of the SPECHT family and is designed for the machining of mid-sized workpieces such as cylinder heads or gear housings and more

Siemens Sinumerik portfolio designed to enhance CNC machining precision, productivity and user convenience. Siemens will also be showcasing an integral CAD/CAM-CNC process  chain covering everything from design through to the finished workpiece.

Royal bar pullers have a number of advantages over bar feeders:
Bar pullers are much less expensive. The average cost of a Royal bar puller is $600, compared to $10,000 - $30,000 for a bar feeder.

VoluMill™ is a patent-pending ultra high-performance toolpath engine that significantly increases machining productivity and tool life. VoluMill is a full-featured, CAM-neutral, 2- and 3-axis toolpath engine for any geometric configuration.

Makino Horizontal 4 axis machines - Videos

Hurco Five Axis Machines

Bridgeport High Performance Vertical Machining Centers

Underused CAM features - 2007

Haas CNC Tips and Tricks

Effective Coolant recovery, swarf management, and air filtration systems

Wonderware DNC Professional provides centralized management and downloading of Numerical Control (NC) programs.

Premium Frac Pumps Triples Productivity With Kennametal Tools - Using Kennametal tools that reduce tooling costs by half

CNC Machining Emulator for Program and Process Improvement

Updated on 20 August 2018

24 June 2017,  7 Apr 2016, 20.2.2014

Saturday, August 18, 2018

Value Engineering Books - Bibliography

Value Engineering: Analysis And Methodology
By Del Younker

Target Costing and Value Engineering
By Robin Cooper

Value Engineering: A Plan for Invention
By Richard Park

Techniques Of Training In Value Engineering: Trainers Manual
By R.G.Chaudhari

Value Engineering Mastermind: From Concept to Value Engineering Certification
By Anil Kumar Mukhopadhyaya

Cost Reduction Analysis: Tools and Strategies
By Steven M. Bragg

Target Cost Management: The Ladder to Global Survival and Success
By Jim Rains

Reducing Process Costs with Lean, Six Sigma, and Value Engineering Techniques
By Kim H. Pries, Jon M. Quigley

Value Engineering Synergies with Lean Six Sigma: Combining Methodologies for Enhanced Results
Jay Mandelbaum, Anthony Hermes, Donald Parker, Heather Williams
CRC Press, 11-May-2012 - Business & Economics - 212 pages

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan with Links

Revision of Process Industrial Engineering - Methods, Techniques and Tools

In this month's revision plan the focus is on production process improvement which also includes many engineering processes related to production and maintenance of engineering goods and services.

Management of processes are also analyzed and redesigned by industrial engineers. If management processes, activities and policies are responsible for poor productivity, industrial engineers have to propose changes in management methods, practices and tools to improve productivity. This aspect of industrial engineering is discussed under the area - productivity management.

Process Industrial Engineering - Process Efficiency/Productivity Improvement - Process Cost Reduction

First Week

Process Industrial Engineering

Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction

Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering

Operation Analysis Sheet

    Using the Operation Analysis Sheet
    Analysis of Purpose of Operation

    Analysis of All Operations of a Process as a Step of Each Operation Analysis
    Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Standards

    Analysis of Material in Operation Analysis
    Tool Related Operation Analysis

Second Week

    Material Handling Analysis in Operations
    Operation Analysis of Setups

    Operation Analysis - Man and Machine Activity Charts
    Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis

    Operation Analysis - Analysis of Working Conditions and Method
    Operation Analysis - Common Possibilities for Operation Improvement

    Operation Analysis - Check List
    Method Study

   Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering
   Method Study - Information Collection and Recording - Chapter Contents

Third Week

15 August

Process Analysis - Questions/Check List

Installing Proposed Methods

16 August

Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes

Process and Productivity Improvement Through Smart Machines and Smart Factories

17 August

Process and Productivity Improvement through incorporating Data Analytics

Plant Layout Analysis

18 August

Flow Process Charts - Reinterpretation of Its Purpose and Utility
Industrial Engineering of Flow Production Lines - Thought Before Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo


Fourth Week

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System

Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo

Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo
Seven Waste Model and Its Extensions

Industrial Engineering of Maintenance Processes
Manufacturing System Losses Idenfied in TPM Literature

Industrial Engineering of Inspection Processes
Industrial Engineering of Material Handling Processes

Zero Defect Movement and Six Sigma Method
Process Cost Analysis - Cost Center Statement Analysis

More articles

Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Updated  16 August 2018,  30 July 2017,  28 July 2016, 19 April 2015, 17 July 2014

Electronics - Product and Process Developments - IE Monitoring

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Management Process Industrial Engineering - Part 1

Management Process Industrial Engineering - Part 2


Blockchain Technology Use for Improving Process Efficiency

Maersk and IBM are working on cross border, cross party transactions that use blockchain technology to help improve process efficiency.

Learn more about improving process efficiency.

Revision of Process Industrial Engineering - Methods, Techniques and Tools

In this month's revision plan the focus is on production process improvement which also includes many engineering processes related to production and maintenance of engineering goods and services.

Management of processes are also analyzed and redesigned by industrial engineers. If management processes, activities and policies are responsible for poor productivity, industrial engineers have to propose changes in management methods, practices and tools to improve productivity. This aspect of industrial engineering is discussed under the area - productivity management.

