Monday, December 25, 2017

Productivity Innovations

Productivity Innovations

Lowering the price can signal innovation in processes. A company can communicate that with convincing story of the innovation involved.
(  25 December 2017

Monday, December 11, 2017

Applied Industrial Engineering - 2017 Bulletin

Applied Industrial Engineering

IE in New Technologies - IE with New Technologies

Implementation of  Industrial Engineering Principles and Techninques in New Technologies (Engineering Processes) and Business Processes

1. Additive Manufacturing Productivity

Assembly Design Framework for Additive Manufacturing Based on Axiomatic Design Concept
Yosep Oh, University at Buffalo; Sara Behdad, University at Buffalo, SUNY


AM productivity

According to the design for assembly (DFA) concept, design features should be integrated into a few physical parts to reduce design complexity.  However, building up a single product can have some negative effects on the AM productivity by increasing buildup time and cost. In this paper, a design framework using the assembly concept is proposed with the aim of letting the AM productivity reach an allowable level. The design framework is developed based on an Axiomatic Design (AD) approach, where AM productivity elements including buildup time, assembly time and the amount of support are considered as non-functional requirements (nFRs). The AM productivity is assessed by the Information Axiom to choose the best design. The proposed design framework can help engineers design and evaluate AM products.

Interesting references cited in the paper

* Thomas, D.S. and Gilbert, S.W., 2014, Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Additive Manufacturing - A Literature Review and Discussion, NIST.
* Oh, Y. and Behdad, S., 2016, Assembly Based Part Design to Improve the Additive Manufacturing
Productivity: Process Time, Cost and Surface Roughness, ASME IDETC, Charlotte, NC, USA.
* Zhang, Y., Bernard, A., Gupta, R.K. and Harik, R., 2014, Evaluating the Design for Additive Manufacturing: A
Process Planning Perspective, Procedia CIRP, 21, 144–150.
* Thompson, M.K., 2013, Improving the Requirements Process in Axiomatic Design Theory, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 62, 115–118.

2. Biomanufacturing (Biotechnology) Productivity

Productivity in Biomanufacturing

Researchers are examining the possibility of taking  advantage of the natural differences in productivity among cells that are used in biomanufacturing. They foster mutations to create genetic variability and then use microchips to analyze the behavior of individual cells, choosing the most prolific for larger-scale production.

3. Productivity and Nanotech

Productive Nanotech Systems


OSRAM Boosts LED Chip Productivity With Nanotechnology
Aug 27, 2014

4. Electric Batteries and Productivity Applications

Nano One Enhances Pilot Productivity and Files a New Patent

Vancouver B.C. Dr. Stephen Campbell, Principal Scientist at Nano One Materials, today announced that Nano One has filed a patent related to yield improvements in its process for the manufacture of lithium metal oxide cathode materials for use in advanced lithium ion batteries.
August 2017

5. IoT and Productivity

McKinsey Global Institute Report
JUNE 2015
You can donwload the report from the web

How the Internet of Things will reshape future production systems
By Vineet Gupta and Rainer Ulrich
September 2017

6. New Technology and Equipment for Productivity

Virtual reality (VR) training simulator.

How Does Technology Affect Productivity?
Apr 9, 2014

 AIM's March 2014 Business Confidence Survey asked two questions.
1. "Has technology allowed your company to produce more goods or provide more services than a decade ago with the same or fewer employees?
2. Can you quantify the economic effect?"

62 percent of the employers who responded said "yes" to the first question.

Among them only some could quantify the benefits. The gains reported in productivity were in  the 10-25 percent range. At the limits,  one manufacturer doubled output without adding workers, and a non-profit service provider more than tripled productivity.

Regarding profit improvement, some manufacturers remarked  that productivity improvements did not strengthen their bottom lines due to downward pressure on prices.  Some  companies in services industries cited offsetting costs from new regulations.

Trend 5: Technology enables greater productivity in infrastructure industry

7. Productivity in Hotels

New JW Marriott hotel rides on technology for productivity
25 March 2017

The 634-room luxury hotel has "taken the initiative to implement new technologies and processes to improve the efficiency of its operations, as well as the overall guest experience" One of the systems  is the (hotel's) use of the Knowledge Touch rostering system to better manage and allocate manpower during peak periods by analysing business volume and needs. the hotel has also adopted Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track and replace worn-out items such as linen in hotel rooms and  has freed up valuable manpower for more productive uses .

JW Marriott Resort Saves $100K with Push-to-Talk Tech

Saturday, December 9, 2017

Soft Skills for Industrial Engineers

At the 1972 CONARC (US Army) Soft Skills Conference Dr. Whitmore presented a report  aimed at figuring out how the term "soft skills" (in the areas of command, supersivion, counceling and leadership) is understood in various CONARC schools. Based on this research study,  the following definition was formulated:

"Soft skills are important job-related skills that involve little or no interaction with machines and whose application on the job is quite generalized.

It was also highlighted that hard skills are related to machines, and we understand laws and operations related to machines well. But, we do not the laws related to fellow human beings that well and hence in the case of soft skills, education and training is not that straight forward.

It can be said and simplified that soft skills are people skills. In Industrial Engineering curriculums, we include subjects related to organizational behavior, and the content of this subject must have the objective of increasing the knowledge and skills involved in the interacting with people in cooperative ventures.

Kantrowitz classified soft skills into seven main clusters

1. self management and self performance management skills.

2. Managing others and Managing others' performance management.

3. Organization/leadership skills

4. Interpersonal skills

5. Communication/Persuasion skills

6. Political/Cultural skills

7. Counterproductive skills

You can read more about each of these skill categories in

Organizational Behavior - Review Notes - Based on Fred Luthans Book

Negotiation skills

Negotiations - Knowledge, Research and Skills


Listening and Negotiation
2016 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition

Friday, December 8, 2017

Cost Reduction and Optimization for Manufacturing and Industrial Companies - Joseph Berk - Book Information,descCd-tableOfContents.html

Chapter 1: Organizing a Cost-Reduction Program.

Part I Labor.

Chapter 2: Head Count.

Chapter 3: Time Standards.

Chapter 4: Efficiency.

Chapter 5: Utilization.

Chapter 6: Overtime.

Chapter 7: Multiple Shifts.

Chapter 8: Lost Time.

Chapter 9: The Learning Curve.

Part II Material.

Chapter 10: Make-versus-Buy Determinations.

Chapter 11: Inventory Minimization.

Chapter 12: Material Utilization.

Chapter 13: Minimizing Supplier Costs.

Chapter 14: Supplier Negotiation.

Chapter 15: Supplier Competition.

Part III Process.

Chapter 16: Work-Flow Optimization.

Chapter 17: Setup Time Reduction.

Chapter 18: Material-Handling Improvements.

Chapter 19: Scrap and Rework Reduction.

Chapter 20: Cleanliness.

Part IV Design.

Chapter 21: The Design Approach.

Chapter 22: Requirements Relaxation.

Chapter 23: Tolerance Relaxation.

Chapter 24: Materials Substitution.

Chapter 25: Packaging.

Part V Overhead.

Chapter 26: General Overhead Expenses.

Chapter 27: Travel.

Chapter 28: Inspection.

Part VI Gaining Disciples and Measuring Progress.

Chapter 29: Suggestion Programs.

Chapter 30: Measuring Progress.


Google Book Link with Preview facility

14. Supplier Negotiation

Chapter sections:

The Bottom Line

Key Questions

The Supplier Negotiation Road Map


The First Offer

Multiple Issues


Tracking Progress

Negotiation Traps


Negotiation Power

Conclude Negotiations Professionally


Who Should Do This Work


Updated 9 December 2017, 29 June 2013

Industrial Engineering - Health Care Partnership

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Culture and Productivity - Bibliography


Culture and productivity – an equation for success


National Culture, Creativity, and Productivity: What’s the Relationship with Student Achievement?
Zheng Fang, Xianxuan Xu, Leslie W. Grant, James H. Stronge & Thomas J. Ward
Pages 395-406 | Published online: 14 Nov 2016
Creativity Research Journal
Volume 28, 2016 - Issue 4

Culture, religion and productivity: Evidence from European regions
Anneli Kaasa
BEH - Business and Economic Horizons
Volume 12 | Issue 1 | 2016 |pp.11-28


Proof That Positive Work Cultures Are More Productive
Emma SeppalaKim Cameron
DECEMBER 01, 2015
Harvard Business Review

Impact of Organizational Culture on Productivity and Quality
Management: a Case Study in Diamond Operations Unit, DTC
Kabelo Kelepile
International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management
Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2015, PP 35-45
ISSN 2394-5923 (Print) & ISSN 2394-5931 (Online)

The impact of work-life culture on organizational productivity
Isabel de Sivatte, Judith R. Gordon, Pilar Rojo, Ricardo Olmos, (2015) "The impact of work-life culture on organizational productivity", Personnel Review, Vol. 44 Issue: 6, pp.883-905,


Investigate the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Human
Resources Productivity (Case study: Arman Credit Institute)
Hamed Mohammadi, and Ahmed Raza Shekarchizadeh
International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences. Vol., 3 (8), 2744-2751, 2014
Available online at

The Influences of organisational cultural practices on productivity in
prison farms in Zimbabwe
David D. Madzikanda and Tinashe Muroiwa
University of Zimbabwe Business Review, Volume 2, No. 2, 2014



The impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity: A structural equation modelling approach
AIP Conference Proceedings 1522, 1442 (2013);
Mohd Rashid Ab Hamid

Culture and employee-focus are factors that have an impact on productivity and they have to be aligned with the productivity initiatives in the organization in order to increase productivity.  Therefore, this article investigated the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia using intangible indicators through core values.

