Thursday, August 29, 2013

Creating a Lean and Green Business System: Techniques for Improving Profits and Sustainability - Keivan Zokaei et al. - 2013 Book Information



Creating a Lean and Green Business System: Techniques for Improving Profits and Sustainability


Keivan Zokaei, Hunter Lovins, Andy Wood, Peter Hines

CRC Press, 2013 - Business & Economics - 233 pages
Things that are good for the planet are also good for business. Numerous studies from the likes of the Economist Intelligence Unit, Harvard, MIT Sloan, and others indicate that organizations that commit to goals of zero waste, zero harmful emissions, and zero use of nonrenewable resources clearly outperform their competition.

Like lean thinking, greening your business is not just a ‘nice to have’; at least not anymore. It is now a key economic driver for many forward looking firms. This book is packed with case studies and examples that illustrate how leading firms use lean and green as simultaneous sources of inspiration in various sectors of industry - from automotive and retail to textile and brewing. Take Toyota as an example, the holy grail of economic efficiency for decades. This book, shows that Toyota tops the green chart too, describing Toyota’s notion of Monozukuri: sustainable manufacturing.

Creating a Lean and Green Business System: Techniques for Improving Profits and Sustainability offers opportunities for innovation that can simultaneously reduce dependence on natural resources and enhance global prosperity. It explores less understood aspects of lean and green – discussing their evolution independently as well as the opportunities that exist in their integration, highlighting the importance of a cultural shift across the whole company.

Outlining a systematic way to eliminate harmful waste while generating green value, the book explains how to:

Become economically successful and environmentally sustainable by adopting the lean and green business system model
Adopt a systematic approach to become lean and green, and develop your own roadmap to success
Use the cutting edge tools, techniques, and methodologies developed by the authors
Translate the techniques and culture that underpin lean into environmental improvements
Creating a Lean and Green Business System: Techniques for Improving Profits and Sustainability supplies a new way of thinking that will allow you to boost improvement efforts and create a positively charged work environment – while contributing to the long-term well-being of the environment.

Google Book Link
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ja_3s5QMgCUC

Application of Lean in Steel Plants - Industry - Technology


Running Steel Lean

Lean in Steel


Essar Steel Hazira plant recognized for Lean manufacturing practices
December 26, 2012


Towards Integrated optimization of steel plant production processes
Case Study: Improving Production Planning in SteelIndustry in 
Light of Lean Principles
Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management
Istanbul, Turkey, July 3 – 6, 2012



Optimizing in-plant supply chain in Steel Plants by integrating Lean Manufacturing & Theory of Constrains through dynamic simulationmore
by Prateek Raj
December 2011

Paper

Enhancing Productivity of hot metal in Blast furnace -A case study in an Integrated 
Steel Plant
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)
Vol. 3 No. 4 Apr 2011

Informing Implementers of Lean Strategy in Process Industries – The Central Role of Schedulers
Steel Industry Case
Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology Volume 8, 2011


STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES IN STEEL PRODUCT ION:
Product variety and Performance
Joakim Storck
Doctoral Thesis in Production Engineering
Stockholm, Sweden, 2009
http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:278611/FULLTEXT01.pdf



A LEAN PRODUCTION STRATEGY FOR HOT CHARGE OPERATION OF A STEEL MILL
Agile Manufacturing, 2007. ICAM 2007. IET International Conference 
Date of Conference: 9-11 July 2007

Leaning into the steel industry: Lean supply and the steel industry
Matthew P. Pepper, University of Wollongong
Trevor A. Spedding, University of Wollongong
Jan 2006


Applying lean thinking: a case study of an Indian steel plant
Vijay Dhandapani, Andrew Potter, Mohamed Naim
International Journal of Logistics-research and Applications - INT J LOGIST-RES APPL 01/2004; 7(3):239-250.

Abdullah, Fawaz Mohammed (2003) LEAN MANUFACTURING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON STEEL. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

YouTube Videos on Lean Systems and Practices



How to Lead Lean Systems
John Shook - Former Toyota Manager
Uploaded 17 July 2012 by Industry Week
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Value Stream Walk - Jim Womack
July 2012
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Toyota Kata by Author Mike Rother
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Lean Six Sigma






Best Practices in Lean Six Sigma Process Improvement

Richard J. Schonberger
John Wiley & Sons, 03-Mar-2008 - Business & Economics - 368 pages
Best Practices in Lean Six Sigma Process Improvement reveals how to refocus lean/six sigma processes on what author Richard Schonberger—world-renowned process improvement pioneer—calls "the Golden Goals": better quality, quicker response, greater flexibility, and higher value. This manual shows you how it can be done, employing success stories of over 100 companies including Apple, Illinois Tool Works, Dell, Inc., and Wal-Mart, all of which have established themselves as the new, global "Kings of Lean," surpassing even Toyota in long-term improvement.
Google Book Link with preview facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=0-2PQXOBavMC

Application of Lean in Cement Industry



Creating a Lean Energy Culture with Sustainability: A Case Study on Holcim
http://www.nea.gov.sg/cms/sei/PSS58_LearningReport.pdf

Lean system in Holcim
http://www.jnm.com/documents/10167/94965/JnM_Created_Value_HOLCIM_operational_excellence_en.pdf

Lean system in Cemex
2012
http://raveenb.wordpress.com/2012/03/22/the-leanest-cement/

Application of the Lean Philosophy to reduce Carbon Emissions in the Precast Concrete Industry of Singapore
2011
http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/35237

IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN WITHIN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY
Taher Tourki
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of De Montfort
University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
2010
https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2086/4577/PhDThesis_TaherTourki.pdf?sequence=1

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Material Waste Reduction - Example



From the Chapter

Operational Excellence: A Manufacturing Metamorphosis at Western Geophysical Exploration Products
by Mark F. McGovern and Brian J. Andrews
in Becoming Lean - Inside Stories of US Manufacturers by Jeffrey K. Liker
Pp.389-
Google Book Link - http://books.google.co.in/books?id=xBHVjF8NsOMC

At each step in the cabling process, extra cable is being manufactured for uncertainty in the downstream operations, as a longer cable can be cut as required and shorter cable would become waste. But in the lean mindset this notion was challenged.

The team started collecting the data. Analysis showed that significant amount of money is wasted in creating extra long lengths. The finished cable needs to be 1250 feet. Two most expensive elements of the cable are being bought in lengths of 1450 feet. Though analysis of the data, the purchased length was adjusted. The annual savings of this one improvement saved more than $320,000 for WGEP.


Lean Solutions: How Companies and Customers Can Create Value and Wealth Together - James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones - 2009 - Book Information



Womack and Jones deconstruct the broken producer-consumer model and show businesses how to repair it, by providing the full value consumers desire from products without wasting time or effort.
Why is it that, when our computers or our cell phones fail to satisfy our needs, virtually every interaction with help lines, support centers, or any organization providing service is marked with wasted time and extra hassle? In their bestselling business classic Lean Thinking, James Womack and Daniel Jones introduced the world to the principles of lean production—principles for eliminating waste during production. Now, in Lean Solutions, the authors establish the groundbreaking principles of lean consumption, showing companies how to eliminate inefficiency during consumption.

Lean Solutions is full of surprising success stories: Fujitsu, a leading service company for technology, has transformed the way call centers solve problems—learning how to eliminate the underlying cause of current problems rather than fixing them again and again. An extremely successful car dealership has adopted lean principles to streamline its business, making for dramatically reduced wait time, fewer return trips, and greater satisfaction for customers—and a far more lucrative enterprise. Lean Solutions will inspire managers to take the first steps toward perfecting their company's process of giving consumers what they really want.

