Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Selection of Operators - Principle of Industrial Engineering



TAYLOR - NARAYANA RAO PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING












Selection of Operators

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There has to be science that guides selection of operators. Management has to select persons based on specified criteria for each category of jobs and then train them specially. Now it is being competence based approach. Taylor made it a principle in scientific management. Physical capacity, intelligence, aptitude,  knowledge, skill etc. are to be specified for each job category and appropriate way of testing people for these specifications are to be developed by management.

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation 


by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017

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Updated on 1 August 2018, 6 July 2017

Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction



Machine Effort Industrial Engineering


Determination of optimum cutting parameters - Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut - Development of scientific machine work


According to Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Industrial Engineering (2017), principles of machine utilization economy are needed but not yet developed in industrial engineering.


Machine Utilization Economy - Principle of Industrial Engineering

Resource Utilization Economy Principles

The principle can be restated better more appropriately. "Principles of resource utilization economy to be developed for all resources used in engineering systems." (Added on 9 June 2018).

Utilization economy principles are to be developed for each resource used in the production processes. So far, in industrial engineering discipline, principles of motion economy only are deveoped. There has to be research and effort to develop similar principles for all resources.

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation

by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017

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Taylor's Effort to Improve Machine Tools First to Improve Productivity of a Machine Shop.


Taylor described his project of improving a machine shop productivity and below is the work he had done on machines first.

By means of four quite elaborate slide-rules, which have been especially made for the purpose of determining the all-round capacity of metal-cutting machines, a careful analysis was made of every element of this machine in its relation to the work in hand. Its Pulling power at its various speeds, its feeding capacity, and its proper speeds were determined by means of the slide-rules, and changes were then made in the countershaft and driving pulleys so as to run it at its proper speed. Tools, made of high-speed steel, and of the proper shapes, were properly dressed, treated, and ground. (It should be understood, however, that in this case the high-speed steel which had heretofore been in general use in the shop was also used in our demonstration.) 

A large special slide-rule was then made, by means of which the exact speeds and feeds were indicated at which each kind of work could be done in the shortest possible time in this particular lathe. After preparing in this way so that the workman should work according to the new method, one after another, pieces of work were finished in the lathe, corresponding to the work which had been done in our preliminary trials, and the gain in time made through running the machine according to scientific principles ranged from two and one-half times the speed in the slowest instance to nine times the speed in the highest.

The change from rule-of-thumb management to scientific management involves, however, not only a study of what is the proper speed for doing the work and a remodeling of the tools and the implements in the shop (machine effort industrial engineering), but also a complete change in the movements made by operators to operate the machine.  The physical improvements in the machines are necessary to insure large gains. They are followed by improvement in the activities performed by people in combination with machines. 

It seems important to fully explain the reason why, with the aid of a slide-rule, and after having studied the art of cutting metals, it was possible for the scientifically equipped man, who had never before seen these particular jobs, and who had never worked on this machine, to do work from two and one-half to nine times as fast as it had been done before by a good mechanic who had spent his whole time for some ten to twelve years in doing this very work upon this particular machine. 

In a word, this was possible because the art of cutting metals involves a true science of no small magnitude, a science, in fact, so intricate that it is impossible for any machinist who is suited to running a lathe year in and year out either to understand it or to work according to its laws without the help of men who have made this their specialty. Men who are unfamiliar with machine-shop work are prone to look upon the manufacture of each piece as a special problem, independent of any other kind of machine-work. They are apt to think, for instance, that the problems connected with making the parts of an engine require the especial study, one may say almost the life study, of a set of engine-making mechanics, and that these problems are entirely different from those which would be met with in machining lathe or planer parts. In fact, however, a study of those elements which are peculiar either to engine parts or to lathe parts is trifling, compared with the great study of the art, or science, of cutting metals, upon a knowledge of which rests the ability to do really fast machine-work of all kinds.

The real problem is how to remove chips fast from a casting or a forging, and how to make the piece smooth and true in the shortest time, and it matters but little whether the piece being worked upon is part, say, of a marine engine, a printing-press, or an automobile. For this reason, the man with the slide rule, familiar with the science of cutting metals, who had never before seen this particular work, was able completely to distance the skilled mechanic who had made the parts of this machine his specialty for years.

It is true that whenever intelligent and educated men find that the responsibility for making progress in any of the mechanic arts rests with them, instead of upon the workmen who are actually laboring at the trade, that they almost invariably start on the road which leads to the development of a science where, in the past, has existed mere traditional or rule-of-thumb knowledge.


When men, whose education has given them the habit of generalizing and everywhere looking for laws, find themselves confronted with a multitude of problems, such as exist in every trade and which have a general similarity one to another, it is inevitable that they should try to gather these problems into certain logical groups, and then search for some general laws or rules to guide them in their solution.


Development of Science for Machine Elements

Two Important Questions regarding Machine Tools to be Answered through Scientific Research


All of these experiments were made to enable us to answer correctly the two questions which face every machinist each time that he does a piece of work in a metal-cutting machine, such as a lathe, planer, drill press, or milling machine. These two questions are:

In order to do the work in the quickest time,

1. At what cutting speed shall I run my machine? and

2. What feed shall I use?

They sound so simple that they would appear to call for merely the trained judgment of any good mechanic. In fact, however, after working 26 years, it has been found that the answer in every case involves the solution of an intricate mathematical problem, in which the effect of twelve independent variables must be determined.

Each of the twelve following variables has an important effect upon the answer. The figures which are given with each of the variables represent the effect of this element upon the cutting speed.

For example, after the first variable (A) we quote,

"The proportion is as I in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of a very soft, low-carbon steel." The meaning of this quotation is that soft steel can be cut 100 times as fast as the hard steel or chilled iron. The ratios which are given, then, after each of these elements, indicate the wide range of judgment which practically every machinist has been called upon to exercise in the past in determining the best speed at which to run the machine and the best feed to use.

(A) The quality of the metal which is to be cut; i.e., its hardness or other qualities which affect the cutting speed. The proportion is as 1 in the case of semi-hardened steel or chilled iron to 100 in the case of very soft, low-carbon steel.

(B) The chemical composition of the steel from which the tool is made, and the heat treatment of the tool. The proportion is as 1 in tools made from tempered carbon steel to 7 in the best high-speed tools.

(C) The thickness of the shaving, or, the thickness of the spiral strip or band of metal which is to be removed by the tool. The proportion is as 1 with thickness of shaving 3/16 of an inch to 3 1/2 with thickness of shaving 1/64 of an inch.

(D) The shape or contour of the cutting edge of the tool. The proportion is as 1 in a thread tool to 6 in a broad-nosed cutting tool.

(E) Whether a copious stream of water or other cooling medium is used on the tool. The proportion is as 1 for tool running dry to 1.41 for tool cooled by a copious stream of water.

(F) The depth of the cut. The proportion is as 1 with 1/2 inch depth of cut to 1.36 with 1/8 inch depth of cut.

(G) The duration of the cut, i.e., the time which a tool must last under pressure of the shaving without being reground. The proportion is as 1 when tool is to be ground every 1 1/2 hours to 1.20 when tool is to be
ground every 20 minutes.

(H) The lip and clearance angles of the tool. The proportion is as 1 with lip angle of 68 degrees to 1.023 with lip angle of 61 degrees.

(J) The elasticity of the work and of the tool on account of producing chatter. The proportion is as 1 with tool chattering to 1.15 with tool running smoothly.

(K) The diameter of the casting or forging which is being cut.

(L) The pressure of the chip or shaving upon the cutting surface of the
tool.

(M) The pulling power and the speed and feed changes of the machine.

It may seem preposterous to many people that it should have required a period of 26 years to investigate the effect of these twelve variables upon the cutting speed of metals. To those, however, who have had personal experience as experimenters, it will be appreciated that the great difficulty of the problem lies in the fact that it contains so many variable elements. 


And in fact the great length of time consumed in making each single experiment was caused by the difficulty of holding eleven variables constant and uniform throughout the experiment, while the effect of the twelfth variable was being investigated. Holding the eleven variables constant was far more difficult than the investigation of the twelfth element.

