Thursday, October 31, 2019

October - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan






HUMAN EFFORT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Principles of Motion Economy, Motion Study, Ergonomics, Job Evaluation, Wage Incentives


Principles of Industrial Engineering
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October - First Week


1
Human Effort Industrial Engineering

We studied Taylor's Scientific Management in the introduction to industrial engineering. In Human Effort Industrial Engineering, we need to study "Motion Study" by Frank Gilbreth in full to understand the origin of the discipline.

2.
MOTION STUDY - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 1
MOTION STUDY: A METHOD FOR INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WORKMAN
BY  FRANK B. GILBRETH

PREFACE
CHAPTER I

DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL OUTLINE OF MOTION STUDY

3.

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 2
VARIABLES

I. Variables of the Worker.
II. Variables of the Surroundings, Equipment, and Tools
III. Variables of the Motion.

CHAPTER II  VARIABLES OF THE WORKER

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 3
VARIABLES OF THE WORKER - Continued.

Variables described by Gilbreth tell us about the early scientific framework of human productivity science. We need to identify the variables that were subsequently added to this framework and scientific laws developed based on them.

4.
MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 4
CHAPTER III - VARIABLES OF THE SURROUNDINGS


5.
MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 5
CHAPTER IV -VARIABLES OF THE MOTION

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 6
CHAPTER IV -VARIABLES OF THE MOTION - Continued



October - Second Week



8.
FUTURE WORK FOR DEVELOPING MOTION STUDY - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 7
CHAPTER V - PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF MOTION STUDY


9
Principles of Motion Economy
Principles of Motion Economy - More Details - R.M. Barnes

10.
Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
Therbligs

11.
The Two-Handed Process Chart for Motion Study
Motion Study - Operation Analysis - Questions

12.
Principles of Human Effort Engineering
Operator Productivity Improvement Using Appropriate Hand Tools - Introduction to Jigs and Fixtures


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October - 3rd Week - Ergonomics


Human Effort - Nature and Effects

Basic Ergonomic Principles
http://www.indevagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Basic_Ergonomics_Principles.pdf

https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/handtools/workspace.html
https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/handtools/tooldesign.html

Ergnomic Guidelines for Manual Material Handling
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-131/pdfs/2007-131.pdf




MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF ASSEMBLY OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM THROUGH
ERGONOMIC CONSIDERATION: AN OVERVIEW
http://www.ijmerr.com/v2n2/ijmerr_v2n2_22.pdf

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON ASSEMBLY WORKSTATION CONSIDERING ERGONOMICALLY ISSUES
Ibrahim H. Garbie
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University
http://www.usc.edu/dept/ise/caie/Checked%20Papers%20[ruhi%2012th%20sept]/word%20format%20papers/REGISTRATION%20PAID%20PAPERS%20FOR%20PROCEEDINGS/pdf/92%2015%20AN%20EXPERIMENTAL%20STUDY%20ON%20ASSEMBLY%20WORKSTATION%20CONSIDERING%20ERGONOMICALLY%20ISSUES.pdf


October - Fourth Week - Human Productivity Management


Job Evaluation
http://ie.emu.edu.tr/development/dosyalar/%7Be6F-ag1-Pre%7DJOBEV.pdf

Pay Reforms
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/actemp/downloads/publications/srspaysy.pdf

Wage Incentives - Literature Review

Incentives
http://iqsoft.co.in/iem/incentive%20pay%20plans.htm

Psychology of Management - Lilian Gilbreth Summary


One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December


17 October Birthday - Ralph M Barnes (1900)
Rules of Barnes
http://wf-eng.slerahosting.com/html/barnes__rules.html

Updated  30 September 2017,  23 August 2017,  11 Sep 2016

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Productivity and IE in Textile Mills



30 per cent increase in productivity

Improving Productivity of Spinning Mill - 2016 -17

This article discusses authors’ hands-on experience of improving productivity of a spinning mill in SEA (South East Asia) to the tune of 30 per cent and the impact on the overall performance of the unit. A relatively modern spinning mill equipped with auto doffing in ring frames and latest autoconers with a capacity of 64,000 spindles have been producing 1,054 tonne per month (average Ne 23) and product-mix is equally divided between carded and combed. The production is increased to 1,402 tons per month with in 24 months of implementing a productivity improvement intervention programme.
https://www.texcoms.com/improving-productivity-of-spinning-mill

Factors for Production in Spinning Mill
http://textilelearner.blogspot.in/2012/04/factors-affecting-productivity-in.html


Productivity in Fabrics - Bureau of Labor Statistics - 1995
https://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprjab95.pdf


Updated on 13 October 2019, 18 January 2014

Productivity and Industrial Engineering (IE) in Battery Manufacturing



2019

APRIL 11, 2019
Tesla, Panasonic to seek productivity gains before new battery investments
Makiko Yamazaki, Arjun Panchadar
https://in.reuters.com/article/us-tesla-gigafactory-panasonic/tesla-panasonic-to-seek-productivity-gains-before-new-battery-investments-idINKCN1RN117


2018

BCG - The Future of Battery Production for Electric Vehicles - Cost Reduction and Productivity Management Imperative
SEPTEMBER 11, 2018
https://www.bcg.com/en-in/publications/2018/future-battery-production-electric-vehicles.aspx

Batteries for Electric Cars - BCG
Outlook for 2020  (2010 report)
https://www.bcg.com/documents/file36615.pdf

Current status and challenges for automotive battery production technologies
Arno Kwade, Wolfgang Haselrieder, Ruben Leithoff, Armin Modlinger, Franz Dietrich & Klaus Droeder
Nature Energy volume 3, pages 290–300 (2018)
Published: 12 April 2018
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41560-018-0130-3


2015

14 April 2015
Research published recently in Nature Climate Change Letters shows battery pack costs may in some cases be as low as US$300 per kilowatt-hour today, and could reach US$200 by 2020. The  cost is decreasing at a faster rate.

The battery in a typical mid-range electric car stores around 25 kilowatt hours of energy. The analysis therefore suggests that the cost of electric car batteries may be as low as $7,500 today and is likely to reduce  to $5,000 by 2020.
http://theconversation.com/battery-costs-drop-even-faster-as-electric-car-sales-continue-to-rise-39780



Galaxy Power’s QuickForm algorithms for newly assembled batteries save battery manufacturers time, energy, and floor space, producing higher-quality batteries and yields.
http://powerelectronics.com/news/improved-productivity-battery-manufacturing-process

An Integer Programming Model to Maximize Battery Manufacturing Productivity
Hesham K. Alfares (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia)
Copyright © 2014. 12 pages.
Alfares, Hesham K. "An Integer Programming Model to Maximize Battery Manufacturing Productivity." Management Science, Logistics, and Operations Research. IGI Global, 2014. 26-37. Web. 19 Feb. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4506-6.ch002
http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/an-integer-programming-model-to-maximize-battery-manufacturing-productivity/96990

Your partner for
battery manufacturing
https://www.industry.siemens.com/topics/global/en/battery-manufacturing/Documents/Your_partner_for_battery_manufacturing.pdf

2013

Best Practice Deployment using Power Steering (CI Trac) at Johnson's Controls
http://www.uplandsoftware.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/JCI-Presentation.pdf


Emission Estimation for Lead Acid Battery Manufacturing Processes, 1999
http://www2.unitar.org/cwm/publications/cbl/prtr/pdf/cat5/Australia_fbattac.pdf


2005
Learning, Reducing Cost and Increasing Productivity at Exide Technologies, Vernon Recycling Facility
Lean Manufacturing Implementation - Training Initiatives
Kaizen Events:

Reduction in length of the line from 51 ft to 17 ft.
WIP down to 4 units from 44 units.
Productivity improved by 11%.
Manhours per ton of lead produced improved by 42%
Vernon's OEE improved to 86.4%  -  1.4% more than world standard
Profitability increased by 42%.
http://www.slideshare.net/engle45/structured-onthejob-training-and-change-management-learning-reducing-cost-and-increasing-productivity-presentation

U.S. Battery Manufacturing Company

Deep Cycle Battery 101 Manufacturing - YouTube Video


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Top Manufacturers of Lead Acid Batteries

In USA, Johnson Controls took the highest market share for a single vendor in lead-acid market in 2010, with over a quarter of the market share. Other vendors, such as Exide Technologies, GS YUASA, Enersys, and East Penn, took less than a 10% market share each. Other than GS YUASA, all of the top five vendors belong to the United States. GS Yuasa is market leader in Japan and also in Global sales.
http://www.systems-sunlight.com/blog/global-lead-acid-battery-market-development-status/


World wide battery manufacturers and Brands
http://jgdarden.com/batteryfaq/batbrand.htm


About Lead Acid Batteries
http://batterycouncil.org/?page=lead_acid_batteries


Updated 14 October 2019,   21 April 2015,
8 Nov 2014

Productivity Management in Engineering Organizations - Online Book

Why Productivity Management?


Why Focus on Productivity and  Productivity Management?

Chapter of Productivity Management in Engineering Organizations - Online Book



For a Society or  a nation to raise the standard of living of its population, it must strive to maximize the return from its resources or improve productivity so that the economy can grow and sustain a better quality of life.  (ILO, Introduction to Work Study).

The management of an enterprise is responsible for seeing that the enterprise resources ... are combined in the best possible way to achieve the highest productivity. (ILO, Introduction to Work Study).

The Japanese economy successfully weathered the oil crises of the seventies without suffering serious damage ... This success has been attributed primarily to Japan's high productivity. (Shigeo Shingo)

Productivity is a long-term survival issue. Unless a company focuses on productivity as a key
ingredient of their corporate philosophy, it won't survive. (Ian Rolland and Robert Johnson)

Companies must plan for productivity. Productivity does not just happen. It requires a strategy that is comprehensive, long-range, and monitored. It requires rational, purposeful behavior on the part of everyone.  (Ian Rolland and Robert Johnson)

We can easily state that productivity is the only source of real economic growth and progress. A nation must maintain competitive levels of productivity in key industries to even maintain its standard of living in what is becoming an increasingly competitive world market. (D. Scott Sink)

The manufacturing sector of the Japanese economy has led the world in productivity growth rates for almost 30 years. In a number of key industries, Japan has far surpassed the United States in absolute levels of productivity. One factor contributing to Japan's success is its focus on improving competitive capability, efficiency, and "striking power" in strategically selected target industries.  (D. Scott Sink)

Japan's government and industry cooperate to manage industrial policy strategically. As part of the strategy, growth, productivity, quality, and innovation are managed systematically in target industries. (D. Scott Sink)


(C) Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. 2019



Next Chapter
2. Productivity - Basic Concepts


Related Articles

Review of THE CONCEPT AND IMPORTANCE OF PRODUCTIVITY

Productivity - Basic Concepts


Productivity - Basic Concepts

Chapter of Productivity Management in Engineering Organizations - Online Book



Productivity - Definitions


Productivity was mentioned probably for the first time in an article by Quesnay in 1766.
In 1883, Littre defined productivity as the "faculty to produce," that is, the desire to produce.

In 1950, the Organisation  for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) provided the following  definition of productivity:

"Productivity is the quotient obtained by dividing output by one of the factors of production. In this way it is possible to speak of the productivity of the capital, investment, or raw materials according to whether output is being considered in relation to capital, investment, or raw materials, etc."


Productivity may be defined as follows:
Productivity = Output/Input  (Kanawaty)
The term productivity can be used to assess or measure the extent to which a certain output can be extracted from a given input. The inputs of an enterprise are land and buildings, materials, plant machines and equipment, energy and human resources. The outputs are saleable products and services.

R .M . Barnes 
R.M. Barnes discussed production in chapter 1 of his book, Motion and Time Study: Design and Measurement of Work (1980). The chapter is actually titled as Productivity.

Barnes explained that in a broad sense, productivity is the ratio of output to some or all of the resources used to produce the output. Labor productivity may be defined as "output per labor hour." Capital productivity as output per unit capital input. All inputs contribute to the total productivity of the firm. The focus in motion and time study is productivity of labor, machines, equipment, and facilities.

Barnes recommends that productivity of workers is measured as a ratio between output standard time and actual labor hour input.

Productivity of capital represented by machines and other operating facilities is of importance. Barnes identified speed of the equipment and the downtime as the two most important factors controlling productivity and costs. He mentioned steel mills as an example in this context.

References:
Barnes, R. M., Motion and Time Study Design and Measurement of Work, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Kanawaty, Introduction to Work Study,  4th Edition,  International Labour Office, Geneva, 1992
Littre, Larousee Etymological Dictionary, 1946-49 edition.
OEEC, Terminology of Productivity, 1950.

Productivity Measures



Productivity = Output/Input


Partial Factor Productivity  =  Productivity of a Resource   =  Output/Input of  single resource.

Total Factor Productivity =  Output/Input of all resources

(C) Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. 2019

Next Chapter
3. The Evolution of Productivity Management



Related Articles


Productivity Measurement