Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Selection of Operators - Principle of Industrial Engineering


Selection of Operators


There has to be science that guides selection of operators. Management has to select persons based on specified criteria for each category of jobs and then train them specially. Now it is being competence based approach. Taylor made it a principle in scientific management. Physical capacity, intelligence, aptitude,  knowledge, skill etc. are to be specified for each job category and appropriate way of testing people for these specifications are to be developed by management.

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation 

by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017



Updated on 1 August 2018, 6 July 2017

Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction

Machine Effort Industrial Engineering

Determination of optimum cutting parameters - Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut - Development of scientific machine work

According to Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Industrial Engineering (2017), principles of machine utilization economy are needed but not yet developed in industrial engineering.

Machine Utilization Economy - Principle of Industrial Engineering

Resource Utilization Economy Principles

The principle can be restated better more appropriately. "Principles of resource utilization economy to be developed for all resources used in engineering systems." (Added on 9 June 2018).

Utilization economy principles are to be developed for each resource used in the production processes. So far, in industrial engineering discipline, principles of motion economy only are deveoped. There has to be research and effort to develop similar principles for all resources.

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation

by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017



Taylor's Effort to Improve Machine Tools First to Improve Productivity of a Machine Shop.

Taylor described his project of improving a machine shop productivity and below is the work he had done on machines first.

By means of four quite elaborate slide-rules, which have been especially made for the purpose of determining the all-round capacity of metal-cutting machines, a careful analysis was made of every element of this machine in its relation to the work in hand. Its Pulling power at its various speeds, its feeding capacity, and its proper speeds were determined by means of the slide-rules, and changes were then made in the countershaft and driving pulleys so as to run it at its proper speed. Tools, made of high-speed steel, and of the proper shapes, were properly dressed, treated, and ground. (It should be understood, however, that in this case the high-speed steel which had heretofore been in general use in the shop was also used in our demonstration.) 

A large special slide-rule was then made, by means of which the exact speeds and feeds were indicated at which each kind of work could be done in the shortest possible time in this particular lathe. After preparing in this way so that the workman should work according to the new method, one after another, pieces of work were finished in the lathe, corresponding to the work which had been done in our preliminary trials, and the gain in time made through running the machine according to scientific principles ranged from two and one-half times the speed in the slowest instance to nine times the speed in the highest.

The change from rule-of-thumb management to scientific management involves, however, not only a study of what is the proper speed for doing the work and a remodeling of the tools and the implements in the shop (machine effort industrial engineering), but also a complete change in the movements made by operators to operate the machine.  The physical improvements in the machines are necessary to insure large gains. They are followed by improvement in the activities performed by people in combination with machines. 

It seems important to fully explain the reason why, with the aid of a slide-rule, and after having studied the art of cutting metals, it was possible for the scientifically equipped man, who had never before seen these particular jobs, and who had never worked on this machine, to do work from two and one-half to nine times as fast as it had been done before by a good mechanic who had spent his whole time for some ten to twelve years in doing this very work upon this particular machine. 

In a word, this was possible because the art of cutting metals involves a true science of no small magnitude, a science, in fact, so intricate that it is impossible for any machinist who is suited to running a lathe year in and year out either to understand it or to work according to its laws without the help of men who have made this their specialty. Men who are unfamiliar with machine-shop work are prone to look upon the manufacture of each piece as a special problem, independent of any other kind of machine-work. They are apt to think, for instance, that the problems connected with making the parts of an engine require the especial study, one may say almost the life study, of a set of engine-making mechanics, and that these problems are entirely different from those which would be met with in machining lathe or planer parts. In fact, however, a study of those elements which are peculiar either to engine parts or to lathe parts is trifling, compared with the great study of the art, or science, of cutting metals, upon a knowledge of which rests the ability to do really fast machine-work of all kinds.

The real problem is how to remove chips fast from a casting or a forging, and how to make the piece smooth and true in the shortest time, and it matters but little whether the piece being worked upon is part, say, of a marine engine, a printing-press, or an automobile. For this reason, the man with the slide rule, familiar with the science of cutting metals, who had never before seen this particular work, was able completely to distance the skilled mechanic who had made the parts of this machine his specialty for years.

It is true that whenever intelligent and educated men find that the responsibility for making progress in any of the mechanic arts rests with them, instead of upon the workmen who are actually laboring at the trade, that they almost invariably start on the road which leads to the development of a science where, in the past, has existed mere traditional or rule-of-thumb knowledge.

When men, whose education has given them the habit of generalizing and everywhere looking for laws, find themselves confronted with a multitude of problems, such as exist in every trade and which have a general similarity one to another, it is inevitable that they should try to gather these problems into certain logical groups, and then search for some general laws or rules to guide them in their solution.

Development of Science for Machine Elements

Two Important Questions regarding Machine Tools to be Answered through Scientific Research

All of these experiments were made to enable us to answer correctly the two questions which face every machinist each time that he does a piece of work in a metal-cutting machine, such as a lathe, planer, drill press, or milling machine. These two questions are:

In order to do the work in the quickest time,

1. At what cutting speed shall I run my machine? and

2. What feed shall I use?

They sound so simple that they would appear to call for merely the trained judgment of any good mechanic. In fact, however, after working 26 years, it has been found that the answer in every case involves the solution of an intricate mathematical problem, in which the effect of twelve independent variables must be determined.

Each of the twelve following variables has an important effect upon the answer. The figures which are given with each of the variables represent the effect of this element upon the cutting speed.

For example, after the first variable (A) we quote,

"The proportion is as I in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of a very soft, low-carbon steel." The meaning of this quotation is that soft steel can be cut 100 times as fast as the hard steel or chilled iron. The ratios which are given, then, after each of these elements, indicate the wide range of judgment which practically every machinist has been called upon to exercise in the past in determining the best speed at which to run the machine and the best feed to use.

(A) The quality of the metal which is to be cut; i.e., its hardness or other qualities which affect the cutting speed. The proportion is as 1 in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of very soft, low-carbon steel.

(B) The chemical composition of the steel from which the tool is made, and the heat treatment of the tool. The proportion is as 1 in tools made from tempered carbon steel to 7 in the best high-speed tools.

(C) The thickness of the shaving, or, the thickness of the spiral strip or band of metal which is to be removed by the tool. The proportion is as 1 with thickness of shaving 3/16 of an inch to 3 1/2 with thickness of shaving 1/64 of an inch.

(D) The shape or contour of the cutting edge of the tool. The proportion is as 1 in a thread tool to 6 in a broad-nosed cutting tool.

(E) Whether a copious stream of water or other cooling medium is used on the tool. The proportion is as 1 for tool running dry to 1.41 for tool cooled by a copious stream of water.

(F) The depth of the cut. The proportion is as 1 with 1/2 inch depth of cut to 1.36 with 1/8 inch depth of cut.

(G) The duration of the cut, i.e., the time which a tool must last under pressure of the shaving without being reground. The proportion is as 1 when tool is to be ground every 1 1/2 hours to 1.20 when tool is to be
ground every 20 minutes.

(H) The lip and clearance angles of the tool. The proportion is as 1 with lip angle of 68 degrees to 1.023 with lip angle of 61 degrees.

(J) The elasticity of the work and of the tool on account of producing chatter. The proportion is as 1 with tool chattering to 1.15 with tool running smoothly.

(K) The diameter of the casting or forging which is being cut.

(L) The pressure of the chip or shaving upon the cutting surface of the

(M) The pulling power and the speed and feed changes of the machine.

It may seem preposterous to many people that it should have required a period of 26 years to investigate the effect of these twelve variables upon the cutting speed of metals. To those, however, who have had personal experience as experimenters, it will be appreciated that the great difficulty of the problem lies in the fact that it contains so many variable elements. 

And in fact the great length of time consumed in making each single experiment was caused by the difficulty of holding eleven variables constant and uniform throughout the experiment, while the effect of the twelfth variable was being investigated. Holding the eleven variables constant was far more difficult than the investigation of the twelfth element.

As, one after another, the effect upon the cutting speed of each of these variables was investigated, in order that practical use could be made of this knowledge, it was necessary to find a mathematical formula which expressed in concise form the laws which had been obtained. As examples of the twelve formulae which were developed, the three following are given:

        P = 45,000  D 14/15 F 3/4

        V = 90/T 1/8

        V = 11.9/ (F 0.665(48/3 D) 0.2373 + (2.4 / (18 + 24D))

After these laws had been investigated and the various formulae which mathematically expressed them had been determined, there still remained the difficult task of how to solve one of these complicated mathematical problems quickly enough to make this knowledge available for every-day use. If a good mathematician who had these formula before him were to attempt to get the proper answer (i.e., to get the correct cutting speed and feed by working in the ordinary way) it would take him from two to six hours, say, to solve a single problem; far longer to solve the mathematical problem than would be taken in most cases by the workmen in doing the whole job in his machine. Thus a task of considerable magnitude which faced us was that of finding a quick solution of this problem, and as we made progress in its solution, the whole problem was from time to time presented by the writer to one after another of the noted mathematicians in this country. They were offered any reasonable fee for a rapid, practical method to be used in its solution. Some of these men merely glanced at it; others, for the sake of being courteous, kept it before them for some two or three weeks. They all gave us practically the same answer: that in many cases it was possible to, solve mathematical problems which contained four variables, and in some cases problems with five or six variables, but that it was manifestly impossible to solve a problem containing twelve variables in any other way than by the slow process of "trial and error."

A quick solution was, however, so much of a necessity in our every-day work of running machine-shops, that in spite of the small encouragement  received from the mathematicians, we continued at irregular periods, through a term of fifteen years, to give a large amount of time searching for a simple solution. Four or five men at various periods gave practically their whole time to this work, and finally, while we were at the Bethlehem Steel Company, the slide-rule was developed which is illustrated on Folder No. 11 of the paper "On the Art of Cutting Metals," and is described in detail in the paper presented by Mr. Carl G. Barth to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, entitled "Slide-rules for the Machine-shop, as a part of the Taylor System of Management" (Vol. XXV of The Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers). By means of this slide-rule, one of these intricate problems can be solved in less than a half minute by any good mechanics whether he understands anything about mathematics or not, thus making available for every-day, practical use the years of experimenting on the art of cutting metals. This is a good illustration of the fact that some way can always be found of making practical, everyday use of complicated scientific data, which appears to be beyond the experience and the range of the technical training of ordinary practical men. These slide-rules have been for years in constant daily use by machinists having no knowledge of mathematics.

A glance at the intricate mathematical formula which represent the laws of cutting metals should clearly show the reason why it is impossible for any machinist, without the aid of these laws, and who depends upon his personal experience, correctly to guess at the answer to the two questions,

    What speed shall I use?

    What feed shall I use?

even though he may repeat the same piece of work many times.

To return to the case of the machinist who had been working for ten to twelve years in machining the same pieces over and over again, there was but a remote chance in any of the various kinds of work which this man did that he should hit upon the one best method of doing each piece of work out of the hundreds of possible methods which lay before him. In considering this typical case, it must also be remembered that the metal-cutting machines throughout our machine-shops have practically all been speeded by their makers by guesswork, and without the knowledge obtained through a study of the art of cutting metals. In the machine-shops systematized by us we have found that there is not one machine in a hundred which is speeded by its makers at anywhere near the correct cutting speed. So that, in order to compete with the science of cutting metals, the machinist, before he could use proper speeds, would first have to put new pulleys on the countershaft of his machine, and also make in most cases changes in the shapes and treatment of his tools, etc. Many of these changes are matters entirely beyond his control, even if he knows what ought to be done.

If the reason is clear to the reader why the rule-of-thumb knowledge obtained by the machinist who is engaged on repeat work cannot possibly compete with the true science of cutting metals, it should be even more apparent why the high-class mechanic, who is called upon to do a great variety of work from day to day, is even less able to compete with this science. The high-class mechanic who does a different kind of work each day, in order to do each job in the quickest time, would need, in addition to a thorough knowledge of the art of cutting metals, a vast knowledge and experience in the quickest way of doing each kind of hand workAnd the reader, by calling to mind the gain which was made by Mr. Gilbreth through his motion and time study in laying bricks, will appreciate the great possibilities for quicker methods of doing all kinds of hand work which lie before every tradesman after he has the help which comes from a scientific motion and time study of his work.

For nearly thirty years past, time-study men connected with the management of machine-shops have been devoting their whole time to a scientific motion study, followed by accurate time study, with a stop-watch, of all of the elements connected with the machinist's work. When, therefore, the teachers, who form one section of the management, and who are cooperating with the working men, are in possession both of the science of cutting metals and of the equally elaborate motion-study and time-study science connected with this work, it is not difficult to appreciate why even the highest class mechanic is unable to do his best work without constant daily assistance from his teachers. And if this fact has been made clear to the reader, one of the important objects in writing this paper will have been realized.

It is hoped that the illustrations which have been given make it apparent why scientific management must inevitably in all cases produce overwhelmingly greater results, both for the company and its employees, than can be obtained with the management of "initiative and incentive." And it should also be clear that these results have been attained, not through a marked superiority in the mechanism of one type of management over the mechanism of another, but rather through the substitution of one set of underlying principles for a totally different set of principles, by the substitution of one philosophy for another philosophy in industrial management.

Many researchers follow the path initiated by Taylor to develop cutting speed optimization and cutting time reduction to develop better methods for various machine tools. Industrial engineers have to go through those papers and use proper cutting parameters and reduce the cutting time. Similar work needs to be carried on various other machine so that that work time is reduced to produce unit output, thereby increasing the productivity of machines.

Updated on 1 August 2018, 30 July 2017

Tuesday, July 24, 2018

Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System - 1895 - Part 5

Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System - 1895 - Part 5

61. As far as possible each man’s work should be inspected and measured separately, and his pay and losses should depend upon his individual efforts alone. It is, of course, a necessity that much of the work of manufacturing — such, for instance, as running roll-trains, hammers, or paper machines — should be done by gangs of men who cooperate to turn out a common product, and that each gang of men should be paid a definite price for the work turned out, just as if they were a single man.

In the distribution of the earnings of a gang among its members, the percentage which each man receives should, however, depend not only upon the kind of work which each man performs, but upon the accuracy and energy with which he fills his position.

In this way the personal ambition of each of a gang of men may be given its proper scope.

62. Again, we find the differential rate acting as a most powerful lever to force each man in a gang of
workmen to do his best ; since if, through the carelessness or laziness of any one man, the gang fails to earn its high rate, the drone will surely be obliged by his companions to do his best the next time or else get out.

63. A great advantage of the differential rate system is that it quickly drives away all inferior workmen and attracts the men best suited to the class of work to which it is applied, since none but really good men can work fast enough and accurately enough to earn the high rate ; and the low rate should be made so small as to be unattractive even to an inferior man.

64. If for no other reason that it secures to an establishment a quick and active set of workmen, the differential rate is a valuable aid, since men are largely creatures of habit, and if the piece-workers of a place are forced to move quickly and work hard the dayworkers soon get into the same way, and the whole shop takes on a more rapid pace.

65. The greatest advantage, however, of the differential rate for piece-work, in connection with a proper rate-fixing department, is that together they produce the proper mental attitude on the part of the men and the management toward each other. In place of the indolence and indifference which characterize the workmen of many day-work establishments and to a considerable extent also their employers, and in place of the constant watchfulness, suspicion, and even antagonism with which too frequently the men and the management regard each other under the ordinary piece-work plan,
both sides soon appreciate the fact that with the differential rate it is their common interest to cooperate to the fullest extent, and to devote every energy to turning out daily the largest possible output This common interest quickly replaces antagonism and establishes a most friendly feeling.

66. Of the two devices for increasing the output of a shop, the differential rate and the scientific rate-fixing department, the latter is by far the more important The differential rate is invaluable at the start as a means of convincing men that the management is in earnest in its intention of paying a premium for hard work, and it at all times furnishes the best means of maintaining the top notch of production ; but when, through its application, the men and the management have come to appreciate the mutual benefit of harmonious cooperation and respect for each other’s rights, it ceases to be an absolute
necessity. On the other hand, the rate-fixing department, for an establishment doing a large variety of work, becomes absolutely indispensable. The longer it is in operation the more necessary it becomes.

67. Practically, the greatest need felt in an establishment wishing to start a rate-fixing department is the lack of data as to the proper rate of speed at which work should be done.

There are hundreds of operations which are common to most large establishments ; yet each concern studies the speed problem for itself, and days of labor are wasted in what should be settled once for all and recorded in a form which is available to all manufacturers.

68. What is needed is a hand-book on the speed with which work can be done, similar to the elementary engineering hand-books. And the writer ventures to predict that such a book will, before long, be forthcoming. Such a book should describe the best method of making, recording, tabulating, and indexing time-observations, since much time and effort are wasted by the adoption of inferior methods.

69. The term “ rate-fixing department,” has rather a formidable sound. In fact, however, that department should consist in most establishments of one man, who in many cases need give only a part of his time to the work.

70. When the manufacturing operations are uniform in character and repeat themselves day after day — as, for instance, in paper or pulp mills — the whole work of the place can be put upon piece-work in a comparatively short time ; and when once proper rates are fixed the rate-fixing department can be dispensed with, at any rate until some new line of manufacture is taken up.

71. The system of differential rates was first applied by the writer to a part of the work in the machine shop of the Midvale Steel Company, in 1884. Its effect in increasing and then maintaining the output of each machine to which it was applied was almost immediate, and so remarkable that it soon came into high favor with both the men and the management. It was gradually applied to a great part of the work of the establishment, with the result, in combination with the rate-fixing department, of doubling and in many cases trebling the output, and at the same time increasing instead
of diminishing the accuracy of the work.

72. In some cases it was applied by the rate-fixing department without an elementary analysis of the time required to do the work, simply offering a higher price per piece providing the maximum output before attained was increased to a given extent. Even this system met with success although it is by no means correct, since there is no certainty that the reward is in just proportion to the efforts of the workmen.

73. In cases where large and expensive machines are used, such as paper machines, steam hammers, or rolling mills, in which a large output is dependent upon the severe manual labor as well as the skill of the workmen (while the chief cost of production lies in the expense of running the machines rather than in the wages paid), it has been found of great advantage to establish two or three differential rates, offering a higher and higher price per piece or per ton as the maximum possible output is approached.

74. As before stated, not the least of the benefits of elementary rate-fixing are the indirect results.

The careful study of the capabilities of the machines arid the analysis of the speeds at which they must run, before differential rates can be fixed which will insure their maximum output, almost invariably result in first indicating and then correcting the defects in their design and in the method of running and caring for them.

75. In the case of the Midvale Steel Company, to which I have already referred, the machine shop was equipped with standard tools furnished by the best makers, and the study of these machines, such as lathes, planers, boring mills, etc., which was made in fixing rates, developed the fact that they were none of them designed and speeded so as to cut steel to the best advantage. As a result, this company has demanded alterations from the standard in almost every machine which they have bought during the past eight years. They have themselves been obliged to superintend the design of many special tools which would not have been thought of had it not been for elementary rate-fixing.

Go to Part 6

Sunday, July 22, 2018

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles

Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering by Lawrence D. Miles, First Edition, 1961


Electrical Control - Pp.1-2

Example: VA of electrical control

Componet wire clip made of phosphor bronze costing $7000 a year.
Function: Held the cover. cover opened for servicing expected to be done six times in the life time of the device.
What else will do the job?
Clip made of spring brass
Cost: $3000

The cover itself cost 4 cents - total expenditure of $40,000
Function: to keep extraneous material out.
The control was mounted inside another closure.
What else will do the job?
Plain piece of plastic.
Cost: 1.5 cents. Total expenditure $15,000.

Household garbage disposer p.6

Case Study - Control - P.10,11

Case Study: Control consisting of electrical and mechanical components

Component: Metal knol - designed cost $2.25
Standard catalogue item found for 25 cents
Sub-assembly supporting an emergency control lever designed cost $20.33
VA led to new cost of $8.12
When new order came with some modifications to design, the old analysis helped it also.

Case Study - Radiation Control P.12-13

Case Study: Radiation Shield for X-Ray testing room for large forgings and castings.

Designed suggestion:  Build a concrete wall 7 feet thick and 14 feet high.
Cost: $50,000
What else will do the job?
Sand will 14 feet thick and 14 feet high. Cost $5000
It pays to enquire what else will do?

CS - Conduct Eletric Current in Steel 17-18

Case Study - Habits often lead astray

In a control device costly nonferrous materials were being for certain parts.
What else will do the job?
But the design engineers objected that electrical conducting parts are made of nonferrous metals only.
Value engineer after investigation showed them that in some other instruments steel was used for conducting parts.
The answer was that they nonferrous metal is not suitable due to high temperature.
The natural question is why you can't use it in this instrument when it will give a big cost advantage.
The alternative of steel was accepted.

CS - Value analysis and Value of 10,000 bolts Pp. 20-21

Case Study: 10,000 bolts

Component: 1/2 inch steel bolt, 12 inches long with a square head and square nut
What else will do the job?
A supplier suggested a threaded stud with a nut already chased on one end at 15% less cost.

Ex. Metal Hinge Pp.21-23

Ex. Metal strip hinge about 8 inches long with holes for fixing it to the door and one edge rolled to insert a hinge pin. Made by stamping and forming
Quantity 500,000 pieces
Number of alternatives were investigated and found to be not suitable. But value analyst has to persist.
A suggestion was made that a strip of steel in continuous rolls can be used to roll the edge of the strip and the holes can be made later.
The suggestion received number of objections but was tried and found to be practicable and a 10% cost reduction was achieved.
This amounted $50,000 savings. Value engineer working in an engineering needs to have good engineering knowledge to find suitable
alternative processes and develop them to deliver the sulution to the satisfaction of all involved.

CS - Silver Contact Assembly 28-32

CS - The Pivot Pin 32-35

Case Study: Pivot pin
Cost $3.65
Quantity consumed : 50 million
Supplier said he could not reduce price due to features and tolerances.

Every feature and tolerance of the pin were questioned.
5 alternatives were developed and suppliers were asked to quote.
Method two was quoted $1.90 per thousand and accepted.

Examples of the technique - Avoid generalities37-40  ------------- 10

CS Develop Specific Information  P.40

Case Study - Investigate Further - Half length screw to full length screw

Component: 1/4 X 3-inch screw with thread up to the head. Quantity used 40,000 items.
Standard screws of 1 inch thread were being purchased and in the factory thread is being made up to head. Cost is 12 cents.
Value engineers contacted suppliers to quote for the screw with full length. quote for 2.5 cents was obtained.

CS - Crystal or Window Glass Pp.40-41

Case Study - Crystal glass or window glass
The practice was to term the clock face as crystal. But it is only window glass, warmed and sagged.
But freigth rate for crystal was 1.25 times the first-class freight rate and freight rate for window glass was only 0.85 times the first class freight rate.
The terminology was changed in the invoice and bill lading and 32% savings was obtained in the freight rate.

CS - Unmeaningful costs used for decision making can bankrupt the business - Pp.47-48

There was serious customer resistance to an important electromechanical item in a company on the issue of price. An examination showed that cost price reported is high. Examination of the parts used and their costs showed the following reasons.

1. Parts made on less than optimum equipment and costs recorded were high.
2. Parts were often made by skilled labor when such a requirement was not there and costs charged were high.
3. A "blanket" fixed equipment cost is being used as overhead when the part was made using a screw driver or an expensive machine.

Interpretation: Cost figures which are used for pricing have no relevance. Labor costs, machine costs and set up costs which are relevant have to be used.

Hence, determination of appropriate costs, strictly applicable to the parts and assembles of the product was made. Then value analysis was applied on each of the parts. Poor value parts were identified and value engineering was done to reduce the cost. The end result was reduction in cost to less than half.

Use Information from the Best Source

Ex. For the availability of steel, the best source is the purchasing agent not marketing manager.

Ex. Underwriter won't approve it. Contact the underwriters.

CS. There is only one supplier P.50

A company is using a glass cover with a curved shape of 10 in diameter. The value analyst was told that there is only one supplier for the item and even though cost looks high nothing can be done about it.  Value analyst reasoned that the buyer is not the best source of knowledge regarding the available suppliers. He approached the purchase persons of a clock factory and asked them regarding suppliers for the part. They indicated six suppliers and the cost came down to less than 50% of the current cost.

Blast, Create, Refine

Ex. Part from copper tube - P.54

Ex. Clamp bar P.55

Ex. Small radio-frequency transformer   ------------- 20

Ex. Gasoline tank - P.57

function: contain 200 gallons of gasoline in a US Navy landing aircraft.
Cost of resent design $520. One tank made of special high-cost alloy steel.
Blast: Four 50-gallon standard drums
Create phase idea: If iron used for drums of tanks is not suitable. add appropriate coatings.
Refine:  Four drums with coatings used.
Cost came down to $80

Ex. Joy stick assembly for a radar P.57

CS - The Electric Controller P.59-62

Number of components of this controller were made in different ways for reduced cost.

One illustration: A steel hub with six small holes drilled around the circumference at the top end is being made.  The search for a specialty items revealed that some companies sell slugs, round pieces of aluminum punched from sheet stock.  It was slightly cupped and it needs to be flattned. the cost of the slug was 4 cents, flattening cost 1 cent.  Drilling a center hole and holes on the periphery cost 8 cents. The total cost of the part came to be 13 cents instead of the current cost of $1.27.

Use Real Creativity

CS - No Waste 63--64

Ex. Bulkhead penetration P.65

Ex. Squirtedin self-vulcanizing material - P.65

Ex. Asbestos paper - P.67

Ex. Stainless Steel Nipple - P.68

Ex. It is patented - .68

Ex. Underwriters won't approve it.  ---------------  30

CS - It won't work

CS - Underwriters won't allow it.

CS - Do it like an Indina

Ex. Heat transfer enclosure - P.74

Ex. The Linkage  - P.74

Ex. Gyros P.74

CS. Small part similar to nail

Ex. Pole piece

CS - Specialty product simplified it.P. 81

Ex. Adjusting screw  P.88 -------------------  40

Ex. A spacer hub P.88

Ex.  Thin nut P.89

Ex. High temperature locknut

Case Study: Three springs - Pp.92-93

Ex. Handle for machine tool adjustments P.95

Ex. J - bolit P.96

CS - Mounting holes for perforated sheet

Ex. Undercut screw - P. 98

Ex. Small bracket - P.99

Ex. Tube support Gasket p.99  ------------------------   50

CS. Temperature sensitive control 100-101

Ex. Tube base

Ex. Aluminium knob

Ex. Small Spring

CS. packaging for wall clock

Ex. Hand wheel  P.105

Ex. Heavy solid steel trunnion bolt

Ex. Hub and shaft

Ex. Support clamp

Ex. Assembly of parts ------------------------  60

Ex. Machine parts

Ex. The 1-cent check

Case Study - Heat sensitive device 111 - 114

Ex. Pulley

Ex. Spacer stud

Ex. Electrical terminal

Ex. Locating part for two compression springs

Ex. Support for steel bar

Case Study - Terminal of electrical device 121 - 123

Case Study - Precision Timer  126-127  ------------------------  70

CS - Red pointer and red ink - Pp.160-161
CS - Increased Dollar yield per manhour  - Pp. 163

CS - Can we scrap the scrap - Pp.167

CS - Did the vendor contribute - Pp. 168-169

CS - Manufacture for profit - P. 170

CS The contacts that were lost - P.171

CS - It is patented - P.173174

CS - Assembly purchased complete - P/175176

CS - Lower cost may mean doing it the right way - Pp. 181-182   --------------- 79 examples

79 examples in the book

Updated  23 July 2018,  26 June 2015
First posted  15 Dec 2013

Productivity Science and Productivity Engineering - Gilbreth

The aim of motion study is to find and perpetuate the scheme of perfection. There are three stages in this

1. Discovering and classifying the best practice.

2. Deducing the laws.

3. Applying the laws to standardize practice, either for the purpose of increasing output or decreasing hours of  labor, or both.

Source: MOTION STUDY - Frank B. Gilbreth (1911) - Part 1

Observe the three steps to develop the productivity science and productivity engineering.

1. Discovering and classifying the best practice.

Observation, identification and recording the best practices in body motions are indicated in the first stage. This is the data collection stage for developing laws of productivity science.

2. Deducing the laws.

The second stage is data analysis from perspective of identifying the law. This is the developing the productivity science theory or law.

3. 3. Applying the laws to standardize practice, either for the purpose of increasing output or decreasing hours of  labor, or both.

This is productivity engineering stage. The law is applied to increase output or productivity.

Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System - 1895 - Part 2

Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System - Part 2

16. If the plan of grading labor and recording each man’s performance is so much superior to the old day-work method of handling men, why is it not all that is required? Because no foreman can watch and study all of his men all of the time, and because any system of laying out and apportioning work, and of returns and records, which is sufficiently elaborate to keep proper account of the performance of each workman, is more complicated than piece-work. It is evident that that system is the best which, in attaining the desired result, presents in the long run the course of least resistance.

17. The inherent and most serious defect of even the best managed day-work lies in the 'fact that there is nothing about the system that is self-sustaining. When once the men are working at a rapid pace there is nothing but the constant, unremitting watchfulness and energy of the management to keep them there ; while with every form of piece-work each new rate that is fixed insures a given speed for another section of work, and to that extent relieves the foreman from worry.

18. From the best type of day-work to ordinary piece-work, the step is a short one. With good day-work the various operations of manufacturing should have been divided into small sections or jobs, in order to properly gauge the efficiency of the men ; and the quickest time should have been recorded in which each operation has been performed. The change from paying by the hour to paying by the job is then readily accomplished.

19. The theory upon which the ordinary system of piece-work operates to the benefit of the manufacturer is exceedingly simple. Each workman, with a definite price for each job before him, contrives a way of doing it in a shorter time, either by working harder or by improving his method ; and he thus makes a larger profit. After the job has been repeated a number of times at the more rapid rate, the manufacturer thinks that he should also begin to share in the gain, and therefore reduces the price of the job to a figure at which the workman, although working harder, earns, perhaps, but little more than he originally did when on day-work.

20. The actual working of the system, however, is far different. Even the most stupid man, after receiving two or three piece-work “ cuts ” as a reward for his having worked harder, resents this treatment and seeks a remedy for it in the future. Thus begins a war, generally an amicable war, but none the less a war, between the workmen and the management. The latter endeavors by every means to induce the workmen to increase the out put, and the men gauge the rapidity with which they work, so as never to earn over a certain rate of wages, knowing that if they exceed this amount the piece-work price will surely be cut sooner or later.

21. But the war is by no means restricted to piece-work. Every intelligent workman realizes the importance, to his own interest, of starting in on each new job as slowly as possible. There are few foremen or superintendents who have anything but a general idea as to how long it should take to do a piece of work that is new to them. Therefore, before fixing a piece-work price, they prefer to have the job done for the first time by the day. They watch the progress of the work as closely as their other duties will permit, and make up their minds how quickly it can be done. It becomes the workman’s interest then to go just as slowly as possible and still convince his foreman that he is working well.

22. The extent to which, even in our largest and best managed establishments, this plan of holding back on the work, — “ marking time ”, or “ soldiering ”, as it is called — is carried on by the men, can scarcely be understood by one who has not worked among them. It is by no means uncommon for men to work at the rate of one-third, or even one-quarter, their maximum speed, and still preserve the appearance of working hard. And when a rate has once been fixed on such a false basis it is easy for the men to nurse successfully “ a soft snap ” of this sort through a term of years, earning in the mean-
while just as much wages as they think they can without having the rate cut

23. Thus arises a system of hypocrisy and deceit on the part of the men which is thoroughly demoralizing and which has led many workmen to regard their employers as their natural enemies, to be opposed in whatever they want, believing that whatever is for the interest of the management must necessarily be to their detriment.

24. The effect of this system of piece-work on the character of the men is, in many cases, so serious as to make it doubtful whether, on the whole, well managed day-work is not preferable.

25. There are several modifications of the ordinary method of piece-work which tend to lessen the evils of the system, but I know of none that can eradicate the fundamental causes for war, and enable the managers and the men to heartily cooperate in obtaining the maximum product from the establishment. It is the writer’s opinion, however, that the differential rate system of piece-work, which will be described later, in most cases entirely harmonizes the interests of both parties.

26. One method of temporarily relieving the strain between workmen and employers consists in reducing the price paid for work, and at the same time guaranteeing the men against further reduction for a definite period. If this period be made sufficiently long, the men are tempted to let themselves out and earn as much money as they can, thus “ spoiling ” their own job by another “ cut ” in rates when the period has expired.

27. Perhaps the most successful modification of the ordinary system of piece-work is the “gain-sharing” plan. This was invented by Mr. Henry R. Towne, in 1886, and has since been extensively and successfully applied by him in the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., at Stamford, Conn. It was admirably described in a paper which he read before this Society in 1888. This system of paying men is, however, subject to the serious, and I think fatal, defect that it does not recognize the personal merit of each workman ; the tendency being rather to herd men together and promote trades-unionism, than to develop each man’s individuality.

28. A still further improvement of this method was made by Mr. F. A. Halsey, and described by him in a paper entitled “The Premium Plan of Paying for Labor,” and presented to this Society in 1891. Mr. Halsey’s plan allows free scope for each man’s personal ambition, which Mr. Towne’s does not.

29. Messrs. Towne and Halsey’s plans consist briefly in recording the cost of each job as a starting-point at a certain time ; then, if, through the effort of the workmen in the future, the job is done in a shorter time and at a lower cost, the gain is divided among the workmen and the employer in a definite ratio, the workmen receiving, say, one-half, and the employer one-half.

30. Under this plan, if the employer lives up to his promise, and the workman has confidence in his integrity, there is the proper basis for cooperation to secure sooner or later a large increase in the output of the establishment.

Yet there still remains the temptation for the workman to “ soldier ” or hold back while on day-work, which is the most difficult thing to overcome. And in this as well as in all the systems heretofore referred to, there is the common defect that the starting-point from which the first rate is fixed is unequal and unjust. Some of the rates may have resulted from records obtained when a good man was working close to his maximum speed, while others are based on the performance of a medium man at one-third or one-quarter speed. From this follows a great inequality and injustice in the reward even of the same man when at work on different jobs. The result is far from a realization of the ideal condition in which the same return is uniformly received for a given expenditure of brains and energy. Other defects in the gain-sharing plan, and which are corrected by the differential rate system, are :

( 1) That it is slow and irregular in its operation in reducing costs, being dependent upon the whims of the men working under it.

(2) That it fails to especially attract first-class men and discourage inferior men.

(3) That it does not automatically insure the maximum output of the establishment per man and machine.

Go to Part 3     -   Part 1

Manufacturing Engineering: Principles For Optimization - Daniel T. Koenig - Book Information

Manufacturing Engineering: Principles For Optimization - Daniel T. Koenig - Book Information

Manufacturing Engineering: Principles For Optimization: Principles for Optimization

Daniel T. Koenig
CRC Press, 01-Aug-1994 - Technology & Engineering - 439 pages

Offers instruction in manufacturing engineering management strategies to help the student optimize future manufacturing processes and procedures. This edition includes innovations that have changed management's approach toward the uses of manufacturing engineering within the business continuum.


Manufacturing Engineering: Principles for Optimization, Third Edition

Publisher: ASME
Publish Date: 2006
Pages: 536

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Manufacturing Engineering Organization Concepts
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Engineering Management Techniques
Chapter 3 Factory Capacity and Loading Techniques Chapter
4 Capital Equipment Programs Chapter
5 Machine Tool and Equipment Selection and Implementation
Chapter 6 Producibility Engineering
 Chapter 7 Methods, Planning, and Work Measurements
Chapter 8 Job Evaluations, Pay Plans, and Acceptance
Chapter 9 Employee Appraisal and Evaluation
Chapter 10 Process Control Engineering and Quality Control in Job Shops
Chapter 11 Maintenance Engineering Chapter
12 Computer Numerical Control of Machine Tools
Chapter 13 Fundamentals of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Chapter
14 Computer-Aided Process Planning and Data Collection Chapter
15 The Group Technology Basis for Plant Layout Chapter
16 Manufacturing Engineering Aspects of Manufacturing Resources Planning Chapter
17 Just In Time and Its Corollary Lean Manufacturing: A pragmatic Application of Manufacturing Engineering Philosophy
Chapter 18 Environmental Control and Safety Chapter
19 The Integrated Productivity Improvement Program
Chapter 20 Using ISO 9000 as a Means of Becoming a "World Class" Company
Appendix A: Employee handbook
 Appendix B: Sales Incentive Program
Appendix C: Investigation Points (Product Company) Glossary Selected Related Readings Index

Thursday, July 19, 2018

Product Design Efficiency Engineering - Component of Industrial Engineering

We can use term Product Industrial Engineering to described the efficiency improvement carried out by industrial engineers in the product designs.

Product Industrial Engineering - Methods and Techniques - Articles

Value Engineering - Introduction

Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques

Value Analysis: Approach and Job Plan

Knowledge Required for Value Engineering Application and Practice

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles

Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) - Value Engineering Method

Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits

Value Engineering in Construction - Structures, Roads, Bridges

Value Engineering at the Design and Development Stage - Tata Nano Example

Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board  - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

Value Engineering - Bulletin - Information Board

Lean Product Development - Low Waste Product Development - Efficient Product Development

Design for Manufacturing

Design for Assembly

The Role Industrial Engineer in Product Design

By William McAleer and Harold B. Lawson, H.B. Maynard & Co.,
Chapter 10.5 in Maynard IE Handbook, 2nd Edition

The article was published in the 2nd Edition of Maynard Industrial Engineering Handbook as chapter 10.5

Industrial engineering has a role in both the design for making and design for selling.

Industrial engineer's knowledge of methods improvement, motion economy and motion study, work measurement using stop watch as well as predetermined motion times enable him to redesign the product designs to make the less costly to manufacture and also make them less costly to use by the user.

Design for Making

The industrial engineer is a key person reviewing the design. He makes an analysis of design to determine if it is possible to manufacture at an economical cost. Based on the analysis, he finds ways to reduce costs through suggested design modifications prior to final design approval,

Industrial engineer is also an engineer and hence has knowledge of design process and method. He redesigns the production process also to obtain lower cost of production.  He does this without affecting the quality, appeal, saleability, or any other aspect of the product desired by the customer and explicitly designed in by the product design team. An industrial engineer does this work by his knowledge of equipment, processes, tools, wages and the like.

The typical examples of suggestions by industrial engineers for redesign were given by the authors as:

1. Relocation of holes, appendages, fasteners, and the like for easier access in processing or assembly.
2. Modification of design to use existing tools, jigs, fixtures or equipment.  (especially if a new equipment is suggested that will have low utlization)
3. Addition of tapers, rounded edges, and symmetry to parts to simplify positioning required for assembly.
4. Specification of easier to use fasteners (Shigeo Shingo came out with various ideas on fasteners to reduce set up times of machines)
5. Use of free machining stock or use of materials having higher machinability.

(Article link: Important Points Made in the Article)

Presently we can see the follow methods and techniques as relevant to product design efficiency engineering activity.

Value Engineering
Design for Manufacture
Design for Assembly
Target Costing Exercises
Design Optimization

Related Articles

Value Engineering
       Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques
       Value Engineering 2014 - Subject Update

       Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits

Design for Manufacturing
Design for Assembly
Target Costing Exercises
Design Optimization
Six Sigma in Design

A New Design for Production (DFP) Methodology with Two Case Studies
Lee Ming Wong, G Gary Wang, Doug Strong
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

Case Study

L&T TS was approached for an overhaul in the transmission assembly for agricultural equipment in the minimal possible time span.

Redesign the power take off shaft and gears.
Incorporate hydro pump gear into the equipment pump drive gear and redesign pump drive housing to incorporate a single flange mounting to the main transmission housing.
Optimize Transmission housing and front cover to reduce material volume.
Specify bearing selection and verification.

http://www.larsentoubro.com/lntcorporate/LnT_NWS/PDF/LnT%20TS%20overhauls%20tractor%20transmission%20assembly%20in%20a%20record%20time%20of%2060%20days.pdf (Link not working presently)

Updated 20 July 2018,  16 July 2017,   16 July 2016,  9 July 2016,  14 June 2015
First published   20 February 2014

Monday, July 16, 2018

Job Evaluation - Introduction

Wage scales and job evaluation; scientific determination ... Lott, Merrill R.

Wage incentive methods, their selection, installation and operation, by Charles Walter Lytle ...
Published: New York, The Ronald press company [1943]

Available on hathitrust

1954, Ronald Press
Available on archive


Collective bargaining to decide wages and salaries is democratic and helpful but by itself does not assure correct answers. This fact is evident from the frequent demands for rebargaining. In fact, we can hardly expect correct answers from unaided bargaining if we consider how many variables are involved. Bargaining done in ignorance on both sides is always a needlessly slow, costly process, and when the conditions of the bargain keep changing, so that it must be done over every year or every six months, it may give little improvement over unilateral guesswork by employer.

Job evaluation is merely a convenient name for systematic preparation for pricing in the labor market, closely comparable to modern pricing of merchandise. The latter is made possible by adequate cost analysis, the former by adequate job analysis.

Job evaluation, then, is neither more nor less than an effort to apply sound principles of measurement to determine what each job in an organization is really worth. It is the fair share, to which a satisfactory performance of a job should entitle the man who performs it, of the profitable
result to which his performance contributes. To make job analysis adequate for job evaluation it is necessary to think beyond the concept "amount of work" because that implies only the quantitative
part of the employee's contribution. That part is tangible and can be positively checked by comparing the units produced per period of time with set tasks as is done for incentive payment. Less tangible,
and hence more difficult, is the qualitative part which involves skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions and many more possible subordinate considerations that are covered by these
four major considerations.

This qualitative part of the employee's contribution is a matter of guessing in old-fashioned "rate setting" and is not part of "motion and time study." Hence a separate and different kind of job study must be made with the specific purpose of measuring the qualitative contribution. Such further study begins with job review or "job analysis," carries through "job description-specification," "job classification," and ends with "evaluation." This foundation should underlie every job rate whether for time payment or for incentive payment.  Modern job analysis and its recent extension, job evaluation, are now solving this long neglected problem impersonally and objectively. These terms
may be defined as follows:

Job analysis is the review study of definite jobs to ascertain what kind and what degree of man-qualities are necessary to make man-job units operate satisfactorily.

Job evaluation is the extension of job analysis to ascertain reliably the relative worth of jobs, to transform these appraisals into a structure of adequate rates, and to provide standard procedures for all additions to, and adjustments in, the rate structure.

Labor efficiency or man-productivity is the variable effect of, or response to, plant conditions and practices which are variable causes. The latter variables can largely be planned, for better or for worse, by the policies, plans, and activities of management which create the jobs, or more accurately, the man-job units. Graphically we can picture man-job unit productivity as the resultant of five or six job-planning  components} Obviously, if we wish to change the direction or increase the magnitude of the man-job productivity resultant we must begin by installing, building up, or correcting the job-planning components, not just one or two of them, but all of them.

Let us suppose, for instance, that two like-sized factories, A and B, make identical improvements in one component, say wage incentives. That would be building up one of the job plan plan components.  and each factory might achieve the same man-job unit productivity gain in
percentage. But if A, because of the weakness of other job variables, had been below B in productivity before the change, it would continue to be below B after the change. The weakness of A's other variables would not be corrected by the addition or strengthening of the single component and the resultant productivity would not be as much improved as it could have been if all components had been re-aligned. From the fact of equal percentage gain A would seem to be improving as much as B. Actually A might still be far below its rightful potential.

Of the five or six components constituting job plan  the most fundamental are the standardization of conditions and the standardization of operations. The former — development of equipment, that is, the design or selection of the most expedient equipment, jigs, tools, gauges, and the like — establishes the physical potential for quality of product. The latter — job standardization,
that is, motion and time study - — establishes the physical potential for efficient operating. The first can largely be purchased from without while the second must be developed almost entirely from within. When these two components of job control have been fully developed the factory will have attained improved, standardized jobs. The tasks or amounts of work per hour which derive therefrom can be used as bases for much of the planning and controlling, for efficiency measurement, for extra-financial incentives, and the like.

Prerequisites of Job Evaluation.
 Job standardization is a prerequisite of job evaluation.  If jobs are definite and stable, because of automatic machinery, then perhaps further job standardization may be omitted, but we can scarcely
imagine any kind of practical work which cannot be improved by an appropriate application of motion and time study.  Job review-analysis and evaluation can be used more peremptorily but usually should not be. Certainly management must have gained labor's confidence in its general
competence and fairness before attempting to build the component review-analysis and evaluation. When management has achieved the prerequisites it can gain a more complete confidence by creating
a systematic and analytic job evaluation.

Primary Purposes of Job Evaluation. In brief we may state the primary purposes of job evaluation as follows:

1. To establish a general wage level for a given plant which will have parity, or an otherwise desired relativity, with those of neighbor plants, hence with the average level of the locality.

2. To establish correct differentials for all jobs within the given plant.

3. To bring new jobs into their proper relativity with jobs previously established.

4. To accomplish the foregoing by means of facts and principles which can be readily explained to, and accepted by, all concerned.

Job evaluating can become a control of importance because:

1. By reducing all essential job facts to convenient form it enables a management to implement policies of fairness.

2. By adopting sound principles and impartial techniques it trains the supervisory force to be more nearly objective.

3. By clarifying lines of authority and responsibility it obviates misunderstanding.

4. By substantiating confidence it lessens grievances and simplifies wage negotiations.

Conformity to sound principles makes possible consistency in job rating and the latter is the cornerstone of mutual fairness. If man-merit rating can be added as a top layer to all base rates, then payment by time can have a limited but important incentive effect.

Secondary Purposes of Job Evaluation.  Certainly a: unified rate structure embracing all jobs is important to any employment department. We will say here that, either for hiring or for transferring and promoting, even for demoting and discharging, a set of job description-specifications is considerably more valuable when consistent base rates or rate ranges are affixed to them.

The secondary purposes are well indicated by the following outline of a job evaluation program.

1. To determine qualities necessary for a job when hiring new employees.

2. To determine qualifies necessary for a job when making promotions.

3. To determine if the system of advancement in a particular plant is from the job of lowest order toward the job of highest order.

4. To determine qualities necessary when bringing back men who have been laid off or have been on leave for war service. During the interval there may have been changes in job content.

5. To support explanations to employees as to why a particular man would not be suitable for a given opening. Many seniority clauses give preference to length of service only after the requirements of the job in the way of experience, etc., are satisfied. If the job rating has been made up by an independent agency and the entire plant has been rated there is likely to be less stress on mere seniority.

6. To determine if men now occupying various jobs have qualifications required by the specifications.

7. To determine if all men are placed to best advantage in respective jobs available, also to guide the revamping of jobs for skill conservation.

8. To analyze hourly rates and to determine if they are in line with rating given.

9. To compare periodically wage rates with those for similar occupations at other local plants.

10. To point out where greatest opportunities lie for development of automafic equipment and improvement of working conditions, removal of hazards, etc. Any plant where job ratings are very high, indicating a predominance of highly skilled labor, usually is a plant where there are
very few automatic operations. High ratings indicate places where it is most likely that improvements in equipment can be justified.

Primarily job evaluation is not concerned with improvements in tools and methods but such possibilities are sometimes brought to light during the analyst's review studies, in which case a report should be made to the industrial engineering department.

11. To train new supervisors. Specifications outlining duties of each man are useful in starting a new foreman on the job. Even an old foreman may have a wrong conception of job content and worth.

12. To facilitate explanations to an employee of the fact that any improvement in working conditions theoretically should mean a reduction in his wage rate. For example, if a worker is located in a poorly heated building and better heating is installed, the installation of heating equipment, an improvement in working conditions, lowers his job classification. Theoretically the base rate for the job should be lowered accordingly. Actually, poor working conditions rarely carry high ratings.

It is not advocated that better working conditions be provided for the express purpose of lowering workers' rates. However, if an employee is shown that he is paid a higher rate because his working conditions are not the best, he will probably be better satisfied with his job.

Collectively job evaluation facilitates the making of safe plans for the rearrangement or replacement of large numbers of workers. Only by such means is it possible to enter bargaining negotiations
without fear or fumbling. Without it decisions are often influenced (1) by the favoritism of a supervisor, (2) by the advertising ability of an employee, (3) by bad guesses regarding the ratio of demand to supply, or (4) by precedents previously influenced by any of the foregoing. Job evaluation can eliminate all these extraneous influences. The first two are precluded and the third, that of demand-to-supply ratio, can be kept from being confused with the relative worth of jobs by measuring the relative worth in terms of abstract points regardless of money rates. The supply-demand influence should be left to bargaining. In short, job evaluation completes the phases of job study and makes possible a rate structure which is independent of off-side, disrupting influences. Naturally this condition aflows a management to proceed with confidence and should do much to gain and keep the complete confidence of workers. This advantage alone will usually justify whatever costs are involved. It was, in fact, the exposure of this need that plunged management into the movement during the latter half of the prolonged depression, 1935-1940.

Transformation of "Rate Setting."
The original purpose of job analysis was to classify jobs in order to correct the setting of job
rates. Various attempts at job classification were made by Civil Service reformers, beginning with the Civil Service Commission of 1871. But modern job analysis was started in 1909 by a requirement of the Civil Service Commission of Chicago and the subsequent work of the Commonwealth Edison Company of that city. No doubt inspiration for this step came from Taylor's practices: his further
specialization of jobs, his "science of work" studies, his more careful selection and placement of operatives, and his examples of increasing unit labor cost to reduce unit total cost. Apparently Taylor and other engineers were too busy with the improvement of methods to go far into this, the last step of job study. In fact, these pioneers, in developing better shop management, were putting most jobs on incentive payment and were content to work backward from total earnings to derive the base rates. Time-paid workers were left to supervision and "functionalized foremanship" was supposed to solve supervision. Furthermore, Taylor had little union contact until after 1912. Thus the personnel men developed job analysis, as they named it, and for several years it remained mostly in large offices.

World War I gave impetus to this personnel function. From that
time on its use spread wherever there was a functionalized personnel
staff. It seems, however, that the rate-setting function in factories
was held jealously by line executives and they paid little attention to
the new personnel files of job description-specifications. In fact, the
techniques of job analysis were only then emerging from the experi-
mental stage. Foreman-made descriptions were tried. Then the per-
sonnel staffs made their own. Ranking or grading whole jobs was
the usual method of determining their relative worth. A few indus-
trial engineers were beginning to analyze work on basic "character-
istics" but even in such experiments no one attempted to use weighted
points to measure the relative worths. In 1924, Merrill R. Lott tried
out the first thorough-going plan for weighting separate work char-
acteristics. His fifteen characteristics included three that are now
considered extraneous and others that were not well related but he,
and those who followed, did get the pioneering done in time for a
more urgent need.

Pressing Need Had Developed by 1937. Meanwhile, jobs had
been getting more specialized and more individualized. This out-
come was the natural consequence of the many choices in equip-
ment brought into being for various scales of operation and of many
special solutions to "the one best way" which motion study was beginning to effect. No longer was it safe to assume that jobs bearing the same titles in different factories were identically the same jobs.
Employers could use only the relatively few key jobs for rate com-
parisons, and even these needed to be checked by personal inspec-
tion. Thus the "going rate" for any class of jobs in a community
became less evident, and more undependable, as a basis for informal
rate setting. This lack of reference points meant that the manage-
ment of each plant had to work out its rate structure more inde-
pendently of interplant comparisons.

By 1937 another force, that of the unions, was pressing to the
same storm center. Organized labor had long advocated "standard
rates" and numerous states had passed minimum wage laws. The
National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933-35 put the latter on a
federal scale and the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 intensi-
fied the activity of the unions. After the Supreme Court sustained
that law in 1937 the two-year-old CIO was able to increase its
membership by large numbers of unskilled and semiskilled workers
and to exert a power never before wielded by American employees.
Wage rates for large groups were set by collective bargaining and
pushed upward frequently. Hours came down and, in not a few
cases, efficiency per man-hour fell off alarmingly. In short, bargain-
ing became as unbalanced in favor of employees as it had ever been
unbalanced in favor of employers. Many a manager found it diffi-
cult to defend his base rates. Where that occurred the higher-ups in
management became interested and demanded some kind of "job-
pictures" to help them get a grasp of the whole situation. Thus the
few companies which had learned how to build a stormproof rate
structure were stormed by their less farsighted neighbors asking for
help. Soon the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, the
National Metal Trades Association, and other employer associations
were deep in the new business of job evaluation.^

Peace-to-War, War-to-Peace Conversion Benefited. It may not
have been appreciated at the time but it can be seen now that it was
fortunate to have thoroughly reliable methods of rate setting pushed
into being before the war expansion began in 1941. As the Amer-
ican machine tool industry benefited from its depression-completed
redesigning and tooling, so American management benefited from
its depression-completed development of job evaluation. The rate
structure of many a plant was more free from "out-of-line rates"
than ever before. New jobs could be fitted quickly into the structure.
New thousands of employees could quickly be assigned high but
consistent rates. New demand-supply requirements could be ad-
justed without upsetting any of the weighted values. Hence these
prepared companies were better able to meet the demands of war
without undue rate confusion and without loss of confidence on the
part of unions.

Many managements that were not prepared in this respect at the
time of conversion lost no time in getting prepared for the reconver-
sion. They realized that when wage and salary controls were eased
or relinquished there would be a great commotion wherever man-
agement failed to develop a program of job analysis and job evalua-
tion. Much confusion, distress on the part of top management, and
in many cases actual strikes were avoided where this preparation
took place. A mature program of job control perhaps does not
insure perfect calm, but it can do a great deal to smooth out the
agitation. Job evaluation and all it connotes provide a factual basis
for decision and for negotiation. It implements policy and wins
confidence, and these advantages are always helpful when manage-
ment is confronted with difficult problems.

Here are only a few of the job evaluation problems which needed
attention during post-war years. Some jobs had been split to make
one skilled job for a woman and one heavy job for a man, neither
of which rated as high as the original job. As women withdrew
from industry or as the scale of operations shrank, it became neces-
sary to recombine some of these narrowed jobs and put the more
general job into a higher classification. Other jobs were upgraded
on responsibility resulting from certain war conditions. Such jobs
needed to be re-evaluated and reclassified downward. Many jobs
were hastily put on incentives, without an evaluated base. In fact,
the extension of evaluated bases for incentive jobs had barely begun
at the end of the war and that had to be undertaken without delay
in plants where it had thus far been neglected. We assure top man-
agement that it will now save itself much trouble by installing job
evaluation where no steps have been taken in that direction. In
fact, it will also save itself much time for other matters.

Surveys Indicating Present Use. A survey made by the Na-
tional Industrial Conference Board in 1948, covering 3,498 com-
panies, showed that 59 per cent of them had job evaluation applied
to nearly all hourly paid jobs. Over half of these companies applied
job evaluation to salaried jobs, one third to supervisory jobs, and
one eighth to executive jobs. About the same time the Bureau of
Labor Statistics reported that unions were participating in these
plans at 50 per cent of the plants making metal parts, assemblies
made of metal, and the like.

A later NICE survey reported that 70 per cent of the plans in use
were point systems, 10 per cent factor comparison systems, 14 per
cent combinations of the foregoing, 4 per cent mere classification,
and 2 per cent other unnamed systems.

Recently The Dartnell Corporation of Chicago surveyed 96
companies regarding their use of job evaluation. All but 8 of the
companies had installed their plans since 1940. Of these plans, 74
used weighted points, 8 comparison of characteristics, 8 character-
istics comparison combined with weighted points, and 6 ranking.
Only 38 companies brought in consultants for installation. Only
12 companies were nonunion, but 41 did not include the matter in
their union contracts; 43 did. Fourteen companies did not apply
it to the office force; 82 did. Only 12 companies had training pro-
grams for preparing their supervisors, but 85 held meetings with
their supervisors. All but 16 companies held meetings with their
employees and most of them used the employee magazine plus bul-
letins to explain what was coming.

C. W. Lytle, "Job Evaluation— A Phase of Job Control," Personnel XVI, No.

Also Roland Benjamin, Jr., "The Dynamics of Job Evaluation," The Manage-
ment Review, XLII, No. 4.

^ Developed directly from the works of Taylor and Gilbreth with the objective
of determining the least costly methods of utilizing the physical assets. References
recommended: Ralph M. Barnes, Motion and Time Study (New York: John
Wiley & Sons, 1948); Production Handbook (New York: The Ronald Press Co.,

■* By this procedure he reduced unit labor cost without reducing employee

^^ Eugene Caldwell, "Job Rating," The Iron Age, CXLIV, No. 10.
■' In 1938, of 63 companies questioned, 32 were found to be doing job evaluation.

® See Report No. 605 (Chicago: Dartnell Personnel Administration Service). 

Sunday, July 15, 2018

Energy Conservation - Efficiency

The Business of Energy Conservation, part 1
Feb 2018

Anything you save, be it energy, or material or any cost contributes to your bottom line.



UC Santa Barbara Summit on Energy Efficiency Part 1


Energy Efficient Materials and Manufacturing Processes- Keynote address by Michael McQuade, Senior Vice President of Science & Technology, United Technologies Corporation.


UC Santa Barbara Summit on Energy Efficiency Part 3
Critical Materials for Energy Technologies.



9 videos are there on Energy Summit - UK Santa Barbara
Part 4
Innovations in Solid State Lightning


Part 5










End Use Energy Efficiency MIT Lecture


Updated 15 July 2018
Earlier update 4 December 2013

Combination Tools

Vise Grip 3Pc Plier Set Long Nose - Combo - Multi


Combination systems give you a complete toolkit in one package. A tool for all garden tasks. Clip-on tools can change the function of your combi tool in a matter of seconds. One minute it's a hedge trimmer, the next it's a blower. Suppliers of petrol and battery power units and attachments from edgers, cultivators to sweepers, all by leading brands such as Husqvarna, Stihl and Makita. Ideal if you have limited storage space, or need to transport a whole range of tools for a single job.


AMK 25C Combination Tool for Rescue Operations

Combination cutting/spreading/pulling tool
Extremely lightweight, compact size for easy storage
Ideal for "first response" applications
Anodized for corrosion protection
Check valve design maintains load
Available with D-ring handle
Convert a Model AMK-25C Combination Tool to any Model 25 Cutter with genuine AMKUS blades

AMK 15C Combination Tool for Rescue Operations

Combination cutting/spreading/pulling tool
Well balanced and easy to use
Check valve design maintains load
Anodized for corrosion protection
Equipped with D-ring handle

Holmatro combination tools are multifunctional and allow the user to cut, spread, squeeze, and pull with just one tool. Now featuring a unique blade design and a deadman's handle. The deadman's handle improves one-hand operation with a positive grip, features an accurate spring return to neutral position, and allows for proportional operation for more precise control.

The Holmatro 4150 combi tool also has all the benefits and features of the 4000 series and CORE® Technology.

High Performance Combination Tools from  Kennametal

Drill, chamfer and countersink with one tool

Combination Tools Improve Machining Center Productivity

With today's CNC technology, it is possible to combine drilling, tapping and chamfering in a single operation by using specially designed cutting tools.

A good example  is the Thriller Tool, manufactured by Thriller, Inc. (Dearborn, Michigan), a division of the Turchan Technologies Group. This tool can perform in a single operation what usually calls for a drill, chamfering tool, and tap or thread mill. In so doing, this kind of combination tool reduces the number of tools, toolholders and tool positionings required, and it eliminates tool changes between operations. Properly applied, the result is a significant cost and time savings.

Allied Machine  combination tool for drilling and chamfering.

A part made of modified 4140 steel, required a considerable amount of holemaking. It has 57 1.362 "-dia., 2½ "-deep through-holes and 54 1.438 "-dia., 4½ "-deep through-holes.

RMC was applying three cutting tools to complete each of the 57 holes: a drill, a twin boring bar and a chamfer mill. The challenge was consistently achieving the tolerance while maintaining the production rate, . “The ±0.002 " tolerance was too tight for the twin boring bar setup.

The shop then decided to have a special made to both drill the hole and cut the 0.150 "×45° chamfer. It is tooled with the GEN3SYS XT insert and the tool body was customized to have a built-in chamfer. It shortened the cycle time and  also reduced inventory by eliminating the boring bar and chamfer mill.

RMC runs two parts before replacing an insert. Each tip is reground at least once. Reground inserts provide  identical performance. By switching to this comnination GEN3SYS XT drill, RMC went from a 1,600-rpm spindle speed, 524-sfm cutting speed, 8.0-ipm feed rate and 1-minute cycle time per hole, to 865 rpm, 308 sfm, 12.11 ipm and 14.12 seconds per hole.
(Source:http://www.ctemag.com/aa_pages/2012/120413-ProductiveTimesA.html    )

Updated 15 July 2018
Earlier update 7 December 2013

Friday, July 13, 2018

Blockchain Technology - Exploration - Industrial Engineering Point of View

What is blockchain technology? - Does it improve productivity?

Industrial engineers have to understand every new technology to assess its productivity improvement potential. The new products may improve productivity of users (customers). New equipment may increase the productivity of the operations of the organizations. New processes may promise increased productivity and reduced costs.

Blockchain increases Digital Trust.

Collection of Articles, Books and Papers on Block Chain Technology and Applications


Hyperledger Fabric

Hyperledger Fabric is a blockchain framework implementation and one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Intended as a foundation for developing applications or solutions with a modular architecture, Hyperledger Fabric allows components, such as consensus and membership services, to be plug-and-play. Hyperledger Fabric leverages container technology to host smart contracts called “chaincode” that comprise the application logic of the system. Hyperledger Fabric was initially contributed by Digital Asset and IBM, as a result of the first hackathon.

IBM Started Kit for Blockchain Developers

Different Smart Contract Platforms

Blockchain Technology To Track Global Food Supply Chain

June 2018
Blockchain beyond the hype: What is the strategic business value?
By Brant Carson, Giulio Romanelli, Patricia Walsh, and Askhat Zhumaev

How blockchain will fundamentally change our lives in future
Blockchain has the potential and can be implemented across diverse sectors such as banking, education, and health.
March 09, 2018


How blockchains could change the world

Updated 14 July 2018,  7 July 2018,  28 May 2018
First published 24 May 2018