As, one after another, the effect upon the cutting speed of each of these variables was investigated, in order that practical use could be made of this knowledge, it was necessary to find a mathematical formula which expressed in concise form the laws which had been obtained. As examples of the twelve formulae which were developed, the three following are given:

        P = 45,000  D 14/15 F 3/4

        V = 90/T 1/8

        V = 11.9/ (F 0.665(48/3 D) 0.2373 + (2.4 / (18 + 24D))

After these laws had been investigated and the various formulae which mathematically expressed them had been determined, there still remained the difficult task of how to solve one of these complicated mathematical problems quickly enough to make this knowledge available for every-day use. If a good mathematician who had these formula before him were to attempt to get the proper answer (i.e., to get the correct cutting speed and feed by working in the ordinary way) it would take him from two to six hours, say, to solve a single problem; far longer to solve the mathematical problem than would be taken in most cases by the workmen in doing the whole job in his machine. Thus a task of considerable magnitude which faced us was that of finding a quick solution of this problem, and as we made progress in its solution, the whole problem was from time to time presented by the writer to one after another of the noted mathematicians in this country. They were offered any reasonable fee for a rapid, practical method to be used in its solution. Some of these men merely glanced at it; others, for the sake of being courteous, kept it before them for some two or three weeks. They all gave us practically the same answer: that in many cases it was possible to, solve mathematical problems which contained four variables, and in some cases problems with five or six variables, but that it was manifestly impossible to solve a problem containing twelve variables in any other way than by the slow process of "trial and error."

A quick solution was, however, so much of a necessity in our every-day work of running machine-shops, that in spite of the small encouragement  received from the mathematicians, we continued at irregular periods, through a term of fifteen years, to give a large amount of time searching for a simple solution. Four or five men at various periods gave practically their whole time to this work, and finally, while we were at the Bethlehem Steel Company, the slide-rule was developed which is illustrated on Folder No. 11 of the paper "On the Art of Cutting Metals," and is described in detail in the paper presented by Mr. Carl G. Barth to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, entitled "Slide-rules for the Machine-shop, as a part of the Taylor System of Management" (Vol. XXV of The Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers). By means of this slide-rule, one of these intricate problems can be solved in less than a half minute by any good mechanics whether he understands anything about mathematics or not, thus making available for every-day, practical use the years of experimenting on the art of cutting metals. This is a good illustration of the fact that some way can always be found of making practical, everyday use of complicated scientific data, which appears to be beyond the experience and the range of the technical training of ordinary practical men. These slide-rules have been for years in constant daily use by machinists having no knowledge of mathematics.

A glance at the intricate mathematical formula which represent the laws of cutting metals should clearly show the reason why it is impossible for any machinist, without the aid of these laws, and who depends upon his personal experience, correctly to guess at the answer to the two questions,

    What speed shall I use?

    What feed shall I use?

even though he may repeat the same piece of work many times.

To return to the case of the machinist who had been working for ten to twelve years in machining the same pieces over and over again, there was but a remote chance in any of the various kinds of work which this man did that he should hit upon the one best method of doing each piece of work out of the hundreds of possible methods which lay before him. In considering this typical case, it must also be remembered that the metal-cutting machines throughout our machine-shops have practically all been speeded by their makers by guesswork, and without the knowledge obtained through a study of the art of cutting metals. In the machine-shops systematized by us we have found that there is not one machine in a hundred which is speeded by its makers at anywhere near the correct cutting speed. So that, in order to compete with the science of cutting metals, the machinist, before he could use proper speeds, would first have to put new pulleys on the countershaft of his machine, and also make in most cases changes in the shapes and treatment of his tools, etc. Many of these changes are matters entirely beyond his control, even if he knows what ought to be done.

If the reason is clear to the reader why the rule-of-thumb knowledge obtained by the machinist who is engaged on repeat work cannot possibly compete with the true science of cutting metals, it should be even more apparent why the high-class mechanic, who is called upon to do a great variety of work from day to day, is even less able to compete with this science. The high-class mechanic who does a different kind of work each day, in order to do each job in the quickest time, would need, in addition to a thorough knowledge of the art of cutting metals, a vast knowledge and experience in the quickest way of doing each kind of hand workAnd the reader, by calling to mind the gain which was made by Mr. Gilbreth through his motion and time study in laying bricks, will appreciate the great possibilities for quicker methods of doing all kinds of hand work which lie before every tradesman after he has the help which comes from a scientific motion and time study of his work.

For nearly thirty years past, time-study men connected with the management of machine-shops have been devoting their whole time to a scientific motion study, followed by accurate time study, with a stop-watch, of all of the elements connected with the machinist's work. When, therefore, the teachers, who form one section of the management, and who are cooperating with the working men, are in possession both of the science of cutting metals and of the equally elaborate motion-study and time-study science connected with this work, it is not difficult to appreciate why even the highest class mechanic is unable to do his best work without constant daily assistance from his teachers. And if this fact has been made clear to the reader, one of the important objects in writing this paper will have been realized.

It is hoped that the illustrations which have been given make it apparent why scientific management must inevitably in all cases produce overwhelmingly greater results, both for the company and its employees, than can be obtained with the management of "initiative and incentive." And it should also be clear that these results have been attained, not through a marked superiority in the mechanism of one type of management over the mechanism of another, but rather through the substitution of one set of underlying principles for a totally different set of principles, by the substitution of one philosophy for another philosophy in industrial management.

Many researchers follow the path initiated by Taylor to develop cutting speed optimization and cutting time reduction to develop better methods for various machine tools. Industrial engineers have to go through those papers and use proper cutting parameters and reduce the cutting time. Similar work needs to be carried on various other machine so that that work time is reduced to produce unit output, thereby increasing the productivity of machines.


Updated on 1 August 2018, 30 July 2017

Wednesday, July 25, 2018

Product Design Industrial Engineering


This article (blog post) was first published on 29 September 2012.
I now term this activity as Product Industrial Engineering. I included it in the focus areas of industrial engineering.



Degree in Industrial Engineering and Product Design


7 Wastes in Engineering Design
http://ketiv.com/files/articles/pdfs/Simms_The%20Seven%20Wastes_2007.10.pdf


1. Defects
Improper information on a drawing, missing views and incomplete information are all defects that can be avoided through
document standardization and proper training of engineering staff.

2. Overproduction
For the
engineering department, it would be the unnecessary documentation (modeling or drawing) of a part
before it is needed.

3. Inventory
If we draw something before it is actually needed,
we are adding to that inventory, thereby incurring waste.

4. Transportation
Movement of drawings and drawing change orders is often called “transportation” because carrying, mailing, or even e-mailing documents stop the design process and
add time to the overall design cycle.

5. Waiting
Waiting refers to the time spent by the workers or engineers literally waiting for their work to arrive.

6. Motion
Even the extra step of printing to a PDF and e-mailing it as an attachment is a wasteful operation.

7. Overprocessing
it’s common to see manufacturers using software that has function (and cost) beyond what is needed which is a waste.


Improving Design


www.ceet.niu.edu/cecourse/Regina_problem_domain.ppt


Tolerance Analysis


Tolerance analysis - Wikipedia
Tolerance analysis - Sigmetrix


Design Issues in Mechanical Tolerance Analysis
K. W. Chase
Mechanical Engineering Department
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602

W. H. Greenwood
Sandia National Laboratories
Albuquerque, NM 87185
http://adcats.et.byu.edu/Publication/87-5/WAM2.html

Design to Cost Analysis




ACHIEVING  TARGET  COST  /DESIGN-TO-COST  OBJECTIVES
Kenneth Crow, DRM Associates
http://www.npd-solutions.com/dtc.html

Design to Standards Analysis


Design to standards - Wikipedia article
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_to_standards


Engineering Economics Analysis


Engg. Economics - Chemical Engineering
http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/CHE/alamer/ChE_425/CHE_425_First_introductory_Lecture.pdf


Statistical Tools for Design



Statistical Tools for the Rapid Development & Evaluation of
High-Reliability Products
http://www.stat.iastate.edu/preprint/articles/1995-07.pdf


Optimization and OR in Product Design



Quantitative methods to produce optimal designs.

