Sunday, June 28, 2015

Industrial Engineering and Productivity Management - NITIE Course



2015 - 16 Year PGDIE Steam

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT


Objectives
To provide an exposure to the fundamental tools and techniques in Industrial Engineering for integration & improvement of interrelated work activities.

Contents
Productivity concepts, Work study as a productivity improvement tool - methods engineering, work measurement, standard output, time study, work sampling, process analysis, principles of layout and facilities planning: material handling systems, fundamental concepts and applications of value engineering.


Text Books
ILO, Introduction to Work Study, George Kanawaty (Ed), 4th Revised Edition, Universal Book Corporation 2007.
Chase RB Jacobs Fr, Aquilano NJ and Agarwal NK, Operations Management, Tata McGraw Hill, Eleventh Edition, 2008.
Tutty Herald G, Compendium on Value Engineering, Indo-American society, 1983.
Maynard’s Industrial Engineering handbook, 4th Edition, William K. Hodson (Editor), McGraw-Hill, 1992

Comments on Books

The syllabus was prepared in 2013 and implemented for 2014-15 batch first.


Maynard's Handbook 5 Edition was published in 2002.

Chase's Book has recent editions

value Engineering Richard Park in Library is 1999 edition.


Session Plan






Introduction  -   2 sessions

Fundamental Concepts and Applications of Value Engineering – 2 sessions

Methods Engineering,  Process Analysis, Principles of Layout and Facilities planning, Material Handling systems,  4 sessions

Work Measurement, Time Study, Work Sampling, Standard Output 2 sessions

Productivity Concepts,  Work Study as a Productivity Improvement Tool   1 Session

IE Optimization  1

IE statistics  1

IE Economics  1

Human Effort Engineering  1

Cost Measurement  1

Management of IE Projects  1

Students Presentations – 2 sessions.


Sectors and specific industries  - 66 industries

Automobiles

    Cars
    Scooters
    Heavy Commercial Vehicles - Trucks and Buses
    Light Commercial Vehicles

Automobile Components

    Forging
    Foundry items
    Machined Items
    Plastic Items
    Leather Items - Seats, belts etc.
    Instruments

Aviation
    Planes
    Helicopters

Biotechnology

Chemicals
     Fertilisers
     Polymers
    Organic chemicals
    Inorganic chemicals

Construction
    Buildings
    Low cost houses
    Bridges
    Roads

Defence Manufacturing
    Tanks
    Guns
    Defence related Optical Items - Binoculars, Periscopes etc.
    Fighter planes
    Ships for Navy
    Missiles

Electrical Machinery
     Generators
     Portable generators
     Electrical Heaters etc.
     Lighting products
     Power distribution systems and products

Electronic Systems
     Mobile phone
     Lap tops
     Desk top computers
     Main frame computers servers
     Networking equipment
     Semiconductor items like Chips, ICs
     Rectifiers etc.

Food Processing
     Rice Milling
     Flour Mills
     Ready to eat processed foods
     Biscuit manufacturing
     Beverage manufacturing

IT and BPM
     Software development

Leather
      Shoes
      Bags
      Belts

Mining
      Coal
      Iron Ore
      Bauxite mining

Oil and Gas
      Exploration
      Refinery


Pharmaceuticals

Ports

Railways

     Track laying
     Engine manufacturing
     Wagon manufacturing

Renewable Energy
       Solar Power
       Wind Power

Roads and Highways
        Road Construction



Textiles and Garments

        Cloth Manufacturing
        Garment manufacturing

Thermal Power
         Coal based thermal plants
         Gas based thermal plants
         Nuclear power plants







Operation Analysis - Explanation by Stegemerten and Demmler in Maynard Handbook - Second Edition



They gave 10 primary points of analysis. I made them twelve  by writing Motion Analysis as a separate point and adding Jigs and Fixtures.

Purpose of Operation
Design of Part and Assembly
Tolerances and Inspection Requirements
Material Specification
Process of Manufacture
Equipment Analysis
Tools and Speed, Feed, and Depth of Cut
Jigs and Fixtures
Workplace Layout
Plant Layout
Material Flow
Motion Analysis

Many of the above points were covered in the book Operation Analysis by Maynard. But some points were convered in a different way and they are covered in this note.

Maynard and Stegemerten gave the following items for Operation Analysis in their book.

1. Purpose of operation.

2. Complete survey of all operations performed on part.

3. Inspection requirements.

4. Material.

5. Material handling.

6. Setup and tool equipment.

7. Common possibilities for job improvement.

8. Working conditions.

9. Method.



Material Specification

In a rapidly developing technology environment, the materials originally specified in the design may no longer be the most suitable. Designers may not review each and every part of a product on a continuous basis. Therefore, the industrial engineering analysts who has taken up the responsibility of improving the efficiency of the product and the process has to check the material specification periodically in his analyses.  The cost of materials keep changing also and processes that can be used on various materials keep changing. The industrial engineer has to keep familiar with developments in the field so that he may recognize materials that have become unsuitable and suggest more appropriate materials.

In the years. 1950s, the authors highlighted developments in plastics as something important for the IE to keep note of. They said, some plastics can acts as bearings without requiring lubrication.  Some plastics can resists acids and alkalis at much less expense than metals. Sheet steel may be coated with plastic. They also mention development of more easily machined metals.

They suggest the following questions.

1. Is a new material available to provide needed properties at lower cost.
Others are covered in the book



Process of Manufacture

Similar to the material specification, the manufacture process specified by the production engineering department originally may not the cost effective process now.  It becomes the responsibility of industrial engineering analyst to ensure that the best cost process is employed during his analysis project.

The authors gave example of epoxy adhesives. The wide availability of extruded sections of many materials, shell molding techniques etc. are also mentioned.  The appearance of less expensive numerically controlled machine tools, assembly devices (robotic hands), and assembly assits devices like part-orienting vibratory feeding devices are mentioned.  It is emphasized that the industrial engineer doing operation analysis work must keep abreast of developments in  the manufacturing area if he is going to produce results.




Equipment Analysis

When analyzing equipment, the industrial engineer must consider the machine capability. Routines for creating a machine-capability index are available and industrial engineer has to make sure that machine capability is calculated for various machines. This is required as time goes, machines lose the ability to produce to close tolerances. Hence, the machines are not used for high quality work after some time.


The questions suggested from machine capability or process capability angle.

1. Does the machine specified on the operation sheet have the capability to produce quality parts at the specified speed, feed, and depth of cut.




Tools and Speed, Feed, and Depth of Cut


The cutting tool manufacturers are doing research and development and coming out with tool bits that can give higher metal removal rates and also provide superior finished surface. Machine tools manufacturers are also coming out with machines having higher horsepower and rigidity.

The authors mentioned as examples, ceramic cutting tools, metal bonded diamond wheels, and new capabilities in tool grinding. Industrial engineers have new choices to increase productivity by employing higher cutting speeds, feeds and depths of cut.


Questions suggested.

1. Have the best possible speeds, feeds, and depth of cut been specified?



Updated 28 June 2015
First published 1 June 2015










Saturday, June 27, 2015

MEE - Plant Layout Analysis





Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis


Plant Layout - Efficiency

Efficiency Measures of a Layout

Minimum Floor space: Efficient layout engineering can minimize floor space for a specified production output.

Minimum Materials Handling: Efficient layout results in minimum amount and cost of materials handling.