Simon and Schuster, 01-Dec-2009 - Business & Economics - 368 pages

Google Book Link
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=rpBv4JoCRW4C

Saturday, August 24, 2013

Interesting Moving Work Station Design by a Worker - India



In a textile factory, changing the thread spindles when they ran out was a physically stressful job. It required a team of two--one pushing a cart with the fresh spindles, and the other constantly having to move the stool, climb up and replace the spindle, and climb down. The guy on the stool was often taking sick leave because of the physical demands, which sometimes led to falls and other injuries.

A factory worker observed this problem. In his own time after work, the factory worker began experimenting with how to propel the stool so that the worker didn't have to keep getting up and down. Eventually he had the idea to put wheels on the stool, and then he rigged up an electric motor to propel it. In a final ingenious flash, he adapted a sewing machine pedal to the mechanism so that the worker could stop and start it at will. The results? Less sick time, less injury, and greater efficiency and productivity.

Interesting moving work station design.

Source

Why CEOs need to be creative?
http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-08-23/news/41437580_1_sachit-jain-india-study-trip

Inside the Mind of Toyota - Satoshi Hino - 2005 - Book Information


Inside the Mind of Toyota: Management Principles for Enduring Growth

Satoshi Hino

Productivity Press, 2006 - Business & Economics - 327 pages


In Inside the Mind of Toyota: Management Principles for Enduring Growth, Satoshi Hino examines the source of Toyota's strength: the fundamental thinking and management structures that lie beneath the creation of its famed Toyota Production System. From the perspective of a professional with 30 years experience in the auto industry, Hino presents a fresh and detailed analysis of Toyota's essential management system, from its very beginnings into the 21st century.

The ultimate goal is not simply to mimic Toyota's formula, but to learn from it and, in doing so, surpass it.

Google Book Link with Preview Facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=rAlcjg0QhGkC

Target costing idea was developed by Kiichiro Toyoda taking inspiration from Henry Ford.  Page 7

Friday, August 23, 2013

Lean Manufacturing System - Toyota Production System As Described by Toyota Global

http://www.toyota-global.com/company/vision_philosophy/toyota_production_system/
Accessed on 23 August 2013

This explanation by Toyota Globla is very clear.

Toyota Production System is a production system which is steeped in the philosophy of "the complete elimination of all waste" imbuing all aspects of production in pursuit of the most efficient methods.

This production control system has been established based on many years of continuous improvements, with the objective of "making the vehicles ordered by customers in the quickest and most efficient way, in order to deliver the vehicles as quickly as possible."

The Toyota Production System (TPS) was established based on two concepts: The first is called "jidoka" (which can be loosely translated as "automation with a human touch") which means that when a problem occurs, the equipment stops immediately, preventing defective products from being produced; The second is the concept of "Just-in-Time," in which each process produces only what is needed by the next process in a continuous flow.


Jidoka

Highlighting/visualization of problems

-Quality must be built in during the manufacturing process!-
If equipment malfunction or a defective part is discovered, the affected machine automatically stops, and operators cease production and correct the problem.
For the Just-in-Time system to function, all of the parts that are made and supplied must meet predetermined quality standards. This is achieved through jidoka.
Jidoka means that a machine safely stops when the normal processing is completed. It also means that, should a quality / equipment problem arise, the machine detects the problem on its own and stops, preventing defective products from being produced. As a result, only products satisfying quality standards will be passed on to the following processes on the production line.
Since a machine automatically stops when processing is completed or when a problem arises and is communicated via the "andon" (problem display board), operators can confidently continue performing work at another machine, as well as easily identify the problem's cause to prevent its recurrence. This means that each operator can be in charge of many machines, resulting in higher productivity, while continuous improvements lead to greater processing capacity.

Just-in-Time

Productivity improvement

- Making only "what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed!"
Producing quality products efficiently through the complete elimination of waste, inconsistencies, and unreasonable requirements on the production line.
In order to deliver a vehicle ordered by a customer as quickly as possible, the vehicle is efficiently built within the shortest possible period of time by adhering to the following:
When a vehicle order is received, a production instruction must be issued to the beginning of the vehicle production line as soon as possible.
The assembly line must be stocked with required number of all needed parts so that any type of ordered vehicle can be assembled.
The assembly line must replace the parts used by retrieving the same number of parts from the parts-producing process (the preceding process).
The preceding process must be stocked with small numbers of all types of parts and produce only the numbers of parts that were retrieved by an operator from the next process.

Jidoka - Even machines do not produce defective parts. This means, human operator will not produce a defective part and pass it on to the next stage.

JIT - Flexible machines with very small set up times

Scientific Management - Introduction - F.W.Taylor

From F.W. Taylor's Scientific Management



The writer asserts as a general principle (and he proposes to give illustrations tending to prove the fact later in this paper) that in almost all of the mechanic arts the science which underlies each act of
each workman is so great and amounts to so much that the workman who is best suited to actually doing the work is incapable of fully understanding this science, without the guidance and help of those who are working with him or over him, either through lack of education or through insufficient mental capacity. In order that the work may be done in accordance with scientific laws, it is necessary that there shall be a far more equal division of the responsibility between the management and the workmen than exists under any of the ordinary types of management. Those in the management whose duty it is to develop this science should also guide and help the workman in working under it, and should assume a much larger share of the responsibility for results than under usual conditions is assumed by the management.

The body of this paper will make it clear that, to work according to scientific laws, the management must take over and perform much of the work which is now left to the men; almost every act of the workman should be preceded by one or more preparatory acts of the management which enable him to do his work better and quicker than he otherwise could. And each man should daily be taught by and receive the most friendly help from those who are over him, instead of being, at the one extreme, driven or coerced by his bosses, and at the other left to his own unaided devices.

This close, intimate, personal cooperation between the management and the men is of the essence of modern scientific or task management.

It will be shown by a series of practical illustrations that, through this friendly cooperation, namely, through sharing equally in every day's burden, all of the great obstacles (above described) to obtaining the maximum output for each man and each machine in the establishment are swept away. The 30 per cent to 100 per cent increase in wages which the workmen are able to earn beyond what they receive under the old type of management, coupled with the daily intimate shoulder to shoulder contact with the management, entirely removes all cause for soldiering. And in a few years, under this system, the workmen have before them the object lesson of seeing that a great increase in the output per man results in giving employment to more men, instead of throwing men out of work, thus completely eradicating the fallacy that a larger output for each man will throw other men out of work.

It is the writer's judgment, then, that while much can be done and should be done by writing and talking toward educating not only workmen, but all classes in the community, as to the importance of obtaining the maximum output of each man and each machine, it is only through the adoption of modern scientific management that this great problem can be  finally solved. Probably most of the readers of this paper will say that all of this is mere theory. On the contrary, the theory, or philosophy, of scientific management is just beginning to be understood, whereas the management itself has been a gradual evolution, extending over a period of nearly thirty years. And during this time the employees of one company after another, including a large range and diversity of industries, have gradually changed from the ordinary to the scientific type of management. At least 50,000 workmen in the United States are now employed under this system; and they are receiving from 30 per cent to 100 per cent higher wages daily than are paid to men of similar caliber with whom they are surrounded, while the companies employing them are more prosperous than ever before. In these companies the output, per man and per machine, has on an average been doubled. During all these years there has never been a single strike among the men working under this system. In place of the suspicious watchfulness and the more or less open warfare which characterizes the ordinary types of management, there is universally friendly cooperation between the management and the men.

Several papers have been written, describing the expedients which have been adopted and the details which have been developed under scientific management and the steps to be taken in changing from the ordinary to the scientific type. But unfortunately most of the readers of these papers have mistaken the mechanism for the true essence. Scientific management fundamentally consists of certain broad general principles, a certain philosophy, which can be applied in many ways, and a description of what any one man or men may believe to be the best mechanism for applying these general principles should in no way be confused with the principles themselves.