Design of Experiments
Response Surface Methods
Multi-Response Optimization
Robust Design
Reliability/Weibull Analysis
Hypothesis Testing
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Data Analysis
Statistical Modeling

Optimization - Finishing touch in product design
http://www.ricardo.com/Documents/Downloads/pdf/wave_finishing_touch.pdf

An Optimization Framework for Product Design
2001
http://mansci.journal.informs.org/content/47/12/1681.abstract


OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCT DESIGN THROUGH QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT AND ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS:  CASE STUDY OF A CERAMIC WASHBASIN
http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/2011/cilt28/sayi_1/1-22.pdf





Value Engineering


Value Engineering In Product Design To Improve World Competitive Position
L.D. Miles, 1963
http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/4482


MANAGING VALUE ENGINEERING
IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Don J. Gerhardt, CVS, PhD, PE
Ingersoll Rand
2006
http://value-eng.org/knowledge_bank/attachments/200611.pdf



Updated 26 July 2018
First published on 29 September 2012






Target Costing and Industrial Engineering

Target costing is cost estimation and reduction methodology to achieve a target cost set in relation to the target price set by the company as an objective.

Industrial engineering tools were used by the Toyota managers in target costing exercises. Taiichi Ohno specifically mentioned the role of Industrial Engineering in improving the profitability of Toyota Motors by reducing costs.

Added on 26 July 2018

Now, I developed the term "Product Industrial Engineering" to indicate the redesign of products  carried out by industrial engineering to reduce the cost of production and distribution of the product. While "value engineering" is the first redesign technique that focused on cost reduction of a product by redesigning, we now have more tools and industrial engineers can contribute to the target costing based new product introductions as well as annual budgets.

Industrial engineers are committed to total cost industrial engineering. Total cost industrial engineering is application of engineering and engineering activity related management to reduce the cost of manufacture and distribution of a company's product and service portfolio.


Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Methods of Industrial Engineering

Methods efficiency engineering and the related operation analysis examine proposed manufacturing processes and eliminate wastes or inefficiencies.

Motion economy principles based design provides for the best motion pattern that minimizes human effort.

Layout efficiency improvement takes care of layout related issues.

Value engineering takes a product and component design analysis approach to reduce costs.

Operations research optimizes various parameters subject to the given constraints.


Implementing Target Costing - IMA Note
http://www.imanet.org/docs/default-source/thought_leadership/management_control_systems/implementing_target_costing.pdf


Current Status and Challenges of Target Costing in Japanese Major Corporations
2006 Article
Masayasu Tanaka,Masao Okuhara, Masao Ariga
http://www.value-eng.org/knowledge_bank/attachments/200631.pdf


New Bibliography added on 26 July 2018

Why NYU Tandon for Industrial Engineering?

Industrial Engineers complete their programs well versed in the theories and practical application of lean manufacturing, target costing, and design for manufacturability. Our program establishes a strong foundation in the ability to create engineering processes and systems that improve quality and productivity while eliminating the waste of labor, time, and resources.
http://archive.engineering.nyu.edu/academics/online/masters/industrial-engineering (Accessed on 26 July 2018)

Study on the Strategies of Target Cost Management in the Supply Chain of Aeronautic Complex Product.
Hang-hang Chen and Li-xin Pan
2016
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=sj-FCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA502#v=onepage&q&f=false

Using Target Costing to Enhance the Operating Profit
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=-QW5CgAAQBAJ&pg=PA938#v=onepage&q&f=false
2016
Article: Research of Implementation Mode of Strategic Management Accounting.
Yang-fang Gao et al.

B. Gopalakrishnan, A. Kokatnur, D.P. Gupta, (2007) "Design and development of a target‐costing system for turning operation", Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 18 Issue: 2, pp.217-238,
https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/17410380710722917


Target Costing and Value Engineering
Robin Cooper, Regine Slagmulder
 1997 - Productivity Press
Published May 31, 1997
Reference - 359 Pages
https://www.crcpress.com/Target-Costing-and-Value-Engineering/Cooper-Slagmulder/p/book/9781563271724

May 1993
New product costing, Japanese style. (CPA in Industry )
By Margaret Lgagne and Richard Discenza
http://archives.cpajournal.com/old/14345315.htm


Updated  26 July 2018,  23 July 2016, 28 November 2013

Tuesday, July 24, 2018

Design for Manufacturing



Design for Manufacturing

1. Estimate the Manufacturing Costs
2. Reduce the Cost of Components
3. Reduce the Cost of Assembly
4. Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production
5. Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on other Factors

Designing Products for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA)

Product design has to ensure that manufacturing and assembly feasibility and cost are appropriately considered in the design process.

Reducing the number of parts is an important concern of DFMA. For this purpose for each separate part, the following questions are to be answered by the designer.

1. Does the part move relative to all other parts?
2. Must the part be made of different material?
3. Must the part be separate from all other parts to allow the disassembly of the product for adjustment or maintenance?


DFM Guideline
A1) Understand manufacturing problems/issues of current/past products
A3) Eliminate overconstraints to minimize tolerance demands.

P1) Adhere to specific process design guidelines.
P2) Avoid right/left hand parts.
P3) Design parts with symmetry.
P4) If part symmetry is not possible, make parts very asymmetrical.
P5) Design for fixturing.
P6) Minimize tooling complexity by concurrently designing tooling.
P8) Specify optimal tolerances for a Robust Design.
P9) Specify quality parts from reliable sources.
P10) Minimize Setups.
P11) Minimize Cutting Tools.
P12) Understand tolerance step functions and specify tolerances wisely.
http://www.design4manufacturability.com/DFM_article.htm




Technologies to reduce production costs

Sep 11, 2005 Leslie Gordon

Software that optimizes product design

Companies can slash costs by improving the design process at its beginning. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) software includes a design-for-manufacture module, with which engineers obtain early cost estimates on parts or products, and a design-for-assembly module, which they employ to determine the best methods to manufacture products.

Engineers use the software where a design idea might still be scribbled on a napkin. Or, they use it to re-examine fully finished products to ensure design efficiency. For example, engineers take a part's geometry and determine whether the part should be made from a casting, or be machined, or injection-molded. During this process, the software draws from its large database, containing thousands of manufacturing processes, materials, and machinery, which was developed over many years in conjunction with companies such as GM and Ford.

Engineers also evaluate each assembly's function and the relationship between parts. They simplify and streamline designs repeatedly until achieving a minimum per/piece cost. For example, in one application, engineers slashed labor time by streamlining a product design to eliminate assembly screws.

http://americanmachinist.com/features/technologies-reduce-production-costs










Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production - David M. Anderson - Book Information
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2014/03/design-for-manufacturability-how-to-use.html

Recent Linkedin Article
26 July 2016
What is Design for Manufacturing or Design for Assembly
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-design-manufacturing-dfm-assembly-dfa-declan-scullion


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SME


Updated 25 July 2018, 25 July 2017,  13 July 2017,  30 July 2016,  27 June 2016

Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System - 1895 - Part 5


Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System - 1895 - Part 5

61. As far as possible each man’s work should be inspected and measured separately, and his pay and losses should depend upon his individual efforts alone. It is, of course, a necessity that much of the work of manufacturing — such, for instance, as running roll-trains, hammers, or paper machines — should be done by gangs of men who cooperate to turn out a common product, and that each gang of men should be paid a definite price for the work turned out, just as if they were a single man.

In the distribution of the earnings of a gang among its members, the percentage which each man receives should, however, depend not only upon the kind of work which each man performs, but upon the accuracy and energy with which he fills his position.

In this way the personal ambition of each of a gang of men may be given its proper scope.

62. Again, we find the differential rate acting as a most powerful lever to force each man in a gang of
workmen to do his best ; since if, through the carelessness or laziness of any one man, the gang fails to earn its high rate, the drone will surely be obliged by his companions to do his best the next time or else get out.

63. A great advantage of the differential rate system is that it quickly drives away all inferior workmen and attracts the men best suited to the class of work to which it is applied, since none but really good men can work fast enough and accurately enough to earn the high rate ; and the low rate should be made so small as to be unattractive even to an inferior man.

64. If for no other reason that it secures to an establishment a quick and active set of workmen, the differential rate is a valuable aid, since men are largely creatures of habit, and if the piece-workers of a place are forced to move quickly and work hard the dayworkers soon get into the same way, and the whole shop takes on a more rapid pace.

65. The greatest advantage, however, of the differential rate for piece-work, in connection with a proper rate-fixing department, is that together they produce the proper mental attitude on the part of the men and the management toward each other. In place of the indolence and indifference which characterize the workmen of many day-work establishments and to a considerable extent also their employers, and in place of the constant watchfulness, suspicion, and even antagonism with which too frequently the men and the management regard each other under the ordinary piece-work plan,
both sides soon appreciate the fact that with the differential rate it is their common interest to cooperate to the fullest extent, and to devote every energy to turning out daily the largest possible output This common interest quickly replaces antagonism and establishes a most friendly feeling.

