Monday, July 31, 2017


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Modified Excerpts from the paper

Little by little, as the engineering student goes forward in education and practice,  he begins to see that the possession of certain powers enables him to conquer hesitant men and recalcitrant machines,
and also problems which involve both men and machines simultaneously. And the powers which enable him to do these things are science and engineering (convertising science into useful devices and processes). His thinking helps him in this.

I assume that no course in the industrial engineering steam would be begun before the end of the Sophomore year in college. The man who reaches the Junior year of college or technical school
must have had some training in science and mathematics or he would not be eligible to enter the industrial engineering course. He must have acquired some common-sense and scientific attitude
on his way, and the knowledge of science and common-sense so gained should be sufficient to enable him to recognize that in electing scientific management he is deliberately electing to follow a long and arduous road. The problem before us, then, when we discuss the work of men electing industrial engineering courses, is taking men with some common-sense and some knowledge of science and raising what they have to the highest possible power.

How, then, can the industrial engineer become a scientist, attain the scientific attitude of mind ?

By welding the scientific work of the classroom with the shop-work of the factory; by making the laboratory hours, hours that are spent with wage-earners striving for their daily wage. Laboratory and classroom hours alike must be filled with reality rather than with pure theory or with theory quite unrelated to the practical world.

The student must first of all, get in touch with the shop. And I insist that he can do that nowhere save in actual operating shops among men who are working for their daily wage. No shop practice in the school will produce a like result. Shop-sense is one of the most valuable possessions of the industrial
engineer. That sense comes only through actual shop practice. Once possessed it means that the man has thereafter the freedom of the shop.

To attain the desirable ends of knowledge of science and posses-sion of common-sense I propose that any course in the science of management shall consist of classroom work as outlined below and
of laboratory work carried on in actual operating shops. That means that manufacturers who are broad-minded enough to be willing to assist the college, and instructors broad-minded enough
to recognize the limitations of industry must co-operate in giving the laboratory instruction in shop practice to the students. I believe both groups of men exist and I feel that through their combined efforts the student should have an opportunity to spend the summers of his Sophomore and Junior years in actual shop practice, while three afternoons a week during the scholastic year should see him working in the shop.

What underlying thought must be before the men who make the courses ?

The industrial engineer is dealing in all cases with both men and machines. He must study "man" in his relation to his industrial environ-ment — not any single class of men, but all the men engaged in
industry. He must study "machines," not alone in their relation to their product, but also in relation to the human beings who operate them. It is his task to bring the best that modern science has to the aid and well-being of man.

It is in the development of his pupil's studies of men that the wise teacher of scientific management will work most steadfastly in correlating the allied courses, mentioned later, in psychology
and physiology, in economics and sociology, with the courses in the science of management, and with the work of living men and whir-ring machines.

The industrial engineer must recognize the presence of many factors in a problem. He must solve equations of not only two unknown quantities, but of a dozen unknown quantities, so to speak. And
the correlation of his courses in class with each other and with life will do much in the way of enabling him to do so.

When should the work begin, and how much of the student's time should it occupy ?

Direct work in industrial engineering and scientific management should begin either at the
end of two years or of four years in college. The direct and allied special classroom courses should occupy one full year of collegiate training, divided between two years' work, making a half-year's
work in scientific management during both the Junior and Senior years. The shopwork should occupy two summer vacations and three afternoons a week during each of the two years.

What courses should be offered ?

A dominant course in the science of management running through two years, allied with courses in economics, sociology, psychology, physiology, hygiene and sanitation, theory and practice
of accounting. All these should be in addition to the student's more direct work in science, mathematics, engineering, English, and foreign languages, which occupy the time of three out of the four collegiate years — if the courses are made undergraduate ones.

What should be the content of the scientific management courses given during the four half-years that comprise the Junior and Senior years of most colleges and technical schools ?

The first half-year should be devoted to a general view of four picked industries — in order that the student may see industry more or less as a whole — and to the study of the principles of
scientific management. The laboratory work for this course should consist of the broad outlined study of four plants from the time of the receipt of the first inquiry from the prospective customer to the final entry of the payment for the bill and the calculation of the cost. The classroom work for this course should be devoted to a thorough grounding in the basic principles of organization,
and to study of the principles of scientific management.

It is most essential that the student should obtain at the very start a clear realization of the difference between system and science. It is most essential also that he should come to understand that,
while certain problems solved for one industry may be solved for all industry, such general solutions cannot be presumed upon. He should know that every new business will contain new problems,
which must be solved by the use of all the knowledge of the past plus all the imaginative genius he can hope to possess. That is to say, the student must learn that a mechanism used successfully
in one place cannot be bodily transported to another with hope of instant success. By the end of the first half-year each individual taking the course should have come to realize that he is studying
the principles of a science which are applicable to every case, not memorizing a set of rules or inheriting a stock of recipes. The study of four actual operating plants will aid him greatly in this

The second half-year should be devoted in the classroom to a detailed study of the planning-room and the processes involved in getting work into the shop, of stores, routing, specifications, etc. —
planning in general, in a word. The laboratory work should consist of actual planning-room experience in the shop.

It is entirely true that there is a question as to whether planning-room experience should follow or precede shop training. It may, therefore, be a question whether planning should be put in this
course. It is my own belief that the student will master his shop theory better the third half-year from the fact that he has discovered the basic reasons of the work in the planning-room. It should be
noted, moreover, in this connection that I have assumed that the student has had a summer's experience in actual shop practice as a prerequisite of the course, and that he has had a half year of
general preliminary study.

The third half-year should be devoted to a detailed study of work in the shop (especially of the teaching work of the functional foreman), of inspection, and of task work. All of this except the
study of task work should be done in actual plants. The task work should be done on fellow-students in the shops of the school. No untrained man should ever be put on actual task-setting.

The third half-year offers a great opportunity to impress upon the student the importance of the teaching function of his work. The whole theory of functional foremanship is a theory of educa-
tion and a great part of the time of an industrial engineer must be spent in teaching the men with whom he is working. Adequate powers of expression are by no means common among our recent
graduates. The teacher of scientific management can never forget that the work of his pupils must show in the life-work of the men with whom they are dealing. The bridge-builder leaves a physical
monument largely untouched by the later thought of men. The industrial builder must educate in such a way that his work will go progressively forward in the minds of men. That is true education,
and education is true only when it obtains adequate expression.

The fourth half-year should be devoted to studies in bringing all the best that science offers to the aid of industry — to work in costs, to work in the determining of policies by studies of sales,
purchasing, and the like, and to the co-ordination of the work of the three half-years already outlined.

The course of the fourth half-year should be broad enough to give the student some concept that great movements of trade exist and that they are factors which he must meet and use. The world
is fairly well provided with men who can look after a few details.

It is very poorly provided with men who can care for great constructive work. One of the greatest industrial leaders of our time said to me the other day: "The greater the affairs of a corporation, the
smaller the number of men who can deal with them. It seems to be a true inverse proportion. There are ten men who can think in a hundred thousand dollars, to one who can think in a million,
and ten who can think in a million to one who can think in ten millions."

I should hardly expect any course to give an undergraduate a great grasp of comprehensive plans. There is, however, no reason why we should hitch our wagon to the lowest of the stars when we
can find higher ones within our reach.

In the foregoing resume of a course in the science of management I have made no reference to many subjects I should have been glad to consider, to reports and theses, to methods and policies. Considerations of brevity forbade. I must turn again to my catechism and end with three brief questions and three brief answers.

What should the allied courses teach ?

The relation of man to industry and to his general environment.

What should the college courses in English teach ?

The power of expression.

What should the work in scientific management teach ?

That scientific management is a change of mental attitude (mental attitude, now, as always, the most powerful force among men) which makes employer and employee pull together instead of apart, which brings all that is best in science to the aid of every man in industry, and which, by its substitution of exact knowledge for the chaos of guess work and ignorance, makes progressively for
justice and for the coming of the "new industrial day."

Hollis Godfrey

West Medford, Mass.