It is not here claimed that any single panacea exists for all of the troubles of the working-people or of employers. As long as some people are born lazy or inefficient, and others are born greedy and brutal, as long as vice and crime are with us, just so long will a certain amount of poverty, misery, and unhappiness be with us Also. No system of management, no single expedient--within the control of any man or any set of men can insure continuous prosperity to either workmen or employers. Prosperity depends upon so many factors entirely beyond the control of any one set of men, any state, or even any one country, that certain periods will inevitably come when both sides must suffer, more
or less. It is claimed, however, that under scientific management the intermediate periods will be far more prosperous, far happier, and more free from discord and dissension. And also, that the periods will be fewer, shorter and the suffering less. And this will be particularly true in any one town, any one section of the country, or any one state which first substitutes the principles of scientific management for the rule of thumb.

That these principles are certain to come into general use practically throughout the civilized world, sooner or later, the writer is profoundly convinced, and the sooner they come the better for all the
people.

F.W. Taylor, Scientific Management

All Chapters
F.W. Taylor Scientific Management - With Appropriate Sections

Next Chapter
6. THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook - 2013 Book - K. G. Swift, J. D. Booker - Book Information

Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook: From design to manufacture (Google eBook)

K. G. Swift, J. D. Booker

Butterworth-Heinemann, 15-Feb-2013 - Technology & Engineering - 456 pages


Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook provides engineers and designers with process knowledge and the essential technological and cost data to guide the selection of manufacturing processes early in the product development cycle.

Building on content from the authors’ earlier introductory Process Selection guide, this expanded handbook begins with the challenges and benefits of identifying manufacturing processes in the design phase and appropriate strategies for process selection. The bulk of the book is then dedicated to concise coverage of different manufacturing processes, providing a quick reference guide for easy comparison and informed decision making.

For each process examined, the book considers key factors driving selection decisions, including:

Basic process descriptions with simple diagrams to illustrate
Notes on material suitability
Notes on available process variations
Economic considerations such as costs and production rates
Typical applications and product examples
Notes on design aspects and quality issues
Providing a quick and effective reference for the informed selection of manufacturing processes with suitable characteristics and capabilities, Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook is intended to quickly develop or refresh your experience of selecting optimal processes and costing design alternatives in the context of concurrent engineering. It is an ideal reference for those working in mechanical design across a variety of industries and a valuable learning resource for advanced students undertaking design modules and projects as part of broader engineering programs.


Google Book Link
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=FfLpEgj5F_EC

Foundation of Scientific Management - F.W. Taylor


The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee.

The words "maximum prosperity" are used, in their broad sense, to mean not only large dividends for the company or owner, but the development of every branch of the business to its highest state of excellence, so that the prosperity may be permanent. In the same way maximum prosperity for each employee means not only higher wages than are usually received by men of his class, but, of more importance still, it also means the development of each man to his state of maximum efficiency, so that he may be able to do, generally speaking, the highest grade of work for which his natural abilities fit him, and it further means giving him, when possible, this class of work to do.

It would seem to be so self-evident that maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with maximum prosperity for the employee, ought to be the two leading objects of management, that even to state this fact should be unnecessary. And yet there is no question that, throughout the industrial world, a large part of the organization of employers, as well as employees, is for war rather than for peace, and that perhaps the majority on either side do not believe that it is possible so to arrange their mutual relations that their interests become identical.

The majority of these men believe that the fundamental interests of employees and employers are necessarily antagonistic. Scientific management, on the contrary, has for its very foundation the firm
conviction that the true interests of the two are one and the same; that prosperity for the employer cannot exist through a long term of years unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employee, and vice versa; and that it is possible to give the workman what he most wants--high wages--and the employer what he wants--a low labor cost--for his manufactures.

It is hoped that some at least of those who do not sympathize with each of these objects may be led to modify their views; that some employers, whose attitude toward their workmen has been that of trying to get the largest amount of work out of them for the smallest possible wages, may be led to see that a more liberal policy toward their men will pay them better; and that some of those workmen who begrudge a fair and even a large profit to their employers, and who feel that all of the fruits of their labor should belong to them, and that those for whom they work and the capital invested in the business are entitled to little or nothing, may be led to modify these views.

No one can be found who will deny that in the case of any single individual the greatest prosperity can exist only when that individual has reached his highest state of efficiency; that is, when he is turning out his largest daily output.

The truth of this fact is also perfectly clear in the case of two men working together. To illustrate: if you and your workman have become so skillful that you and he together are making two pairs of, shoes in a day, while your competitor and his workman are making only one pair, it is clear that after selling your two pairs of shoes you can pay your workman much higher wages than your competitor who produces only one pair of shoes is able to pay his man, and that there will still be enough money left over for you to have a larger profit than your competitor.

In the case of a more complicated manufacturing establishment, it should also be perfectly clear that the greatest permanent prosperity for the workman, coupled with the greatest prosperity for the employer, can be brought about only when the work of the establishment is done with the smallest combined expenditure of human effort, plus nature's resources, plus the cost for the use of capital in the shape of machines, buildings, etc. Or, to state the same thing in a different way: that the greatest prosperity can exist only as the result of the greatest possible productivity of the men and machines of the establishment--that is, when each man and each machine are turning out the largest possible output; because unless your men and your machines are daily turning out more work than others around you, it is clear that competition will prevent your paying higher wages to your workmen than are paid to those of your competitor. And what is true as to the possibility of paying high wages in the case of two companies competing close beside one another is also true as to whole districts of the country and even as to nations which are in competition. In a word, that maximum prosperity can exist only as the result of maximum productivity. Later in this paper illustrations will be given of several companies which are earning large dividends and at the same time paying from 30 per cent to 100 per cent higher wages to their men than are paid to similar men immediately around them, and with whose employers they are in competition. These illustrations will cover different types of work, from the most elementary to the most complicated.

If the above reasoning is correct, it follows that the most important object of both the workmen and the management should be the training and development of each individual in the establishment, so that he can do (at his fastest pace and with the maximum of efficiency) the highest class of work for which his natural abilities fit him.

F.W. Taylor, Scientific Management

All Chapters
F.W. Taylor Scientific Management - With Appropriate Sections

Next chapter
3. Soldiering and Its Causes

Article part of
July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Production Processes: The Productivity Handbook - Book Information

Production Processes: The Productivity Handbook

Roger William Bolz

Industrial Press Inc., 1977 - Technology & Engineering - 1089 pages
Reviews all the latest developments and refinements, including their design details, materials, practical tolerances, and working finishes. Features over 1,200 charts and illustrations in 69 chapters. Allows the reader to objectively evaluate and compare different processes and equipment with their inherent advantages for any particular application.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=C4SUXiL7gB0C


5th Edition 1981

The book is in the reference section of NITIE Library. (9 May 2019)

Industrial Engineering And Production Management - Martand Telsang - Book Information



Publisher S. Chand & Co.

Google Book Link with Preview Facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=QNa5OqYsSNEC

Tuesday, August 20, 2013

World Class Industrial Engineering




World Class Manufacturing is popular.

I saw today World Class Quality and World Class Supply Chain Management.

How to define World Class Industrial Engineering?

20 August 2013

How to identify world class IE departments in companies?

I posted the question in three communities related to IE on Linkedin.

IIE 2014 Student Conference Schedule




University region conferences:


Provide a forum for the presentation of student papers reflecting undergraduate research and industry-based projects.
Stimulate research and creative thinking through team competitions.
Promote leadership, communication and organizational skills.
Develop networking skills and contacts.
Strengthen communication among chapters within the region and with IIE.

http://www.iienet2.org/Details.aspx?id=814#!