66. Of the two devices for increasing the output of a shop, the differential rate and the scientific rate-fixing department, the latter is by far the more important The differential rate is invaluable at the start as a means of convincing men that the management is in earnest in its intention of paying a premium for hard work, and it at all times furnishes the best means of maintaining the top notch of production ; but when, through its application, the men and the management have come to appreciate the mutual benefit of harmonious cooperation and respect for each other’s rights, it ceases to be an absolute
necessity. On the other hand, the rate-fixing department, for an establishment doing a large variety of work, becomes absolutely indispensable. The longer it is in operation the more necessary it becomes.

67. Practically, the greatest need felt in an establishment wishing to start a rate-fixing department is the lack of data as to the proper rate of speed at which work should be done.

There are hundreds of operations which are common to most large establishments ; yet each concern studies the speed problem for itself, and days of labor are wasted in what should be settled once for all and recorded in a form which is available to all manufacturers.

68. What is needed is a hand-book on the speed with which work can be done, similar to the elementary engineering hand-books. And the writer ventures to predict that such a book will, before long, be forthcoming. Such a book should describe the best method of making, recording, tabulating, and indexing time-observations, since much time and effort are wasted by the adoption of inferior methods.

69. The term “ rate-fixing department,” has rather a formidable sound. In fact, however, that department should consist in most establishments of one man, who in many cases need give only a part of his time to the work.

70. When the manufacturing operations are uniform in character and repeat themselves day after day — as, for instance, in paper or pulp mills — the whole work of the place can be put upon piece-work in a comparatively short time ; and when once proper rates are fixed the rate-fixing department can be dispensed with, at any rate until some new line of manufacture is taken up.

71. The system of differential rates was first applied by the writer to a part of the work in the machine shop of the Midvale Steel Company, in 1884. Its effect in increasing and then maintaining the output of each machine to which it was applied was almost immediate, and so remarkable that it soon came into high favor with both the men and the management. It was gradually applied to a great part of the work of the establishment, with the result, in combination with the rate-fixing department, of doubling and in many cases trebling the output, and at the same time increasing instead
of diminishing the accuracy of the work.

72. In some cases it was applied by the rate-fixing department without an elementary analysis of the time required to do the work, simply offering a higher price per piece providing the maximum output before attained was increased to a given extent. Even this system met with success although it is by no means correct, since there is no certainty that the reward is in just proportion to the efforts of the workmen.

73. In cases where large and expensive machines are used, such as paper machines, steam hammers, or rolling mills, in which a large output is dependent upon the severe manual labor as well as the skill of the workmen (while the chief cost of production lies in the expense of running the machines rather than in the wages paid), it has been found of great advantage to establish two or three differential rates, offering a higher and higher price per piece or per ton as the maximum possible output is approached.

74. As before stated, not the least of the benefits of elementary rate-fixing are the indirect results.

The careful study of the capabilities of the machines arid the analysis of the speeds at which they must run, before differential rates can be fixed which will insure their maximum output, almost invariably result in first indicating and then correcting the defects in their design and in the method of running and caring for them.

75. In the case of the Midvale Steel Company, to which I have already referred, the machine shop was equipped with standard tools furnished by the best makers, and the study of these machines, such as lathes, planers, boring mills, etc., which was made in fixing rates, developed the fact that they were none of them designed and speeded so as to cut steel to the best advantage. As a result, this company has demanded alterations from the standard in almost every machine which they have bought during the past eight years. They have themselves been obliged to superintend the design of many special tools which would not have been thought of had it not been for elementary rate-fixing.

Go to Part 6

Sunday, July 22, 2018

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles

Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering by Lawrence D. Miles, First Edition, 1961

Examples

Electrical Control - Pp.1-2

Example: VA of electrical control


Componet wire clip made of phosphor bronze costing $7000 a year.
Function: Held the cover. cover opened for servicing expected to be done six times in the life time of the device.
What else will do the job?
Clip made of spring brass
Cost: $3000

The cover itself cost 4 cents - total expenditure of $40,000
Function: to keep extraneous material out.
The control was mounted inside another closure.
What else will do the job?
Plain piece of plastic.
Cost: 1.5 cents. Total expenditure $15,000.

Household garbage disposer p.6

Case Study - Control - P.10,11

Case Study: Control consisting of electrical and mechanical components

Component: Metal knol - designed cost $2.25
Standard catalogue item found for 25 cents
Sub-assembly supporting an emergency control lever designed cost $20.33
VA led to new cost of $8.12
When new order came with some modifications to design, the old analysis helped it also.

Case Study - Radiation Control P.12-13

Case Study: Radiation Shield for X-Ray testing room for large forgings and castings.

Designed suggestion:  Build a concrete wall 7 feet thick and 14 feet high.
Cost: $50,000
What else will do the job?
Sand will 14 feet thick and 14 feet high. Cost $5000
It pays to enquire what else will do?

CS - Conduct Eletric Current in Steel 17-18

Case Study - Habits often lead astray

In a control device costly nonferrous materials were being for certain parts.
What else will do the job?
steel
But the design engineers objected that electrical conducting parts are made of nonferrous metals only.
Value engineer after investigation showed them that in some other instruments steel was used for conducting parts.
The answer was that they nonferrous metal is not suitable due to high temperature.
The natural question is why you can't use it in this instrument when it will give a big cost advantage.
The alternative of steel was accepted.

CS - Value analysis and Value of 10,000 bolts Pp. 20-21


Case Study: 10,000 bolts

Component: 1/2 inch steel bolt, 12 inches long with a square head and square nut
What else will do the job?
A supplier suggested a threaded stud with a nut already chased on one end at 15% less cost.

Ex. Metal Hinge Pp.21-23


Ex. Metal strip hinge about 8 inches long with holes for fixing it to the door and one edge rolled to insert a hinge pin. Made by stamping and forming
Quantity 500,000 pieces
Number of alternatives were investigated and found to be not suitable. But value analyst has to persist.
A suggestion was made that a strip of steel in continuous rolls can be used to roll the edge of the strip and the holes can be made later.
The suggestion received number of objections but was tried and found to be practicable and a 10% cost reduction was achieved.
This amounted $50,000 savings. Value engineer working in an engineering needs to have good engineering knowledge to find suitable
alternative processes and develop them to deliver the sulution to the satisfaction of all involved.

CS - Silver Contact Assembly 28-32

CS - The Pivot Pin 32-35


Case Study: Pivot pin
Cost $3.65
Quantity consumed : 50 million
Supplier said he could not reduce price due to features and tolerances.

Every feature and tolerance of the pin were questioned.
5 alternatives were developed and suppliers were asked to quote.
Method two was quoted $1.90 per thousand and accepted.

Examples of the technique - Avoid generalities37-40  ------------- 10

CS Develop Specific Information  P.40

Case Study - Investigate Further - Half length screw to full length screw

Component: 1/4 X 3-inch screw with thread up to the head. Quantity used 40,000 items.
Standard screws of 1 inch thread were being purchased and in the factory thread is being made up to head. Cost is 12 cents.
Value engineers contacted suppliers to quote for the screw with full length. quote for 2.5 cents was obtained.

CS - Crystal or Window Glass Pp.40-41



Case Study - Crystal glass or window glass
The practice was to term the clock face as crystal. But it is only window glass, warmed and sagged.
But freigth rate for crystal was 1.25 times the first-class freight rate and freight rate for window glass was only 0.85 times the first class freight rate.
The terminology was changed in the invoice and bill lading and 32% savings was obtained in the freight rate.


CS - Unmeaningful costs used for decision making can bankrupt the business - Pp.47-48


There was serious customer resistance to an important electromechanical item in a company on the issue of price. An examination showed that cost price reported is high. Examination of the parts used and their costs showed the following reasons.

1. Parts made on less than optimum equipment and costs recorded were high.
2. Parts were often made by skilled labor when such a requirement was not there and costs charged were high.
3. A "blanket" fixed equipment cost is being used as overhead when the part was made using a screw driver or an expensive machine.

