Saturday, June 27, 2015

Value Analysis and Engineering - Examples by L.D. Miles

Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering by Lawrence D. Miles, First Edition, 1961


Electrical Control - Pp.1-2

Example: VA of electrical control

Componet wire clip made of phosphor bronze costing $7000 a year.
Function: Held the cover. cover opened for servicing expected to be done six times in the life time of the device.
What else will do the job?
Clip made of spring brass
Cost: $3000

The cover itself cost 4 cents - total expenditure of $40,000
Function: to keep extraneous material out.
The control was mounted inside another closure.
What else will do the job?
Plain piece of plastic.
Cost: 1.5 cents. Total expenditure $15,000.

Household garbage disposer p.6

Case Study - Control - P.10,11

Case Study: Control consisting of electrical and mechanical components

Component: Metal knol - designed cost $2.25
Standard catalogue item found for 25 cents
Sub-assembly supporting an emergency control lever designed cost $20.33
VA led to new cost of $8.12
When new order came with some modifications to design, the old analysis helped it also.

Case Study - Radiation Control P.12-13

Case Study: Radiation Shield for X-Ray testing room for large forgings and castings.

Designed suggestion:  Build a concrete wall 7 feet thick and 14 feet high.
Cost: $50,000
What else will do the job?
Sand will 14 feet thick and 14 feet high. Cost $5000
It pays to enquire what else will do?

CS - Conduct Eletric Current in Steel 17-18

Case Study - Habits often lead astray

In a control device costly nonferrous materials were being for certain parts.
What else will do the job?
But the design engineers objected that electrical conducting parts are made of nonferrous metals only.
Value engineer after investigation showed them that in some other instruments steel was used for conducting parts.
The answer was that they nonferrous metal is not suitable due to high temperature.
The natural question is why you can't use it in this instrument when it will give a big cost advantage.
The alternative of steel was accepted.

CS - Value analysis and Value of 10,000 bolts Pp. 20-21

Case Study: 10,000 bolts

Component: 1/2 inch steel bolt, 12 inches long with a square head and square nut
What else will do the job?
A supplier suggested a threaded stud with a nut already chased on one end at 15% less cost.

Ex. Metal Hinge Pp.21-23

Ex. Metal strip hinge about 8 inches long with holes for fixing it to the door and one edge rolled to insert a hinge pin. Made by stamping and forming
Quantity 500,000 pieces
Number of alternatives were investigated and found to be not suitable. But value analyst has to persist.
A suggestion was made that a strip of steel in continuous rolls can be used to roll the edge of the strip and the holes can be made later.
The suggestion received number of objections but was tried and found to be practicable and a 10% cost reduction was achieved.
This amounted $50,000 savings. Value engineer working in an engineering needs to have good engineering knowledge to find suitable
alternative processes and develop them to deliver the sulution to the satisfaction of all involved.

CS - Silver Contact Assembly 28-32

CS - The Pivot Pin 32-35

Case Study: Pivot pin
Cost $3.65
Quantity consumed : 50 million
Supplier said he could not reduce price due to features and tolerances.

Every feature and tolerance of the pin were questioned.
5 alternatives were developed and suppliers were asked to quote.
Method two was quoted $1.90 per thousand and accepted.

Examples of the technique - Avoid generalities37-40  ------------- 10

CS Develop Specific Information  P.40

Case Study - Investigate Further - Half length screw to full length screw

Component: 1/4 X 3-inch screw with thread up to the head. Quantity used 40,000 items.
Standard screws of 1 inch thread were being purchased and in the factory thread is being made up to head. Cost is 12 cents.
Value engineers contacted suppliers to quote for the screw with full length. quote for 2.5 cents was obtained.

CS - Crystal or Window Glass Pp.40-41

Case Study - Crystal glass or window glass
The practice was to term the clock face as crystal. But it is only window glass, warmed and sagged.
But freigth rate for crystal was 1.25 times the first-class freight rate and freight rate for window glass was only 0.85 times the first class freight rate.
The terminology was changed in the invoice and bill lading and 32% savings was obtained in the freight rate.

CS - Unmeaningful costs used for decision making can bankrupt the business - Pp.47-48

Use Information from the Best Source

Ex. For the availability of steel, the best source is the purchasing agent not marketing manager.

Ex. Underwriter won't approve it. Contact the underwriters.

CS. There is only one supplier P.50

Ex. Part from copper tube - P.54

Ex. Clamp bar P.55

Ex. Small radio-frequency transformer   ------------- 20

Ex. Gasoline tank - P.57
function: contain 200 gallons of gasoline in a US Navy landing aircraft.
Cost of resent design $520. One tank made of special high-cost alloy steel.
Blast: Four 50-gallon standard drums
Create phase idea: If iron used for drums of tanks is not suitable. add appropriate coatings.
Refine:  Four drums with coatings used.
Cost came down to $80

Ex. Joy stick assembly for a radar P.57

CS - The Electric Controller P.59-62

CS - No Waste 63--64

Ex. Bulkhead penetration P.65

Ex. Squirtedin self-vulcanizing material - P.65

Ex. Asbestos paper - P.67

Ex. Stainless Steel Nipple - P.68

Ex. It is patented - .68

Ex. Underwriters won't approve it.  ---------------  30

CS - It won't work

CS - Underwriters won't allow it.

CS - Do it like an Indina

Ex. Heat transfer enclosure - P.74

Ex. The Linkage  - P.74

Ex. Gyros P.74

CS. Small part similar to nail

Ex. Pole piece

CS - Specialty product simplified it.P. 81

Ex. Adjusting screw  P.88 -------------------  40

Ex. A spacer hub P.88

Ex.  Thin nut P.89

Ex. High temperature locknut

Case Study: Three springs - Pp.92-93

Ex. Handle for machine tool adjustments P.95

Ex. J - bolit P.96

CS - Mounting holes for perforated sheet

Ex. Undercut screw - P. 98

Ex. Small bracket - P.99

Ex. Tube support Gasket p.99  ------------------------   50

CS. Temperature sensitive control 100-101

Ex. Tube base

Ex. Aluminium knob

Ex. Small Spring

CS. packaging for wall clock

Ex. Hand wheel  P.105

Ex. Heavy solid steel trunnion bolt

Ex. Hub and shaft

Ex. Support clamp

Ex. Assembly of parts ------------------------  60

Ex. Machine parts

Ex. The 1-cent check

Case Study - Heat sensitive device 111 - 114

Ex. Pulley

Ex. Spacer stud

Ex. Electrical terminal

Ex. Locating part for two compression springs

Ex. Support for steel bar

Case Study - Terminal of electrical device 121 - 123

Case Study - Precision Timer  126-127  ------------------------  70

CS - Red pointer and red ink - Pp.160-161
CS - Increased Dollar yield per manhour  - Pp. 163

CS - Can we scrap the scrap - Pp.167

CS - Did the vendor contribute - Pp. 168-169

CS - Manufacture for profit - P. 170

CS The contacts that were lost - P.171

CS - It is patented - P.173174

CS - Assembly purchased complete - P/175176

CS - Lower cost may mean doing it the right way - Pp. 181-182   --------------- 79 examples

79 examples in the book

Updated  26 June 2015
First posted  15 Dec 2013

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