More Efficient Utilization of Machinery and Labor: An efficient layout eliminates general production delays, occasioned by congested aisles, cramped storage areas, crowding of machine layout, and improper materials handling devices, all of which lead to a slowing down of the production process as a whole and in general reduction in the output of goods from a given quantity of production machinery and labor.

Maximum flexibility of production facilities consistent with low cost of production: Production facilities and layout can be designed to attain flexibility and adaptability to meet changing economic and technological conditions.


Reference: John A. Shubin and Huxley Madeheim, Plant Layout: Developing and Improving Manufacturing Plants, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1965.




Case Studies

2014
Increasing Productivity through Facility Layout Improvement using Systematic Layout Planning Pattern Theory
 By Md. Riyad Hossain, Md. Kamruzzaman Rasel & Subrata Talapatra Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Bangladesh
Global Journal of Researches in Engineering: J
General Engineering
Volume 14 Issue 7 Version 1.0 Year 2014
The authors indicated that 38.5% of the material handling cost was saved,

2013
Analysis of Plant Layout for Reducing Production Cost
Shukla Abhinav*
, Vimal Jyoti , Chaturvedi Vedansh
Deptt. of Mechanical Engg , Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Rajiv Gandhi
Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, INDIA
International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews
 IJSRR 2013, 2(1) Suppl., 141- 147
Improvement of the plant layout of steel flat manufacturing factory

Industrial Engineering - Thermal Power Plant - Bibliography



Power Plant Engineering - Lecture Notes
http://poisson.me.dal.ca/site2/courses/mech4840/

Chief Industrial Engineer position was mentioned in the power plant engineering textbook of Morse.



Are there chief industrial engineers in power plants today?


Ranking of journals in Energy Engineering and Power Technology
http://www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.php?category=2102



Websites

http://www.power-eng.com/index.html

National Association of Power Engineers Inc. (USA)
http://www.powerengineers.com/


2014
Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Handbook: A Guide to Thermal Power Plants
Swapan Basu, Ajay Debnath
Academic Press, Nov 10, 2014 - 942 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Ns06BAAAQBAJ



2013

Thermal Power Plants Advanced Applications
http://www.intechopen.com/books/thermal-power-plants-advanced-applications


2012

Improving Energy Efficiency of Boiler Systems - PDH Notes
http://www.pdhcenter.com/courses/m166/m166content.pdf


Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis
Gilberto Francisco Martha de Souza
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 5, 2012 - 288 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=P76AAjX2DEQC


http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/coal-handeling-plant-in-a-thermal-power-generating-station

Application of Supply Chain Tools In Power Plant- A Case of Rayalaseema Thermal Power Plant
S. Shakeel Ahamed, G. Rangajanardhana, E. L. Nagesh
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/IEL/article/view/1436


Energy Efficiency Improvement in Thermal Power
Plants
Genesis Murehwa, Davison Zimwara, Wellington Tumbudzuku, Samson Mhlanga
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE)
ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-1, December 2012
http://www.ijitee.org/attachments/File/v2i1/A0357112112.pdf



2009
Application of Six Sigma DMAIC methodology in thermal power plants: A case study
DOI:10.1080/14783360802622995
Prabhakar Kaushika* & Dinesh Khandujab
pages 197-207
Total Quality Management & Business Excellence
Volume 20, Issue 2, 2009
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14783360802622995?journalCode=ctqm20



2002
Power Plant Engineering by P K Nag TMH  2002
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Cv9LH4ckuEwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false



Other Relevant Information







BHEL India
Design Analysis and Value Engineering Group
Major activities of the group include Stress Analysis, Modal Analysis and Thermal Analysis aimed at development of new designs (concept to prototype), design validation, assessment of deviation and failure analysis. Other specialized functions of the group are Residual Life Assessment of power plant components and Value Engineering. Types of analyses include Static Analysis, Dynamic Analysis and Non-linear Analysis for Plasticity and Creep. While the "ANSYS" software is used for the analyses, the Group also develops "Fortran" and "Excel" based programs to enhance the utility of "ANSYS".
http://www.bhel.com/about_rd_mechanical2.php
query @ bhel.com



Department for Optimisation of Processes and Constructions of Turbine Machinery
Podgorny Institute For Mechanical Engineering Problems
http://www.ipmach.kharkov.ua/en/structure/Dep31/

Knowledge Required for Value Engineering Application and Practice


Value engineering involves application of value engineering approach and techniques to engineering knowledge in the case of products and processes in engineering industries.

Nature of Knowledge


The value analyst needs special tools and special knowledge to identify unnecessary costs and produce designs that avoid these unnecessary costs.

Difference in the knowledge between a specialist design engineer and value engineer.

A heat transfer specialist must possess accumulated knowledge in great volume pertaining to materials, heat conductivity, and practicable shapes and ideas for providing, preventing, or controlling the flow of heat.

In contrast, the special knowledge required for value engineering is extremely broad. It does not consist of knowledge in depth in any specific field of product design. Value engineer has to deal with and explore a multitude of technologies and product areas  to redesign the product assigned so that they give optimum performance and have optimum cost.


Value analyst or engineer requires information on materials, processes, functional products, sources of functional knowledge, approaches to function performances, practical ideas for economic function solutions. The best value alternative is the best combination of materials, processes and related ideas that combine to give a solution that secures the reliable performance of the desired  function or functions at the lowest cost.

A library of knowledge media like books, magazines, journals and information created and sent by various manufacturers, consultants and business organizations has to be maintained. In the current age computer based and web based knowledge sources also have to be maintained by the value engineering departments. But a library may still be insufficient. To achieve the value alternatives, apart from having a library of appropriate knowledge, the value engineer needs to develop channels for ready access to new information on materials, processes and suppliers of materials, processes and components. So a well organized references to sources of special skills needs to be maintained by value engineers.  Addresses of various consultants and faculty of academic institutions have to be maintained by the value engineering department.
In the case of various materials and processes, there must be enough knowledge available to make a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of the material, the product, the modified product, or the process to effectively accomplish the function involved, together with a reasonable amount of comparative information concerning costs.

Form of Knowledge


Handbooks, catalogues, charts, price lists, product and process descriptions, and tables etc. are forms of knowledge. L.D. Miles, the founder of value engineering recommends development of linking properties and costs also.

Reach or Depth of Knowledge


Value engineers are going to be less in number compared to performance engineers in any organization. Therefore value engineers are asked to work on variety of products and components related to various engineering disciplines. Therefore, the knowledge required for high-grade value work is extremely broad. A value engineer can't be expected to have in depth knowledge in any specific field.  But he needs to have broad knowledge that helps in recognizing specific materials and technologies from the multitude that have promise to provide optimum value for the product he is appraising and consulting.
Reference
1. Miles, L.D., Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering, First Edition, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1961.


2. Chapter 10 of Miles, L.D., Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering, Second Edition, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York,

Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/knowledge-required-for-value/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 3890



Updated  27 June 2015
First published  30 March 2012

Sunday, June 21, 2015

Cost Reduction, Productivity Improvement and Industrial Engineering - Wind Energy Power Plants





2015
Fabric Wind Turbine Blade Design Offers Clean Energy

Conventional wind turbine blade designs use fiberglass. A new approach using architectural fabrics could change the way blades are designed, manufactured and installed.

GE researchers, in partnership with Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are exploring a new wind turbine blade design and manufacturing approach using architectural fabrics that could be wrapped around a metal space frame resembling a fishbone.