Interpretation: Cost figures which are used for pricing have no relevance. Labor costs, machine costs and set up costs which are relevant have to be used.

Hence, determination of appropriate costs, strictly applicable to the parts and assembles of the product was made. Then value analysis was applied on each of the parts. Poor value parts were identified and value engineering was done to reduce the cost. The end result was reduction in cost to less than half.

Use Information from the Best Source

Ex. For the availability of steel, the best source is the purchasing agent not marketing manager.

Ex. Underwriter won't approve it. Contact the underwriters.

CS. There is only one supplier P.50


A company is using a glass cover with a curved shape of 10 in diameter. The value analyst was told that there is only one supplier for the item and even though cost looks high nothing can be done about it.  Value analyst reasoned that the buyer is not the best source of knowledge regarding the available suppliers. He approached the purchase persons of a clock factory and asked them regarding suppliers for the part. They indicated six suppliers and the cost came down to less than 50% of the current cost.


Blast, Create, Refine


Ex. Part from copper tube - P.54

Ex. Clamp bar P.55

Ex. Small radio-frequency transformer   ------------- 20

Ex. Gasoline tank - P.57

function: contain 200 gallons of gasoline in a US Navy landing aircraft.
Cost of resent design $520. One tank made of special high-cost alloy steel.
Blast: Four 50-gallon standard drums
Create phase idea: If iron used for drums of tanks is not suitable. add appropriate coatings.
Refine:  Four drums with coatings used.
Cost came down to $80

Ex. Joy stick assembly for a radar P.57

CS - The Electric Controller P.59-62


Number of components of this controller were made in different ways for reduced cost.

One illustration: A steel hub with six small holes drilled around the circumference at the top end is being made.  The search for a specialty items revealed that some companies sell slugs, round pieces of aluminum punched from sheet stock.  It was slightly cupped and it needs to be flattned. the cost of the slug was 4 cents, flattening cost 1 cent.  Drilling a center hole and holes on the periphery cost 8 cents. The total cost of the part came to be 13 cents instead of the current cost of $1.27.

Use Real Creativity


CS - No Waste 63--64

Ex. Bulkhead penetration P.65

Ex. Squirtedin self-vulcanizing material - P.65

Ex. Asbestos paper - P.67

Ex. Stainless Steel Nipple - P.68

Ex. It is patented - .68

Ex. Underwriters won't approve it.  ---------------  30

CS - It won't work

CS - Underwriters won't allow it.

CS - Do it like an Indina

Ex. Heat transfer enclosure - P.74

Ex. The Linkage  - P.74

Ex. Gyros P.74

CS. Small part similar to nail

Ex. Pole piece

CS - Specialty product simplified it.P. 81

Ex. Adjusting screw  P.88 -------------------  40

Ex. A spacer hub P.88

Ex.  Thin nut P.89

Ex. High temperature locknut

Case Study: Three springs - Pp.92-93

Ex. Handle for machine tool adjustments P.95

Ex. J - bolit P.96

CS - Mounting holes for perforated sheet

Ex. Undercut screw - P. 98

Ex. Small bracket - P.99

Ex. Tube support Gasket p.99  ------------------------   50

CS. Temperature sensitive control 100-101

Ex. Tube base

Ex. Aluminium knob

Ex. Small Spring

CS. packaging for wall clock

Ex. Hand wheel  P.105

Ex. Heavy solid steel trunnion bolt

Ex. Hub and shaft

Ex. Support clamp

Ex. Assembly of parts ------------------------  60

Ex. Machine parts

Ex. The 1-cent check

Case Study - Heat sensitive device 111 - 114

Ex. Pulley

Ex. Spacer stud

Ex. Electrical terminal

Ex. Locating part for two compression springs

Ex. Support for steel bar

Case Study - Terminal of electrical device 121 - 123

Case Study - Precision Timer  126-127  ------------------------  70

CS - Red pointer and red ink - Pp.160-161
CS - Increased Dollar yield per manhour  - Pp. 163

CS - Can we scrap the scrap - Pp.167

CS - Did the vendor contribute - Pp. 168-169

CS - Manufacture for profit - P. 170

CS The contacts that were lost - P.171

CS - It is patented - P.173174

CS - Assembly purchased complete - P/175176

CS - Lower cost may mean doing it the right way - Pp. 181-182   --------------- 79 examples



79 examples in the book




Updated  23 July 2018,  26 June 2015
First posted  15 Dec 2013











Productivity Science and Productivity Engineering - Gilbreth



The aim of motion study is to find and perpetuate the scheme of perfection. There are three stages in this
study:

1. Discovering and classifying the best practice.

2. Deducing the laws.

3. Applying the laws to standardize practice, either for the purpose of increasing output or decreasing hours of  labor, or both.


Source: MOTION STUDY - Frank B. Gilbreth (1911) - Part 1
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2015/08/motion-study-frank-b-gilbreth-part-1.html

Observe the three steps to develop the productivity science and productivity engineering.

1. Discovering and classifying the best practice.

Observation, identification and recording the best practices in body motions are indicated in the first stage. This is the data collection stage for developing laws of productivity science.

2. Deducing the laws.

The second stage is data analysis from perspective of identifying the law. This is the developing the productivity science theory or law.

3. 3. Applying the laws to standardize practice, either for the purpose of increasing output or decreasing hours of  labor, or both.

This is productivity engineering stage. The law is applied to increase output or productivity.


Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System - 1895 - Part 2

Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System - Part 2

16. If the plan of grading labor and recording each man’s performance is so much superior to the old day-work method of handling men, why is it not all that is required? Because no foreman can watch and study all of his men all of the time, and because any system of laying out and apportioning work, and of returns and records, which is sufficiently elaborate to keep proper account of the performance of each workman, is more complicated than piece-work. It is evident that that system is the best which, in attaining the desired result, presents in the long run the course of least resistance.

17. The inherent and most serious defect of even the best managed day-work lies in the 'fact that there is nothing about the system that is self-sustaining. When once the men are working at a rapid pace there is nothing but the constant, unremitting watchfulness and energy of the management to keep them there ; while with every form of piece-work each new rate that is fixed insures a given speed for another section of work, and to that extent relieves the foreman from worry.

18. From the best type of day-work to ordinary piece-work, the step is a short one. With good day-work the various operations of manufacturing should have been divided into small sections or jobs, in order to properly gauge the efficiency of the men ; and the quickest time should have been recorded in which each operation has been performed. The change from paying by the hour to paying by the job is then readily accomplished.

19. The theory upon which the ordinary system of piece-work operates to the benefit of the manufacturer is exceedingly simple. Each workman, with a definite price for each job before him, contrives a way of doing it in a shorter time, either by working harder or by improving his method ; and he thus makes a larger profit. After the job has been repeated a number of times at the more rapid rate, the manufacturer thinks that he should also begin to share in the gain, and therefore reduces the price of the job to a figure at which the workman, although working harder, earns, perhaps, but little more than he originally did when on day-work.

20. The actual working of the system, however, is far different. Even the most stupid man, after receiving two or three piece-work “ cuts ” as a reward for his having worked harder, resents this treatment and seeks a remedy for it in the future. Thus begins a war, generally an amicable war, but none the less a war, between the workmen and the management. The latter endeavors by every means to induce the workmen to increase the out put, and the men gauge the rapidity with which they work, so as never to earn over a certain rate of wages, knowing that if they exceed this amount the piece-work price will surely be cut sooner or later.

21. But the war is by no means restricted to piece-work. Every intelligent workman realizes the importance, to his own interest, of starting in on each new job as slowly as possible. There are few foremen or superintendents who have anything but a general idea as to how long it should take to do a piece of work that is new to them. Therefore, before fixing a piece-work price, they prefer to have the job done for the first time by the day. They watch the progress of the work as closely as their other duties will permit, and make up their minds how quickly it can be done. It becomes the workman’s interest then to go just as slowly as possible and still convince his foreman that he is working well.

22. The extent to which, even in our largest and best managed establishments, this plan of holding back on the work, — “ marking time ”, or “ soldiering ”, as it is called — is carried on by the men, can scarcely be understood by one who has not worked among them. It is by no means uncommon for men to work at the rate of one-third, or even one-quarter, their maximum speed, and still preserve the appearance of working hard. And when a rate has once been fixed on such a false basis it is easy for the men to nurse successfully “ a soft snap ” of this sort through a term of years, earning in the mean-
while just as much wages as they think they can without having the rate cut

23. Thus arises a system of hypocrisy and deceit on the part of the men which is thoroughly demoralizing and which has led many workmen to regard their employers as their natural enemies, to be opposed in whatever they want, believing that whatever is for the interest of the management must necessarily be to their detriment.