Improving workplace productivity and corporate culture: perceptions and experiences of the
effects of workplace massage
Deborah Nicola Lane
Submitted to satisfy the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
College of Sport and Exercise Science
Victoria University
March 2013


Organizational Culture and its effect on productivity; the case study of
La Community Bank
Dwirantwi, Eric Addo
A thesis submitted to the Institute Of Distance Learning, Kwame Nkrumah
University of Science and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
September, 2012

How Participative Leadership Powers a Culture of Productivity
© 2012 WorldatWork.  |

IZA DP No. 6845
Cultural Diversity and Plant‐Level Productivity
September 2012
Michaela Trax
Stephan Brunow
Jens Suedekum


Organizational culture and productivity
Ahmadi, Ebadollaha
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 772–776

Organisational Culture, Productivity and the South African Work Place: A Case Study of Cranco Metals Ltd.
Alternation, 13,2, 2006


Productivity, Culture and Society: The Essential Contribution of Psychology as a
Social Science
ISBN #: 189653872X
This paper was prepared for the Scientific Affairs Committee of the Canadian Psychological Association
by Dr. John Service, Executive Director, and Dr. Patrick O’Neill, Chair, Scientific Affairs.


A Thesis submifted by
Duncan Andrew GIBSON
in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Ph. D.
Surrey European Management School
University of Surrey

Is group productivity loss the rule or the exception? Effects of culture and Group based Motivation
Erez, Miriam; Somech, Anit
Academy of Management Journal; Dec 1996; 39, 6;

Culture, Productivity and Structure: A Singapore Study
Foo Check-Teck
Volume: 13 issue: 4, page(s): 589-609
Issue published: October 1, 1992


Finding the culture of productivity.

Akin, G., & Hopelain, D. (1986). Finding the culture of productivity. Organizational Dynamics, 14(3), 19-32.

Investigates factors related to productivity from work culture perspective. Environments that encourage productivity are described.   The worker perceptions of the structures and elements that constitute work culture and the qualities that make for a strong culture of productivity are elicited.

The term "culture of productivity" refers to the shared understandings of workers in highly productive settings and the commonly known procedures and rules these workers use to understand productivity and to be productive.

Results and findings from the investigation suggest that productivity occurs when management, supervisors, and workers focus primarily on the work being produced and factors influencing successful outcomes. It is concluded that essential qualities of productive cultures are legibility, coherence, and adaptation/flexibility in the workplace.

Graduate Certificate in Productivity Improvement - Oakland University

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering
502 Engineering Center  (map)
(248) 370-2989 • Fax (248) 370-2699

Coordinator for the year 2014 -2015
Robert Van Til
502B Engineering Center
(248) 370-2211

Program Description:

The Graduate Certificate in Productivity Improvement program is designed for any engineer (mechanical, electrical, civil, computer, etc.) who wants access to the productivity tools needed for their current job, or to upgrade their skills to help get a promotion or a better job.

Admission terms and application deadlines

Before an applicant’s file can be reviewed for full program admission, all application documents must be received in Graduate Study and Lifelong Learning by the semester deadlines listed below. Incomplete applications will not be sent to departments for admission review.

July 15 for fall semester
November 15 for winter semester
March 15 for summer semester
International applicants
Application requirements

To be considered for graduate admission, applicants must submit all Graduate Application Requirements and additional department requirements by the published application deadlines:

Graduate Application Requirements

Additional department application requirements
B.S. in any engineering discipline. Applicants from other disciplines such as computer science, engineering technology, information technology and software engineering, would be considered after successfully completing appropriate prerequisite courses.

Grade point average of 3.0 or better.
Official Graduate Record Examination (GRE) results are required for those international applicants whose undergraduate cumulative grade point average is less than 3.0 on a 0.0 - 4.0 scale or their international institution is not accredited by a regional accrediting agency of the USA. The Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering may choose to waive the GRE requirement if at least one of the following special circumstances is met:
Applicant’s last degree is from a U.S. institution accredited by a regional accrediting agency.
Applicant’s overall GPA from last degree is at least 3.0.
Applicant has worked in the USA for at least two years in the engineering profession.

Certificate requirements

To fulfill the certificate requirements, a student must

complete at least 16 credits of graduate-level work as described below under Course requirements,
earn a cumulative GPA of at least 3.0 in courses applied toward the certificate, satisfy all requirements concerning academic progress

Course requirements

a. Required courses (12 credits)

Students are required to select at least three courses from:

ISE 510 - Supply Chain Modeling and Analysis (4 credits)
ISE 517 - Statistical Methods in Engineering (4 credits)
*  ISE 530 - Engineering Operations Research - Stochastic Models (4 credits)
*  ISE 569 - Computer Simulation of Discrete Event Systems (4 credits)
*  ISE 580 - E-Commerce and ERP (4 credits)
ISE 581 - Lean Principles and Application (4 credits)
*  ISE 583 - Production Systems and Workflow Analysis (4 credits)
*  ISE 585 - Statistical Quality Analysis (4 credits)
*  ISE 587 - Foundations of Systems Engineering I (4 credits)
ISE 680 - Engineering Decision Analysis (4 credits)
ISE 684 - Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Systems (4 credits)

b. Elective course (4 credits)

Select any one 500-level or higher ISE course, including any additional course from the list of required courses above (except ISE 501, 502, 503, 594, 690, 691, 794 and 795).

Latest web page for the course

Updated 1 December 2017, 24 February 2015

Sunday, November 19, 2017

Friday, November 17, 2017

2016 - Productivity Research - Information and Important Points - Part 1

Accounting for Productivity Dispersion over the Business Cycle

Robert J. Kurtzman and David Zeke

T h e J o u r n a l o f D e v e l o p i n g A r e a s
Volume 50 No. 2 Spring 2016


Varun Kumar Das*
Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, India

Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 56, No. 2 July 2016


University of South Australia (
JEL categories: C18, O39, O40
While research into the determinants of growth is ongoing, assessing the
productivity of factor inputs, including technological progress, remains a key to
understanding what drives economic growth and how this process can be sustained
in the long run.

Increasing productivity is fundamental to increasing material well-being, and
in world with a growing population, vital to the living standards of millions of people.
Assessing and measuring what contributes to productivity improvement are,
however, difficult. While technological change or change in technical efficiency is
frequently cited (especially in the growth literature) as critical to productivity, other
elements, including human capital, scale economies, changes in organisational or
managerial methods, and institutional change (covering everything from legal
regimes to the level of community trust), are also known to be contributing factors.

In the economic growth literature, the productivity of factor inputs is a major
contributing factor to long run growth.

In recent years, some researchers have increased the number of intermediary
inputs used in their productivity estimates to include materials (M), energy (E),
and services (S). The aim is to better isolate the impact of technology (the residual
in most growth equations) more precisely.22 These KLEMS models are less
applicable in studies using pre 1950 data as accurate information on the inputs is
highly variable or missing.

22. Pilat, D., and P. Schreyer. (2002) Measuring productivity. OECD Economic Studies, Vol. 2001/2. 10.1787/
eco_studies-v2001-art13-en [accessed 2 /1/2016]


G. I. Umoh
Sylva Waribugo
University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Yabing and Abraham (2013) carried out a research on capacity planning and performance
in capital intensive service facilities and found out that when firms plan their capacity through the
integration of service resources and incentive contract design, they can better cope with market
uncertainty and also increase their profitability. They further argued that while firms with high
capacity utilization are likely to have increased profitability and cope with uncertainty in market
demand, they have to also maintain a reasonable service level and shorter waiting periods so as to
have competitive advantage. Alberto and Roberto (2007) carried out a similar study on plant
capacity planning and productivity and submitted that several indices of capacity like gross
utilization, net utilization, working efficiency, availability and saturation have influence on the
aggregate productivity of the system.

Also, Umoh, Wokocha, and Amah (2013) did a study on production planning and
corporate productivity performance in the Nigerian manufacturing industry. Their study reveals
that production planning has a positive influence on cost minimization, return on equity capital
and growth. Adegbuyi and Asapo (2010) followed a similar scholarly trajectory by studying the
effect of production planning and budgeting on organizational productivity in a food and
beverage firm. The result of their study shows that there is a significant relationship between
production planning operations and organizational productivity.

Mahmood, et al. (2014), in their
study, postulated that when policies are directed towards knowledge and technology management
capability, idea management capability, project development capability and commercialization
capability which are dimensions of innovation capacity planning–organizations stand to increase
their productivity.

Maishanu and Kadiri (2012) conducted a study on workers satisfaction and organizational
productivity in the Nigerian aviation sector and concluded that the productivity of the sector is
greatly influenced by the level of satisfaction of workers.