The new wind turbine blade design being explored could reduce blade costs 25% to 40%. This degree of cost reduction could make wind energy as economical as fossil fuels without government subsidies.

It is estimated that to achieve the national goal of 20% wind power in the U.S., wind blades would need to grow in length by 50%—a figure that would be virtually impossible to realize given the size constraints imposed by current technology. Lighter fabric blades could make this goal attainable.
http://www.geglobalresearch.com/innovation/fabric-wind-turbine-blade-design-offers-clean-energy



2012

Proof-of-concept trial for 3.6MW two-blade design - 10% reduction in cost
http://www.windpoweroffshore.com/2012/08/17/envision_tests_partial_pitch_turbine/

Offshore turbine test site for stimulating new designs for cost reduction
http://www.windpoweroffshore.com/2012/08/07/essential_to_increase_competition_in_offshore_turbine_market/

Data Analysis Methods for Wind Turbine Operations
https://engineering.purdue.edu/IE/Events/industrial-engineering-seminar-series4

Cost reduction gains momentum in the US wind industry - Role of health and safety initiatives
http://social.windenergyupdate.com/health-safety/cost-reduction-gains-momentum-us-wind-health-and-safety-industry

Forecasts for Costs of Energy Plants of various technologies up to 2050 - NREL Study
http://bv.com/docs/reports-studies/nrel-cost-report.pdf




Patents


2013
Efficient wind turbine blades, wind turbine blade structures, and associated systems and methods of manufacture, assembly and use
US 8500408 B2
https://www.google.co.in/patents/US8500408


Inflatable wind turbine blade
EP 2233734 B1
General Electric Patent
https://www.google.co.in/patents/EP2233734B1





Updated  21 June 2015
First published  2 Sep 2012

Saturday, June 20, 2015

Market Research - Product Testing for Redesigned for Products with Lower Cost




http://www.quirks.com/articles/a2004/20040503.aspx

Cost reduction test designs
When beginning a major cost-reduction initiative, decisions must be made that can have a profound effect on the sensitivity of the design, including:

Blind or branded - Should the product shown to respondents have any identifying labels or logos?
Test environment - What is the physical setting in which respondents will evaluate the product?
User qualifications - What type of respondent do you want evaluating your new product?
Sensitivity of design - How sensitive do you want the design to be to detecting changes in respondent opinion?
Decision rule - What amount of difference in ratings between the original and new product do you consider acceptable?

More details are to be ascertained from different sources on this topic. The topic is of importance to industrial engineers as their efficiency redesigns have to pass these consumer product tests.

Productivity and IE in Ship Building and Repairing




Product Design Efficiency Engineering

Value analysis as a decision support tool in cruise ship design
International Journal of Production Research
Volume 48, Issue 23, 2010
Pietro Romanoa*, Marco Formentinia, Camillo Banderaa & Marco Tomasellaa
pages 6939-6958
Abstract
Because of time constraints, as a matter of fact, design decisions are made fast and in a reactive way, according to the particular case, without considering decisions made in the past and without using specific decision support tools. The final choice is often left to a single designer's experience, whose selection criteria are unknown and not formalised. As a consequence there is no shared knowledge justifying the reason why a design solution has been chosen and whether it is the best one. We developed and implemented in Fincantieri S.p.A. – a leading company in the cruise ship industry – an original decision support tool, based on value analysis, designers can use to document and formalise their choices. Value analysis is a well known structured method to increase product value and/or cut costs, thus supporting the selection of the most valuable solution by means of objective parameters. We demonstrate that the proposed tool can also facilitate reuse of the available knowledge base on decisional criteria, increase interactions between people (design staff, buyers, shipyard personnel, etc.) involved in different stages of different value analysis projects, and reduce decision time.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207540903352686


Cost-Reduction in Ship Construction for the U.S. Department of Defense
https://www.atkearney.com/united-states-public-sector/case-study/-/asset_publisher/S5UkO0zy0vnu/content/cost-reduction-in-ship-construction-for-the-u-s-department-of-defense/10192?_101_INSTANCE_S5UkO0zy0vnu_redirect=%2Funited-states-public-sector%2Fcase-studies


Ship Building Videos
_________________

_________________


Arc Welding Ships - Kawasaki Robots
_________________

_________________

Lean Movement

Lean Affordable Shipping - 2007
http://www.nsrp.org/6-Presentations/Joint/073107_Improving_Shipyard_Productivity_Gebhardt.pdf





FIRST MARINE INTERNATIONAL
FINDINGS FOR THE GLOBAL SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRIAL BASE BENCHMARKING STUDY
FIRST MARINE INTERNATIONAL
August 2005
http://www.acq.osd.mil/mibp/docs/fmi_industry_report.pdf


MEASURING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE U.S. SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY
By M. Lando
September 1969
https://www.cna.org/sites/default/files/research/0200013100.pdf


India


India has  labour cost advantage. . The labour cost per worker in India is
estimated at $1,192 per year, against $10,743 and $21,317 per worker in 2007 in South Korea and Singapore. . Labour cost is a key factor in shipbuilding nations as it accounts for more than 10% of the total costs. China also has considerably lower labor costs as compared  to competing countries. (Around 50% of Korea and Japan).


A shipyard typically requires a working capital of around 25-35% of the cost of the  ship during the entire construction period.

Indian yards lack the capability to build large and modern ships. Presently, the Cochin shipyard is the
only one that has the capability to build large and modern ships. Hence shipbuilding in India lacks
infrastructure support which reduces the capacity of production.


Updated  20 June 2015
First published  19 Feb 2014

Friday, June 19, 2015

Engineering Branches - Industrial Engineering



Branches for which GATE examination is held

AE: Aerospace Engineering
AG: Agricultural Engineering
AR: Architecture and Planning
BT: Biotechnology
CE: Civil Engineering
CH: Chemical Engineering
CS: Computer Sc. and Information Technology

EC: Electronics and Communication Engg.
EE: Electrical Engineering
IN: Instrumentation Engineering
ME: Mechanical Engineering
MN: Mining Engineering
MT: Metallurgical Engineering
PI: Production and Industrial Engineering
TF: Textile Engineering and Fibre Science





AE: Aerospace Engineering
AG: Agricultural Engineering
AR: Architecture and Planning
BT: Biotechnology

CE: Civil Engineering
Industrial Engineering in Civil Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/01/industrial-engineerning-in-civil.html



CH: Chemical Engineering
Industrial Engineering in Chemical Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/01/industrial-engineering-in-chemical.html

CS: Computer Sc. and Information Technology
Industrial Engineering in Computer Engineering and Information Technology
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/01/industrial-engineering-in-computer.html

EC: Electronics and Communication Engg.
Industrial Engineering in Electronics Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/01/industrial-engineering-in-electronics.html


EE: Electrical Engineering
Industrial Engineering in Electical Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/01/industrial-engineering-in-electical.html


IN: Instrumentation Engineering
ME: Mechanical Engineering
MN: Mining Engineering
MT: Metallurgical Engineering
PI: Production and Industrial Engineering
TF: Textile Engineering and Fibre Science




Sectors in the Make in India Website


http://www.makeinindia.com/sectors/

Automobiles

Automobile Components

Aviation

Biotechnology

Chemicals

Construction

Defence Manufacturing

Electrical Machinery

Electronic Systems

Food Processing

IT and BPM

Leather



Mining

Oil and Gas

Pharmaceuticals

Ports

Railways

Renewable Energy

Roads and Highways

Space

Textiles and Garments

Thermal Power


Design for Machining




Design for Machining Rules - Common for All Machine Tools


1. Choose  materials for optimum machinability
2. Minimize the number of machined features
3. Minimize the machined stock allowance
4. Optimal dimensional and surface finish tolerances
5. Standardize features
Minimize the number of machined orientations
Provide adequate accessibility
Provide adequate strength and stiffness

Wednesday, June 17, 2015

Brain storming particles for productivity improvement - Blog Posts and Emails by Industrial Engineers

Brain storming particles for productivity improvement.