24. The effect of this system of piece-work on the character of the men is, in many cases, so serious as to make it doubtful whether, on the whole, well managed day-work is not preferable.

25. There are several modifications of the ordinary method of piece-work which tend to lessen the evils of the system, but I know of none that can eradicate the fundamental causes for war, and enable the managers and the men to heartily cooperate in obtaining the maximum product from the establishment. It is the writer’s opinion, however, that the differential rate system of piece-work, which will be described later, in most cases entirely harmonizes the interests of both parties.

26. One method of temporarily relieving the strain between workmen and employers consists in reducing the price paid for work, and at the same time guaranteeing the men against further reduction for a definite period. If this period be made sufficiently long, the men are tempted to let themselves out and earn as much money as they can, thus “ spoiling ” their own job by another “ cut ” in rates when the period has expired.

27. Perhaps the most successful modification of the ordinary system of piece-work is the “gain-sharing” plan. This was invented by Mr. Henry R. Towne, in 1886, and has since been extensively and successfully applied by him in the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., at Stamford, Conn. It was admirably described in a paper which he read before this Society in 1888. This system of paying men is, however, subject to the serious, and I think fatal, defect that it does not recognize the personal merit of each workman ; the tendency being rather to herd men together and promote trades-unionism, than to develop each man’s individuality.

28. A still further improvement of this method was made by Mr. F. A. Halsey, and described by him in a paper entitled “The Premium Plan of Paying for Labor,” and presented to this Society in 1891. Mr. Halsey’s plan allows free scope for each man’s personal ambition, which Mr. Towne’s does not.

29. Messrs. Towne and Halsey’s plans consist briefly in recording the cost of each job as a starting-point at a certain time ; then, if, through the effort of the workmen in the future, the job is done in a shorter time and at a lower cost, the gain is divided among the workmen and the employer in a definite ratio, the workmen receiving, say, one-half, and the employer one-half.

30. Under this plan, if the employer lives up to his promise, and the workman has confidence in his integrity, there is the proper basis for cooperation to secure sooner or later a large increase in the output of the establishment.

Yet there still remains the temptation for the workman to “ soldier ” or hold back while on day-work, which is the most difficult thing to overcome. And in this as well as in all the systems heretofore referred to, there is the common defect that the starting-point from which the first rate is fixed is unequal and unjust. Some of the rates may have resulted from records obtained when a good man was working close to his maximum speed, while others are based on the performance of a medium man at one-third or one-quarter speed. From this follows a great inequality and injustice in the reward even of the same man when at work on different jobs. The result is far from a realization of the ideal condition in which the same return is uniformly received for a given expenditure of brains and energy. Other defects in the gain-sharing plan, and which are corrected by the differential rate system, are :

( 1) That it is slow and irregular in its operation in reducing costs, being dependent upon the whims of the men working under it.

(2) That it fails to especially attract first-class men and discourage inferior men.

(3) That it does not automatically insure the maximum output of the establishment per man and machine.

Go to Part 3     -   Part 1

Manufacturing Engineering: Principles For Optimization - Daniel T. Koenig - Book Information


Manufacturing Engineering: Principles For Optimization - Daniel T. Koenig - Book Information



Manufacturing Engineering: Principles For Optimization: Principles for Optimization

Daniel T. Koenig
CRC Press, 01-Aug-1994 - Technology & Engineering - 439 pages


Offers instruction in manufacturing engineering management strategies to help the student optimize future manufacturing processes and procedures. This edition includes innovations that have changed management's approach toward the uses of manufacturing engineering within the business continuum.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Uu691x0vlH0C


Manufacturing Engineering: Principles for Optimization, Third Edition

Publisher: ASME
Publish Date: 2006
Pages: 536


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Manufacturing Engineering Organization Concepts
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Engineering Management Techniques
Chapter 3 Factory Capacity and Loading Techniques Chapter
4 Capital Equipment Programs Chapter
5 Machine Tool and Equipment Selection and Implementation
Chapter 6 Producibility Engineering
 Chapter 7 Methods, Planning, and Work Measurements
Chapter 8 Job Evaluations, Pay Plans, and Acceptance
Chapter 9 Employee Appraisal and Evaluation
Chapter 10 Process Control Engineering and Quality Control in Job Shops
Chapter 11 Maintenance Engineering Chapter
12 Computer Numerical Control of Machine Tools
Chapter 13 Fundamentals of Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Chapter
14 Computer-Aided Process Planning and Data Collection Chapter
15 The Group Technology Basis for Plant Layout Chapter
16 Manufacturing Engineering Aspects of Manufacturing Resources Planning Chapter
17 Just In Time and Its Corollary Lean Manufacturing: A pragmatic Application of Manufacturing Engineering Philosophy
Chapter 18 Environmental Control and Safety Chapter
19 The Integrated Productivity Improvement Program
Chapter 20 Using ISO 9000 as a Means of Becoming a "World Class" Company
Appendix A: Employee handbook
 Appendix B: Sales Incentive Program
Appendix C: Investigation Points (Product Company) Glossary Selected Related Readings Index

Saturday, July 21, 2018

MOTION STUDY - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 1

MOTION STUDY: A METHOD FOR INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WORKMAN
BY  FRANK B. GILBRETH

Published in 1911 by D Van Nostrand Company, New York


PREFACE



THE phrase "Motion Study ' explains itself.

The aim of motion study is to find and perpetuate the scheme of perfection. There are three stages in this
study:

1. Discovering and classifying the best practice.

2. Deducing the laws.

3. Applying the laws to standardize practice, either for the purpose of increasing output or decreasing hours of  labor, or both.

Standardizing the trades is the world's most important work to-day, and motion study is the first factor in that  work.

In presenting this material I have attempted to show the necessity for Motion Study and the savings that are possible by the application of its underlying principles.


MOTION STUDY



CHAPTER I

DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL OUTLINE OF MOTION STUDY

NECESSITY FOR MOTION STUDY

PROFESSOR Nathaniel Southgate Shaler astounded the world when he called attention to the tremendous waste caused by the rain washing the fertile soil of the plowed ground to the brooks, to the rivers, and to the seas, there to be lost forever.

This waste is going on in the whole civilized world, and especially in our country. Professor Shaler's book, "Man and the Earth," was the real prime cause of the congress that met in Washington for the conservation of our natural resources. While Professor Shaler's book was right, and while the waste from the soil washing to the sea is a slow but sure national calamity, it is negligible compared with
the loss each year due to wasteful motions made by the workers of our country. In fact, if the workers of this country were taught the possible economies of motion study, there would be a saving in labor beside which the cost of building and operating tremendous settling basins, and the transporting of this fertile soil back to the land from whence it came, would be insignificant. Besides, there would still be a surplus of labor more than large enough to develop every water power in the country, and
build and maintain enough wind engines to supply the heat, light, and power wants of mankind.

There is no waste of any kind in the world that equals the waste from needless, ill-directed, and ineffective motions. When one realizes that in such a trade as brick-laying alone, the motions now adopted after careful study have already cut down the bricklayer's work more than two-thirds, it is possible to realize the amount of energy that is wasted by the workers of this country.

The census of 1900 showed 29,287,070 persons, ten years of age and over, as engaged in gainful occupations. There is no reason for not cutting down the waste motions in the vocations of the other almost half (49.7 per cent) of the population ten years of age and upward who do not engage in gainful occupations. The housekeepers, students, etc., on this list have as much need for motion saving as any one else, though possibly the direct saving to the country would not be so great. But taking the case of the nearly thirty million workers cited above, it would be a conservative estimate that would call half their motions utterly wasted.

As for the various ways in which this waste might be utilized, that is a question which would be answered differently by each group of people to whom it might be put.

By motion study the earning capacity of the workman can surely be more than doubled. Wherever motion study has been applied, the workman's output has been doubled. This will mean for every worker either more wages or more
leisure.