*  Connecting empowerment-focused HRM and labour productivity to work engagement: the
mediating role of job demands and resources

Karina Van De Voorde and Marc Van Veldhoven, Tilburg University
Monique Veld, Open University in the Netherlands
Human Resource Management Journal, Vol 26, no 2, 2016, pages 192–210

The paper does not investigate the effect of any variable on productivity

* Estudios de Economía. Vol. 43 - N° 2, Diciembre 2016. Págs. 199-215 199

Corruption, provincial institutions and manufacturing firm productivity: New evidence from a transitional economy*

Corrupción, instituciones provinciales y productividad manufacturera:
Nueva evidencia para una economía en transición
Tran Quang Tuyen**
Vu Van Huong***
Doan Thanh Tinh****

*  Explaining Cross-Country Productivity Differences in Retail Trade

David Lagakos
University of California, San Diego, and National Bureau of Economic Research

It is regarding productivity in retail trade emphasizing car ownership and tax evasion in traditional

*  Kaasa A., 2016.

"Culture, religion and productivity: Evidence from European regions”, 

and Economic Horizons, Vol.12(1), pp.11-28,

Productivity plays an important role for economic growth and the welfare of people.
Hence, there is no doubt that the possible determinants of productivity deserve to be
studied. When looking at the determinants of productivity at the aggregate (society) level,
the research has mainly focussed on factors like human capital, R&D, innovations etc. that
have been shown to be positively related to productivity and economic growth. However,
it has been argued that these factors may not be sufficient for explaining differences in the
levels of productivity in different countries (Sayes, 2011). Hence, the research has to go
beyond these standard factors of productivity and explore other possible factors
(Beugelsdijk and van Schaik, 2005).

Culture comprises people’s  values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviour, etc.. In addition,
religion is something that often guides people’s choices and behaviour. As productivity
can be expected to be related to the everyday performance of the workforce, cultural and
religion-related differences may prove quite useful in explaining differences in productivity
levels between countries or regions.

While the possible impact of culture and/or religion on productivity has been theoretically addressed more or less directly in many studies, only a few studies have examined these relationships empirically (Hall and Jones, 1999; Islam, 2008; Grafton et al., 2002; Gorodnichenko and Roland,

Both the correlation and regression analysis showed individualism to be positively and
power distance to be negatively related to labour productivity, confirming the
expectations. Masculinity also turned out to be negatively related to productivity,
confirming the positive impact of feminine values rather than masculine values.
Uncertainty avoidance, although negatively related to productivity according to the
correlation analysis, appeared to be insignificant in the regression analysis. Both general
religiosity and the achievement motivation indicator capturing the values of a strong work
ethic turned out to be insignificant after cultural dimensions were added, indicating that
cultural dimensions seem to capture the sources of labour productivity better than
religiosity or values associated with religiosity.

2016, 69, 3–66


Indiana University
University of Iowa
University of Iowa
Indiana University

marginal costs also vary at the individual level
of analysis across occupations and measures of productivity.
Given such, the extent to which the context allows productivity stars
to keep their marginal costs low will serve as a conductor of cumulative
advantage exhibited in that productivity distribution. We refer to this
source of cumulative advantage as multiplicity of productivity.Multiplicity
of productivity is a conductor because it makes it easier to draw on past
success to create future success.

Hypothesis 1: Multiplicity of productivity will be a conductor of cumulative
advantage, such that the end result of higher
multiplicity work contexts will be a greater likelihood
of a power law distribution and a greater proportion of
productivity stars (i.e., heavier tail).

Productivity stars, wittingly or unwittingly, are able to dominate through
monopolistic means (e.g., Borghans & Groot, 1998; Franck & N¨uesch,
2012). Accordingly, we offer the following hypothesis involving monopolistic
productivity as a conductor for cumulative advantage:
Hypothesis 2: Monopolistic productivity will be a conductor of cumulative
advantage, such that the end result of higher
monopolistic work contexts will be a greater likelihood
of a power law distribution and a greater proportion of
productivity stars (i.e., heavier tail).

Empirically, job autonomy generally has a positive relation with productivity
(Humphrey, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007).

job autonomy provides the discretion that can allow stars to
show their creativity and innovation (Ohly & Fritz, 2010) as well as
allowing them to more fully utilize their unique competencies (McIver,
Lengnick-Hall, Lengnick-Hall, & Ramachandran, 2013).

Hypothesis 3: Job autonomy will be a conductor of cumulative advantage,
such that the end result of jobs with greater
autonomy will be a greater likelihood of a power law
distribution and a greater proportion of productivity
stars (i.e., heavier tail).

a highly complex job such
as that of a academic researcher has long been known to demonstrate a
heavy-tailed productivity distribution in terms of number of publications
as well as citations (Shockley, 1957), as have other prototypically complex
jobs that have become so pervasive in today’s knowledge economy (e.g.,
software engineers; Curtis, Sheppard, Milliman, Borst, & Love, 1979;
Darcy & Ma, 2005). On the other hand, less complex jobs from the manufacturing
sector exhibit little variance in outputs (Schmidt & Hunter,

resource-based theory, which usually focuses on productivity at the firm and not the
individual level of analysis, describes complex output, especially output at the tails of the distribution, as more difficult to imitate and less likely to be substituted by even slightly less productive firms (Barney, Ketchen, & Wright, 2011).

Hypothesis 4: Job complexity will be a conductor of cumulative advantage, such that the end result of jobs with greater complexity will be a greater likelihood of a power law distribution and a greater proportion of productivity stars (i.e., heavier tail).

Hypothesis 5: Productivity ceiling will be an insulator of cumulative advantage, such that the end result of jobs with lower productivity ceilings will be a smaller likelihood of a power law distribution and a smaller proportion of productivity stars (i.e., lighter tail).

becoming aware of the shape of the productivity distribution, and not assuming normality, is a necessary first step before such decisions can be made.

The presence of nonnormal productivity distributions also has implications
for compensation practices. In particular, pay dispersion may be
seen as more acceptable and fair to employees if they are aware that the
distribution has a heavy tail (i.e., a large proportion of productivity stars).
Thus, it may be beneficial to share information on the shape of the productivity
distribution with various organizational members. However, if
the compensation system does not offer additional rewards to productivity
stars, productivity information may lead to dissatisfaction among those
individuals who are the top producers—possibly leading to a decrease in
their productivity or even departure from the organization. Thus, it is important
to consider the anticipated consequences of making information
on productivity distributions available.

Barney JB, Ketchen DJ, Wright M. (2011). The future of resource-based theory:
Revitalization or decline? Journal of Management, 37, 1299–1315.

Buzacott JA (2002).
The impact of worker differences on production system output.
International Journal of Production Economics, 78, 37–44. doi:10.1016/S0925-

* RAND Journal of Economics
Vol. 47, No. 3, Fall 2016
pp. 608–630

Demand or productivity: what determines firm growth?

Andrea Pozzi∗
Fabiano Schivardi∗∗

Modern theories of industry dynamics assume that firms are heterogeneous along a single
unobserved dimension, productivity, which determines the firm’s performance and growth
(Jovanovic, 1982; Hopenhayn, 1992).

the assumption that all firms look alike to consumers fails to capture an important ingredient of
firm performance.

We start our analysis by setting up a standard model of monopolistic competition on the
demand side and Cobb-Douglas technology on the production side, each with its own stochastic

Productivity shocks are then identified as residuals of the production function equation, with output deflated with firm-level prices.

To explain our findings, we rely on insights from scholars emphasizing the role of managerial ability
and corporate practices in the exploitation of technology shocks (Bloom, Sadun, and Van Reenen,
2012; Dranove et al., 2014). Our results show that managerial practices are important for not only
within-firm productivity growth, but also to enhance the process of efficient factors allocation
across firms.

Foster, Haltiwanger, and Syverson (2008) were the first to separately
identify demand and productivity shocks. They show that failing to disentangle demand and TFP
shocks leads to an underestimation of new entrants’ contribution to productivity growth. Foster,
Haltiwanger, and Syverson (2016) study the process of accumulation of idiosyncratic demand,
finding that demand shock builds up slowly and that it depends on past firm sales. Our results
complement theirs: though it takes time to build idiosyncratic demand, we show that reacting to
its fluctuations is easier than reacting to changes in productivity.

Our theoretical framework relies on a model of monopolistic competitionwhere firms choose
inputs to produce output, subject to a CES demand and a Cobb-Douglas production function as in
Melitz (2000).

The market appeal component ( i t ) picks up heterogeneity in firms’ demand driven by
differences in the perceived quality of the product, controlling for its physical attributes. It relates
to similar concepts introduced by Foster, Haltiwanger, and Syverson (2016) and Gourio and
Rudanko (2014), who link it to the stock of consumers who have tried the product in the past (the
“customer base”). Other instances of demand shocks consistent with our setting are spreading of
good word-of-mouth, improvements in the brand image, and the perception or the visibility of
the products, for example, as a result of advertising.

The idea behind this postulate is
that TFP shocks represent a shift in the production technology, and responding to them likely
entails shifting the way things are done within the firm: for instance, a change in the skill mix
of the employees or the use of different types of capital inputs. If the firm’s management lacks
the expertise to implement these complementary reorganizations, the adjustment of the scale
of operation following a TFP shock will be incomplete. This scenario might be less likely for
demand shocks, where the need to cater to a larger mass of customers can be met by simply
scaling up production without necessarily requiring reorganization.

The framework sketched in Section 5 delivers an empirical prediction for the presence
of a managerial ability friction: the size of the untransmitted component of TFP should be
smaller for firms with better managerial ability, as they are more likely to be able to reorganize
their activities to take full advantage of the productivity shock.18

Our results imply that managerial practices
are not only important for within-firm productivity growth, but also for the process of efficient
factors allocation across firms. Improving our understanding of the determinants of firms’ reaction
to shocks of different nature may contribute in an innovative way to the debate on the efficient
allocation of resources.

* J Prod Anal (2016) 45:131–155

The determinants of productivity in Chinese large and medium-sized industrial firms, 1998–2007

Sai Ding, • Alessandra Guariglia • Richard Harris

The average TFP growth in Chinese industries is 9.6 % per annum during the period
1998–2007, and is mainly driven by firm entry. The subsector decomposition exercises show that the inter-firm
resource reallocations are more prominent across industries than across provinces.

Productivity is viewed as the most important long-run
driver of economic growth in both economic theory and
empirical research. According to Klenow and Rodrı´guez-
Clare (1997), total factor productivity (TFP) growth
accounts for 90 % of the international variation in output
growth. Easterly and Levine (2001) argue that the major
empirical regularities of economic growth indicate an
important role for the residual rather than for factor accumulation.

Second, unlike most previous
studies, which rely on the method of Olley and Pakes
(1996) or Levinsohn and Petrin (2003) to construct TFP,
we use a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM)
estimator (Blundell and Bond 1998). We believe it is
important to use this approach as many studies have shown
that firms have (unmeasured) productivity advantages that
persist over time, which need to be captured.

Our results indicate increasing returns to scale in the
majority of industries and a (usually large) positive time
trend representing technical change.

we calculate TFP using a Cobb-Douglas log-linear
production function approach including fixed effects. The
inclusion of fixed effects is necessary as empirical evidence
using firm-level panel data consistently shows that firms
are heterogeneous (productivity distributions are significantly
‘spread’ out with large ‘tails’ of firms with low
TFP), but more importantly that the distribution is persistent—
firms typically spend long periods in the same part of
the distribution (see, for instance, Bartelsman and Dhrymes
1998; Haskel 2000; and Martin 2008). Such persistence
suggests that firms have ‘fixed’ characteristics (associated
with access to different path dependent (in)tangible
resources, managerial and other capabilities) that change
little through time, and thus need to be modeled. In the
light of these considerations, we estimate the following

** Younger firms more productive

Firm age is found to affect TFP significantly and negatively
for most industries. This is consistent with the
belief that younger firms produce with greater efficiency
and better technology than older firms. Obviously the
hypothesis that productivity increases as the firm ages
through learning-by-doing is not supported by our data for

(Interesting articles with many references on productivty determinants)


Contemporary Economic Policy (ISSN 1465-7287)
Vol. 34, No. 3, July 2016, 572–586
Online Early publication October 23,

the measured TFP fails to provide true technology shocks if one of the assumptions is violated.

This section summarizes the theoretical background of estimating embodied technical
progress simultaneously with disembodied technical progress when there are scale economies
and imperfect competition. An empirical framework developed here will extend the model of
Kim (2014) to include a variety of factors that have influence on technical change.

We use the Japan Industrial Productivity (JIP)
Database 2011, which comprises various variables
necessary to estimate TFP for the Japanese
economy. Based on the database, we compile a
panel of 52 manufacturing industries for the year
1973–2010, from which we can construct all the
variables required for estimation.

Estimates of Determinants for Japanese Durable Manufacturing Productivity

Average TFP growth (Δ¯a)
Impact of trade
Interindustry externality
Embodied technology
Technology and market environment

The results suggest significant influence of
embodied technical progress on productivity
growth for the Japanese manufacturing industry,
which should be isolated from disembodied
technical progress in estimating the impact of
factor determinants of the productivity growth.

Technology embodied in the physical capital,
not the capital itself, determines productivity
growth. On the other hand, coefficient estimates
of R&D investment are statistically insignificant
in every model, suggesting technology acquired
from R&D investment generates productivity
growth when embodied into physical and
human capital.
For interindustry externality, IT investment of
the total manufacturing industry has positively
significant effects on productivity growth,

For globalization and trade, openness has a
negative and significant influence on productivity

Estimation results show that coefficient
estimates of technologies embodied in human
capital, physical capital, and IT capital are all
positively significant, suggesting the existence
of considerable embodied technical progress for
the Japanese manufacturing industry. Furthermore,
including embodied technical progress
renders the impact of physical and R&D capital
on productivity growth insignificant, implying
that R&D impacts are realized only after being
embodied into other capitals.

The Economic Journal, 126 (May), 654–681.Doi: 10.1111/ecoj.12373©2016 Royal Economic Society. Published by

JohnWiley & Sons, 9600 Garsington
Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA.


Maria Cubel, Ana Nuevo-Chiquero, Santiago Sanchez-Pages and Marian Vidal-Fernandez

Despite the large body of literature on the determinants of labour force earnings, a substantial part of the wage inequality across and even within a range of demographic characteristics and occupations still remains unexplained. In his seminal work, Becker (1964) highlighted the relevance of cognitive skills in explaining earning differences. However, variations in cognitive abilities fail to account fully for the residual wage inequality.

Within the set of non-cognitive skills, personality traits are one of the most relevant instruments in the study of differences in earnings. Mueller and Plug (2006) show that the effect of personality traits on earnings is of similar magnitude to the one of cognitive skills.

Recent studies have linked job performance and wages to the so-called ‘Big Five’ personality traits: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism (Heckman et al., 2006; Fletcher, 2013).

This article uses a laboratory experiment to directly test the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and individual productivity (claimed as the first article to use the methodology in this area).

 Nyhus and Pons (2005) report a negative correlation between neuroticism and wages for
both men and women, and a negative correlation of agreeableness with wages for women only.

To summarise the literature reviewed, the take home messages are:

(i) neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently correlated with lower earnings while more conscientious individuals present better labour market outcomes;
(ii) gender differences in the effects of personality traits can contribute to explain the gender wage gap; and
(iii) the estimated effect of personality is of comparable magnitude to that of cognitive skills.


This trait is defined as lack of emotional stability and predictability and by the presence of mood changes, anxiety and insecurity. Neuroticism has been consistently found to hinder wages.
Hence, hypothesis is that high levels of neuroticism should be correlated with low
performance in our experiment.

This trait measures the extent to which individuals are careful, responsible and hard
working. Because it is associated to efficient, organised, achievement-oriented and selfdisciplined
individuals, conscientiousness shows a consistent positive relation with labour market outcomes. In a similar way, we expect a positive relationship between conscientiousness and performance in our experiment, because being careful, efficient and focused should improve accuracy in the task.

Individuals who are open to new experiences are typically imaginative, artistic, curious,
creative and intellectually oriented. In their laboratory study, M€uller and Schwieren (2012) observe a negative correlation between openness and performance in the same addition task under piece-rate payment, albeit in a five-minute round. Our conjecture is that this  result might be driven by creative and artistic individuals who are likely to find the task repetitive and boring. They might also be more likely to engage in the experiment, as a new experience, but the characteristics of the task are likely to countervail this initial positive effect. Therefore, we expect a negative net effect of openness on performance in our task.

Survey evidence suggests that the overall effect of agreeableness on labour market outcomes is negative.

The facet of extraversion associated to ambition could have a positive impact on performance.

The hypotheses tested in the paper are:
HYPOTHESIS 1. Neuroticism is negatively associated with performance.
HYPOTHESIS 2. Conscientiousness is positively associated with performance.
HYPOTHESIS 3. Openness has a negative relationship with perforitude.


The Big Five personality traits are jointly significant and the individual scores are largely consistent with our hypotheses. As in the previous literature using survey data and in line with our hypothesis H1, more neurotic subjects perform significantly worse in our task:

Our hypothesis regarding conscientiousness (H2) is also supported. We find a positive and significant effect of this trait on performance, in line with the results obtained in both the economics and the psychology literatures. The coefficients for agreeableness and openness are, although insignificant, negative and of sizeable magnitude

Sunday, November 12, 2017

Vanadium Redox-Flow Storage Batteries

The patent for this battery was filed in 1986 by inventors - Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, Miron Rychick, Robert Robins


In the Chinese port city of Dalian, a plant is opened by Rongke Power to manufacture 300 MWs of storage batteries based on this technology. The plant has expansion plans to increase capacity to 3 GWs per year.

Empowerment and Productivity

Empowerment and Productivity

empowerment can be used to increase employee productivity, organizational commitment, job
satisfaction, and innovativeness (Spreitzer, 1995; Lawler, Mohrman, and Ledford, 1992, 1995;
Neilsen and Pedersen, 2003; Kirkman and Rosen, 1999; Guthrie, 2001).

Sergio Fernandez and Tima Moldogaziev  "A Causal Model of the Empowerment Process: Exploring the Links between Empowerment Practices, Employee Cognitions, and Behavioral Outcomes"
Paper presented at the 11th National Public Management Research Conference,
Maxwell School, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, June 2-4, 2011.

Human resource productivity: Altin and Lars (2005) believed that productivity index in the services sector depends on human factors (human resource). Japan productivity center (JPC) introduced to increase productivity of employees in three factors: development of employees is included empowerment and their education, participative management, justice and equitable distribution (understanding of employees from equitable distribution and productivity growth); likewise, this center (JPC) knows factors of speed of operations, quality of operations, unit cost, job flexibility, people commitment, right communications, understanding of productivity, satisfaction and
quality of work life and goodness of people participation as indexes of people productivity (Stainer, 1997). Savery (1998) in the his study was stated main factors of people productivity in organization:
satisfaction of people from work and work life, flexible work-time, participative of employees with managers, motivation and attempt of managers and employees, continuous planning and up-date technology, education and empowerment o people, effective management, intelligence of people, pay and reward systems, view ofmanagement about productivity (positive or negative / continuous or sort-term) and finally the moral and commitment of employees about their job, careers and organization and responsibility. Ozbiligin (2005) knows the most important factors of human resource productivity are included creativity, pay levels, capability and skills of people, how to job path and position of people in organization, kind of management on them and organizational
flexibility. Wysocki & et al. (2006) were expressed that influence of human resource productivity in the today’s world is as a fact and also were said about factors which can affect on this face that are included: nature of  job and personality (appropriation of job and employee), motivation (financial and spirituality), job awareness and understanding, job satisfaction, QWL and participating people in organization activities, participating people in action and activity, importance to employees by CEO and not just important to work and finally having fair treatment with employees. Create areas of participation and corporation, use follower commands in creating objectives and pay attention to human behaviors, removing confrontations and contradictions, removing communication barriers are factors which cause to increase productivity in organization, likewise observing performance standards and attempt to improvement it, pay attention to satisfaction from kind of work and job,
knowing the important of work and understanding the beneficial of work are agents which increasing productivity(Khaki, 2007).

J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 1(10)1603-1610, 2011
Journal of Basic and AppliedScientific Research

The Relationship between Empowerment and Human Resource Productivity in Organization
Noor-Mohammad Yaghoobi, Jamshid Moloudi , Omolbanin Azadikhah

Advantages of employee empowerment include: increased employee education and training;
employees participate in creating their own goals; increased employee contribution; increased
respect among employees secondary to teamwork; increased power equals lower absenteeism
and better productivity; employees have more satisfying work; an increased depth of competence among employees secondary to cross-training; less conflict with administration and managers; fewer middle management positions means decreased cost to the company. Employees are more likely to agree with changes if they participate in decision making.

Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Business, Economics, Finance and
Social Sciences (GB15_Thai Conference) ISBN: 978-1-941505-22-9
Bangkok, Thailand, 20-22 February 2015 Paper ID: T567

Empowerment as a New Approach in the Management
Hamid Saremi,
Department of Accounting,
Islamic Azad University,
Quchan, Iran.

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Strategic Total Productivity Optimization

Article by Mohanty

Optimize productivity of assets and processes

R. Murugesh, S.R. Devadasan, P. Aravindan, R. Natarajan, (1997) "The adoption and modelling of the strategic productivity management approach in manufacturing systems", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 17 Iss: 3, pp.239 - 255

Strategic Transition from Efficiency to Productivity

October 2017

Extended lean toolkit for total productivity

By Matt Gentzel, Carl March, Alan Osan, and Ken Somers

Bela Gold
Foundations of Strategic Planning for Productivity Improvement
Interfaces May/June 1985 15:15-30;

Productivity, strategy, and the CEO
Robert Janson†
National Productivity Review
Volume 3, Issue 1, pages 78–83, Winter 1983

Updated  1 November 2017,  20 November 2016,  19 August 2013

Identified Challenges in Industrial Engineering - Proposed Solutions and Evolution of the Discipline and Profession

Industrial Engineering was started as an academic discipline in Penn State University's mechanical engineering department in 1908. It progressed over the last 100 years with many additions and may be some deletions in its area of work. At periodic intervals, scholars have pointed out challenges to the discipline and solutions were proposed to deal with those situations. In this articles, some of those articles will be indicated and important points made by them are also collected. Papers that came out with some solutions are also mentioned.


The Challenge of a Changing Society to Industrial Engineering, F.G. Willemze, IJPR 1982

Industrial engineering is not a relic; it is a fundamental function.

The aim of industrial engineering is also therefore 'efficient use of all production means-including labor and management within the policy and strategyof the company.'

I.E. developed into a specialty aimed at productivity, using fairly complicated aids and techniques, which in turn demanded considerable knowledge and experience.

Within the production process, productivity could not in the long run be sufficiently measured in the unit of  time. Explaining it in terms of money seemed more adequate. Standard cost calculation is therefore a technique which has been incorporated with considerable success by industrial engineers.

Are there other points of contact in the national cultures which will lead to completely different solutions?

In the course of years, there have been considerable shift in cost elements: from direct manual labor to indirect (particularly to preparatory work) and machine costs. Development and design costs, depreciation, maintenance, and expenditure for administrative services form the major part of added value.

A proposed solution to maintenance productivity: Tom Westerkamp, "Plan for Maintenance Productivity", IIE Solutions, August 2001, pp. 36-41.



Moreover, an industrial engineer of the future will have to be a lifelong learner with ongoing will to
adapt and to learn new approaches and new technologies since they are changing constantly with every new invention. Another very important challenge will be how to learn how to bridge the gap between invention and innovation. Adapting new ideas to feasible products and develop appropriate and cost effective manufacturing systems and processes will always be one of the main concerns of an industrial engineers.

Industrial engineering discipline and professionals have to focus on productivity of each new technology (product/process) as it comes into existence?  Are IE and IEs doing it effectively and with good visibility?


Presenter: Ben Wang, Ph.D., executive director, Georgia Tech Manufacturing Institute

Join us for this preview of a unique forum for IE practitioners, administrators and researchers that will take place at the 2014 IIE Annual Conference and Expo

Monday, October 16, 2017

Behavioral Approach to Productivity and Productivity Management

Participative management system

Managing productivity in organizations : a practical, people-oriented perspective

This book provides information on the effects of several behavioural science techniques that are believed to improve productivity in organisations.

Managing productivity in organizations : a practical, people-oriented perspective

Richard E. Kopelman.
New York : McGraw-Hill, c1986.

Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes pp 15-30 |
Human-Oriented Productivity Management as a Key Criterion for Success in the Digitalised Working World

Patricia Stock, Sascha Stowasser

The world of work and business is constantly changing. At the moment, the digitalisation megatrend is significantly changing framework conditions for companies with a range of new requirements. Within this context, a growing desire for more flexibility, which can be achieved thanks to new developments in information and communication technology, can be seen both at companies and among employees. To ensure the long-term success of digitalisation at companies, work must be organised with a human-oriented focus in all operating areas. Human orientation has both a direct as well as an indirect impact on productivity. For efficient human-oriented productivity management, new methods and tools in industrial engineering are required, which would allow the digitalised working world to be analysed and shaped.

Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes: 2016 - Book Information

Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of GfA 2016

Christopher Marc Schlick, Sönke Duckwitz, Frank Flemisch, Martin Frenz, Sinem Kuz, Alexander Mertens, Susanne Mütze-Niewöhner
Springer, 01-Feb-2017 - Technology & Engineering - 366 pages

These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research field represented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (GfA) in the German-speaking area, held at Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics of RWTH Aachen University from March 2–4. The meeting featured more than 200 presentations and 36 posters reflecting the diversity of subject matter in the field of human and industrial engineering. This volume addresses human factors and safety specialists, industrial engineers, work and organizational psychologists, occupational medicines as well as production planners and design engineers.

Christopher Marc Schlick - Check for his articles

Interesting articles

Human-Oriented Productivity Management as a Key Criterion for Success in the Digitalised Working World
Patricia Stock, Sascha Stowasser
Pages 15-30

Fields of Action for Work Design in Industrie 4.0
Tim Jeske, Frank Lennings
Pages 61-72
Skilled Workers: Are They the Losers of “Industry 4.0”?
Georg Spöttl
Pages 73-87
Work Requirements and Qualifications in Maintenance 4.0
Lars Windelband
Pages 89-102

Training Interventions to Increase Innovation and Productivity in Age-Diverse Teams
K. Küper, W. Rivkin, K.-H. Schmidt
Pages 115-124

Front Matter
Pages i-ix

Best-Practice Approach for a Solution-Oriented Technology Assessment: Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in the Context of Human-Robot Collaboration
Jochen Nelles, Susanne Kohns, Julia Spies, Christina Bröhl, Christopher Brandl, Alexander Mertens et al.
Pages 1-14

Human-Oriented Productivity Management as a Key Criterion for Success in the Digitalised Working World
Patricia Stock, Sascha Stowasser
Pages 15-30

Recource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem: Investigation of the Quality of Project Plans
Sven Tackenberg, Sönke Duckwitz, Christina Schmalz, Christopher Marc Schlick
Pages 31-59

Fields of Action for Work Design in Industrie 4.0
Tim Jeske, Frank Lennings
Pages 61-72
Skilled Workers: Are They the Losers of “Industry 4.0”?
Georg Spöttl
Pages 73-87
Work Requirements and Qualifications in Maintenance 4.0
Lars Windelband
Pages 89-102

Development of a Business Game for Teaching the Kanban Method
David Brown, Sven Hinrichsen, Melissa Paris
Pages 103-114

Training Interventions to Increase Innovation and Productivity in Age-Diverse Teams
K. Küper, W. Rivkin, K.-H. Schmidt
Pages 115-124

Change into an Ergonomic 3 Shift Model with a Reduction of the Night Shifts for All Workers
Corinna Jaeger
Pages 125-133
Vocational Competency Management Through the Use of Serious Games: Opportunities and Risks Using the Example of the Harbour Industry
Daniela Ahrens, Sven Schulte
Pages 135-148
Retirement Research Requires a Broad View and Interdiciplinarity
Hans Martin Hasselhorn, Melanie Ebener, Wenke Apt
Pages 149-158
Age-Differentiated Analysis of the Influence of Task Descriptions on Learning Sensorimotor Tasks
Francoise Kuhlenbäumer, Philipp Przybysz, Susanne Mütze-Niewöhner, Christopher Marc Schlick
Pages 159-175
The Potential of Virtual Interactive Learning Environments for Individual and Organizational Learning: An Example for the Maintenance of Electrical Equipment
Michael Dick, Tina Haase, Wilhelm Termath
Pages 177-190
Designing Rooms for Virtual, Informal Communication: Reciprocal Awareness as a Central Criterion
Corsin Flepp, Michael Imhof, Gregory Meier, Thomas Ryser, Roger Burkhard, Hartmut Schulze et al.
Pages 191-208
Analysis of the Stress and Strain of Repetitive Assembly Tasks
Markus Jürgen Heidl, Alexandre Boespflug
Pages 209-218
Analysis and Evaluation of Physical Workload During Long-Cyclic Tasks as a Prerequisite for Ergonomic Work Design
Dorothee Müglich, Karlheinz Schaub, Bastian Kaiser, Steffen Rast, Lukas Bier, Katharina Rönick et al.
Pages 219-232
Walking “Normally” vs. “Sideways” in Simulated, Simple Assembly Operations: Analysis of Muscular Strain in the Legs
Jurij Wakula, Dorothee Müglich, Ralph Bruder
Pages 233-245
Analysis of a Multimodal Human-Robot-Interface in Terms of Mental Workload
Marc Schneider, Barbara Deml
Pages 247-260
How to Evaluate the Usability of Smart Devices as Conceivable Work Assistance: A Systematic Review
Jan Terhoeven, Sascha Wischniewski
Pages 261-274

Menu Styles of Mobile Devices and Their Influence on Gaze Behavior While Walking
Jessica Conradi, Bjoern Nord, Thomas Alexander
Pages 275-288
An Age-Differentiated Perspective on Visualizations of Personal Health Data
Sabine Theis, Peter Rasche, Alexander Mertens, Christopher Marc Schlick
Pages 289-308
How the Duration of Automated Driving Influences Take-Over Performance and Gaze Behavior
Anna Feldhütter, Christian Gold, Sonja Schneider, Klaus Bengler
Pages 309-318
Uncanny and Unsafe Valley of Assistance and Automation: First Sketch and Application to Vehicle Automation
Frank Flemisch, Eugen Altendorf, Yigiterkut Canpolat, Gina Weßel, Marcel Baltzer, Daniel Lopez et al.
Pages 319-334
Man-Robot Collaboration in the Context of Industry 4.0: Approach-Avoidance Tendencies as an Indicator for the Affective Quality of Interaction?
Gerhard Rinkenauer, Adrian Böckenkamp, Frank Weichert
Pages 335-348
Joint Angle Depending Representation of Maximum Forces in Digital Human Models: Investigating Multivariate Joint-Torque Polynomials for Elbow Flexion and Elbow Extension
André Kaiser, Michael Spitzhirn, Angelika C. Bullinger
Pages 349-366

Work Systems - Definition and Evolution of Work Systems Design in Industrial Engineering

ISO 6385:2016 Preview
Ergonomics principles in the design of work systems

ISO 6385:2016 establishes the fundamental principles of ergonomics as basic guidelines for the design of work systems and defines relevant basic terms. It describes an integrated approach to the design of work systems, where ergonomists will cooperate with others involved in the design, with attention to the human, the social and the technical requirements in a balanced manner during the design process.

Users of this International Standard will include executives, managers, workers (and their representatives, when appropriate) and professionals, such as ergonomists, project managers and designers who are involved in the design or redesign of work systems. Those who use this International Standard can find a general knowledge of ergonomics (human factors), engineering, design, quality and project management helpful.

The term "work system" in this International Standard is used to indicate a large variety of working situations, including permanent and flexible work places. The intention of this International Standard is to assist in the improvement, (re)design or change of work systems. Work systems involve combinations of workers and equipment, within a given space and environment, and the interactions between these components within a work organization. Work systems vary in complexity and characteristics, for example, the use of temporary work systems. Some examples of work systems in different areas are the following:

- production, e.g. machine operator and machine, worker and assembly line;

- transportation, e.g. driver and car or lorry, personnel in an airport;

- support, e.g. maintenance technician with work equipment;

- commercial, e.g. office worker with workstation, mobile worker with a tablet computer, cook in a restaurant kitchen;

- other areas like health care, teaching and training.

The observance of ergonomic principles applies to all phases throughout the life cycle of the work system from conception through development, realization and implementation, utilization, maintenance and support to decommissioning.

The systems approach in this International Standard gives guidance to the users of this International Standard in existing and new situations.

The definitions and ergonomic principles specified in this International Standard apply to the design of optimal working conditions with regard to human well-being, safety and health, including the development of existing skills and the acquisition of new ones, while taking into account technological and economic effectiveness and efficiency.

The principles in this International Standard are applicable to many other human activities, e.g. in the design of products for domestic and leisure activities. A more general description of the principles in this International Standard can be found in ISO 26800.


IISE Work Systems Division members have an interest in the art, science, and practice of designing, implementing, analyzing and improving human-machine systems that work together to produce goods and provide services.

Vision (what we want to become)
Work Systems Division is to be the leading source for promoting advancements in the science, mathematics, and engineering principles that define work systems.
The Work Systems Division inspires those with an interest in designing, implementing, analyzing, and improving Work Systems in all environments (terrestrial, subterranean, underwater, atmospheric, outer space, cyberspace, etc.).
Mission (what we are doing today)
The Work Systems Division primary focus is on defining/establishing a work systems framework and scientific approach to design, standardization, measurement, analysis and optimization.

"A work system is a system in which human participants and/or machines perform work using information, technology, and other resources to produce products and/or services for internal or external customers. Typical business organizations contain work systems that procure materials from suppliers, produce and deliver products or services to customers, find customers, create financial reports, hire employees, coordinate work across departments, and perform many other functions.

The work system concept is a common denominator for many types of systems that operate within or across organizations."

Holitistic Work System Design and Management - Oulu Phd thesis

Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics: Visions, Concepts, Methods and Tools Festschrift in Honor of Professor Holger Luczak

Christopher M. Schlick
Springer Science & Business Media, 03-Oct-2009 - Technology & Engineering - 710 pages

The 60th birthday of Prof. Luczak is the reason for this book. He will be honoured for his research work during the "GfA-confernece" in March 2009. This book is the correspondig "Festschrift" for him.

Age-Differentiated Work Systems

Christopher Marc Schlick, Ekkehart Frieling, Jürgen Wegge
Springer Science & Business Media, 14-Mar-2013 - Technology & Engineering - 448 pages

The disproportionate aging of the population of working age in many nations around the world is a unique occurrence in the history of humankind. In the light of demographic change, it is becoming increasingly important to develop and use the potential of older employees.

This edited volume Age-differentiated Work Systems provides a final report on a six-year priority program funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and presents selected research findings of 17 interdisciplinary project teams. The idea is that it will serve both as a reference book and overview of the current state of research in ergonomics, occupational psychology and related disciplines. It provides new models, methods, and procedures for analyzing and designing age-differentiated work systems with the aim of supporting subject matter experts from different areas in their decisions on labor and employment policies. Therefore over 40 laboratory experiments involving 2,000 participants and 50 field studies involving over 25,000 employees were conducted.

Further objectives of the edited volume were to provide a pluridisciplinary compilation of the extensive information acquired over the six-year program period, to illustrate the range of the research field, and to convey an integrated understanding of age-differentiated work systems to readers.

Sunday, October 15, 2017

Work Systems Engineering - Groover

Work in work systems refers to human work

Work Is our primary means of livelihood
Serves an important economic function in the global world of commerce
Creates opportunities for social interactions and friendships
Provides the products and services that sustain and improve our standard of living

Work is an activity in which one exerts physical and mental effort to accomplish a given task or perform a duty
Task or duty has some useful objective
Worker applies skills and knowledge for successful completion
The activity has commercial value
The worker is compensated

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work
by Mikell P. Groover, 2007
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Machine Based Industrial Engineering - Japanese Practice - Karakuri Kaizen

Karakuri in Japanese  “からくり改善”

Machine Based Industrial Engineering - Narayana Rao

Prof. Narayana Rao indicated that while Taylor and Gilbreth advocated improvement of both machine and work of man for increasing productivity, Industrial engineering discipline and profession gradually neglected machine improvement. The technical component of IE gradually deteriorated so that engineering disciplines started considering IE as a non-engineering discipline and they termed it imaginary engineering (where engineering is not present).

But Japanese IE has emphasized machine improvement appropriately and came out with ideas like SMED and Poka-Yoke. Japanese IE practices Karakuri Kaizen or production equipment improvement for productivity improvement.

You can get an idea of Japanese practice from the information of the training programme brochure by JIIE.

Production equipment and improvement tools - the IE viewpoint

 Production Equipment / Improvement Tools from the IE Perspective and Approach

Theme Strengthen manufacturing skills at the site by "Karakuri technology"

Organized by a Faculty from
Ishikawa Improvement Technology Laboratory

While the market change is intense, large-scale investment in factories and lines becomes a major management risk, already proved in the consumer electronics industry where management has deteriorated due to sluggish TV sales. It is better to reduce the burden of depreciation and amortization and to accumulate production technology capabilities and facility conservation capabilities by making inexpensive small equipment improvements.

Every year "Karakuri improvement Ⓡ" efforts are becoming active and productive. It is also important to know the mechanism of this improvement effort. It is important to learn the point of view or the idea of ​​ingenuity to improve the analytical ability and imagination of engineers.
In this seminar, you can focus on the following things.

Concept of instruments that activate work improvement in the workplace · Points of focus on improvement of semi-automated line equipment · Point of view of small scale capacity automation line resistant to demand change (that can accommodate changes in demand)

Expected results of attendance (expected effect)

You can learn the point of view of jigs & fixture and other facilities to improve the factory  and improvement techniques for realization.

As demand in the market becomes more and more uncertain, you can build a factory with a small capacity that avoids risks and can acquire the secret for realizing the line and equipment suitable for it.

What is "Karakuri technology"?

In order to flexibly respond to changes in demand, it is necessary to switch to small-scale manufacturing, and it is devising means of "kaizen" and "Karakuri" to realize it.

About the faculty experience
The opinion that production technology should proceed with both "IE-like method" and "technology innovation", was used while developing the planning of device / semiconductor production line and equipment fixture.  Over the years he has  been in charge of improving the productivity of production sites and improving the quality yield the  company. As a slogan "To further evolve the site with cheap and compact equipment and fixtures", while conducting work improvement at the factory, quality improvement and guidance on inventory reduction, as "Karakuri technology".  Having developed human resources and guidance of technology, he helped the company and showed  great results. After leaving the company in 2009, he entered into business as a lecturer of the IE Association and a senior talent advisor related to the above based on his own experience.

Program contents

1. "Self-developed" Karakuri technology "developed with cell production"
· Cell production born in the consumer electronics industry · Point of view of equipment supporting small-scale cell production · Key to develop into cell production in equipment type industry · Background called "Karakuri technology"

2. "Points of focus on Improvement Tools that Activate the Site"
· "Mottainai" is the origin of monozukuri · IE's idea power required for engineers · Physical applications · mechanisms familiar to improvement tools are focused on taking each combination part of straight / rotational / circular motion (Including exercises)

3. "Points of focus for making a difference"
· Fundamentals to realize cheap and small jig equipment · Focus on "functions" that generate added value · Factors of cost increase · Focus on examples of devising fixtures and equipment · Pokayoke's tricks are " Focusing on (including exercises)
· Imagination makes creativity

4. "Autonomous production line collecting wisdom"
· Step by step expansion of production line · Basic idea of ​​in-house equipment · Concept and point of view of production line // realization · Improvement examples

5."Human Resource Development and Activities"
· Training of collapsed human resources and problems at the work site · Curriculum for thinking and training of technicians · Activities developed throughout the company · Measures for reforming awareness of engineers and improving technical skills

6. "Summary"
· Q & A

For More Information on Karakuri in English Visit

Industrial Engineering in Telugu - పారిశ్రామిక ఇంజనీరింగ్ - ఇండస్ట్రియల్ ఇంజనీరింగ్

పారిశ్రామిక ఇంజనీరింగ్ 【 IE 】 ఇండస్ట్రియల్ ఇంజనీరింగ్

పరిశ్రమల ఇంజనీరింగ్ అనేది కంపెనీలు మరియు ఇతర సంస్థలకు ఉత్పత్తులను ఉత్పత్తి చేయడానికి మరియు సేవలను అందించడానికి వివిధ వనరులను సమర్థవంతంగా ఉపయోగించేందుకు శాస్త్రీయ పద్ధతుల వ్యవస్థ. ఇంజనీరింగ్ విభాగాల్లో ఇది ఒకటి.

శాస్త్రీయ పద్ధతుల ద్వారా విశ్లేషణ మరియు మెరుగుపరుస్తున్న సాంకేతిక పరిజ్ఞానం మరియు విజ్ఞానం ద్వారా మానవ వనరులు, సామగ్రి, సామగ్రి, నిధులు, సమాచారం, సమయం మొదలైన వనరులను సమర్థవంతంగా ఉపయోగించుకోవడం ద్వారా తక్కువ వనరులతో వ్యాపారాన్ని త్వరగా అమలు చేయడానికి అది అర్థం. విస్తృతమైన అర్థంలో, సాధారణంగా నిర్వహణ మరియు కార్పొరేట్ కార్యకలాపాల కోసం శాస్త్రీయ నిర్వహణ పద్ధతులు ఉన్నాయి, కానీ ఒక ఇరుకైన అర్థంలో సాధారణంగా కర్మాగారాలు మరియు ఇతర సైట్లలో ఉత్పత్తి కార్యకలాపాల సామర్థ్యాన్ని మరియు హేతుబద్ధీకరణను ప్రోత్సహించడానికి ఒక పద్ధతిగా చెప్పవచ్చు ఇది తరచుగా అర్థంలో ఉపయోగిస్తారు.

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పారిశ్రామిక ఇంజనీరింగ్ లో  ప్రవర్తన విశ్లేషణ

 పని విశ్లేషణ

ఈ వ్యాసంలో, "ప్రవర్తన విశ్లేషణ" లేదా "చలన విశ్లేషణ" పద్ధతి నుండి మోషన్ విశ్లేషణను మేము పరిశీలిస్తాము, ఇది ఇండస్ట్రియల్ ఇంజనీరింగ్ (ఇఇ) రంగంలో ప్రవర్తన విశ్లేషణ పద్ధతి.

మోషన్ విశ్లేషణ ఏమిటి ?

అన్నింటిలో మొదటిది, "ప్రవర్తన విశ్లేషణ"
"ఒక పని" లేదా "ఒక చక్రం పని" కోసం కార్మికుల "ఆపరేషన్ కంటెంట్లు" యొక్క వివరణాత్మక పరిశీలన మరియు విశ్లేషణ

మోషన్ విశ్లేషణ కోసం

ఈ ప్రవర్తన విశ్లేషణ యొక్క ప్రయోజనం ఏమిటి?
పరస్పర సంబంధాన్ని వివరించే "పని", "చర్యలు" లోకి విశ్లేషించడం ... మరియు "వృత్తి చికిత్సకుడు ద్వారా పని విశ్లేషణ యొక్క ప్రయోజనం మరియు పద్ధతి, ప్రవర్తన విశ్లేషణ మరియు కార్యాచరణ విశ్లేషణ మధ్య తేడా గురించి ఆలోచిస్తూ! మేము మోషన్ విశ్లేషణ ప్రయోజనం గురించి మాట్లాడుతున్నారు.
పారిశ్రామిక ఇంజనీరింగ్ రంగంలో,

కార్మికుల పనిని వివరంగా వివరంగా విశ్లేషించడం ద్వారా, వాటిలో అనవసరమైన చర్యలను తొలగించి, తక్కువ అలసటతో ఆర్ధిక చర్యల క్రమం మరియు కలయికను నిర్ణయిస్తారు.

మోషన్ విశ్లేషణ విధానం

సో, ఈ ప్రవర్తన విశ్లేషణ పద్ధతి, ఏ రకమైన విషయం ఉంది?
క్రింది రెండు విభాగాలుగా విభజించబడినట్లయితే రెండు ప్రధాన పద్ధతులున్నాయి.

①సర్విబ్ విశ్లేషణ
సాబిగ్ విశ్లేషణ ఏమిటి?

సర్వే విశ్లేషణ అనేది ఫ్రాంక్ · బ్యాంకర్ · గిల్బ్రేజ్ · సీనియర్ (FBGilbreth, 1868-1924) "రూపొందించిన మోషన్ రీసెర్చ్ పద్ధతి, ఇది అమెరికన్ పని యొక్క మార్గదర్శిగా ఉంది.
దీనిని మైక్రో మోషన్ విశ్లేషణ అని కూడా పిలుస్తారు.
ఈ విశ్లేషణ పద్ధతిలో, ఒక వ్యక్తి ఏదో పని చేసేటప్పుడు ప్రాథమిక చర్యలను 18 రకాల రకాలుగా (సర్వ్లెట్స్) విభజించవచ్చు, ప్రతి ఒక్కటి నిర్వచించవచ్చు మరియు ప్రస్తావించి, దానిని చేయవచ్చు.

మార్గం ద్వారా, "సాబ్రిగ్"

ఆసక్తికరమైన! !
సర్రోగ్ (Therblig) గుర్తు గురించి

ఇది ఒక చార్ట్లో మిస్టర్ FB గిల్బ్రేజ్ = ఒక సర్రోగ్ (ఉద్యమం) ద్వారా వర్గీకరించబడిన ఒక మానవుడి యొక్క ప్రాథమిక 18 ప్రవర్తనను చూపుతుంది.
మేము ఈ 18 జంతువులను ఎక్కువగా మూడుగా వర్గీకరించాము.

1 వ రకం

మొదటి వర్గం తొమ్మిది చర్యలు ప్రధానంగా ఉన్నత అవయవాలతో పనిచేయడానికి అవసరం.
ఆ పనిని చేయటానికి అవసరమైన అంశం.

విస్తరించు: రవాణా ఖాళీ [unloaded] (TE)
పట్టుకోండి: గ్రహించు (జి)
రవాణా: రవాణా లోడెడ్ (TL)
స్థానం నిర్ణయం: స్థానం (పి)
సమీకరించడం: సమీకరించటం (ఎ)
యంత్ర భాగాలను విడదీయడం: యంత్ర భాగాలను విడదీయు (DA)
· ఉపయోగించండి: ఉపయోగించండి (U)
రిలీజ్: రిలీజ్ లోడ్ (RL)
· పరిశీలన: తనిఖీ (I)
క్లాస్ 2

రెండవ వర్గం ప్రధానంగా జ్ఞాన అవయవాలు, మెదడులను ఉపయోగించే ఐదు చర్యలు.
వర్గం ఒకటి అంశాలను నెమ్మదిగా ఒక ధోరణి ఉంది.

· శోధన: శోధన
వెతుకుము: వెతుకుము
· ఎంచుకోండి: ఎంచుకోండి
థింకింగ్: ప్లాన్
· సిద్ధం: పూర్వస్థితి (PP)

తరగతి 3

మూడవ వర్గం పని కోసం అనవసరంగా నాలుగు చర్యలు అవుతుంది.
దీని పని ఆధునికం కాదు.

పట్టుకొని ఉంచండి: పట్టుకోండి
తప్పించుకోలేని ఆలస్యం: తప్పించుకోలేని ఆలస్యం (UD)
నివారించగల ఆలస్యం: నివారించగల ఆలస్యం (AD)
· మిగిలిన: విశ్రాంతి
సురాబ్రి విశ్లేషణ ద్వారా పనిని మెరుగుపరచడానికి దశలు

తదుపరి దశలో సెర్బిగ్ విశ్లేషణ ద్వారా మేము పని మెరుగుపరుస్తాము.

① ఈ ప్రక్రియ ప్రతి ప్రక్రియ కోసం విశ్లేషించబడుతుంది, మరియు అది పైన పేర్కొన్న "సర్వబగ్ సంకేతం" తో సంగ్రహించబడుతుంది.
"మొత్తం" వర్గం 2 "మరియు" వర్గం 3 "యొక్క నిష్పత్తిని అధ్యయనం చేయండి.
Pro నిష్పత్తి పెద్దగా ఉంటే, అక్కడ పనిలో వ్యర్థం ఉందని మరియు మెరుగైన ప్రణాళికను పరిగణనలోకి తీసుకుంటున్నారని నిర్ధారించండి.

ఇది ఒక ప్రవాహం అవుతుంది.

ఉదాహరణకు, మీరు వర్గం 2 యొక్క ఆలోచన "ఆలోచన" తో ఎక్కువ సమయాన్ని తీసుకుంటే, "మాన్యువల్ లేదా మేమో" లేదా మెరుగుపరచడం వంటి వాటిని మెరుగుపరచడానికి లేదా దాన్ని తగ్గించడానికి "కాల్ చేయండి" గా మీరు ప్రతిపాదించవచ్చు.

సినిమా విశ్లేషణ

చలన చిత్ర విశ్లేషణ అనేది ఆపరేషన్ మరియు ఆపరేషన్ సమయం వస్తువు యొక్క పనిని "షూటింగ్" చేసి మరోసారి ఫ్రేమ్ను విశ్లేషించడం ద్వారా "మెరుగుదలకు" ఒక పద్ధతి.

కింది విధంగా విశ్లేషణ కోసం రెండు పద్ధతులు ఉన్నాయి.

మెమో మోషన్ విశ్లేషణ

చలన విశ్లేషణతో షూటింగ్ తక్కువ వేగంతో పడుతుంది.
ఇది చిత్రం లో ఈ వంటి ఉంది!

ఈ మెమో మోషన్ విశ్లేషణ కోసం "పని అభివృద్ధి" పేర్కొనబడింది.

② మైక్రో మోషన్ విశ్లేషణ

మేము మైక్రో మోషన్ విశ్లేషణతో షూటింగ్ కోసం "అధిక వేగం షూటింగ్" ఉపయోగించండి.
ఇది చిత్రం లో ఈ వంటి ఉంది!

ఇది స్లో మోషన్ షూటింగ్ అని పిలవబడే ఉంది!
ఇది సాధారణ మళ్ళా పని కోసం ఉపయోగించిన ఒక సాంకేతికత, రెండు చేతి కదలిక విశ్లేషణ.

పారిశ్రామిక ఇంజనీరింగ్ × పునరావాస అవకాశం

పైన చెప్పినట్లుగా, పారిశ్రామిక స్థాయి ఇంజనీరింగ్ రంగంలో సాధారణ స్థాయికి చలన విశ్లేషణ యొక్క పద్ధతిని మేము సంక్షిప్తీకరించాము.

IN Japanese -

IE పారిశ్రామిక ఇంజనీరింగ్ కోసం నిలుస్తుంది.
జపాన్ IE అసోసియేషన్ ఈ విధంగా భావిస్తుంది.

IE యొక్క ప్రాథమిక ఆలోచన

"IE అనేది వనరులను కనిష్టీకరించడం మరియు విలువ మరియు వ్యర్థాలను బహిర్గతం చేయడం ద్వారా విలువ మరియు విలువను పెంచుతున్న ఆలోచన మరియు ఆలోచన యొక్క మార్గం, అది గ్రహించే సాంకేతికత.

ఇది ఒక పద్దతి మరియు ఒక సంపన్నమైన మరియు ఫలవంతమైన సమాజాన్ని నిర్మించడానికి సమయాన్ని ఉపయోగించుకోవటానికి, మరియు తయారీ పరిశ్రమలో, వ్యవసాయం, పబ్లిక్ ఆర్గనైజేషన్లు మరియు కుటుంబ జీవితం వంటివి కూడా వినియోగిస్తుంది. "(2008)

విలువ అది ఆనందించే వైపు అవసరమైన చర్యలు మరియు స్థాయిలు సూచిస్తుంది, మరియు అది చర్య, సమయం, నాణ్యత, పరిమాణం, ధర, సున్నితత్వం మరియు అందువలన యొక్క కంటెంట్ పరంగా వ్యక్తం చేయబడింది.
• "మానిఫెస్ట్ విలువ మరియు వ్యర్థాలను తయారు చేయడం" అనేది భాగంగా ఉత్పత్తి విలువ మరియు భాగాన్ని ఉత్పత్తి చేయకుండా మరియు పరిమాణాత్మకంగా లేదా గుణాత్మకంగా సూచించే భాగం మధ్య స్పష్టంగా వేరుపరచడం.
విలువ భాగంగా స్పష్టంగా వేరు చేయడానికి, నిజమైన పరిమాణం · సమయం మరియు పరిమాణం కొలిచేందుకు కంటి, వ్యర్థం మరియు సమయాన్ని పరిమాణంగా గ్రహించాలి.
అంతేకాక, వ్యయాలను తొలగించడం, ప్రామాణికత మరియు సమయం అధ్యయనాలు మరియు "విజువలైజేషన్" మరియు "సమస్య సమస్య పరిపూర్ణత వ్యవస్థ" వంటి నిర్వహణ పద్ధతులు వంటి వివిధ IE పద్దతుల ద్వారా నిర్వహణ వనరులను (వ్యాపార నిర్వహణ) వ్యర్థాల తొలగింపు) ప్రభావవంతంగా ఉంటుంది.
ఆర్థిక కార్యక్రమాలలో, మానవ వనరుల అభివృద్ధి మరియు యంత్రాంగం భవనం అనేది IE కార్యకలాపాలను అభివృద్ధి చేయడానికి పరిస్థితులను ప్రోత్సహించడానికి ఒక ముఖ్యమైన అంశం.
పారిశ్రామిక నిర్వహణ రంగంలో ఉత్పాదకత మెరుగుదల కార్యకలాపాల నుండి IE సంభవించినప్పటికీ, ఆధునిక కాలంలో అది లాజిస్టిక్స్, వ్యవసాయం, చేపల పెంపకం, సేవ, వైద్య, ఆర్థిక, ప్రజా సంస్థ కార్యకలాపాలు మరియు రోజువారీ జీవితంలో కూడా విస్తృతంగా ఉపయోగించబడుతుంది ఇది ఉపయోగించబడుతుంది.

IE యొక్క నిర్వచనం ప్రకారం, 1955 లో నిర్వచించిన అమెరికా యొక్క IE అసోసియేషన్ (AIIE = ప్రస్తుత IIE) సాధారణంగా సూచిస్తారు.

"IE అనేది ప్రజలు, వస్తువుల మరియు సామగ్రి యొక్క ఇంటిగ్రేటెడ్ సిస్టమ్స్ రూపకల్పన, అభివృద్ధి మరియు స్థాపనకు సంబంధించినది, మరియు సిస్టమ్ నుండి పొందిన ఫలితాలను వివరించేందుకు, అంచనా వేయడానికి మరియు అంచనా వేయడానికి, గణితం, ఫిజిక్స్, సోషల్ సైన్సెస్ నైపుణ్యం మరియు టెక్నాలజీ యొక్క సూత్రాలు మరియు పద్ధతులను ఉపయోగించండి.

IE యొక్క ప్రాథమిక ఆలోచన మారదు. ఏదేమైనప్పటికీ, మారుతున్న సమయాలతో, పారిశ్రామిక సామాజిక నిర్మాణం మరియు జీవనశైలి మార్పు నాటకీయంగా ఎప్పటికప్పుడు డిమాండ్లకు ప్రతిస్పందనగా IE కూడా పెరుగుతుంది.