I suggest that all industrial engineering participating in productivity improvement contribute at least one productivity initiative of theirs every year through a blog post or email in a group. The blog post can be in their own blog, on a blog of their company or it can be submitted to blogs of their institute or professional associations. That way the community will have multiple examples of productivity improvement in the entire global economy and some of these examples act as brainstorming particles that excite others to think and implement productivity measures in their organizations. By sharing only one idea every year, every industrial engineer engaging in productivity improvement can energize the entire profession.



Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Productivity Improvement, Cost Reduction and Industrial Engineering in Mobile Handsets - Phones


2015
As Smartphone Panel Prices Fall, Panel Makers Focus on Cost Reduction, IHS Says
Jimmy Kim, Ph.D.  |  May 14, 2015
https://technology.ihs.com/531153/as-smartphone-panel-prices-fall-panel-makers-focus-on-cost-reduction-ihs-says

2014
Samsung goes into cost-cutting mode, to reduce smartphone portfolio by 30 percent in 2015 (Reducing number of models that it is offering)
http://www.androidcentral.com/samsung-goes-cost-cutting-mode-reduce-smartphone-portfolio-30-percent-2015


2013
Manufacturing Innovation for Smart Phones


2012

Essentials of Mobile Handset Design
Abhi Naha, Peter Whale
Cambridge University Press, Aug 30, 2012


Discover what is involved in designing the world's most popular and advanced consumer product to date - the phone in your pocket.  Explore core technology building blocks, such as chipsets and software components, and see how these components are built together through the design lifecycle to create unique handset designs. Learn key design principles to reduce design time and cost, and best practice guidelines to maximize opportunities to create a successful product. A range of real-world case studies are included to illustrate key insights. Finally, emerging trends in the handset industry are identified, and the global impact those trends could have on future devices is discussed.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=SLYhAwAAQBAJ




Related Article
Cost Reduction - Micromax Mobile Phones

Monday, June 15, 2015

Reducing Process Costs with Lean, Six Sigma, and Value Engineering Techniques

Kim H. Pries, Jon M. Quigley
CRC Press, Mar 21, 2013 - 365 pages


A company with effective cost reduction activities in place will be better positioned to adapt to shifting economic conditions. In fact, it can make the difference between organizations that thrive and those that simply survive during times of economic uncertainty. Reducing Process Costs with Lean, Six Sigma, and Value Engineering Techniques covers the methods and techniques currently available for lowering the costs of products, processes, and services.

Describing why cost reductions can be just as powerful as revenue increases, the book arms readers with the understanding required to select the best solution for their company’s culture and capabilities. It emphasizes home-grown techniques that do not require the implementation of any new methodologies—making it easy to apply them in any organization.

The authors explain how to reduce costs through traditional Lean methods and Lean Six Sigma. They also present Six Sigma cost savings techniques from Manufacturing Six Sigma, Services Six Sigma, and Design for Six Sigma. The book also presents optimization techniques from operations research methods, design experiment, and engineering process control.

Helping you determine what your organization’s value proposition is, the text explains how to improve on the existing proposition and suggests a range of tools to help you achieve this goal. The tools and techniques presented vary in complexity and capability and most chapters include a rubric at the start to help readers determine the levels of competence required to perform the tasks outlined in that chapter.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=SVPaHTA4RsAC

CLASSIC PRODUCTIVITY SYSTEMS for the assembly manufacturer - JDGray Associates - Consultancy Proposals



Jd Gray Associates
JD Gray Associates, 2011 - 316 pages


CLASSIC PRODUCTIVITY SYSTEMS for the Assembly Manufacturer or Distribution Center REV A. Contains our generic industrial engineering proposals should your company seek outside expertise in your improvement effort.



https://books.google.co.in/books?id=kSPv6KwhIhAC

Cost Reduction and Optimization for Manufacturing and Industrial Companies - Joseph Berk - 2010 - Book Information




Cost Reduction and Optimization for Manufacturing and Industrial Companies


Joseph Berk
John Wiley & Sons, Feb 22, 2010 - 272 pages


Focuses on rapid implementation of practical, real-world cost reduction solutions
In today's economic climate, the need to cut costs can be the difference between success and failure. Cost Reduction and Optimization for Manufacturing and Industrial Companies covers all major cost reduction areas, providing easy to read examples and advice on steps to take. It provides the roadmap for implementing recommended actions with true and tried methods by taking a modern, all-inclusive look at manufacturing processes. Based on the author's cost reduction experience gained during 30 years of senior operations and consulting engagements with hundreds of organizations, this book includes easy-to-understand and easy-to-implement cost reduction concepts organized into five general areas --labor, material, design, process, and overhead.

Each chapter:

Dives into a cost reduction area and starts with the bottom line first by summarizing key points

Provides proven tactics for cutting costs without a lot of extraneous data

Follows a qualitative and design-oriented approach

Emphasizes quick implementation and measurable cost reduction

Identifies who in the organization should do the work

Outlines risks and suggested risk mitigation actions

Contains numerous tables, graphs, and photos to show the concepts described in the book

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=1Tc6YlglMUkC


Table of Contents

Introduction.
Chapter 1: Organizing a Cost-Reduction Program.

Part I Labor.

Chapter 2: Head Count.

Chapter 3: Time Standards.

Chapter 4: Efficiency.

Chapter 5: Utilization.

Chapter 6: Overtime.

Chapter 7: Multiple Shifts.

Chapter 8: Lost Time.

Chapter 9: The Learning Curve.

Part II Material.

Chapter 10: Make-versus-Buy Determinations.

Chapter 11: Inventory Minimization.

Chapter 12: Material Utilization.

Chapter 13: Minimizing Supplier Costs.

Chapter 14: Supplier Negotiation.

Chapter 15: Supplier Competition.

Part III Process.

Chapter 16: Work-Flow Optimization.

Chapter 17: Setup Time Reduction.

Chapter 18: Material-Handling Improvements.

Chapter 19: Scrap and Rework Reduction.

Chapter 20: Cleanliness.

Part IV Design.

Chapter 21: The Design Approach.

Chapter 22: Requirements Relaxation.

Chapter 23: Tolerance Relaxation.

Chapter 24: Materials Substitution.

Chapter 25: Packaging.

Part V Overhead.

Chapter 26: General Overhead Expenses.

Chapter 27: Travel.

Chapter 28: Inspection.

Part VI Gaining Disciples and Measuring Progress.

Chapter 29: Suggestion Programs.

Chapter 30: Measuring Progress.

Index.
http://as.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470609575.html



Check out author Joseph Berk's blog at http://manufacturingtraining.wordpress.com/

Sunday, June 14, 2015

The Role The of Industrial Engineer in Product Design - Points Made by William McAlee and Harold Lawson



The article was published in the 2nd Edition of Maynard Industrial Engineering Handbook as chapter 10.5



Industrial engineering has a role in both the design for making and design for selling.