Asia region is yet to be announced.


Monday, August 19, 2013

Productivity Improvement Case Studies - Bibliography



Enhancement in productivity in sheet metal industry through Lean Principles
International Journal on Emerging Technologies 4(1): 186-191(2013)

productivity Improvement Case Study for Solution


Productivity Measurement and Improvement: Organizational Case Studies
Robert D. Pritchard
Greenwood Publishing Group, 01-Jan-1995 - Business & Economics - 380 pages
Improving organizational productivity is an important current and future issue. The improvement can be effected by changing technology, or by changing the way in which people work. The concern of this work is how to structure work so that people can and will want to maximize their productivity using a special approach to measurement and improvement of organizational productivity defined by the author - ProMES (Productivity Measurement and Enchancement System). ProMES is a way of motivating people to maximize their productivity. This book describes a series of cases where ProMES was applied to improve productivity in service and manufacturing organizations in a variety of different organizations in different countries. Results indicate very large increases in productivity, much larger than those typically found. Lessons learned from these cases for future productivity improvement efforts are summarized.

Productivity Improvement Consultants - Case Studies


Oxford, Holt and Company

Pihms

Work Station Design - An Activity of Human Effort Engineering - Bibliography

Bibliography

The ergonomic Design of Work Stations Using Virtual Manufacturing and Response Surface Methodology
IIE Transactions, 2002, 34, 375-391


Work Station Design - ILO Occupations Safety Handbook Chapter
http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english?content&nd=857170342

Work Station Design Strategies (COPE)

A revolution in chair, work station design

Modular work station design for aircraft - An abstract of a patent

Transit Bus Operator Work Station Design for a Diverse Population - SAE Technical paper published 1995

Computer Work Station Design

Work station design and work tools - ILO Book Chapter

Ergonomics and Work Station Design - Dr. Mark Vettraino, September 2003

Work Station Design -- What Makes it Ergonomically Correct?

ERGONOMICS CONSIDERATIONS IN SEWING MACHINE WORK STATION DESIGN
By Balraj Singh Brar, Chandandeep Singh Grewal, Kuldeep Kumar Sareen

originally posted in Knol http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/work-station-design-an-activity-of/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 1366

Software Process Efficiency - Bibliography



UNDERSTANDING SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY
WALT SCACCHI
Information and Operations Management Department
School of Business Administration
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA 90089-1421, USA
(Appears in Advances in Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, D. Hurley (ed.),
    Volume 4, pp. 37-70, (1995)., December 1994
http://www.usc.edu/dept/ATRIUM/Papers/Software_Productivity.html


Measuring software process efficiency


Managing waste in knowledge work - podcast - David J. Anderson


An industrial engineering approach to software development
D.N. Card
Computer Sciences Corporation, Silver Spring, MarylandUSA
R.A. Berg
Synercom, Inc., Houston, TexasUSA
Abstract
Many different tools and techniques have been developed to increase software quality and productivity. However, periodic acquisition of improved methods and tools, by itself, does not ensure continual improvement. To be effective, new technology must be integrated into an underlying process. That process must be managed explicitly. This paper describes an industrial engineering approach that treats software development as a process distinct from its unique application to any specific project. Its essential elements include formal process definition, software measurement, process engineering, and quality control. Although already successfully embedded in many manufacturing processes, application of industrial engineering techniques to software remains a novelty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the software enterprise with a long-term plan for improving software quality and productivity.
Journal of Systems and Software
Volume 10, Issue 3, October 1989, Pages 159–168

Sunday, August 18, 2013

Manufacturing Systems Conference 2013 Papers - Bibliography


Forty Sixth CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems 2013


11. A study on the heating process for forging of an automotive
crankshaft in terms of energy efficiency
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/11_paper.pdf

38. Methodology for energy efficiency on process level
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/38_paper.pdf

39 A systematic approach on developing action-oriented, competencybased Learning Factories
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/39_paper.pdf

42. An approach for a cloud-based machine tool control
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/42_paper.pdf

49. A Study of Automatic Determination of Cutting Conditions to
Minimize Machining Cost
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/49_paper.pdf

55. Concurrent Product – Supply Chain Design: A Conceptual
Framework & Literature Review
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/55_paper.pdf

57. Beyond Lean and Six Sigma; Cross-Collaborative Improvement of  Tolerances and Process Variations - A Case Study
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/57_paper.pdf

60. Milkrun Vehicle Routing Approach for Shop-floor Logistics
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/60_paper.pdf
61. Methodology for the assessment of structural complexity in global
production networks
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/61_paper.pdf

62. Current State of Standardized Work in Automotive Industry in
Sweden
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/62_paper.pdf

64. Manufacturing of Twist-Free Surfaces by Hard Turning
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/64_paper.pdf

Use of Statistics in Engineering and Technology - Bibliography




Technometrics - Journal


Technometrics contributes to the development and use of statistical methods in the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences as well as information sciences and technology. It features papers that describe new statistical techniques; illustrate innovative applications of known statistical methods; or review methods, issues, or philosophy in a particular area of statistics or science. Articles are expected to include adequate justification of the application of the technique, preferably by means of an actual application to a problem in the physical, chemical, engineering or information sciences.

Technometrics is co-published four times per year by ASQ and the American Statistical Association (ASA).
http://asq.org/pub/techno/


SPC - Statistical Process Control in Injection Molding and Extrusion
Chris Rauwendaal
Hanser Verlag, 01-Jan-2008 - 250 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fbiV2SKQB-YC


Statistics in Industry
Ravindra Khattree, Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao

Gulf Professional Publishing, 01-Jan-2003 - Mathematics - 1187 pages
A state-of-the-art exposition of topics in the field of industrial statistics DESCRIPTION: The Handbook of Statistics, a series of self-contained reference books. Each volume is devoted to a particular topic in statistics. Every chapter is written by prominent workers in the area to which the volume is devoted. The series is addressed to the entire community of statisticians and scientists in various disciplines who use statistical methodology in their work. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on applications-oriented techniques, with the applied statistician in mind as the primary audience. This volume presents a state of the art exposition of topics in the field of industrial statistics. It serves as an invaluable reference for the researchers in industrial statistics/industrial engineering and an up to date source of information for practicing statisticians/industrial engineers. A variety of topics in the areas of industrial process monitoring, industrial experimentation, industrial modelling and data analysis are covered and are authored by leading researchers or practitioners in the particular specialized topic. Targeting the audiences of researchers in academia as well as practitioners and consultants in industry, the book provides comprehensive accounts of the relevant topics. In addition, whenever applicable ample data analytic illustrations are provided with the help of real world data. TABLE OF CONTENTS: Part 1: Statistics in Research and Development; Part 2: Statistics in on-line Industrial Processes; Part 3: Measurement Processes; Part 4: Statistical Inferential Techniques useful in Industrial Applications; Part 5: Software Reliability
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=DUQ5IY3iV9QC



A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures


John A. Cornell

John Wiley & Sons, 26-Sep-2011 - Mathematics - 368 pages
A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures provides an introductory presentation of the key principles behind experimenting with mixtures. Outlining useful techniques through an applied approach with examples from real research situations, the book supplies a comprehensive discussion of how to design and set up basic mixture experiments, then analyze the data and draw inferences from results.