But the most advisable way to utilize this gain is not a question which concerns us now. We have not yet reached the stage where the solving of that problem becomes a necessity far from it! Our duty is to study the motions and to reduce them as rapidly as possible to standard sets of least in number, least in fatigue, yet most effective motions. This has not been done perfectly as yet for any branch of the industries. In fact, so far as we know, it has not, before this time, been scientifically attempted. It is this work, and the method of attack for undertaking it, which it is the aim of this book to explain.

PLACE OF MOTION STUDY IN SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

Motion study as herein shown has a definite place in the evolution of scientific management not wholly appreciated by the casual reader.

Its value in cost reducing cannot be overestimated, and its usefulness in all three types of  management Military, or driver; Interim, or transitory; and Ultimate, or functional is constant.

In increasing output by selecting and teaching each workman the best known method of performing his work, motion economy is all important. Through it, alone, when applied to unsystematized work, the output can be more than doubled, with no increase in cost.

When the Interim system takes up the work of standardizing the operations performed, motion study enables the time-study men to limit their work to the study of correct methods only. This is an immense saving in time, labor, and costs, as the methods studied comply, as nearly as is at that stage possible, with the standard methods that will be synthetically constructed after the time study has
taken place.

Even when Ultimate system has finally been installed, and the scientifically timed elements are ready and at hand to be used by the instruction card man in determining the tasks, or schedules, the results of motion study serve as a collection of best methods of performing work that can be quickly and economically incorporated into instruction cards.

Motion study, as a means of increasing output under the military type of management, has consciously proved  its usefulness on the work for the past twenty-five years. Its value as a permanent element for standardizing work and its important place in scientific management have been appreciated only since observing its standing among the laws of management given to the world by Mr. Frederick W. Taylor, that great conservator of scientific investigation, who has done more than all others toward reducing the problem of management to an exact science.



VAST FIELD FOR MOTION STUDY

Now tremendous savings are possible in the work of  everybody, they are not for one class, they are not for the trades only; they are for the offices, the schools, the colleges, the stores, the households, and the farms.  But the possibilities of benefits from motion study in the trades are particularly striking, because all trades, even at  their present best, are badly bungled.

At first glance the problem of motion study seems an easy one. After careful investigation it is apt to seem too difficult and too large to attack. There is this to be said  to encourage the student, however:

1. Study of one trade will aid in finding the result for all trades.

2. Work once done need never be done again. The final results will be standards.

PRESENT STAGE OF MOTION STUDY

We stand at present in the first stage of motion study, i.e., the stage of discovering and classifying the best practice. This is the stage of analysis.

The following are the steps to be taken in the analysis:

1. Reduce present practice to writing.

2. Enumerate motions used.

3. Enumerate variables which affect each motion.

4. Reduce best practice to writing.

5. Enumerate motions used.

6. Enumerate variables which affect each motion.



Please Give Your Comments.


What is the relevance of Gilbreth's initial writing on Motion Study today?
What are new developments in this area?
What are new scientific discoveries related to human effort productivity?
What are new developments in human effort productivity engineering?
What are new development sin human effort productivity management?

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 2
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2015/08/motion-study-variables-frank-b-gilbreth.html

Human Effort Industrial Engineering - Introduction
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/09/human-effort-industrial-engineering.html



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Copyright has expired for all works published in the United States before 1923. In other words, if the work was published in the U.S. before January 1, 1923, you are free to use it in the U.S. without permission.

Because of legislation passed in 1998, no new works will fall into the public domain until 2019, when works published in 1923 will expire. In 2020, works published in 1924 will expire, and so on. For works published after 1977, if the work was written by a single author, the copyright will not expire until 70 years after the author’s death. If a work was written by several authors and published after 1977, it will not expire until 70 years after the last surviving author dies.

Updated 22 July 2018
30 September 2017, 19 August 2015



Work Measurement - Principle of Industrial Engineering




TAYLOR - NARAYANA RAO PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING





Work Measurement


___________________


Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation 


by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017

______________________________


______________________________



Taylor on Time Study and Work Measurement


The writer has endeavored in the following pages to describe the system of management introduced by him in the works of the Midvale Steel Company, of Philadelphia, which has been employed by them during the past ten years with the most satisfactory results.

The system consists of three principal elements :

( i ) An elementary rate-fixing department.
( 2 ) The differential rate system of piece-work.
( 3 ) What he believes to be the best method of managing men who work by the day.


Elementary rate-fixing differs from other methods of making piece-work prices in that a careful study is made of the time required to do each of the many elementary operations into which the manufacturing of an establishment may be analyzed or divided. These elementary operations are then classified, recorded, and indexed, and when a piece-work price is wanted for work the job is first divided into its elementary operations, the time required to do each elementary operation is found from the records, and the total time for the job is summed up from these data. While this method seems complicated at the first glance, it is, in fact, far simpler and more effective than the old method of recording the time required to do whole jobs of work, and then, after looking over the records of similar jobs, guessing at the time required for any new piece of work.


Updated on 22 July 2018
First published on 6 July 2017

Double Loop Optimization - Creative Industrial Engineering - Mathematical and Statistical Optimization




Double Loop Optimization - Don't depend on Mathematicians and Statisticians alone to optimize your systems.

At every review of systems to improve productivity, industrial engineers have to first do creative engineering redesign and then do mathematical and statistical optimization.

https://www.reliableplant.com/Read/13215/inventory-optimization

Thursday, July 19, 2018

Product Design Efficiency Engineering - Component of Industrial Engineering


We can use term Product Industrial Engineering to described the efficiency improvement carried out by industrial engineers in the product designs.



Product Industrial Engineering - Methods and Techniques - Articles



Value Engineering - Introduction
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/value-engineering-introduction.html

Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/value-analysis-and-engineering.html

Value Analysis: Approach and Job Plan
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/value-analysis-approach-and-job-plan.html

Knowledge Required for Value Engineering Application and Practice
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/knowledge-required-for-value.html

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/12/value-analysis-and-engineering-examples.html

Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) - Value Engineering Method
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/functional-analysis-systems-technique.html

Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/value-engineering-examples-cases-and.html

Value Engineering in Construction - Structures, Roads, Bridges
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/value-engineering-in-construction.html

Value Engineering at the Design and Development Stage - Tata Nano Example
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/value-engineering-at-design-and.html

Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board  - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2014/01/low-cost-materials-information-board.html


Value Engineering - Bulletin - Information Board
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/05/value-engineering-bulletin-information.html

Lean Product Development - Low Waste Product Development - Efficient Product Development
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2015/03/lean-product-development-low-waste.html

Design for Manufacturing
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2016/06/design-for-manufacturing.html

Design for Assembly
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2016/06/design-for-assembly.html


The Role Industrial Engineer in Product Design

By William McAleer and Harold B. Lawson, H.B. Maynard & Co.,
Chapter 10.5 in Maynard IE Handbook, 2nd Edition

The article was published in the 2nd Edition of Maynard Industrial Engineering Handbook as chapter 10.5



Industrial engineering has a role in both the design for making and design for selling.

Industrial engineer's knowledge of methods improvement, motion economy and motion study, work measurement using stop watch as well as predetermined motion times enable him to redesign the product designs to make the less costly to manufacture and also make them less costly to use by the user.


Design for Making

The industrial engineer is a key person reviewing the design. He makes an analysis of design to determine if it is possible to manufacture at an economical cost. Based on the analysis, he finds ways to reduce costs through suggested design modifications prior to final design approval,

Industrial engineer is also an engineer and hence has knowledge of design process and method. He redesigns the production process also to obtain lower cost of production.  He does this without affecting the quality, appeal, saleability, or any other aspect of the product desired by the customer and explicitly designed in by the product design team. An industrial engineer does this work by his knowledge of equipment, processes, tools, wages and the like.

The typical examples of suggestions by industrial engineers for redesign were given by the authors as:

1. Relocation of holes, appendages, fasteners, and the like for easier access in processing or assembly.
2. Modification of design to use existing tools, jigs, fixtures or equipment.  (especially if a new equipment is suggested that will have low utlization)
3. Addition of tapers, rounded edges, and symmetry to parts to simplify positioning required for assembly.
4. Specification of easier to use fasteners (Shigeo Shingo came out with various ideas on fasteners to reduce set up times of machines)
5. Use of free machining stock or use of materials having higher machinability.

(Article link: Important Points Made in the Article)

Presently we can see the follow methods and techniques as relevant to product design efficiency engineering activity.