Industrial engineer's knowledge of methods improvement, motion economy and motion study, work measurement using stop watch as well as predetermined motion times enable him to redesign the product designs to make the less costly to manufacture and also make them less costly to use by the user.


Design for Making

The industrial engineer is a key person reviewing the design. He makes an analysis of design to determine if it is possible to manufacture at an economical cost. Based on the analysis, he finds ways to reduce costs through suggested design modifications prior to final design approval,

Industrial engineer is also an engineer and hence has knowledge of design process and method. He redesigns the production process also to obtain lower cost of production.  He does this without affectinig the quality, appeal, salability, or any other aspect of the product desired by the customer and explicitly designed in by the product design team. An industrial engineer does this work by his knowledge of equipment, processes, tools, wages and the like.

The typical examples of suggestions by industrial engineers for redesign were given by the authors as:

1. Relocation of holes, appendages, fasteners, and the like for easier access in processing or assembly.
2. Modification of design to use existing tools, jigs, fixtures or equipment.  (especially if a new equipment is suggested that will have low utlization)
3. Addition of tapers, rounded edges, and symmetry to parts to simplify positioning required for assembly.
4. Specification of easier to use fasteners (Shigeo Shingo came out with various ideas on fasteners to reduce set up times of machines)
5. Use of free machining stock or use of materials having higher machinability.

Cost Reduction Opportunities in Power Plants and Distribution Systems


Productivity Improvement is Cost Reduction in another name.

COST REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES IN POWER SECTOR

AUDITS & R & M IN POWER GENERATION SECTOR
 TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SECTOR LOSS REDUCTION
RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT THROUGH CONDITION MONITORING OF PLANT Equipment

Areas/Systems for Productivity Improvement  in Power systems


A) HT/LT AUXILIARIES
• FD fans
• ID fans
• Boiler feed Water pumps
• Condensate extraction pumps
• Circulation Cooling Water Pumping system
• Cooling Towers
• CT Fans
• PA fans
• Coal Mills

B) OFF-SITES
• Raw Water
pumping system
• Coal handling plant

Optimized Coal Handling - 2011 ABB Article
http://www09.abb.com/global/scot/scot244.nsf/veritydisplay/18ef94c51a2548d1c1257958002ef13e/$file/ABB_Optimized_Coal_Handling_Article.pdf

• Ash handling plant
• Compressed air
• Refrigeration & air
conditioning
• Lighting

C) Thermal Areas

• Boilers
• Turbines
• Condensers
• Regenerative Feed
heaters
• Economizers
• Air Pre-heaters

D) OTHER SUB-SYSTEMS
• Insulation studies to reduce heat losses
• Thermography studies of switch yards &
transformers
• Fuel oil system


http://www.emt-india.net/Presentations2009/3L_2009Jan29-30_PowerPlant/Day1/2.%20NPC-%203L%20programme_%2029.%2001.%2009.pdf



Auxiliary Systems of Power Plants
Energy Efficienct Design of Auxiliary Systems in Fossil-Fuel Power Plants - ABB
http://www05.abb.com/global/scot/scot221.nsf/veritydisplay/5e627b842a63d389c1257b2f002c7e77/$file/Energy%20Efficiency%20for%20Power%20Plant%20Auxiliaries-V2_0.pdf



Updated  14 June 2015
First published  2 November 2013

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly: Concepts, architectures and implementation - O. Molloy, E.A. Warman, S. Tilley - Book Information

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly: Concepts, architectures and implementation

O. Molloy, E.A. Warman, S. Tilley
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 6, 2012 - 205 pages


In order to compete in the current commercial environment companies must produce greater product variety, at lower cost, all within a reduced product life cycle. To achieve this, a concurrent engineering philosophy is often adopted. In many cases the main realization of this is Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFM/A). There is a need for in-depth study of the architectures for DFM/A systems in order that the latest software and knowledge-based techniques may be used to deliver the DFM/A systems of tomorrow. This architecture must be based upon complete understanding of the issues involved in integrating the design and manufacturing domains. This book provides a comprehensive view of the capabilities of advanced DFM/A systems based on a common architecture.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=8T3UBwAAQBAJ



Manufacturing Process Improvement - Bibliography



Journals

Journal of Manufacturing Processes pub by Society of Manufacturing Engineers

Business Process Management Journal



New Horizons in Standardized Work: Techniques for Manufacturing and Business Process Improvement (Paperback)
By Timothy D. Martin, By  Jeffrey T. Bell
Publisher: Productivity PressPublished: 25 January 2011
Enabling management to verify that processes are being performed correctly and in an efficient manner, standardized work provides limitless opportunities for process improvements. So much so, that it has become a vital component of improvement efforts in Lean enterprise systems. New Horizons in Standardized Work: Techniques for Manufacturing and Business Process Improvement is an all-inclusive guide to applying standardized work principles to virtually any business in any industry. It facilitates a fundamental understanding of standardized work principles and the logic behind their development, so readers can successfully extend and adapt them to their own work situation. It also: Supplies an accessible introduction to standardized work, from a cyclic perspective Explains how to instill and maintain quality in work processes right from the get go Provides the foundational basis required to apply standardized work concepts to a wide range of work situations Includes several appendices with helpful tips and problem-solving tools In a step-by-step format, this book discusses the relationship of the work period and the takt time, as well as the importance of the three main worker interface levels in job design. It includes an array of examples that demonstrate how the concepts discussed can be applied across a range of industries-including health care, construction, business processes, and food services.

"A systematic approach to evaluate the process improvement in lean manufacturing organizations"
Amin, Md. Al & Karim, M. Azharul (2011) A systematic approach to evaluate the process improvement in lean manufacturing organizations. In Sustainable manufacturing: Shaping global value creation: Proceedings of the The 9th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, Springer, LENEXPO Exhibition Center, St. Petersburg, pp. 65-70.
http://eprints.qut.edu.au/43991/

Achieve Lasting Process Improvement
Bennet Lientz, Kathryn Rea
Routledge, 10-Jun-2002 - Business & Economics - 281 pages
Methods of improving business processes are developed on an ongoing basis, but few are successful. Common problems encountered include the failure of processes to meet expectations and the inability to sustain or replicate these business processes. Involvement of personnel at grassroots level, as well as at management level, is essential in implementing effective process improvement methods.

The authors present a step-by-step approach to the issue of effective process improvement, offering more than 200 tips and guidelines as well as addressing specific common problems and issues. The strategy presented is to take a broad and intuitive, but learned view of process improvement methods, and the tactics expounded are based on guidelines, common faults, and lessons learned. The authors disparage process improvement operations that depend on jargon and the support of just upper management, and promote grassroots involvement and self-sustaining measurement, making this an essential guide for all with involvement in process improvement
Google Book Link with Preview facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ssjgO0pkvTsC


A review of improvement methods in manufacturing operations by Thomas Gru¨nberg
http://woxencentrum.iip.kth.se/documents/publications/articles/art_Grunberg2003-AReviewOfImprovementMethods.pdf
(Interesting fishbone diagram on improvement methods)


Global Pioneers of Process Improvement
http://www.nationmultimedia.com/business/Hi!-Managers-Global-Pioneers-of-process-improvemen-30182410.html

Some More Pioneers of Process Improvement
http://www.nationmultimedia.com/business/Hi!-Managers-Some-(more)-Process-improvement-pione-30184347.html