Drawing from his extensive experience teaching the topic at various levels, the author presents the mixture experiments in an easy-to-follow manner that is void of unnecessary formulas and theory. Succinct presentations explore key methods and techniques for carrying out basic mixture experiments, including:

Designs and models for exploring the entire simplex factor space, with coverage of simplex-lattice and simplex-centroid designs, canonical polynomials, the plotting of individual residuals, and axial designs

Multiple constraints on the component proportions in the form of lower and/or upper bounds, introducing L-Pseudocomponents, multicomponent constraints, and multiple lattice designs for major and minor component classifications

Techniques for analyzing mixture data such as model reduction and screening components, as well as additional topics such as measuring the leverage of certain design points

Models containing ratios of the components, Cox's mixture polynomials, and the fitting of a slack variable model

A review of least squares and the analysis of variance for fitting data

Each chapter concludes with a summary and appendices with details on the technical aspects of the material. Throughout the book, exercise sets with selected answers allow readers to test their comprehension of the material, and References and Recommended Reading sections outline further resources for study of the presented topics.

A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures is an excellent book for one-semester courses on mixture designs and can also serve as a supplement for design of experiments courses at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a suitable reference for practitioners and researchers who have an interest in experiments with mixtures and would like to learn more about the related mixture designs and models.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=RXpyIR7doKoC


Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement
Veronica Czitrom, Patrick D. Spagon
SIAM, 1997 - Mathematics - 514 pages
American industry is becoming more aware of the importance of applying statistical methods to improve its competitive edge in the world market. Examples of real industrial applications can serve as a major motivator for industries that want to increase their use of statistical methods. This book contains a broad selection of case studies written by professionals in the semiconductor industry that illustrate the use of statistical methods to improve manufacturing processes. These case studies offer engineers, scientists, technicians, and managers numerous examples of best-in-class practices by their peers. Because of the universal nature of statistical applications, the methods described here can be applied to a wide range of industries, including the chemical, biotechnology, automotive, steel, plastics, textile, and food industries.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=uteIhddYMyQC
30 Papers in the book

___________________

Case Studies and Applications

1. Cylinder Line Boring Case Study
http://www.win.tue.nl/~adibucch/2WS10/lect18Sutherland.pdf

2. Implementation of SPC Techniques in Automotive Industry: A Case Study
Dr. D. R. Prajapati
Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, PEC University of Technology (formerly Punjab Engineering College), Chandigarh-160012 (India),   2012 paper
http://www.ijetae.com/files/Volume2Issue4/IJETAE_0412_39.pdf

3. APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES VIA CONTROL CHARTS
A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF INFORMATICS
OF THE MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
by KAMİL UMUT SARGUT
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
MAY 2003
http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1270081/index.pdf

4. Real Time Statistical Process Control Systems for Saw Mills
http://web.utk.edu/~tfpc/Intelligent/Publications/SawTech%2007252005.pdf

5. Process Control Tool for a Production Line at Nokia - 2000
http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn951427508X/isbn951427508X.pdf

6. Statistical Methods for Monitoring Service Processes
http://www.woodm.myweb.port.ac.uk/StatMethServiceP.pdf

7. Statistical Quality Control in Cable Industry
Case Study: Copper Consumption Reduction in Nexans IKO Sweden
Industrial Engineering
http://bada.hb.se/bitstream/2320/5497/1/Mokhlesi,%20Sabet%20Azad.pdf

8. The use of Statistical Process Control Technique in the Ceramic Tile Manufacturing: a Case Study
2012 Paper
http://research.ijais.org/volume2/number5/ijais12-450341.pdf

9. Forty Sixth CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems 2013
Statistical Process Control as a Service: An Industrial Case Study
Gašper Škulja, Rok Vrabiča,, Peter Butalaa, Alojzij Slugaa
http://cms2013.ceni.pt/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/65_paper.pdf

10 . APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL IN INJECTION MOULD MANUFACTURING
CAO JIAN
2004 MS Thesis


Monday, August 12, 2013

Industrial Engineering - Principles and Propositions








Principles of Efficiency - Harrington Emerson


1. Clearly defined ideals.
2. Common sense
3. Competent counsel
4. Discipline
5. The fair deal
6. Reliable, immediate and adequate records
7. Despatching
8. Standards and schedules
9. Standardized conditions
10. Standardized operations
11. Written standard-practice instructions
12. Efficiency-reward

Tuesday, August 6, 2013

Raising the productivity of Interaction Workers


Raise the productivity of interaction workers—high-skill knowledge workers, including managers and professionals—by 20 to 25 percent by using social technologies internally and externally.

McKinsey Global Report July 2012
http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/the_social_economy

Personal Productivity Tips Shared by Productivity Pro on Google+ (Plus)

https://plus.google.com/u/0/100086449099785873112/posts


Your boss is paying you for the very best you can give them. Do not cheat them OR yourself.

 Do you really need to work so long to get it all done...or are you just being inefficient?

Join a professional group specific to your field, so you can benefit from their advice.

Empty your inboxes at least once daily, so the chore does not get ahead of you.

Clear the clutter from your workspace, so you can think and plan with less distraction.

 Surround yourself with happy things in your workplace, to make work more enjoyable.

If you truly want to maximize your productivity, you need to enjoy what you do.

File paperwork a few times a month, at least. You cannot afford to let those files pile up.

The better you can do your work, the sooner you can leave the office.

Exercise regularly! Ironically, the less active you are, the less energy you have.

Do not fear failure—but never assume it is inevitable.

Stop believing you have no control over your stress, and change the situation!

Readjust your expectations to fit within your energy levels; stop running your battery dry.

A good rule of thumb: you should earn or save your company 3 times your base salary yearly.

Give your tasks 110% of your energy and focus, so you do not undershoot the mark.

Ever heard of the Japanese concept of Karoshi? Look it up and think about it.

 Will attending a particular meeting help accomplish your work goals? If not, forget it.


Top 50 Productivity Blogs
http://www.evancarmichael.com/blog/2012/08/14/top-50-productivity-blogs-of-2012/#

Sunday, August 4, 2013

Lean Systems - Design, Development and Improvement - Bibliography




The Lean Certification Handbook
Anthony Manos, Chad Vincent
ASQ Quality Press, 11-Jun-2012 - 464 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=y6QBw0f3JiYC



Lean Software Development and IT Enabled Services - Bibliography
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/04/lean-software-development-and-it.html


Lean Solutions: How Companies and Customers Can Create Value and Wealth Together
James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones
Simon and Schuster, 01-Dec-2009 - Business & Economics - 368 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=rpBv4JoCRW4C

The Machine That Changed the World
James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones, Daniel Roos
1990 book printed with an afterword in 2007
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=9NHmNCmDUUoC


Lean Manufacturing Implementation: A Complete Execution Manual for Any Size Manufacturer
Dennis P. Hobbs
J. Ross Publishing, 2004 - Business & Economics - 244 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=pJa0rwBt74wC

Book Review of Lean Thinking by Womack and Jones - Anna Lisa Wiegel - 2000
http://web.mit.edu/esd.83/www/notebook/WomackJones.PDF 

Underlying Philosophy for the Old Systems of Management - F.W. Taylor in Scientific Management


This paper will show that the underlying philosophy of all of the old systems of management in common use makes it imperative that each workman shall be left with the final responsibility for doing his job practically as he thinks best, with comparatively little help and advice from the management. And it will also show that because of this isolation of workmen, it is in most cases impossible for the men working under these systems to do their work in accordance with the rules and laws of a science or art, even where one exists.


The writer asserts as a general principle (and he proposes to give illustrations tending to prove the fact later in this paper) that in almost all of the mechanic arts the science which underlies each act of
each workman is so great and amounts to so much that the workman who is best suited to actually doing the work is incapable of fully understanding this science, without the guidance and help of those who are working with him or over him, either through lack of education or through insufficient mental capacity. In order that the work may be done in accordance with scientific laws, it is necessary that there shall be a far more equal division of the responsibility between the management and the workmen than exists under any of the ordinary types of management. Those in the management whose duty it is to develop this science should also guide and help the workman in working under it, and should assume a much larger share of the responsibility for results than under usual conditions is assumed by the management.

