Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Manufacturing Ideology: Scientific Management in Twentieth-Century Japan - William M. Tsutsui - Book Information

Technology and Manufacturing Process Selection - Elsa Henriques et al. - Book Information

Flexibility and Efficiency - Both Can be Improved - Paul S. Adler


Flexibility Versus Efficiency? A Case Study
of Model Changeovers in the Toyota
Production System
Paul S. Adler • Barbara Goldoftas • David I. Levine
School of Business Administration, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1421
Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720


Much organization theory argues that efficiency requires bureaucracy, that bureaucracy impedes flexibility,
and that organizations therefore confront a tradeoff between efficiency and flexibility. Some researchers have challenged this line of reasoning, arguing that organizations can shift the efficiency/flexibility tradeoff to attain both superior efficiency and superior flexibility

The authors analyze an auto assembly plant that appears to be far above average industry performance in both efficiency and flexibility. NUMMI, a Toyota subsidiary located in Fremont, California, relied on a highly bureaucratic organization to achieve its high efficiency. Analysis of  two recent major model changes, the authors  find that NUMMI used four mechanisms to support its exceptional flexibility/efficiency combination.

ORGANIZATION SCIENCE/Vol. 10, No. 1, January–February 1999 pp. 43-68

The Birth of Lean - Koichi Shimokawa - 2012 - Book Information


The Birth of Lean: Conversations with Taiichi Ohno, Eiji Toyoda, and Other Figures who Shaped Toyota Management


Koichi Shimokawa (Editor), Takahiro Fujimoto (Editor)

Lean Enterprise Institute, 04-Mar-2012 - Business & Economics - 300 pages
This is an honest look at the origins of lean, written in the words of the people who created the system. Through interviews and annotated talks, you will hear first-person accounts of what these innovators and problem-solvers did and why they did it. You'll read rare, personal commentaries that explain the interplay of (sometimes opposing) ideas that created a revolution in thinking.

Google Book Link with Preview Facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=SDYLbXoW_EcC


Interesting explanations by Ohno in the book. The call by Toyoda to catch up the with American Productivity was there in this book also.  Page 7


Table of Contents


Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1 How it all began - Taiichi Ohno

Chapter 2. What I learned from Taiichi Ohno - Michikazu Tanaka

Chapter 3. Putting a Pull System in Place at Toyota - Kikuo Suzumura

Chapter 4. The Evolution of Buffering at Toyota - Kaneyoshi Kusunoki

Chapter 5. Total Quality Control and the Toyota Production System - Masao Nemoto

Chapter 6. The Guiding Management Perspective - Eiji Toyoda

Afterword


Updated  1 Sep 2015
First published  24 August 2013

Thursday, August 27, 2015

Analysis of Material - Methods Efficiency Improvement Analysis - Illustrations










Analysis of Material

Material cost is a very important part of the total cost of any product. Therefore the analyst should check the material for the possibility of using lower cost materials.




Questions. The following questions will prove suggestive in connection with an analysis of material:

1. Does the material specified appear suitable for the purpose for which it is to be used?

2. Could a less expensive material be substituted that would function as well?

M30 concrete in place of M35 concrete in India.

3. Could a lighter gage material be used?

Example: Reduction of automobile body sheet thickness by Maruti Suzuki in India.

4. Is the material furnished in suitable condition for use?

5. Could the supplier perform additional work upon the material that would make it better suited for its use?

6. Is the size of the material the most economical?

7. If bar stock or tubing, is the material straight?

8. If a casting or forging, is the excess stock sufficient for machining purposes but not excessive?

9. Can the machinability of the material be improved by heat-treatment or in other ways?

10. Do castings have hard spots or burned-in core sand that should be eliminated?

11. Are castings properly cleaned and have all fins, gate ends, and riser bases been removed?

12. Is material sufficiently clean and free from rust?

13. If coated with a preserving compound, how does this compound affect dies?

14. Is material ordered in amounts and sizes that permit its utilization with a minimum amount of waste, scrap, or short ends?

15. Is material uniform and reasonably free from flaws and defects?

16. Is material utilized to the best advantage during processing?

Change of design and cutting patter in Maruti Suzuki in India.

17. Where yield from a given amount of material depends upon ability of the operator, is any record of yield kept?

18. Is miscellaneous material used for assembly, such as nails, screws, wire, solder, rivets, paste, and washers, suitable?

19. Are the indirect or supply materials such as cutting oil, molding sand, or lubricants best suited to the job?

20. Are materials used in connection with the process, such as gas, fuel oil, coal, coke, compressed air, water, electricity, acids, and paints, suitable, and is their use controlled and economical?

Special materials will evoke special questions, but the list here given will indicate the kind of questions that should be asked and will stimulate suggestions for improvement on many kinds of the more common materials.

Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Requirements - Method Efficiency Improvement Analysis - Illustrations









The following questions should be raised and, as always, answered only after careful consideration:

1. What are the inspection requirements of this operation?

2. What are the requirements of the preceding operation?

3. What are the requirements of the following operation?

4. Will changing the requirements of a previous operation make this operation easier to perform?

5. Will changing the requirement of this operation make a subsequent operation easier to perform?

6. Are tolerance, allowance, finish, and other requirements necessary?

7. Are they suitable for the purpose the part has to play in the finished product ?

8. Can the requirements be raised to improve quality without increasing cost?

9. Will lowering the requirements materially reduce costs?

10. Can the quality of the finished product be improved in any way even beyond present requirements?



Illustrations to be added over time.

Analysis of All Operations in a Process - Method Efficiency Improvement Analysis - Illustrations





1. Can the operation being analyzed be eliminated by changing the procedure or the operations?

2. Can it be combined with another operation?

3. Can it be subdivided and the various parts added to other operations ?

4. Can part of the operation be performed more effectively as a separate operation?

5. Can the operation being analyzed be performed during the idle period of another operation?

6. Is the sequence of operations the best possible?

7. Would changing the sequence affect this operation in any way?

8. Should this operation be done in another department to save cost or handling?

9. If several or all operations including the one being analyzed were performed under the group system of wage payment, would advantages accrue?

10. Should a more complete study of operations be made by means of an operation process chart?