Solagen: Process Improvement in the Manufacture of Gelatin, Teaching Note
Kim, Renee; Yoffie, David B.
CASE ; HBS-692060-E
STRATEGY
HARVARD BUSINESS PUBLISHING
Description:
Taiwan-based HTC Corp. had emerged as the world's fourth largest smartphone manufacturer by 2009. CEO Peter Chou was extremely proud of the remarkable achievements his company had made over the last 12 years since starting off as an unknown manufacturer of PDAs for other companies. Yet Chou faced several decisions in order to move his company forward. Competition for high-end, sophisticated mobile devices was intensifying as HTC faced big name players such as Nokia, Apple, and Samsung Electronics. Many companies were offering their own application stores. What did HTC have to do to become a more powerful global brand? Where should HTC participate in the value chain in one of the most exciting, innovative product categories in the technology world?
Publication date: 24 Jun 2009

Manufacturing Process Improvement
http://www.process-manufacturing-guide.com/manufacturing-process-improvement.php
http://www.process-manufacturing-guide.com/manufacturing-process-optimization.php

Data Mining for Improving Manufacturing Processes
Lior Rokach (Ben-Gurion University, Israel)
Encyclopedia of Data Warehousing and Mining, Second Edition, 2008

Case Studies of Manufacturing Process Improment in SMEs in USA
http://www.nist.gov/mep/manufacturers/process-improvements.cfm

Machine tool optimization services
http://www.iqlinc.com/

Manufacturing Process Management - Brochure of PTC
http://www.snt.hu/downloads/MFG_process_management.pdf



Process Analysis and Reengineering
Armen Zakarian and Andrew Kusiak
Computers and Industrial Engineering (2001) 41, 135-150




Reengineering of design and manufacturing processes
Andrew Kusiak, T. Nick Larson, Juite (Ray) Wang
Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1527, U.S.A.
Computers & Industrial Engineering
Volume 26, Issue 3, July 1994, Pages 521–536

The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
May 1991, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 205-215
Development of a product manufacturing analysis and costing system
A. J. Allen, M. S. Bielby, K. G. Swift
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02601440




Updated 14 June 2015
First published 29 June 2013



Purpose, Methods and Application Areas of Industrial Engineering

What is the purpose of industrial engineering? How is it different from the purpose of engineering of various disciplines and management of various areas? What are industrial engineering methods and techniques? In what areas IE is applied? These questions were answered by different people at various places.

My answer is purpose of IE is redesign of engineering products, processes and engineering goods and services production systems for reducing cost of products and processes. Engineering is concerned with original technical design. Managers are concerned with customer requirements, recruiting and directing engineers to create products and production systems that satisfy customers and interacting with customers to deliver products and collect payments.

Industrial Engineers are concerned with continuous improvement of product designs, production processes and production systems to increase productivity, eliminate waste and reduce costs.

The IE methods can be categorised into 1. Product design efficiency improvement. 2. Methods efficiency improvement 3. IE optimization 4. IE statistics . 5 IE Economics 6. Human effort engineering 7. Work measurment, cost measurement, and productivity measurement 8. Management of IE studies, projects and departments.

I feel IE curriculums must have these components and number of subjects that explain each area so that an IE graduate can deliver these services in an integrated fashion in an engineering organization.


In an engineering organization, the primary areas for attention of industrial engineers are technical processes.  The experience gained by industrial engineers in improving technical areas can be used to improve business processes and management processes. Every individual Industrial engineer, must first be inducted into IE profession through study and improvement of technical areas of the organization.



From Chapter 1.5 Management's Use of Industrial Engineering by J. Keith Louden, Vice President and Fellow, American Management Association, President's Professional Association, New York

Industrial Engineering Handbook, H.B. Maynard, Second Edition

Objective of Industrial Engineering

The end result of the industrial engineering function is profit improvement. The line manager of a department is actually responsible for profit improvement in his department. He is aided materially by the industrial engineering function.

Manufacturing Functions Use of Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering was born in the shop.

The manufacturing executive look to IE department to establish standards of measurement for every phase of manufacturing operations. He expected aid in simplifying work regardless of its nature or where it is performed. He also wants IE to define each job function and to evaluate each in comparison with others and determine relative worth. To establish controls and measuring sticks, so that manufacturing activities are better managed.




Saturday, June 13, 2015

Ralph M. Barnes - Industrial Engineer




Ralph Barnes was born in Clifton Mills, West Virginia on October 17, 1900.

He went to West Virginia University for his BS (1923) and his ME(1928).  He received his MS (1924) and PhD. (1933) from Cornell University.

Ralph was the first recipient of a PhD  (1933) in Industrial Engineering from Cornell, and also the first in the United States.

He worked in US window Glass (1923), Bausch and Lomb Optical Co, (1924-25), and  Gleason Works (1925-26). He also worked in Eastman Kodak during 1926-30.

He taught at the University of Illinois (1926-28), the University of Iowa (1928-1949, and UCLA from 1949-1968, and was a professor emeritus until the 80s.  He died in Los Angeles November 4, 1984.

Research papers by R.M Barnes - University of Iowa

He wrote the popular text book "Motion and Time Study" which is still in print by John Wiley and Sons.

He was awarded the Gilbreth medal.

During World War II he did consulting on the layout for the Hanford Nuclear Plant and worked for Armstrong Cork Company which made wings for the Corsair airplane.


http://wf-eng.slerahosting.com/html/barnes.html



Updated  13 June 2015
First published  4 Oct 2013

Engineered Work Measurement: The Principles, Techniques, and Data of Methods-time Measurement - Delmar W. Karger, Franklin H. Bayha - Book Information




Engineered Work Measurement: The Principles, Techniques, and Data of Methods-time Measurement Background and Foundations of Work Measurement and Methods-time Measurement, Plus Other Related Material

Delmar W. Karger, Franklin H. Bayha
Industrial Press Inc., 1987 - 503 pages


Engineered Work Measurement: The Principles, Techniques, and Data of Methods-time Measurement Background and Foundations of Work Measurement and Methods-time Measurement, Plus Other Related Material

Front Cover
Delmar W. Karger, Franklin H. Bayha
Industrial Press Inc., 1987 - 503 pages


Since its first edition this book has helped thousands profitably use traditional time and Motion Study and the predetermined time system, MTM-1. Offering extensive information on I.E. and work measurement software, it focuses on the MTM material that has been refined and tested for more than three decades. It provides accurate answers to all questions regarding MTM-1 found in the MTM Association for Standards and Research MTM-1 Examinations and covers the minimum work measurement background essential to all who must understand and apply MTM-1.


https://books.google.co.in/books?id=K-JSTQ0tkkkC


Role of Industrial Engineer in Today's Engineering Organizations



William J. Zehe of Middough Inc. explained industrial engineering in the modern time. Some of the activities he described as extremely relevant to explain the role of industrial engineering very clearly.

As production technology evolves, markets and demand expand or contract,  cost control
continues to drive the competitive advantage,

The industrial engineer can evaluate manufacturing system designs, thereby avoiding costly production bottlenecks while at the same time minimizing "over design" often employed as a contingency in variable manufacturing situations.


Typically the role of the Industrial Engineer is to constantly strive to make things work better,
whether it involves processes, products, or systems. Industrial  engineer is the bridge between management goals and the company’s operational performance.