Process Industrial Engineering - Process Efficiency/Productivity Improvement - Process Cost Reduction

First Week

1 August to 5 August

     Process Industrial Engineering
     Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction

     Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering
     Operation Analysis Sheet

    Using the Operation Analysis Sheet
    Analysis of Purpose of Operation

    Analysis of All Operations of a Process as a Step of Each Operation Analysis
    Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Standards

    Analysis of Material in Operation Analysis
    Tool Related Operation Analysis

Second Week

8 August to 12 August

    Material Handling Analysis in Operations
    Operation Analysis of Setups

    Operation Analysis - Man and Machine Activity Charts
    Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis

    Operation Analysis - Analysis of Working Conditions and Method
    Operation Analysis - Common Possibilities for Operation Improvement

    Operation Analysis - Check List
    Method Study

   Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering
   Method Study - Information Collection and Recording - Chapter Contents

Third Week

15 August to 19 August

Process Analysis - Questions/Check List
Installing Proposed Methods

Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes
Process and Productivity Improvement Through Smart Machines and Smart Factories

Process and Productivity Improvement through incorporating Data Analytics
Plant Layout Analysis

Flow Process Charts - Reinterpretation of Its Purpose and Utility
Industrial Engineering of Flow Production Lines - Thought Before Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo


Fourth Week

22 August to 26 August

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System
Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo

Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo
Seven Waste Model and Its Extensions

Industrial Engineering of Maintenance Processes
Manufacturing System Losses Idenfied in TPM Literature

Industrial Engineering of Inspection Processes
Industrial Engineering of Material Handling Processes

Zero Defect Movement and Six Sigma Method
Process Cost Analysis - Cost Center Statement Analysis

This Post got the badge - Highly Acclaimed Post

250 likes in the Linked Community - Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers - August 2017


I thank all industrial engineers who recommended this post to others with the "like" indication

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Principles of Industrial Engineering

Presentation at the 2017 Annual IISE Conference, Pittsburgh
by Prof Narayana Rao, K.V.S.S.


More articles

Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Updated 16 August 2018,  2 August 2018,  13 July 2018,  4 September 2017,  30 July 2017,  28 July 2016, 19 April 2015, 17 July 2014

July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

New Articles to be added on IE Principles

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao

Presentation made at IISE Annual Conference, 2017, at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017


Scientific Management of Taylor

First Week

1 July to 5 July

1 July

1. Importance of National Efficiency

2. Foundation of Scientific Management

2  July

3. Soldiering and Its Causes

4. Underlying Philosophy for the Old Systems of Management

3  July

5. Scientific Management - Introduction


4  July

7. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - - Pig Iron Handling

8. Background for Development of Scientific Management - -Midvale Steel Company Machine Shop

5  July

9. Elaborate Planning Organization - Need and Utility

10. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - Bricklaying Improvement by Gilbreth

Second Week 

8 July to 12 July

8  July

11. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - Bicycle Balls Inspection Example

12. Scientific Management in Machine Shop

9  July

13. Development of Science in Mechanic Arts

14. Study of Motives of Men

15. Scientific management in its essence

16. Role of Top Management in Implementing Scientific Management

17. Scientific Management Summarized

18. Harrington Emerson - A Pioneer Industrial Engineer

19. The Twelve Principles of Efficiency - Part 1

20. The Twelve Principles of Efficiency - Part 2

Third Week

15 July to 19 July

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao

Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques

16 July

Industrial Engineering - The Concept - Developed by Going in 1911

Product Industrial Engineering

Product Design Efficiency Engineering - Component of Industrial Engineering

17 July

Value Engineering - Introduction

Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques

18 July

Value Analysis: Approach and Job Plan

Knowledge Required for Value Engineering Application and Practice

19 July

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles

Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) - Value Engineering Method

Fourth Week  

(22 to 26, July)

22 July

Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits

Value Engineering in Construction - Structures, Roads, Bridges

23 July
Value Engineering at the Design and Development Stage - Tata Nano Example

Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board  - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

24 July
Value Engineering - Bulletin - Information Board

Lean Product Development - Low Waste Product Development - Efficient Product Development

25 July
Design for Manufacturing

Design for Assembly

26 July

Target Costing and Industrial Engineering

Target Costing and Target Cost Management

Industrial engineering is a management activity. It focuses on cost reduction and thereby increase of sales due to lower prices and increased profits to the organization and through it increased incomes to employees of an organization apart benefit to other stakeholders of the organization. Also the managerial activities of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling are relevant in industrial engineering practice. Industrial engineers are asked to do efficiency studies managerial processes also. So they have to know the output and inputs of managerial processes and how managerial processes are carried out.

Industrial engineering programs have principles and practices of management as a course in the curriculum as industrial engineers are productivity managers of the organizations.

June - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision

August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Received 250+ likes in the month July 2018 and August 2018 in Linkedin

The post received 162 likes in the month of July 2017 in Linkedin Industrial Engineering Network Group

Updated  16 August 2018,  1 July 2018,  30 September 2017,  1 July 2017,  8 July 2016,  26 May 2016,  20 April 2015