Value Engineering
Design for Manufacture
Design for Assembly
Target Costing Exercises
Design Optimization


Related Articles

Value Engineering
       Value Analysis and Engineering Techniques
       Value Engineering 2014 - Subject Update

       Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits


Design for Manufacturing
Design for Assembly
Target Costing Exercises
Design Optimization
Six Sigma in Design


A New Design for Production (DFP) Methodology with Two Case Studies
Lee Ming Wong, G Gary Wang, Doug Strong
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
www.sfu.ca/~gwa5/pdf/2004_07.pdf


Case Study

L&T TS was approached for an overhaul in the transmission assembly for agricultural equipment in the minimal possible time span.


Specifications:
Redesign the power take off shaft and gears.
Incorporate hydro pump gear into the equipment pump drive gear and redesign pump drive housing to incorporate a single flange mounting to the main transmission housing.
Optimize Transmission housing and front cover to reduce material volume.
Specify bearing selection and verification.

http://www.larsentoubro.com/lntcorporate/LnT_NWS/PDF/LnT%20TS%20overhauls%20tractor%20transmission%20assembly%20in%20a%20record%20time%20of%2060%20days.pdf (Link not working presently)


Updated 20 July 2018,  16 July 2017,   16 July 2016,  9 July 2016,  14 June 2015
First published   20 February 2014

Wednesday, July 18, 2018

Operator Comfort and Health - Principle of Industrial Engineering



TAYLOR - NARAYANA RAO PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING






Operation Comfort and Health

___________________


Gilbreth (1921) Motion Study

Our duty is to study the motions and reduce them as rapidly as possible to standard sets of least in number, least in fatigue, yet most effective motions.


Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presentation 


by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017Annual Conference of IISE (Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering) at Pittsburgh, USA on 23 May 2017

______________________________


______________________________


Updated on 19 July 2018
First published 6 July 2017

Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Human Effort Industrial Engineering



Human Effort Industrial Engineering

Human Effort Industrial Engineering - Methods and Techniques


Principles of Motion Economy
Work Station Design
Interface Device Design: Jigs and Fixtures
Motion Design: Motion Study
Posture Design
Comfort Design: fatigue analysis
Safety Design: Safety Aids
Occupational Health & Hazard Analysis, Redesign & Certification
Ergonomics
Work Measurement
Operator Training
Productivity Communication
Job Evaluation
Incentive scheme design


Frank Gilbreth explained the focus of industrial engineering and scientific management on human effort along with machines and materials in his book on scientific management.  In the case of machines and materials he indicated that industrial engineering utilizes the methods and techniques developed by all others apart from developing new methods and techniques. In the case of human effort, he argued that only industrial engineering/scientific management has systematically studied and developed science, methods, techniques and tools. 


Both Taylor and Gilbreth indicated that focus has to be on both areas for productivity improvement, cost reduction and waste elimination in their explanation of scientific management.


What is the meaning of "industry" relevant for explaining the discipline of industrial engineering?

The quality of regularly working hard:
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/industry


Industry is the fact of working very hard.
https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/industry


Hard work.
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/industry


Diligence in an employment or pursuit; especially :steady or habitual effort
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/industry


In Oxford dictionary also, industry has the meaning diligence. The meaning of diligence is persistent work or effort.

Therefore industrial engineering can be understood as a discipline  concerned with effort. It is concerned with both machine effort and human effort. The main objective of industrial engineering is to minimize the machine effort and human effort expended to produce a unit of any product. This is same as increasing the output for unit of machine effort or human effort.

F.W. Taylor is the first engineer, to conceptualize this activity in a formal systematic manner. His first essay, "Piece Rate System" contains the ideas regarding improving machine effort and man effort. His next book size essay, "Shop Management" contains the extended application of the method of reducing machine effort and man effort and increase production in some cases even by four times. Scientific management basically uses the same examples given in "Shop Management" but presents the principles of scientific management and gives the examples as illustrations in support of the principles of scientific management. Narayana Rao developed "Principles of Industrial Engineering" from the "Principles of Scientific management" and presented them in the 2017 Annual Conference of the IISE at Pittsburgh, USA.

_____________________

_____________________

The full paper can be downloaded from: Full Paper - https://www.xcdsystem.com/iise/abstract/File7673/UploadFinalPaper_2569.pdf


Looked from the perspective Industrial engineering has two components: Machine effort reduction and human effort reduction in production processes. We can call them machine effort industrial engineering and human effort engineering. Industrial engineering has many developments during the last 110 years.

We can list, Taylor's methodology, Gilbreth's motion study and principles of motion economy, Ergonomics or human factors engineering, Job evaluation, Wage incentive plans as important areas of Human Effort Industrial Engineering.

Gilbreth on Scientific Management


It is important to read the following statements from the book "Applied Motion Study" by Frank Gilbreth published in 1917.

Scientific management is simply management that is based upon actual measurement. Its skillful application is an art that must be acquired, but its fundamental principles have the exactness of scientific laws which are open to  study by every one. we have here a science that is the result of accurately recorded, exact investigation.

The greatest misunderstandings occur as to the aims of scientific management. Its fundamental aim is the elimination of waste, the attainment of worth-while desired results with the least necessary amount of time and effort. Scientific management may, and often does, result in expansion, but its primary aim is conservation and savings, making an adequate use of every ounce of energy of any type that is expended.

Every problem (in scientific management)  presents two elements: the human element, and the materials element.

The opinion of many who know conditions in USA and Europe is that  America is far behind European countries in conservation of the materials element, both natural and manufactured
resources.

 It is equally true that up to recent times European countries have done comparatively little toward
conserving the human element.

The material problem is being attacked along different lines in a more or less systematic manner. We
all appreciate the benefits of scientific or intensive farming. Agricultural experience has taught the valuable lesson that it is possible to get great output, yet, at the same time, leave the producing force unimpaired, by a proper expenditure of money and brains.

It is the work of scientific management to insist on standardisation in all fields, and to base such standardisation upon accurate measurement (of productivity and work). Scientific management is not remote, or different from other fields of activity. For example, in the handling of the materials element, it does not attempt to discard the methods of attack of intensive agriculture or of the laboratory of the applied scientists; on the contrary, it uses the results of workers in such fields as these to as great an extent as possible.

(I asked a question on difference between standardization and optimization in the IISE Linkedin Community)

In handling the materials element, then, scientific management analyses all successful existing practices in every line, and synthesises such elements as accurate measurement proves to be valuable into standards. These standards are maintained until suggested improvements have passed the same rigid examination, and are in such form that they may be incorporated into new standards.

Turning now to the field of the human element by far the more important field we find that, while there is much talk of work in that field to-day, comparatively little has actually been accomplished.

One great work of scientific management has been to show the world how little actual knowledge it has possessed of the human element as engaged in the work in the industries. Through motion study and fatigue study and the accompanying time study, we have come to know the capabilities of the worker, the demands of the work, the fatigue that the worker suffers at the work, and the amount and nature of the rest required to overcome the fatigue. Scientific provision for such recovery in the industries, before the days of scientific management, was unknown.

It is even more surprising that only the pioneers in the work realise the application of any necessity for the laboratory method in the study of the human element as it appears in the industries. When making accurate measurements, the number of variables involved must be reduced to as great a degree as possible. Only in the laboratory can this be successfully done.

The various measurements taken by scientific management and the guiding laws under which these are grouped determine not only the nature of the human element, but the methods by which it is to be handled. Motion study, fatigue study, the measures supplied by psychology, these result in the working practice that fits the work to the worker, and produces more output with less effort, with its consequent greater pay for every ounce of effort expended.

We see very clearly the stress on development of science that is of use in waste elimination.

In human effort industrial engineering, we need to cover human productivity science, human productivity engineering and human productivity management.

Motion study and applications of ergonomic research and recommendations may become part of human productivity engineering.

Job evaluation and incentive schemes form part of human productivity management. Psychology of Management. published by Lilian Gilbreth can be taken as an earliest book supporting human productivity management.



Gilbreth's Applied Motion Study Book
https://archive.org/stream/appliedmotionstu00gilbrich/appliedmotionstu00gilbrich_djvu.txt



October - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - Focus on Human Effort Industrial Engineering

http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2014/07/october-industrial-engineering.html



Please give your comments.

Updated on 18 July 2018
First posted on 28 September 2017