Typical Industrial Engineer’s activities:


• Productivity and methods improvement
• Manufacturing and distribution
• Integration of supply chain
• Quality measurement and improvement
• Ergonomics & human factors engineering


PRODUCTIVITY AND METHODS IMPROVEMENTS


A key task in any manufacturing facility is to continuously reduce cost. Thus an important role
of the Industrial Engineer is continuing to fine tune a well oiled machine including
identification of improvements and manage implementation strategies. These tasks include:

Defining key production metrics
Define goals, measurement tools, data analysis strategies
Lead team to perform root cause analysis to improve weak performers
Develop capacity measurements
capital budgets and justifications
Continuous improvement
              Coordinate change programs
              Establish priorities, schedules and goals
              Provide on-going leadership to assure successful implementation


MANUFACTURING AND DISTRIBUTION


Managing the cost of getting a product to the market is paramount in being successful. Many
elements are involved in this process and must start at the design phase of the product.
Typically the Industrial Engineer is involved as the product matures and transforms from
the design phase into trial production and eventually to full scale production. The activities
associated with this include:

• Design for manufacturing and assembly reviews

o Identify any changes that would reduce the manufacturing cost without
compromising the design
• Methods and Procedures Analysis and Review
o Evaluate equipment capacities
• Develop product specific routings, special instructions, manufacturing standards
• Develop staffing requirements,
• Facilitate and lead continuous improvement teams
• Provide simulation of process flow




INTEGRATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN
facilities rely on a number of suppliers to provide goods and/or
services for the products they produce. Integrating the suppliers into the manufacturing
more important in an effort to control costs in today’s
competitive environment. The Industrial Engineer is often the link between
manufacturing facility and the suppliers. The tasks typically include:








ERGONOMICS AND HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING
Controlling costs includes the development of processes and procedures for the manuf
of a product that incorporate the health and welfare of the employee tasked to provide the
goods and services. Most of the activities are associated with how the material is handled
during the production sequence, what tooling is utilized and what is the body position requ
of the employee during the production sequence. The Industrial Engineer will:
• Interface with applicable stake holders to insure ergonomics is incorporated into all
aspects of the product from development, design, manufacturing, material handling,
distribution
Working as team leader or integral team member
develop long range planning models for the facility, including
and manpower requirements. Th
• A rolling five year strategic plan updated annually
• Capacity planning and
• Implementation costs including capital justifications
• Preliminary financial impacts and ROI


QUALITY MEASUREMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
sub tier to continuous improvement; an integral part of assuring
meets expectations. In this case the Industrial Engineer works in concert
company’s quality department or in some cases becomes the lead investigator to
quickly resolve issues affecting the product quality, either in house or issues with supplier
. These activities may include:
Root cause identification and implementation of corrective action including:
Process revisions
Material flow or handling revisions
Applicable training
Interface with design, production, and suppliers on quality related issues
Development of quality measurement tools, techniques and analysis


http://www.middough.com/Middough/files/98/98522c81-f2ee-4e3d-8202-c350be586990.pdf




Monday, June 8, 2015

Cost Based Assembly Line Optimization



Preliminary Draft - To be rewritten.


Equipment Costs:  Equipment costs concern purchasing as well as operating and maintenance costs for machinery, tools and corresponding supplies. There exist various processing and equipment
alternatives and therefore the choice of equipment and the task assignment to stations becomes interrelated decisions.


Graves and Lamar [1983] were among the first to consider a line balancing problem combined with equipment choice by considering non-identical workstations.


Bukchin and Tzur [2000]  optimized equipment cost respectively, for simple  lines.

Nicosia et al. [2002] also studied this problem and proposed a dynamic programming algorithm addressing resource assignments,

approximate solution approaches were used to produce solutions for FMS [Chen and Ho, 2005]. Following a multiobjective approach and making use of Pareto dominance relationships, Chen and Ho [2005] addressed four criteria: total flow time, machine workload unbalance, greatest
machine workload and total tool cost.

Bukchin and Rabinowitch [2006] relaxed the assumption that a common task of different models is assigned to a single station. They also attempted the mixed model line problem. However, task
duplications are penalized through duplication costs in the objective function. For solution, a branch and bound solution algorithm was developed.




Pekin and Azizoglu [2008] generalized the work of Bukchin and Tzur [2000] by minimizing total equipment cost and total number of workstations simultaneously. They generated the set of non-dominated solutions.



Similarly, addressing resource assignments, Corominas et al. [2011] formulated a general
model that minimizes total cost, which includes fixed station costs and unit cost of different resource types.


Barutcuoglu and Azizoglu [2011] investigated the same problem, however they fixed the number of stations and added the assumption that operation time and equipment cost are correlated so that the cheaper equipment never produces shorter operation time.


Kazemi et al. [2011] extended the model of Bukchin and Rabinowitch [2006] for U-type lines. The authors used genetic algorithms to solve the problem.


References

S.C. Graves and B. W. Lamar. An integer programming procedure for assembly system design problems. Operations Research, 31(3):522–545, 1983.

J. Bukchin and M. Tzur. Design of flexible assembly line to minimize equipment cost. IIE Transactions, 32(7): 585–598, 2000.

G. Nicosia, D. Pacciarelli, and A. Pacifici. Optimally balancing assembly lines with different workstations. Discrete Applied Mathematics, 118:99–113, 2002.

Y. Bukchin and I. Rabinowitch. A branch-and-bound based solution approach for the mixed-model assembly line-balancing problem for minimizing stations and task duplication costs. European Journal of Operational Research, 174(1):492–508, 2006.

N. Pekin and M. Azizoglu. Bi criteria flexible assembly
line design problem with equipment decisions. International
Journal of Production Research, 46(22):6323–
6343, 2008.

A. Corominas, L. Ferrer, and R. Pastor. Assembly line
balancing: general resource-constrained case. International
Journal of Production Research, 49(12):3527–
3542, 2011.

S.M. Kazemi, R. Ghodsi, M. Rabbani, and R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam. A novel two-stage genetic algorithm for a mixed-model U-line balancing problem with duplicated tasks. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 55(9-12):1111–1122, 2011.


Transfer Line Balancing

Another optimization area that focuses on equipment selection is transfer line balancing [Belmokhtar et al., 2006, Dolgui et al., 2006c,a, 2012, Battaia and Dolgui, 2012, Borisovsky et al., 2012, Delorme
et al., 2012]. In these systems, stations can be equipped with changeable units such as spindle heads. These units that operate parallel at a station are called blocks. The problem is to figure out the optimum number of stations and block assignments so that total line investment cost is
minimal.

When assembly line balancing and equipment selection problems are simultaneously treated, the resulting more complex problem is called assembly system design problem (ASDP). It
associates the equipment selection for task requirements and task assignment to the stations. In this concurrent decision, a cost-based objective such as the fixed cost of installing the equipment in the stations and the variable cost of operations depending on the station is optimized.

[Pinnoi and Wilhelm, 1997b,a, Wilhelm, 1999, Pinnoi and
Wilhelm, 1998, Gadidov and Wilhelm, 2000, Pinnoi and
Wilhelm, 2000, Wilhelm and Gadidov, 2004].

Ozdemir and Ayag [2011] have examined a multi-criteria ASDP. They integrated the branch and bound and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) so that first, the branch and bound generates line design candidates, then, these alternatives are assessed with AHP method to choose the optimal candidate.



Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMSs)

One of the main challenges of industry is to respond to the rapid changing demands of the customers. Accordingly, reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs), which give emphasis to modularity and customization of machines and processes, has been widely employed recently.

RMSs facilitate manufacturing systems that can change configuration such as altering the layout or adding machines cost effectively [Dolgui and Proth, 2010].