I am happy I covered some these issues in my principles of industrial engineering.
Principles of Industrial Engineering

Video Presentation









JUNE 26-29, 1912



INTRODUCTION. " Frank. B. Gilbreth



32 32 37









Walter Rautenstrauch


H. F. J. Porter 94


L. J. Johnson 108

F. P.McKibben

112 118



129 133 139 145





161 182



OF COLLEGES. " S. E. Whitaker

205 217


updated  18 June 2017, 15 August 2015

Friday, June 30, 2017

Modern Engineering and Modern Shop Management - F.W. Taylor

There is a close analogy between the methods of modern engineering and this type of management. Engineering now centers in the drafting room as modern management does in the planning department. The new style engineering has all the appearance of complication and extravagance, with its multitude of drawings; the amount of study and work which is put into each detail; and its corps of draftsmen, all of whom would be sneered at by the old engineer as "non-producers." For the same reason, modern management, with its minute time study and a managing department in which each operation is carefully planned, with its many written orders and its apparent red tape, looks like a waste of money; while the ordinary management in which the planning is mainly done by the workmen themselves, with the help of one or two foremen, seems simple and economical in the extreme.

The writer, however, while still a young man, had all lingering doubt as to the value of a drafting room dispelled by seeing the chief engineer, the foreman of the machine shop, the foreman of the foundry, and one or two workmen, in one of our large and successful engineering establishments of the old school, stand over the cylinder of an engine which was being built, with chalk and dividers, and discuss for more than an hour the proper size and location of the studs for fastening on the cylinder head. This was simplicity, but not economy. About the same time he became thoroughly convinced of the necessity and economy of a planning department with time study, and with written instruction cards and returns. He saw over and over again a workman shut down his machine and hunt up the foreman to inquire, perhaps, what work to put into his machine next, and then chase around the shop to find it or to have a special tool or template looked up or made. He saw workmen carefully nursing their jobs by the hour and doing next to nothing to avoid making a record, and he was even more forcibly convinced of the necessity for a change while he was still working as a machinist by being ordered by the other men to slow down to half speed under penalty of being thrown over the fence.

No one now doubts the economy of the drafting room, and the writer predicts that in a very few years from now no one will doubt the economy and necessity of the study of unit times and of the planning department.

Another point of analogy between modern engineering and modern management lies in the fact that modern engineering proceeds with comparative certainty to the design and construction of a machine or structure of the maximum efficiency with the minimum weight and cost of materials, while the old style engineering at best only approximated these results and then only after a series of breakdowns, involving the practical reconstruction of the machine and the lapse of a long period of time. The ordinary system of management, owing to the lack of exact information and precise methods, can only approximate to the desired standard of high wages accompanied by low labor cost and then only
slowly, with marked irregularity in results, with continued opposition, and, in many cases, with danger from strikes. Modern management, on the other hand, proceeds slowly at first, but with directness and precision, step by step, and, after the first few object lessons, almost without opposition on the part of the men, to high wages and low labor cost; and as is of great importance, it assigns wages to the men which are uniformly fair. They are not demoralized, and their sense of justice offended by receiving wages which are sometimes too low and at other times entirely too high.

One of the marked advantages of scientific management lies in its freedom from strikes. The writer has never been opposed by a strike, although he has been engaged for a great part of his time since 1883 in introducing this type of management in different parts of the country and in a great variety of industries. The only case of which the writer can think in which a strike under this system might be unavoidable would be that in which most of the employees were members of a labor union, and of a union whose rules were so inflexible and whose members were so stubborn that they were unwilling to try any other system, even though it assured them larger wages than their own. The writer has seen,
however, several times after the introduction of this system, the members of labor unions who were working under it leave the union in large numbers because they found that they could do better under the operation of the system than under the laws of the union.

There is no question that the average individual accomplishes the most when he either gives himself, or some one else assigns him, a definite task, namely, a given amount of work which he must do within a given time; and the more elementary the mind and character of the individual the more necessary does it become that each task shall extend over a short period of time only. No school teacher would think of telling children in a general way to study a certain book or subject. It is practically universal to assign each day a definite lesson beginning on one specified page and line and ending on another; and the best progress is made when the conditions are such that a definite study hour or period can be assigned in. which the lesson must be learned. Most of us remain, through a great part of our lives, in this respect, grown-up children, and do our best only under pressure of a task of comparatively short duration. Another and perhaps equally great advantage of assigning a daily task as against ordinary piece work lies in the fact that the success of a good workman or the failure of a poor one is thereby daily and prominently called to the attention of the management. Many a poor workman might be willing to go along in a slipshod way under ordinary piece work, careless as to whether he fell off a little in his output or not. Very few of them, however, would be willing to record a daily failure to accomplish their task even if they were allowed to do so by their foreman; and also since on ordinary piece work the price alone is specified without limiting the time which the job is to take, a quite large falling off in output can in many cases occur without coming to
the attention of the management at all. It is for these reasons that the writer has above indicated "a large daily task" for each man as the first of four principles which should be included in the best type of management.

It is evident, however, that it is useless to assign a task unless at the same time adequate measures are taken to enforce its accomplishment.  It is to compel the completion of the daily task then that two of the other principles are required, namely, "high pay for success" and "loss in case of failure." The advantage of Mr. H. L. Gantt's system of "task work with a bonus," and the writer's "differential rate piece work" over the other systems lies in the fact that with each of these the men automatically and daily receive either an extra reward in case of complete success, or a distinct loss in case they fall off even a little.

The four principles above referred to can be successfully applied either under day work, piece work, task work with a bonus, or differential rate piece work, and each of these systems has its own especial conditions under which it is to be preferred to either of the other three. In no case, however, should an attempt be made to apply these principles unless accurate and thorough time study has previously been made of every item entering into the day's task.

They should be applied under day work only when a number of miscellaneous jobs have to be done day after day, none of which can occupy the entire time of a man throughout the whole of a day and when the time required to do each of these small jobs is likely to vary somewhat each day. In this case a number of these jobs can be grouped into a daily task which should be assigned, if practicable, to one man, possibly even to two or three, but rarely to a gang of men of any size. To illustrate: In a small boiler house in which there is no storage room for coal, the work of wheeling the coal to the fireman, wheeling out the ashes, helping clean fires and keeping the boiler room and the outside of the boilers clean can be made into the daily task for a man, and if these items do not sum up into a full day's work, on the average, other duties can be added until a proper task is assured. Or, the various details of sweeping, cleaning, and keeping a certain section of a shop floor windows, machines, etc., in order can be united to form a task. Or, in a small factory which turns out a uniform product and in uniform quantities day after day, supplying raw materials to certain parts of the factory and removing finished product from others may be coupled with other definite duties to form a task. The task should call for a large day's work, and the man should be paid more than the usual day's pay so that the position will be sought for by first-class, ambitious men. Clerical work can very properly be done by the task in this way, although when there is enough of it, piece work at so much per entry is to be preferred.

In all cases a clear cut, definite inspection of the task is desirable at least once a day and sometimes twice. When a shop is not running at night, a good time for this inspection is at seven o'clock in the morning, for instance. The inspector should daily sign a printed card, stating that he has inspected the work done by ----, and enumerating the various items of the task. The card should state that the workman has satisfactorily performed his task, "except the following items," which should be enumerated in detail.

F.W. Taylor - Shop Management

Updated  18 June 2017, 27 May 2017

Hollis Godfrey in his 1913 article THE TRAINING OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS specifically mentions training for industrial engineers in the planning department.

June - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Industrial Engineering - Introduction to  Basic Principles and Techniques

June First Week, 1 to 5 - 2016

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao


Industrial Engineering Introduction
Component Areas of IE: Human Effort engineering and System Efficiency Engineering

Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson
Principles of Motion Economy

Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
Ergonomics - Introduction

Work Measurement
Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)

Methods Efficiency Engineering
Product Design Efficiency Engineering

June 2 Week, 8 to 12

Plant Layout - Efficiency
Value Engineering - Introduction

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management in Japan
Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer

System Engineering Process and Its Management
Systems Improvement Process

June 3 week, 15 to 19

Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Productivity, Safety, Comfort, and Operator Health Management

Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
Current Research in IE

Managing Change in Improvement Projects - Comfort Zone to Comfort Zone
Supply Chain Cost Reduction

Total Improvement Management
Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina

Industrial Engineering Economics - Important Component of Industrial Engineering
Time Value of Money - Time Value of Money Calculations

June 22 to 26

Cash Flow Estimation for Expenditure Proposals - Depreciation and Other Related Issues
Required Rate of Return - Cost of Capital  - Required Rate of Return for Investment or Expenditure Proposal..

NPV - IRR and Other Summary Project Assessment Measures
Income Expansion Projects - Cost Reduction Projects - Replacement Decisons

Present-Worth Comparisons
Rate-of-Return Calculations

Equivalent Annual-Worth Comparisons
Expected Values and Risk of Project Revenues and Costs

Structural Analysis of Alternatives
Engineering Economic Analysis - Subject Update - Recent Case Studies

June Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professors

IE Techniques to be Revised

Principles of Industrial Engineering/Scientific Management by Taylor
Twelve Principles of Efficiency - Harrington Emerson
Product Design Efficiency Engineering (Value Engineering) - Application of Engineering Technology
Methods Efficiency Engineering - Operation Analysis (Maynard) - Application of Engineering Technology
    Plant Layout - Material and Man Movement Analysis and Optimization
    Innovations in Industrial Engineering by Shigeo Shingo - SMED and Poka Yoke
Operations Research - Application of Mathematical Modelling and Optimization in Technology Processes (Product and Process), Business Processes and Managerial Processes.
Application of Statistics in Industrial Engineering - Six Sigma, SPC, SPC, Forecasting
Engineering Economics - Economic Analysis of Engineering Projects - Income Enhancing Projects as well as Cost Reduction Projects - It evaluates and improves capital productivity both long term as well as short term
Human Effort Engineering - Motion study - Principles of Motion Economy, Motion Study
Ergonomics - Application of knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and bio mechanics and findings of experiments on actual working situations

Work Measurement - Productivity Measurement - Cost Measurement

Productivity Management 

High Efficiency/Productivity Systems  Industrial Engineering- Lean Systems Industrial Engineering - Toyota Production System

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

In months after June the articles prescribed have to be modified as a new scheme is started in 2015.

Industrial Engineering - Introduction to  Basic Principles and Techniques - June (28 article are included so far)

Scientific Management of Taylor  (July 17 articles)

12 Principles of Efficiency by Harrington Emerson

Motion Study

Operation Analysis - Method Study - Methods Efficiency Engineering (August 25 articles)

Work Measurement 

Value Engineering


Mathematics and Optimization

Application of Statistics for Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement

Engineering Economics

Business Process Improvement

Management Process Improvement

Productivity Management and Improvement (20 articles)

Lean Systems (December 20 articles)

Updated  4 June 2017, 29 May 2016, 26 May 2016, 16 Feb 2016

Friday, June 23, 2017

Michel Baudin - Working with Machines - Jidoka - Book Information

Working with Machines: The Nuts and Bolts of Lean Operations with Jidoka

Michel Baudin

Productivity Press, 2007 - Business & Economics - 354 pages
How do companies in high labor cost countries manage to remain competitive?
In western manufacturing, the more manual a process, the more severe the competitive handicap of high wages. Full automation would make labor costs irrelevant but remain impractical in most industries. Most successful manufacturing processes in advanced economies are neither fully manual nor fully automatic -- they involve interactions between small numbers of highly skilled people and machines that account for the bulk of the manufacturing costs and thereby remain competitive.

In Working with Machines: The Nuts and Bolts of Lean Operations With Jidoka, author Michel Baudin explains how performance differences that can be observed from one factory to the next are due to the way people use the machines -- from the human interfaces of individual machines to the linking of machines into cells, the management of monuments and common services, automation, maintenance, and production control.

Google Book Link

Table of Contents

A guided tour

Part I: Human-Machine interfaces
Chapter 1: Using machine controls
Chapter 2: Performing operations on machines
Chapter 3: Understanding the process
Chapter 4: Programming machines

Part II: Machine cells
Chapter 5: Cellular manufacturing with machines
Chapter 6: Design and implementation of a machine cell
Chapter 7: From operator job design to task assignment
Chapter 8: Cell automation and chaku-chaku line
Chapter 9: Grouping cells into focuses factories

Part III: Common services and monuments
Chapter 10: Working with monuments
Chapter 11: Setup time reduction

Part IV: Automation
Chapter 12: The lean approach to automation
Chapter 13: Improving legacy automated systems

Part V: Machine maintenance
Chapter 14: Machine and facilities maintenance
Chapter 15: Improving maintenance
Chapter 16: Maintenance information systems
Chapter 17: Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

Where should you go from here?

Updated 24 June 2017, 23 August 2013

9th Waste Elimination - Essential Industrial Engineering Activity

Frank Gilbreth proposed flow process chart to examine five elements of a process and eliminate waste.




Temporary delay or storage

Permanent delay or storage

Taichi Ohno expanded it to Seven

T – Transport – Movement of material, people
I – Inventory – Stock of materials, parts, and finished items
M – Motion – movement of hands and other body parts in operating machines of hand tools
W – Waiting – Men and machines waiting for parts or instructions
O – Over production – Making more than is IMMEDIATELY required
O – Over processing – Tighter tolerances or higher grade materials than are necessary
D – Defects – Items scrapped and rework

Then the 8th waste was added

Wastage of physical and mental skills of people.

So far in this waste concepts, an important waste identified and tackled by F.W. Taylor and which is the basis of industrial engineering is not attended to properly. This waste is the wastage of machine capability and power. Taylor experimented and found the solution to this problem in the case of machine tools through his publication "The Art of Metal Cutting." He explained his suggested method in his article "Piece Rate System". book length papers, "Shop Management", and "Scientific Management". For achieving the potential productivity of man machine system, the machine parameters need to be studied and selected and adjusted appropriately to get the best output from the machine in terms of quantity and cost maintaining the specified quality. This evaluation and adjustment of machine parameters is an engineering activity to be carried out to assure the lowest cost, highest income to employees and shareholders and provision of maximum goods and services to the society. This is the technical component of industrial engineering - the productivity engineering component of industrial engineering.

9th Waste - Wastage of Machine Potential, Capability and Power

First published in this blog on 23 June 2017. This understanding came to me (Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. )on 22 June 2017, as I am listening to a presentation on Barriers to Lean Implementation.

Machine Work Study

Machine Work Study was proposed by Narayana Rao in a paper presented in the NCIETM 2016 to take care of this 9th Waste (November 2016)

Examples of Efforts to Increase Machine Productivity or Potential Productivity through Industrial Engineering Activity - Research, Development of Alternatives, and Implementation

Machinery productivity monitoring systems

Machinery productivity monitoring systems are sets of technical elements that serve to acquire, transfer and assess machinery productivity data. Output is the information for management in the required format (numeric or graphical) to reveal weaknesses in the process that allows us to identify potential opportunities for improvement.

Improving dragline productivity using big data

August 2016

Mining operations produce an enormous amount of data through numerous parallel, though diverse, monitoring systems. Data mining and analytics can be a major part of a successful mining improvement process.

In this case, the goal is to find a single target variable and its value that will drive operator behaviour to operate the dragline at maximum production capacity and speed while not exceeding machine fatigue.

Simulated productivity of one- and two-armed tree planting machines

Ersson B. T., Jundén L., Bergsten U., Servin M. (2013).  Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 958.

Thursday, June 22, 2017

Productivity Management - Books and Articles

Productivity Management in an Organization: Measurement and Analysis

kongkiti phusavat
Download fullbook from

Evidence-based Productivity Improvement: A Practical Guide to the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES)

Robert D. Pritchard, Sallie J. Weaver, Elissa L. Ashwood
Routledge, 2012 - 316 pages

This new book explains the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement system (ProMES) and how it meets the criteria for an optimal measurement and feedback system. It summarizes all the research that has been done on productivity, mentioning other measurement systems, and gives detailed information on how to implement this one in organizations. This book will be of interest to behavioral science researchers and professionals who wish to learn more about the practical methods of measuring and improving organizational productivity.

Edmonton City Productivity Audit

Service Productivity Management: Improving Service Performance using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
H. David Sherman
Springer, 10-Sep-2006 - Business & Economics - 350 pages
The service economy is now the largest portion of the industrialized world's economic activity. This development has dramatically raised the importance of maximizing productivity excellence in service organizations. The correlation between the service economy and productivity excellence has lead service organization managers to recognize the value of using benchmarking techniques to identify and adopt best practices in their organizations. As the use of benchmarking metrics in service organizations has increased, correspondingly these organizations have improved continuously by allowing service units to learn from methods that prove the most effective. Service Productivity Management provides the insights and methods to answers questions on a whole range of productivity issues, of which some examples are: How do you manage profitability of a network of hundreds or thousands of branch offices disbursed over several states and countries? How can managed-care organizations manage the quality and cost of hundreds of physicians providing health services to millions of plan members? What methods would enable a government to ensure that the multiple offices serving citizens across a country are operating at low cost while meeting the required service quality? Each of these service settings are examples of the many service providers that deliver a complex set of services to a widely diversified set of customers. The book systematically explores complex service issues and analyzes each case for a variety of ways to improve service productivity, quality, and profitability. Service Productivity Management is an in-depth guide to using the most powerful available benchmarking technique to improveservice organization performance -- Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). (1) It outlines the use of DEA as a benchmarking technique. (2) It identifies high costs service units. (3) It isolates specific changes to each service unit to elevate their performance to the best practice services level providing high quality service at low cost. (4) And most important, it guides the improvement process. The discussion and methods are all supported by case-study applications to organizations that have sought and have successfully improved its performance. The techniques discussed in the book are accessible to any and all managers with access to Microsoft. Excel spreadsheet software (Excel). Throughout the book, step-by-step guidance is provided to enable any reader to apply DEA and the Excel software to their organization. Packaged with the book comes a ready-to-use DEA software CD for Microsoft. Excel Add-in to run DEA analyses on any set of organizations of interest to the reader.

Productivity Management: A Practical Handbook

Author: Joseph Prokopenko
Publisher: ILO

Google Book Link

Preview available

ILO always emphasized the productivity of all resources instead of a single point focus on labor productivity.

You can order the book from ILO

A Guide to Integrated Management of Productivity Activities
Spring, Singapore
Full Book - Published in 2011 - Interesting Contents

SPRING's Productivity Management Program - APO report

Appoint a Productivity Manager for Your Organization - Singapore Govt. Message

Energy Productivity Management - Details of a training program

The Power of Productivity: Wealth, Poverty, and the Threat to Global Stability

William W. Lewis
McKinsey Global Institute
University of Chicago Press, 01-Sep-2005 - Business & Economics - 368 pages

The Power of Productivity provides powerful and controversial answers to the  question of ameliorating  economic disparity among countries. William W. Lewis, the director emeritus of the McKinsey Global Institute,  draws on extensive microeconomic studies of thirteen nations over twelve years—conducted by the Institute itself—to counter virtually all prevailing wisdom about how best to ameliorate economic disparity. Lewis's research, which included studying everything from state-of-the-art auto makers to black-market street vendors and mom-and-pop stores, conclusively demonstrates that, contrary to popular belief, providing more capital to poor nations is not the best way to help them. Nor is improving levels of education, exchange-rate flexibility, or government solvency enough. Rather, the key to improving economic conditions in poor countries, argues Lewis, is increasing productivity through intense, fair competition and protecting consumer rights.

As The Power of Productivity explains, this sweeping solution affects the economies of poor nations at all levels—from the viability of major industries to how the average consumer thinks about his or her purchases. Policies must be enacted in developing nations that reflect a consumer rather than a producer mindset and an attendant sense of consumer rights. Only one force, Lewis claims, can stand up to producer special privileges—consumer interests.

The Institute's unprecedented research method and Lewis's years of experience with economic policy combine to make The Power of Productivity the most authoritative and compelling view of the global economy today, one that will inform political and economic debate throughout the world for years to come.

Measuring and Improving Organizational Productivity: A Practical Guide

Robert D. Pritchard
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1990 - 248 pages

Productivity has become a national priority. Its effects are being felt on all levels--national, industrial, and individual. An organization must be able to measure productivity before effectively improving it. This volume is the first practical guide for developing productivity measurement systems. It describes the use of the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES) designed by its author and his colleagues. An important tool for organizations, this step by step guide discusses how to measure productivity and then how to use this measurement.

Robert Pritchard's guide first presents a detailed description of the development and uses of ProMES. The background and description of ProMES is followed by details on how to develop ProMES in any organization. Questions and answers about using the system are discussed together with further issues on how to implement the system. The use of the system with other productivity improvement techniques is also covered. The volume concludes with a discussion on evaluating the effects of a productivity improvement system. It is a valuable practical source for industrial and organizational psychologists, management consultants, classes, and workshops.

No-Nonsense Guide to Measuring Productivity
W. Bruce Chew

Productivity management: A neglected approach for reducing federal government costs

Peter J. Lemonias,
Brian L. Usilaner
Global Business and Organizational Excellence, Volume 3, Issue 2, Spring 1984
Pages 145–154
First published: March 1984, National Productivity Review, Volume 3, Issue 2,

Organizing for productivity management
Marta Mooney
National Productivity Review
Volume 1, Issue 2, pages 141–150, Spring 1982

Updated  24 June 2017.  2 October 2016, 13 Sep 2015
First published: 29 October 2013

Data Analytics Period in Productivity Improvement - Productivity Engineering and Management


The wave of productivity driven by data and analytics - McKinsey senior partners

"You had the wave of lean, you had the wave of outsourcing, and now we’re seeing the wave of productivity driven by data and analytics, enabling organizations to refine the way that people work together, the way that processes perform, and the way assets are productive. If you think about an oil well, for example, you’ve got more than 300 sensors downhole that are spewing out data at the rate of about a gigabit a second, in some cases." - Bill Wiseman, McKinsey senior partner

How advanced analytics can drive productivity
Podcast August 2016
Podcast transcript

How Data Analytics Increases Productivity?

Technology and innovation drive productivity.  But transaction costs of new technology implementation are considerable.  Innovation requires capital and labor investment incurring transaction costs to build infrastructure and grow the market.

Analytics and decision science could provide the means to reduce the transaction costs and increase innovations to  improve productivity in the economy.

Analytics provide a process to monitor, measure, and benchmark performance. By integrating diverse datasets from remote monitoring (IoT), measuring, and benchmarking can be accomplished automatically and economically. Reporting by anomaly and exception could free resources and thereby reduce costs and improve productivity.

Application of analytics to monitoring energy through sensors resulted in 17% reduction in energy costs for the NJ DOT main office complex. In another application, propensity models were constructed from customer profile and behavior data to identify candidates with highest conversion rates for sending sales promotion communications. Such examples are now many, to illustrate applying analytics to reduce costs and improve operations.

Low cost cloud computing together with large, diverse, and growing datasets, from the web to internal sources, and available statistical visualization tools, have dramatically changed the cost of data analytics. The low cost of data analytics is allowing more companies to use analytics and improve the productivity.

Source: Onoly Analytics and Analytics 2 Insight - White Paper
Analytics at the Speed of Insight: Simple, Fast and Actionable Tools to Improve Productivity


Further Developments


Improving dragline productivity and increasing reliability using big data

August 2016

Mining operations produce an enormous amount of data through numerous parallel, though diverse, monitoring systems. Data mining and analytics can be a major part of a successful mining improvement process.

In this case, the goal is to find a single target variable and its value that will drive operator behaviour to operate the dragline at maximum production capacity and speed while not exceeding machine fatigue.

CNC Machine Productivity - Bibliography


Multiple setup with Tebis means truly maximized machining capacity.

Reliable template-based programming
Maximized machining capacity with simulation
Broad range of functions and user-friendly format

Jaguar Land Rover`s Model Operations department was first introduced to Tebis in 1999. Today Jaguar Land Rover is Tebis UK's oldest and largest customer. CAD/CAM technology has completely changed work methods in this department over the past 15 years – and its processes will definitely be further optimized using Tebis in the future as well.

Enhanced work flow in CNC Machining

Increasing Productivity with Engagement-Generated Toolpaths By Alan Diehl, Surfware, Inc.
CNC machining Vol 14 Issue 47

Metal Working World - Sandvik Coromant - 3 issues in a year

Productivity Improvement of a Special Purpose Machine Using DMAIC Principles: A Case Study

Pumping Up CNC Productivity

Transform your CNC spindle speeds 10K  to 50K

Affordable, Entry-Level CAM Package Due for Launch
CAMWorksXpress runs within the SolidWorks platform and provides the high-powered features needed for efficient machining. The software package is offered in 32- and 64-bit versions and has features like automatic toolpath updates; optimized toolpaths; simple CNC-code generation; model importing from common file formats (IGES, SAT, ACIS, etc.); automatic feature recognition; a library of post processors for CNC controllers; and unlimited upgrade paths to CAMWorks.

Thesis - 2012
Methods for improving performance of process planning for CNC machining - An approach based on surveys and analytical models  - By STAFFAN ANDERBERG

Prof. (Dr). Rachayya.R.Arakerimath
Department of Mechanical Engineering, G H Raisoni College of Engg and Mgmt   Dighi Hills, Pune - 411015, India. Email : Rachayya_ait  at
Prof (Dr).V.A.Raikar
Principal Govt College of Engineering, Karawar, Karnataka, India

CNC machine tool manufacturer Okuma America Corporation has launched an interactive, web-based productivity tool to help boost productivity at manufacturing facilities.

Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate

Increasing Machine Tool Productivity With CNC Technology

S. Alex1, , A. C. Lokesh2, N. Ravikumar3
1 Student, M. Sc. [Engg.], 2 Professor, M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore 560 054 3
General Manager, Ess Enn Auto, Bangalore

Four-step process for proficient manufacturing

Reducing cycle time in cnc machines

Automated CNC programming

High Pressure Coolant System  Sandvik
These production advantages will lead to a higher utilization of the available machine and available production time and thereby maximize the payback on investment. An optimized system with high pressure coolant machining can pay for itself  in a few months. 2010

PARTS (Productivity of CNC Turning center with Milling Capability  Case Study)

Improve Titanium Milling Productivity with Secure CNC Machining

Integrated machine monitoring and adaptive control with OEE+DNC has been demonstrated using a robot to aid loading a CNC machine, offering automation for manufacturing flexibility and productivity that can increase profitability.
Memex Automation

Improving Productivity on Working with CNC machine Tools

Probes offer significant productivity improvements by reducing the downtime associated with manual set-up of tools, fixtures and work pieces, as well as increased inspection accuracy of first-off components.

Productivity Day Presentations - 2009


Feed optimization for five-axis CNC machine tools with drive constraints
B. Sencer, Y. Altintas, E. Croft
Manufacturing Automation Laboratory, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Available online 18 January 2008
International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 48 (2008) 733–745
Available on Science Direct

Value Stream Mapping based Improvement in CNC Machine Shop
2007 Study - Case Study

Boosting Productivity of Machining Centers - Some Tips

Productivity Improvement by Error Proofing - Ebook

Kaizen on CNC Machine - 535

Shaping machine kaizen

Productivity improvement & line balancing in a medium scale industry.

Companies and Products for CNC Machine Productivity

CNC Machine Information

Including back bolts, clamps, vises and other modular devices.
Simple. Easy. Right.

New system machine SPECHT 450 DUO - double productivity without compromise
July 19th, 2013 - MAG introduces the new twin-spindle SPECHT 450 DUO with numerous technical innovations, outstanding technical data and market leading tool change times to maximize productity in the small engine and parts production market. Virtually replacing two entire machines while providing the highest reliability and quality levels. The new twin-spindle SPECHT 450 DUO, with only 11.2 m² of floor space and a comfortable spindle distance of 540 mm, is the smallest twin-spindle machine of the SPECHT family and is designed for the machining of mid-sized workpieces such as cylinder heads or gear housings and more

Siemens Sinumerik portfolio designed to enhance CNC machining precision, productivity and user convenience. Siemens will also be showcasing an integral CAD/CAM-CNC process  chain covering everything from design through to the finished workpiece.

Royal bar pullers have a number of advantages over bar feeders:
Bar pullers are much less expensive. The average cost of a Royal bar puller is $600, compared to $10,000 - $30,000 for a bar feeder.

VoluMill™ is a patent-pending ultra high-performance toolpath engine that significantly increases machining productivity and tool life. VoluMill is a full-featured, CAM-neutral, 2- and 3-axis toolpath engine for any geometric configuration.

Makino Horizontal 4 axis machines - Videos

Hurco Five Axis Machines

Bridgeport High Performance Vertical Machining Centers

Underused CAM features - 2007

Haas CNC Tips and Tricks

Effective Coolant recovery, swarf management, and air filtration systems

Wonderware DNC Professional provides centralized management and downloading of Numerical Control (NC) programs.

Premium Frac Pumps Triples Productivity With Kennametal Tools - Using Kennametal tools that reduce tooling costs by half

CNC Machining Emulator for Program and Process Improvement

Updated on 24 June 2017,  7 Apr 2016, 20.2.2014

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Management Process Industrial Engineering - Management Process Productivity Reengineering - Management Process Productivity Redesign

Industrial engineers  redesign processes to improve their productivity. Productivity improvement most of the times happens in that process only. But sometimes a change in the process can improve productivity in a downstream processes.

Industrial engineers evaluate management processes also for their productivity implications. Many times the management process may be negatively affecting productivity in the operations that are being carried out according to the plans and procedures prescribed by the management process. In such a case, industrial engineers may suggest a change in the process. The process change can be defined and developed by industrial engineers or managers themselves may do it. Industrial engineers from the time of F.W. Taylor (Father of Industrial Engineering) have suggested and implemented management process changes.

In the first full length work of Taylor, Shop Management, number of management changes were proposed and described with examples of implementation.

The management process or procedure changes suggested by F.W. Taylor are described below. This content is excerpted from Origin of Industrial Engineering - Shop Management

1. Definition of Management 

The art of management has been defined, "as knowing exactly what you want men to do, and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way.'"

What the workmen want from their employers beyond anything else is high wages, and what employers want from their workmen most of all is a low labor cost of manufacture.

These two conditions are not diametrically opposed to one another as would appear at first glance. On the contrary, they can be made to go together in all classes of work, without exception

This book is written mainly with the object of advocating high wages and low labor cost as the foundation of the best management, of pointing out the general principles which render it possible to maintain these conditions even under the most trying circumstances, and of indicating the various steps which the writer thinks should be taken in changing from a poor system to a better type of management.

The possibility of coupling high wages with a low labor cost rests mainly upon the enormous difference between the amount of work which a first-class man can do under favorable circumstances and the work which is actually done by the average man.

6. Task Management

The writer has found, through an experience of thirty years, covering a large variety in manufactures, as well as in the building trades, structural and engineering work, that it is not only practicable but
comparatively easy to obtain, through a systematic and scientific time study, exact information as to how much of any given kind of work either a first-class or an average man can do in a day, and with this information as a foundation, he has over and over again seen the fact demonstrated that workmen of all classes are not only willing, but glad to give up all idea of soldiering, and devote all of their energies to turning out the maximum work possible, providing they are sure of a suitable permanent reward.

With accurate time knowledge as a basis, surprisingly large results can be obtained under any scheme of management from day work up; there is no question that even ordinary day work resting upon this foundation will give greater satisfaction than any of the systems in common use, standing as they do upon soldiering as a basis.

The writer chooses from among a large variety of trades to which these principles have been applied, the yard labor handling raw materials in the works of the Bethlehem Steel Company at South Bethlehem, Pa.,

The first step was to place an intelligent, college-educated man in charge of progress in this line. This man had not before handled this class of labor, although he understood managing workmen. He was not familiar with the methods pursued by the writer, but was soon taught the art of determining how much work a first-class man can do in a day. This was done by timing with a stop watch a first-class man while he was working fast. The best way to do this, in fact almost the only way in which the timing can be done with certainty, is to divide the man's work into its elements and time each element separately. For example, in the case of a man loading pig-iron on to a car, the elements should be: (a)
picking up the pig from the ground or pile (time in hundredths of a minute); (b) walking with it on a level (time per foot walked); (c) walking with it up an incline to car (time per foot walked); (d)
throwing the pig down (time in hundredths of a minute), or laying it on a pile (time in hundredths of a minute); (e) walking back empty to get a load (time per foot walked).

The most difficult elements to time and decide upon in this, as in most cases, are the percentage of the day required for rest, and the time to allow for accidental or unavoidable delays.

Example of 400% increase in work output

Between twelve and thirteen tons of pig-iron per man had been carried from a pile on the ground, up an inclined plank, and loaded on to a gondola car by the average pig-iron handler while working by the day.

A man was selected from persons doing this task  to make the first start under the writer's system. He was trained in a new way of working as developed by Taylor and his associates and supervised. He loaded on piece work from forty-five to forty-eight tons (2,240 lbs. each) per day.

He regarded this task as an entirely fair one, and earned on an average, from the start, $1.85 per day, which was 60 per cent more than he had been paid by the day.

As the first man started on the work earned steadily $1.85 per day, this object lesson gradually wore out the opposition to the new arrangement, which ceased rather suddenly after about two months. From this time on there was no difficulty in getting plenty of good men who were anxious to start on piece work under the new method in various jobs, and the difficulty lay in making with sufficient rapidity the accurate time study of the elementary operations or "unit times" which forms the foundation of this kind of piece work.

Throughout the introduction of piece work, which was done after a thorough time study, for each new section of the work, one man only was put on each new job, until he had demonstrated that the task set was a fair one by earning an average of $1.85 per day. After a few sections of the work had been
started in this way, the complaint on the part of the better workmen was that they were not allowed to go on to piece work fast enough. It required about two years to transfer practically all of the yard labor from day to piece work. And the larger part of the transfer was made during the last six months of this time.

The study of "unit times" for the yard labor took practically the time of two trained men for two years. Throughout this time the day and piece workers were under entirely separate and distinct management. The original foremen continued to manage the day work, and day and piece workers were never allowed to work together. Gradually the day work gang was diminished and the piece workers were increased as one section of work after another was transformed from the former to the latter.

Two elements which were important to the success of this work should be noted:

First, on the morning following each day's work, each workman was given a slip of paper informing him in detail just how much work he had done the day before, and the amount he had earned. This enabled him to measure his performance against his earnings while the details were fresh in his mind. Without this there would have been great dissatisfaction among those who failed to climb up to the task asked of them, and many would have gradually fallen off in their performance.

Second, whenever it was practicable, each man's work was measured separately by itself.

What the writer wishes particularly to emphasize is that this whole system rests upon an accurate and scientific study of unit times, which is by far the most important element in scientific management. With it, greater and more permanent results can be attained even under ordinary day work or piece work than can be reached under any of the more elaborate systems without it.

For each job there is the quickest time in which it can be done by a first-class man. This time may be called the "quickest time," or the "standard time" for the job. Under all the ordinary systems, this
"quickest time" is more or less completely shrouded in mist. In most cases, however, the workman is nearer to it and sees it more clearly than the employer.

Under ordinary piece work the management watch every indication given them by the workmen as to what the "quickest time" is for each job, and endeavor continually to force the men toward this "standard time," while the workmen constantly use every effort to prevent this from being done
and to lead the management in the wrong direction. In spite of this conflict, however, the "standard time" is gradually approached.

With accurate time study as a basis, the "quickest time" for each job is at all times in plain sight of both employers and workmen, and is reached with accuracy, precision, and speed, both sides pulling hard in the same direction under the uniform simple and just agreement that whenever a first-class man works his best he will receive from 30 to 100 per cent more than the average of his trade.

7. Investment for Increasing Productivity or Efficiency

Before starting to make any changes in the organization of a company the following matters should be carefully considered: First, the importance of choosing the general type of management best suited to the particular case. Second, that in all cases money must be spent, and in many cases a great deal of money, before the changes are completed which result in lowering cost. Third, that it takes time to reach any result worth aiming at. Fourth, the importance of making changes in their proper order, and that unless the right steps are taken, and taken in their proper sequence, there is great danger from deterioration in the quality of the output and from serious troubles with the workmen, often
resulting in strikes.

It is not at all generally realized that whatever system may be used, --providing a business is complex in its nature--the building up of an efficient organization is necessarily slow and sometimes very expensive.

Almost all of the directors of manufacturing companies appreciate the economy of a thoroughly modern, up-to-date, and efficient plant, and are willing to pay for it. Very few of them, however, realize that the best organization, whatever its cost may be, is in many cases even more important than the plant; nor do they clearly realize that no kind of an efficient organization can be built up without spending money. The spending of money for good machinery appeals to them because they can see machines after they are bought; but putting money into anything so invisible, intangible, and to the average man so indefinite, as an organization seems almost like throwing it away.

8. Importance of people - organization

The writer feels that management is also destined to become more of an art, and that many of the, elements which are now believed to be outside the field of exact knowledge will soon be standardized tabulated, accepted, and used, as are now many of the elements of engineering. Management will be studied as an art and will rest upon well recognized, clearly defined, and fixed principles instead of depending upon more or less hazy ideas received from a limited observation of the few organizations with which the individual may have come in contact. There will, of course, be various successful types, and the application of the underlying principles must be modified to suit each particular case. The writer has already indicated that he thinks the first object in management is to unite high wages with a low labor cost. He believes that this object can be most easily attained by the application of the
following principles:

(a) A LARGE (specified) DAILY TASK. --Each man in the establishment, high or low, should daily have a clearly defined task laid out before him. This task should not in the least degree be vague nor indefinite, but should be circumscribed carefully and completely, and should not be easy to accomplish (unless the operator works for the full allotted time with adequate speed).

(b) STANDARD CONDITIONS. --Each man's task should call for a full day's work, and at the same time the workman should be given such standardized conditions and appliances as will enable him to accomplish his task with certainty.

(c) HIGH PAY FOR SUCCESS (in completing the task). -- He should be sure of large pay when he accomplishes his task.

(d) LOSS IN CASE OF FAILURE (to complete the task). --When he fails he should be sure that sooner or later he will be the loser by it (because of low wages).

When an establishment has reached an advanced state of organization, in many cases a fifth element should be added, namely: the task should be made so difficult that it can only be accomplished by a first-class man.

They call, however, for a greater departure from the ordinary types of organization than would at first appear. In the case, for instance, of a machine shop doing miscellaneous work, in order to assign daily to each man a carefully measured task, a special planning department is required to lay out all of the work at least one day ahead. All orders must be given to the men in detail in writing; and in order to lay out the next day's work and plan the entire progress of work through the shop, daily returns must be made by the men to the planning department in writing, showing just what has been done. Before
each casting or forging arrives in the shop the exact route which it is to take from machine to machine should be laid out. An instruction card for each operation must be written out stating in detail just how each operation on every piece of work is to be done and the time required to do it, the drawing number, any special tools, jigs, or appliances required, etc. Before the four principles above referred to can be successfully applied it is also necessary in most shops to make important physical changes. All of the small details in the shop, which are usually regarded as of little importance and are left to be regulated according to the individual taste of the workman, or, at best, of the foreman, must be thoroughly and carefully standardized; such. details, for instance, as the care and tightening of the belts; the exact shape and quality of each cutting tool; the establishment of a complete tool room from which properly ground tools, as well as jigs, templates, drawings, etc., are issued under a good check system, etc.; and as a matter of importance (in fact, as the foundation of scientific management) an accurate study of unit times must be made by one or more men connected with the planning department, and each machine tool must be standardized and a table or slide rule constructed for it showing how to run it to the best advantage.

At first view the running of a planning department, together with the other innovations, would appear to involve a large amount of additional work and expense, and the most natural question would be is whether the increased efficiency of the shop more than offsets this outlay? It must be borne in mind, however, that, with the exception of the study of unit times, there is hardly a single item of work done in the planning department which is not already being done in the shop. Establishing a planning department merely concentrates the planning and much other brainwork in a few men especially fitted for their task and trained in their especial lines, instead of having it done, as heretofore, in most
cases by high priced mechanics, well fitted to work at their trades, but poorly trained for work more or less clerical in its nature.

15. Need for Functional Foremanship or Functional Organisation of Foremen

In the writer's experience, almost all shops are under-officered. The foreman has too many duties to fulfill.

His duties may be briefly enumerated in the following way. He must lay out the work for the whole shop, see that each piece of work goes in the proper order to the right machine, and that the man at the machine knows just what is to be done and how he is to do it. He must see that the work is not slighted, and that it is done fast, and all the while he must look ahead a month or so, either to provide more men to do the work or more work for the men to do. He must constantly discipline the men and readjust their wages, and in addition to this must fix piece work prices and supervise the timekeeping. Hence, Taylor advocates functional foremanship.

16. Functional Foremanship

The following is a brief description of the duties of the four types of executive functional bosses which the writer has found it profitable to use in the active work of the shop: (1) gang bosses, (2) speed bosses, (3) inspectors, and (4) repair bosses.

The gang boss has charge of the preparation of all work up to the time that the piece is set in the machine. It is his duty to see that every man under him has at all times at least one piece of work ahead at his machine, with all the jigs, templates, drawings, driving mechanism, sling chains, etc., ready to go into his machine as soon as the piece he is actually working on is done. The gang boss must show his men how to set their work in their machines in the quickest time, and see that they
do it. He is responsible for the work being accurately and quickly set, and should be not only able but willing to pitch in himself and show the men how to set the work in record time.

The speed boss must see that the proper cutting tools are used for each piece of work, that the work is properly driven, that the cuts are started in the right part of the piece, and that the best speeds and
feeds and depth of cut are used. His work begins only after the piece is in the lathe or planer, and ends when the actual machining ends. The speed boss must not only advise his men how best to do this work, but he must see that they do it in the quickest time, and that they use the speeds and feeds and depth of cut as directed on the instruction card In many cases he is called upon to demonstrate that the work can be done in the specified time by doing it himself in the presence of his men.

The inspector is responsible for the quality of the work, and both the workmen and speed bosses must see that the work is all finished to suit him. This man can, of course, do his work best if he is a master of the art of finishing work both well and quickly.

The repair boss sees that each workman keeps his machine clean, free from rust and scratches, and that he oils and treats it properly, and that all of the standards established for the care and maintenance of the machines and their accessories are rigidly maintained, such as care of belts and shifters, cleanliness of floor around machines, and orderly piling and disposition of work.

The following is an outline of the duties of the four functional bosses who are located in the planning room, and who in their various functions represent the department in its connection with the men. The first three of these send their directions to and receive their returns from the men, mainly in writing. These four representatives of the planning department are, the (1) order of work and route clerk, (2) instruction card clerk, (3) time and cost clerk, and (4) shop disciplinarian.

Order of Work and Route Clerk. After the route clerk in the planning department has laid out the exact route which each piece of work is to travel through the shop from machine to machine in order that it may be finished at the time it is needed for assembling, and the work done in the most economical way, the order of work clerk daily writes lists instructing the workmen and also all of the executive shop bosses as to the exact order in which the work is to be done by each class of machines or men, and these lists constitute the chief means for directing the workmen in this particular function.

Instruction Card Clerks. The "instruction card," as its name indicates, is the chief means employed by the planning department for instructing both the executive bosses and the men in all of the details of their work. It tells them briefly the general and detail drawing to refer to, the piece number and the cost order number to charge the work to, the special jigs, fixtures, or tools to use, where to start each cut, the exact depth of each cut, and how many cuts to take, the speed and feed to be used for each cut, and the time within which each operation must be finished. It also informs them as to the piece rate, the differential rate, or the premium to be paid for completing the task within the specified time (according to the system employed); and further, when necessary, refers them by name to the man who will give them especial directions. This instruction card is filled in by one or more members of the planning department, according to the nature and complication of the instructions, and bears the same relation to the planning room that the drawing does to the drafting room. The man who sends it into the shop and who, in case difficulties are met with in carrying out the instructions, sees that the proper man sweeps these difficulties away, is called the instruction card foreman.

Time and Cost Clerk. This man sends to the men through the "time ticket" all the information they need for recording their time and the cost of the work, and secures proper returns from them. He refers these for entry to the cost and time record clerks in the planning room.

Shop Disciplinarian. In case of insubordination or impudence, repeated failure to do their duty, lateness or unexcused absence, the shop disciplinarian takes the workman or bosses in hand and applies the proper remedy. He sees that a complete record of each man's virtues and defects is kept. This man should also have much to do with readjusting the wages of the workmen. At the very least, he should invariably be consulted before any change is made. One of his important functions should be that of peace-maker.

17. Production Planning and Control

The following are the leading functions of the planning department:

(a) The complete analysis of all orders for machines or work taken by the company.

(b) Time study for all work done by hand throughout the works, including that done in setting the work in machines, and all bench, vise work and transportation, etc.

(c) Time study for all operations done by the various machines.

(d) The balance of all materials, raw materials, stores and finished parts, and the balance of the work ahead for each class of machines and workmen.

(e) The analysis of all inquiries for new work received in the sales department and promises for time of delivery.

(f) The cost of all items manufactured with complete expense analysis and complete monthly comparative cost and expense exhibits.

(g) The pay department.

(h) The mnemonic symbol system for identification of parts and for charges.

(i) Information bureau.

(j) Standards.

(k) Maintenance of system and plant, and use of the tickler.

(l) Messenger system and post office delivery.

(m) Employment bureau.

(n) Shop disciplinarian.

(o) A mutual accident insurance association.

(p) Rush order department.

(q) Improvement of system or plant.

18. Role of Top Management in Managing Change to High Productive Shop

Before starting to make any radical changes leading toward an improvement in the system of management, it is desirable, and for ultimate success in most cases necessary, that the directors and the important owners of an enterprise shall be made to understand, at least in a general way, what is involved in the change. They should be informed of the leading objects which the new system aims at, such, for instance, as rendering mutual the interests of employer and employee through "high wages and low labor cost," the gradual selection and development of a body of first class picked workmen who will work extra hard and receive extra high wages and be dealt with individually instead of in masses.

They should thoroughly understand that this can only be accomplished through the adoption of precise and exact methods, and having each smallest detail, both as to methods and appliances, carefully selected so as to be the best of its kind. They should understand the general philosophy of the system and should see that, as a whole, the system to be introduced must be in harmony with its few leading ideas,

They should be shown that it pays to employ an especial corps to introduce a new system just as it pays to employ especial designers and workmen to build a new plant; that, while a new system is being introduced, almost twice the number of foremen are required as are needed to run it after it is in; that all of this costs money, but that, unlike a new plant, returns begin to come in almost from the start from improved methods and appliances as they are introduced, and that in most cases the new system more than pays for itself as it goes along; that time, and a great deal of time, is involved in a radical change in management, and that in the case of a large works if they are incapable of looking ahead and patiently waiting for from two to four years, they had better leave things just as they are, since a change of system involves a change in the ideas, point of view and habits of many men with strong convictions and prejudices, and that this can only be brought about slowly and chiefly through a series of object lessons, each of which takes time, and through continued reasoning; and that for this reason, after deciding to adopt a given type, the necessary steps should be taken as fast as possible, one after another, for its introduction. The directors should be convinced that an increase m the proportion of non-producers to producers means increased economy and not red tape, providing the non-producers are kept busy at their respective functions.

They should be prepared to lose some of their valuable men who cannot stand the change and also for the continued indignant protest of many of their old and trusted employees who can see nothing but extravagance in the new ways and ruin ahead.

19. Train Operators in High Productivity One by One and Then in Small Batches

Organizing for Introducing New Methods and Functional Foremenship

Before taking any steps toward changing methods the manager should realize that at no time during the introduction of the system should any broad, sweeping changes be made which seriously affect a large number of the workmen.  Throughout the early stages of organization each change made should affect one workman only, and after the single man affected has become used to the new order of things, then change one man after another from the old system to the new, slowly at first, and rapidly as  public opinion in the shop swings around under the influence of proper object lessons. Throughout a considerable part of the time, then, there will be two distinct systems of management in operation in the same shop; and in many cases it is desirable to have the men working under the new system managed by an entirely different set of foremen, etc., from those under the old.

The first step, after deciding upon the type of organization, should be the selection of a competent man to take charge of the introduction of the new system. The manager should keep himself free as far as possible from all active part in the introduction of the new system. While changes are going on it will require his entire energies to see that there is no falling off in the efficiency of the old system and that the quality and quantity of the output is kept up.

The respective duties of the manager and the man in charge of improvement, and the limits of the authority of the latter should be clearly defined and agreed upon, always bearing in mind that responsibility should invariably be accompanied by its corresponding measure of authority.

The worst mistake that can be made is to refer to any part of the system as being "on trial." Once a given step is decided upon to implement based on various trials, all parties must be made to understand, that now they have to implement.In making changes in system the things that are given a
"fair trial" fail, while the things that "must go," go all right.

Where to begin is a perplexing and bewildering problem. Employees are in general suspicious of change.

The first changes should be such as to allay the suspicions of the men and convince them by actual contact that the reforms are after all rather harmless and are only such as will ultimately be of benefit
to all concerned. Such improvements then as directly affect the workmen least should be started first. At the same time it must be remembered that the whole operation is of necessity so slow that the new system should be started at as many points as possible, and constantly pushed as hard as possible. In the metal working plant which we are using for purposes of illustration a start can be made at once along all of the following lines:

First. The introduction of standards (standard conditions) throughout the works and office.

Second. The scientific study of unit times on several different kinds of work.

Third. A complete analysis of the pulling, feeding power and the proper speeding of the various machine tools throughout the place with a view of making a slide rule for properly running each machine.

Fourth. The work of establishing the system of time cards by means of which ultimately all of the desired information will be conveyed from the men to the planning room.

Fifth. Overhauling the stores issuing and receiving system so as to establish a complete running balance of materials.

Sixth. Ruling and printing the various blanks that will be required for shop returns and reports, time cards, instruction cards, expense sheets, cost sheets, pay sheet, and balance records; storeroom; tickler; and maintenance of standards, system, and plant, etc.; and starting such functions of the planning room as do not directly affect the men.

If the works is a large one, the man in charge of introducing the system should appoint a special assistant in charge of each of the above functions just as an engineer designing a new plant would start a number of draftsmen to work upon the various elements of construction.

Training Functional Foremen 

The most important and difficult task of the organizer will be that of selecting and training the various functional foremen who are to lead and instruct the workmen, and his success will be measured principally by his ability to mold and reach these men. They cannot be found, they must be made. They must be instructed in their new functions largely, in the beginning at least, by the organizer himself; and this instruction, to be effective, should be mainly in actually doing the work. Explanation and theory Will go a little way, but actual doing is needed to carry conviction. To illustrate: For nearly two and one-half years in the large shop of the Bethlehem Steel Company, one speed boss after another was instructed in the art of cutting metals fast on a large motor-driven lathe which was especially fitted to run at any desired speed within a very wide range. The work done in this machine was entirely connected, either with the study of cutting tools or the instruction of speed bosses. It was most interesting to see these men, principally either former gang bosses or the best workmen, gradually change from their attitude of determined and positive opposition to that in most cases of enthusiasm for, and earnest support of, the new methods. It was actually running the lathe themselves according to the new method and under the most positive and definite orders that produced the effect. The writer himself ran the lathe and instructed the first few bosses. It required from three weeks to two months for each man.

Perhaps the most important part of the gang boss's and foreman's education lies in teaching them to promptly obey orders and instructions received not only from the superintendent or some official high in the company, but from any member of the planning room whose especial function it is to direct the rest of the works in his particular line; and it may be accepted as an unquestioned fact that no gang boss is fit to direct his men until after he has learned to promptly obey instructions received from any proper source, whether he likes his instructions and the instructor or not, and even although he may be convinced that he knows a much better way of doing the work. The first step is for each man to learn to obey the laws as they exist, and next, if the laws are wrong, to have them reformed in the proper way.

20. Organizing a Small Workshop for High Productivity

In starting to organize even a comparatively small shop, containing say from 75 to 100 men, it is best to begin by training in the full number of functional foremen, one for each function, since it must be
remembered that about two out of three of those who are taught this work either leave of their own accord or prove unsatisfactory; and in addition, while both the workmen and bosses are adjusting themselves to their new duties, there are needed fully twice the number of bosses as are required to carry on the work after it is fully systematized.

21. Introducing Functional Foremanship

The first of the functional foremen to be brought into actual contact with the men should be the inspector; and the whole system of inspection, with its proper safeguards, should be in smooth and
successful operation before any steps are taken toward stimulating the men to a larger output; otherwise an increase in quantity will probably be accompanied by a falling off in quality.

Next choose for the application of the two principal functional foremen, viz., the speed boss and the gang boss.

It is of the utmost importance that the first combined application of time study, slide rules, instruction cards, functional foremanship, and a premium for a large daily task should prove a success both for the workmen and for the company, and for this reason a simple class of work should be chosen for a start. The entire efforts of the new management should be centered on one point, and continue there until unqualified success has been attained.

When once this gain has been made, a peg should be put in which shall keep it from sliding back in the least; and it is here that the task idea with a time limit for each job will be found most useful.

22. Personal Relations Between Employers and Employed

"No system of management, however good, should be applied in a wooden way. The proper personal relations should always be maintained between the employers and men; and even the prejudices of the workmen should be considered in dealing with them.

"The opportunity which each man should have of airing his mind freely, and having it out with his employers, is a safety-valve; and if the superintendents are reasonable men, and listen to and treat with respect what their men have to say, there is absolutely no reason for labor unions and strikes.

"It is not the large charities (however generous they may be) that are needed or appreciated by workmen so much as small acts of personal kindness and sympathy, which establish a bond of friendly feeling between them and their employers.

"The moral effect of this system on the men is marked. The feeling that substantial justice is being done them renders them on the whole much more manly, straightforward, and truthful. They work more cheerfully, and are more obliging to one another and their employers.

23. Don't be in a hurry - It Takes Time to Manage Change

Time is an important factor in managing the change from current productivity to high productivity. If any one expects large results in six months or a year in a very large works he is looking for the impossible. If any one expects to convert union men to a higher rate of production, coupled with high wages, in six months or a year, he is expecting next to an impossibility. But if he is patient enough to wait for two or three years, he can go among almost any set of workmen in the country and get results.

Other prominent pioneer industrial engineers like Frank Gilbreth, Harrington Emerson, Henry Gantt, H.B. Maynard, R.L. Barnes, Benjamin Niebel, Marvin Mundel, Shigeo Shingo and others did management process industrial engineering redesigned management processes for improving the productivity systems being managed or for reducing the resources involved in running the management process.

The research journals of industrial engineering still carry many articles in which industrial engineering professors and professionals keep making various suggestions to modify management processes for improving the productivity of systems.

Management Systems Engineering - Book

Updated  23 June 2017, 18 March 2017