F.W. Taylor, Scientific Management

All Chapters
F.W. Taylor Scientific Management - With Appropriate Sections


Next Chapter
5. Scientific Management - Introduction


Article part of
July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Saturday, August 3, 2013

Best Practices in Shop Management - 1911 - F.W. Taylor

Unfortunately there is no school of management. There is no single
establishment where a relatively large part of the details of management
can be seen, which represent the best of their kinds. The finest
developments are for the most part isolated, and in many cases almost
buried with the mass of rubbish which surrounds them.

Among the many improvements for which the originators will probably
never receive the credit which they deserve the following may be
mentioned.

The remarkable system for analyzing all of the work upon new machines as
the drawings arrived from the drafting-room and of directing the
movement and grouping of the various parts as they progressed through
the shop, which was developed and used for several years by Mr. Wm. II.
Thorne, of Wm. Sellers & Co., of Philadelphia, while the company was
under the general management of Mr. J. Sellers Bancroft. Unfortunately
the full benefit of this method was never realized owing to the lack of
the other functional elements which should have accompanied it.

And then the employment bureau which forms such an important element of
the Western Electric Company in Chicago; the complete and effective
system for managing the messenger boys introduced by Mr. Almon Emrie
while superintendent of the Ingersoll Sargent Drill Company, of Easton,
Pa.; the mnemonic system of order numbers invented by Mr. Oberlin Smith
and amplified by Mr. Henry R. Towne, of The Yale & Towne Company, of
Stamford, Conn.; and the system of inspection introduced by Mr. Chas. D.
Rogers in the works of the American Screw Company, at Providence, R. I.
and the many good points in the apprentice system developed by Mr.
Vauclain, of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, of Philadelphia.

The card system of shop returns invented and introduced as a complete
system by Captain Henry Metcalfe, U. S. A., in the government shops of
the Frankford Arsenal represents another such distinct advance in the
art of management. The writer appreciates the difficulty of this
undertaking as he was at the same time engaged in the slow evolution of
a similar system in the Midvale Steel Works, which, however, was the
result of a gradual development instead of a complete, well thought out
invention as was that of Captain Metcalfe.

The writer is indebted to most of these gentlemen and to many others,
but most of all to the Midvale Steel Company, for elements of the system
which he has described. The rapid and successful application of the
general principles involved in any system will depend largely upon the
adoption of those details which have been found in actual service to be
most useful. There are many such elements which the writer feels should
be described in minute detail. It would, however, be improper to burden
this record with matters of such comparatively small importance.

F.W. Taylor, Shop Management

Don't be in a hurry - It Takes Time to Manage Change to High Productivity - F.W. Taylor

Another important factor is the question of time. If any one expects
large results in six months or a year in a very large works he is
looking for the impossible. If any one expects to convert union men to a
higher rate of production, coupled with high wages, in six months or a
year, he is expecting next to an impossibility. But if he is patient
enough to wait for two or three years, he can go among almost any set of
workmen in the country and get results.

Some method of disciplining the men is unfortunately a necessary element
of all systems of management. It is important that a consistent,
carefully considered plan should be adopted for this as for all other
details of the art. No system of discipline is at all complete which is
not sufficiently broad to cover the great variety in the character and
disposition of the various men to be found in a shop.

There is a large class of men who require really no discipline in the
ordinary acceptance of the term; men who are so sensitive, conscientious
and desirous of doing just what is right that a suggestion, a few words
of explanation, or at most a brotherly admonition is all that they
require. In all cases, therefore, one should begin with every new man by
talking to him in the most friendly way, and this should be repeated
several times over until it is evident that mild treatment does not
produce the desired effect.

Certain men are both thick-skinned and coarse-grained, and these
individuals are apt to mistake a mild manner and a kindly way of saying
things for timidity or weakness. With such men the severity both of
words and manner should be gradually increased until either the desired
result has been attained or the possibilities of the English language
have been exhausted.

Up to this point all systems of discipline should be alike. There will
be found in all shops, however, a certain number of men with whom talk,
either mild or severe, will have little or no effect, unless it produces
the conviction that something more tangible and disagreeable will come
next. The question is what this something shall be.

Discharging the men is, of course, effective as far as that individual
is concerned, and this is in all cases the last step; but it is
desirable to have several remedies between talking and discharging more
severe than the one and less drastic than the other.

Usually one or more of the following expedients are adopted for this
purpose:

First. Lowering the man's wages.

Second. Laying him off for a longer or shorter period of time.

Third. Fining him.

Fourth. Giving him a series of "bad marks," and when these sum up to
more than a given number per week or month, applying one or the other of
the first three remedies.

The general objections to the first and second expedients is that for a
large number of offenses they are too severe, so that the disciplinarian
hesitates to apply them. The men find this out, and some of them will
take advantage of this and keep much of the time close to the limit. In
laying a man off, also, the employer is apt to suffer as much in many
cases as the man, through having machinery lying idle or work delayed.
The fourth remedy is also objectionable because some men will
deliberately take close to their maximum of "bad marks."


Fining system

In the writer's experience, the fining system, if justly and properly
applied, is more effective and much to be preferred to either of the
others. He has applied this system of discipline in various works with
uniform success over a long period of years, and so far as he knows,
none of those who have tried it under his directions have abandoned it.

The success of the fining system depends upon two elements:

First. The impartiality, good judgment and justice with which it is
applied.

Second. Every cent of the fines imposed should in some form be returned
to the workmen. If any part of the fines is retained by the company, it
is next to impossible to keep the workmen from believing that at least a
part of the motive in fining them is to make money out of them; and this
thought works so much harm as to more than overbalance the good effects
of the system. If, however, all of the fines are in some way promptly
returned to the men, they recognize it as purely a system of discipline,
and it is so direct, effective and uniformly just that the best men soon
appreciate its value and approve of it quite as much as the company.

In many cases the writer has first formed a mutual beneficial
association among the employees, to which all of the men as well as the
company contribute. An accident insurance association is much safer and
less liable to be abused than a general sickness or life insurance
association; so that, when practicable, an association of this sort
should be formed and managed by the men. All of the fines can then be
turned over each week to this association and so find their way directly
back to the men. Like all other elements, the fining system should not
be plunged into head first. It should be worked up to gradually and with
judgment, choosing at first only the most flagrant cases for fining and
those offenses which affect the welfare of some of the other workmen. It
will not be properly and most effectively applied until small offenses
as well as great receive their appropriate fine. The writer has fined
men from one cent to as high as sixty dollars per fine. It is most
important that the fines should be applied absolutely impartially to all
employees, high and low. The writer has invariably fined himself just as
he would the men under him for all offenses committed.

The fine is best applied in the form of a request to contribute a
certain amount to the mutual beneficial association, with the
understanding that unless this request is complied with the man will be
discharged.

In certain cases the fining system may not produce the desired result,
so that coupled with it as an additional means of disciplining the men
should be the first and second expedients of "lowering wages" and
"laying the men off for a longer or shorter time"

The writer does not at all depreciate the value of the many
semi-philanthropic and paternal aids and improvements, such as
comfortable lavatories, eating rooms, lecture halls, and free lectures,
night schools, kindergartens, baseball and athletic grounds, village
improvement societies, and mutual beneficial associations, unless done
for advertising purposes. This kind of so-called welfare work all tends
to improve and elevate the workmen and make life better worth living.
Viewed from the managers' standpoint they are valuable aids in making
more intelligent and better workmen, and in promoting a kindly feeling
among the men for their employers. They are, however, of distinctly
secondary importance, and should never be allowed to engross the
attention of the superintendent to the detriment of the more important
and fundamental elements of management. They should come in all
establishments, but they should come only after the great problem of
work and wages has been permanently settled to the satisfaction of both
parties. The solution of this problem will take more than the entire
time of the management in the average case for several years.

Mr. Patterson, of the National Cash Register Company, of Dayton, Ohio,
has presented to the world a grand object lesson of the combination of
many philanthropic schemes with, in many respects, a practical and
efficient management. He stands out a pioneer in this work and an
example of a kindhearted and truly successful man. Yet I feel that the
recent strike in his works demonstrates all the more forcibly my
contention that the establishment of the semi-philanthropic schemes
should follow instead of preceding the solution of the wages question;
unless, as is very rarely the case, there are brains, energy and money
enough available in a company to establish both elements at the same
time.

F.W. Taylor, Shop Management

Personal Relations Between Employers and Employed - F.W. Taylor


Regarding the personal relations which should be maintained between
employers and their men, the writer quotes the following paragraphs from
a paper written in 1895. Additional experience has only served to
confirm and strengthen these views; and although the greater part of
this time, in his work of shop organization, has been devoted to the
difficult and delicate task of inducing workmen to change their ways of
doing things he has never been opposed by a strike.

"There has never been a strike by men working under this system,
although it has been applied at the Midvale Steel Works for the past
ten years; and the steel business has proved during this period the
most fruitful field for labor organizations and strikes. And this
notwithstanding the fact that the Midvale Company has never prevented
its men from joining any labor organization. All of the best men in the
company saw clearly that the success of a labor organization meant the
lowering of their wages in order that the inferior men might earn more,
and, of course, could not be persuaded to join.

"I attribute a great part of this success in avoiding strikes to the
high wages which the best men were able to earn with the differential
rates, and to the pleasant feeling fostered by this system; but this is
by no means the whole cause. It has for years been the policy of that
company to stimulate the personal ambition of every man in their employ
by promoting them either in wages or position whenever they deserved it
and the opportunity came.

"A careful record has been kept of each man's good points as well as his
shortcomings, and one of the principal duties of each foreman was to
make this careful study of his men so that substantial justice could be
done to each. When men throughout an establishment are paid varying
rates of day-work wages according to their individual worth, some being
above and some below the average, it cannot be for the interest of those
receiving high pay to join a union with the cheap men.

"No system of management, however good, should be applied in a wooden
way. The proper personal relations should always be maintained between
the employers and men; and even the prejudices of the workmen should be
considered in dealing with them.

"The employer who goes through his works with kid gloves on, and is
never known to dirty his hands or clothes, and who either talks to his
men in a condescending or patronizing way, or else not at all, has no
chance whatever of ascertaining their real thoughts or feelings.

"Above all is it desirable that men should be talked to on their own
level by those who are over them. Each man should be encouraged to
discuss any trouble which he may have, either in the works or outside,
with those over him. Men would far rather even be blamed by their
bosses, especially if the 'tearing out' has a touch of human nature and
feeling in it, than to be passed by day after day without a word, and
with no more notice than if they were part of the machinery.

"The opportunity which each man should have of airing his mind freely,
and having it out with his employers, is a safety-valve; and if the
superintendents are reasonable men, and listen to and treat with respect
what their men have to say, there is absolutely no reason for labor
unions and strikes.

"It is not the large charities (however generous they may be) that are
needed or appreciated by workmen so much as small acts of personal
kindness and sympathy, which establish a bond of friendly feeling
between them and their employers.

"The moral effect of this system on the men is marked. The feeling that
substantial justice is being done them renders them on the whole much
more manly, straightforward, and truthful. They work more cheerfully,
and are more obliging to one another and their employers. They are not
soured, as under the old system, by brooding over the injustice done
them; and their spare minutes are not spent to the same extent in
criticizing their employers."

The writer has a profound respect for the working men of this country.
He is proud to say that he has as many firm friends among them as among
his other friends who were born in a different class, and he believes
that quite as many men of fine character and ability are to be found
among the former as in the latter. Being himself a college educated man,
and having filled the various positions of foreman, master mechanic,
chief draftsman, chief engineer, general superintendent, general
manager, auditor, and head of the sales department, on the one hand, and
on the other hand having been for several years a workman, as
apprentice, laborer, machinist, and gang boss, his sympathies are
equally divided between the two classes.

He is firmly convinced that the best interests of workmen and their
employers are the same; so that in his criticism of labor unions he
feels that he is advocating the interests of both sides. The following
paragraphs on this subject are quoted from the paper written in 1895 and
above referred to:


"The author is far from taking the view held by many manufacturers that
labor unions are an almost unmitigated detriment to those who join them,
as well as to employers and the general public.

"The labor unions--particularly the trades unions of England--have
rendered a great service, not only to their members, but to the world,
in shortening the hours of labor and in modifying the hardships and
improving the conditions of wage workers.

"In the writer's judgment the system of treating with labor unions would
seem to occupy a middle position among the various methods of adjusting
the relations between employers and men.

"When employers herd their men together in classes, pay all of each
class the same wages, and offer none of them any inducements to work
harder or do better than the average, the only remedy for the men lies
in combination; and frequently the only possible answer to encroachments
on the part of their employers is a strike.

"This state of affairs is far from satisfactory to either employers or
men, and the writer believes the system of regulating the wages and
conditions of employment of whole classes of men by conference and
agreement between the leaders of unions and manufacturers to be vastly
inferior, both in its moral effect on the men and on the material
interests of both parties, to the plan of stimulating each workman's
ambition by paying him according to his individual worth, and without
limiting him to the rate of work or pay of the average of his class."

The amount of work which a man should do in a day, what constitutes
proper pay for this work, and the maximum number of hours per day which
a man should work, together form the most important elements which are
discussed between workmen and their employers. The writer has attempted
to show that these matters can be much better determined by the expert
time student than by either the union or a board of directors, and he
firmly believes that in the future scientific time study will establish
standards which will be accepted as fair by both sides.


There is no reason why labor unions should not be so constituted as to
be a great help both to employers and men. Unfortunately, as they now
exist they are in many, if not most, cases a hindrance to the prosperity
of both.

The chief reasons for this would seem to be a failure on the part of the
workmen to understand the broad principles which affect their best
interests as well as those of their employers. It is undoubtedly true,
however, that employers as a whole are not much better informed nor more
interested in this matter than their workmen.

One of the unfortunate features of labor unions as they now exist is
that the members look upon the dues which they pay to the union, and the
time that they devote to it, as an investment which should bring them an
annual return, and they feel that unless they succeed in getting either
an increase in wages or shorter hours every year or so, the money which
they pay into the union is wasted. The leaders of the unions realize
this and, particularly if they are paid for their services, are apt to
spend considerable of their time scaring up grievances whether they
exist or not This naturally fosters antagonism instead of friendship
between the two sides. There are, of course, marked exceptions to this
rule; that of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers being perhaps the
most prominent.

The most serious of the delusions and fallacies under which workmen, and
particularly those in many of the unions, are suffering is that it is
for their interest to limit the amount of work which a man should do in
a day.

There is no question that the greater the daily output of the average
individual in a trade the greater will be the average wages earned in
the trade, and that in the long run turning out a large amount of work
each day will give them higher wages, steadier and more work, instead of
throwing them out of work. The worst thing that a labor union can do for
its members in the long run is to limit the amount of work which they
allow each workman to do in a day. If their employers are in a
competitive business, sooner or later those competitors whose workmen do
not limit the output will take the trade away from them, and they will
be thrown out of work. And in the meantime the small day's work which
they have accustomed themselves to do demoralizes them, and instead of
developing as men do when they use their strength and faculties to the
utmost, and as men should do from year to year, they grow lazy, spend
much of their time pitying themselves, and are less able to compete with
other men. Forbidding their members to do more than a given amount of
work in a day has been the greatest mistake made by the English trades
unions. The whole of that country is suffering more or less from this
error now. Their workmen are for this reason receiving lower wages than
they might get, and in many cases the men, under the influence of this
idea, have grown so slow that they would find it difficult to do a good
day's work even if public opinion encouraged them in it.

In forcing their members to work slowly they use certain cant phrases
which sound most plausible until their real meaning is analyzed. They
continually use the expression, "Workmen should not be asked to do more
than a fair day's work," which sounds right and just until we come to
see how it is applied. The absurdity of its usual application would be
apparent if we were to apply it to animals. Suppose a contractor had in
his stable a miscellaneous collection of draft animals, including small
donkeys, ponies, light horses, carriage horses and fine dray horses, and
a law were to be made that no animal in the stable should be allowed to
do more than "a fair day's work" for a donkey. The injustice of such a
law would be apparent to every one. The trades unions, almost without an
exception, admit all of those in the trade to membership--providing they
pay their dues. And the difference between the first-class men and the
poor ones is quite as great as that between fine dray horses and
donkeys. In the case of horses this difference is well known to every
one; with men, however, it is not at all generally recognized. When a
labor union, under the cloak of the expression "a fair day's work,"
refuses to allow a first-class man to do any more work than a slow or
inferior workman can do, its action is quite as absurd as limiting the
work of a fine dray horse to that of a donkey would be.

Promotion, high wages, and, in some cases, shorter hours of work are the
legitimate ambitions of a workman, but any scheme which curtails the
output should be recognized as a device for lowering wages in the long
run.

Any limit to the maximum wages which men are allowed to earn in a trade
is equally injurious to their best interests. The "minimum wage" is the
least harmful of the rules which are generally adopted by trades unions,
though it frequently works an injustice to the better workmen. For
example, the writer has been used to having his machinists earn all the
way from $1.50 to seven and eight dollars per day, according to the
individual worth of the men. Supposing a rule were made that no
machinist should be paid less than $2.50 per day. It is evident that if
an employer were forced to pay $2.50 per day to men who were only worth
$1.50 or $1.75, in order to compete he would be obliged to lower the
wages of those who in the past were getting more than $2.50, thus
pulling down the better workers in order to raise up the poorer men. Men
are not born equal, and any attempt to make them so is contrary to
nature's laws and will fail.

Some of the labor unions have succeeded in persuading the people in
parts of this country that there is something sacred in the cause of
union labor and that, in the interest of this cause, the union should
receive moral support whether it is right in any particular case or not.

Union labor is sacred just so long as its acts are fair and good, and it
is damnable just as soon as its acts are bad. Its rights are precisely
those of nonunion labor, neither greater nor less. The boycott, the use
of force or intimidation, and the oppression of non-union workmen by
labor unions are damnable; these acts of tyranny are thoroughly
un-American and will not be tolerated by the American people.

One of the most interesting and difficult problems connected with the
art of management is how to persuade union men to do a full day's work
if the union does not wish them to do it. I am glad of the opportunity
of saying what I think on the matter, and of explaining somewhat in
detail just how I should expect, in fact, how I have time after time
induced union men to do a large day's work, quite as large as other men
do.

In dealing with union men certain general principles should never be
lost sight of. These principles are the proper ones to apply to all men,
but in dealing with union men their application becomes all the more
imperative.

First. One should be sure, beyond the smallest doubt, that what is
demanded of the men is entirely just and can surely be accomplished.
This certainty can only be reached by a minute and thorough time study.

Second. Exact and detailed directions should be given to the workman
telling him, not in a general way but specifying in every small
particular, just what he is to do and how he is to do it.

Third. It is of the utmost importance in starting to make a change that
the energies of the management should be centered upon one single
workman, and that no further attempt at improvement should be made until
entire success has been secured in this case. Judgment should be used in
selecting for a start work of such a character that the most clear cut
and definite directions can be given regarding it, so that failure to
carry out these directions will constitute direct disobedience of a
single, straightforward order.

Fourth. In case the workman fails to carry out the order the management
should be prepared to demonstrate that the work called for can be done
by having some one connected with the management actually do it in the
time called for.

The mistake which is usually made in dealing with union men, lies in
giving an order which affects a number of workmen at the same time and
in laying stress upon the increase in the output which is demanded
instead of emphasizing one by one the details which the workman is to
carry out in order to attain the desired result. In the first case a
clear issue is raised: say that the man must turn out fifty per cent
more pieces than he has in the past, and therefore it will be assumed by
most people that he must work fifty per cent harder. In this issue the
union is more than likely to have the sympathy of the general public,
and they can logically take it up and fight upon it. If, however, the
workman is given a series of plain, simple, and reasonable orders, and
is offered a premium for carrying them out, the union will have a much
more difficult task in defending the man who disobeys them. To
illustrate: If we take the case of a complicated piece of machine work
which is being done on a lathe or other machine tool, and the workman is
called upon (under the old type of management) to increase his output by
twenty-five or fifty per cent there is opened a field of argument in
which the assertion of the man, backed by the union, that the task is
impossible or too hard, will have quite as much weight as that of the
management. If, however, the management begins by analyzing in detail
just how each section of the work should be done and then writes out
complete instructions specifying the tools to be used in succession, the
cone step on which the driving belt is to run, the depth of cut and the
feed to be used, the exact manner in which the work is to be set in the
machine, etc., and if before starting to make any change they have
trained in as functional foremen several men who are particularly expert
and well informed in their specialties, as, for instance, a speed boss,
gang boss, and inspector; if you then place for example a speed boss
alongside of that workman, with an instruction card clearly written out,
stating what both the speed boss and the man whom he is instructing are
to do, and that card says you are to use such and such a tool, put your
driving belt on this cone, and use this feed on your machine, and if you
do so you will get out the work in such and such a time, I can hardly
conceive of a case in which a union could prevent the boss from ordering
the man to put his driving belt just where he said and using just the
feed that he said, and in doing that the workman can hardly fail to get
the work out on time. No union would dare to say to the management of a
works, you shall not run the machine with the belt on this or that cone
step. They do not come down specifically in that way; they say, "You
shall not work so fast," but they do not say, "You shall not use such
and such a tool, or run with such a feed or at such a speed." However
much they might like to do it, they do not dare to interfere
specifically in this way. Now, when your single man under the
supervision of a speed boss, gang boss, etc., runs day after day at the
given speed and feed, and gets work out in the time that the instruction
card calls for, and when a premium is kept for him in the office for
having done the work in the required time, you begin to have a moral
suasion on that workman which is very powerful. At first he won't take
the premium if it is contrary to the laws of his union, but as time goes
on and it piles up and amounts to a big item, he will be apt to step
into the office and ask for his premium, and before long your man will
be a thorough convert to the new system. Now, after one man has been
persuaded, by means of the four functional foremen, etc., that he will
earn more money under the new system than under the laws of the union,
you can then take the next man, and so convert one after another right
through your shop, and as time goes on public opinion will swing around
more and more rapidly your way.

I have a profound respect for the workmen of the United States; they are
in the main sensible men--not all of them, of course, but they are just
as sensible as are those on the side of the management There are some
fools among them; so there are among the men who manage industrial
plants. They are in many respects misguided men, and they require a
great deal of information that they have not got. So do most managers.

All that most workmen need to make them do what is right is a series of
proper object lessons. When they are convinced that a system is offered
them which will yield them larger returns than the union provides for,
they will promptly acquiesce. The necessary object lessons can best be
given by centering the efforts of the management upon one spot. The
mistake that ninety-nine men out of a hundred make is that they have
attempted to influence a large body of men at once instead of taking one
man at a time.

F.W. Taylor, Shop Management