Integer programming models minimizing equipment and installation cost and approximate solution methods are generally used [Youssef and ElMaraghy, 2007, Essafi et al., 2010, Dou et al., 2011].

A heuristic approach based on a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) has also been proposed for this problem [Essafi et al., 2012].

An other case has been studied by Hamta et al. [2011, 2013], who modeled flexible operation times in the sense that with additional costs task times can be reduced up to a limit. A linear time/cost relationship was assumed.




Reference for the main content of the paper

Oncu Hazi r, Xavier Delorme and  Alexandre Dolgui, "A Survey on Cost and Pro t Oriented
Assembly Line Balancing," Preprints of the 19th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control Cape Town, South Africa. August 24-29, 2014







Saturday, June 6, 2015

Truck Manufacturing - Productivity Improvement and Industrial Engineering - 33612




Assembly Tools

http://www.assemblytoolspecialists.com/

2015


March 2015

Volvo Trucks Slashes Manufacturing Tool Production Time by More Than 94% While Increasing Plant Efficiency With Stratasys 3D Printing
Turnaround time of certain assembly line manufacturing tools reduced from 36 days to two days, using a Stratasys Fortus 3D Production System  Truck engine production plant achieves tooling cost reductions, while improving versatility and reactivity


March 18, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Stratasys Ltd. (Nasdaq:SSYS), a global leader of 3D printing and additive manufacturing solutions, has announced that Volvo Trucks is dramatically decreasing turnaround times of assembly line manufacturing tools by more than 94% since incorporating Stratasys additive manufacturing technology at its engine production facility in Lyon, France.
http://investors.stratasys.com/releasedetail.cfm?releaseid=902257




2014

March 2014
http://www.autoblog.com/2014/03/30/ford-raptor-rolls-down-assembly-line-dearborn-video/

Dearborn, MI - Ford's assembly plant F-150 SVT Raptor - its 6.2-liter V8 engine assembly  screwed together.


Assembly of  Raptor is done  some 1,000 employees in about 20 hours of assembly time.


2013

Jun 11, 201
The Daimler Trucks North America (DTNA) assembly facility in Saltillo, Mexico, is employing a radio frequency identification system provided by PINC Solutions to know exactly where within its yard each trailer loaded with specific materials and components is located. Then the company can direct yard-truck drivers to the specific location where the parts to be delivered, thereby saving time that the staff previously spent driving around the yard locating the vehicle. The facility includes a 200,000-square-foot logistics center and an 875,000-square-foot plant that produces 30,000 Freightliner Cascadia model Class 8 trucks annually.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?10738



2012

May 2012
The Basis of Productivity Improvement
http://www.assemblymag.com/articles/90043-the-basis-of-productivity-improvement





Thursday, June 4, 2015

336 - North American Industry Classification System - Transportation Equipment Manufacturing - Productivity



336 Transportation Equipment Manufacturing - NAICS



336 Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
3361 Motor Vehicle Manufacturing
33611 Automobile and Light Duty Motor Vehicle Manufacturing
336111 Automobile Manufacturing
336112 Light Truck and Utility Vehicle Manufacturing
33612 Heavy Duty Truck ManufacturingT
336120 Heavy Duty Truck Manufacturing
3362 Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer ManufacturingT
33621 Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer ManufacturingT
336211 Motor Vehicle Body Manufacturing
336212 Truck Trailer Manufacturing
336213 Motor Home Manufacturing
336214 Travel Trailer and Camper Manufacturing
3363 Motor Vehicle Parts ManufacturingT
33631 Motor Vehicle Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing
336310 Motor Vehicle Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing
33632 Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing
336320 Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing
33633 Motor Vehicle Steering and Suspension Components (except Spring) Manufacturing
336330 Motor Vehicle Steering and Suspension Components (except Spring) Manufacturing
33634 Motor Vehicle Brake System ManufacturingT
336340 Motor Vehicle Brake System Manufacturing
33635 Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts Manufacturing
336350 Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts Manufacturing
33636 Motor Vehicle Seating and Interior Trim Manufacturing
336360 Motor Vehicle Seating and Interior Trim Manufacturing
33637 Motor Vehicle Metal Stamping
336370 Motor Vehicle Metal Stamping
33639 Other Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing
336390 Other Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing
3364 Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing
33641 Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing
336411 Aircraft Manufacturing
336412 Aircraft Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing
336413 Other Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment Manufacturing
336414 Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Manufacturing
336415 Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion Unit and Propulsion Unit Parts Manufacturing
336419 Other Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Parts and Auxiliary Equipment Manufacturing
3365 Railroad Rolling Stock ManufacturingT
33651 Railroad Rolling Stock ManufacturingT
336510 Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing
3366 Ship and Boat BuildingT
33661 Ship and Boat BuildingT
336611 Ship Building and Repairing
336612 Boat Building
3369 Other Transportation Equipment ManufacturingT
33699 Other Transportation Equipment ManufacturingT
336991 Motorcycle, Bicycle, and Parts Manufacturing
336992 Military Armored Vehicle, Tank, and Tank Component Manufacturing
336999 All Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing






Productivity and Industrial Engineering in Transportation Equipment Manufacturing


336 Transportation Equipment Manufacturing


3361 Motor Vehicle Manufacturing
33611 Automobile and Light Duty Motor Vehicle Manufacturing
336111 Automobile Manufacturing

336112 Light Truck and Utility Vehicle Manufacturing
33612 Heavy Duty Truck Manufacturing
336120 Heavy Duty Truck Manufacturing

3362 Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing
33621 Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing
336211 Motor Vehicle Body Manufacturing
336212 Truck Trailer Manufacturing
336213 Motor Home Manufacturing
336214 Travel Trailer and Camper Manufacturing

3363 Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing
33631 Motor Vehicle Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing
336310 Motor Vehicle Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing
33632 Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing
336320 Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing

33633 Motor Vehicle Steering and Suspension Components (except Spring) Manufacturing
336330 Motor Vehicle Steering and Suspension Components (except Spring) Manufacturing

33634 Motor Vehicle Brake System Manufacturing
336340 Motor Vehicle Brake System Manufacturing

33635 Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts Manufacturing
336350 Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts Manufacturing

33636 Motor Vehicle Seating and Interior Trim Manufacturing
336360 Motor Vehicle Seating and Interior Trim Manufacturing

33637 Motor Vehicle Metal Stamping
336370 Motor Vehicle Metal Stamping

33639 Other Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing
336390 Other Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing


3364 Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing
33641 Aerospace Product and Parts Manufacturing

336411 Aircraft Manufacturing
336411 - Productivity in Aircraft Manufacturing - Industrial Engineering and Lean Transformation

336412 Aircraft Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing
336412 - Productivity and Industrial Engineering in Aircraft Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing

336413 Other Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment Manufacturing

336414 Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Manufacturing
336415 Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion Unit and Propulsion Unit Parts Manufacturing
336419 Other Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Parts and Auxiliary Equipment Manufacturing

3365 Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing
33651 Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing
336510 Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing

3366 Ship and Boat Building
33661 Ship and Boat Building
336611 Ship Building and Repairing
336612 Boat Building

3369 Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing

33699 Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing

33699 Productivity and Industrial Engineering in Bicycle Manufacturing

336991 Motorcycle, Bicycle, and Parts Manufacturing
336992 Military Armored Vehicle, Tank, and Tank Component Manufacturing


336999 All Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing