Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events and Examples



Alliance to Save Energy

250 energy experts, leaders and efficiency champions descended on Capitol Hill on November 20 to discuss and advocate for the Energy 2030 goal of doubling energy productivity by 2030.

Partnering with Efficiency Vermont, Grundfos shared how it increased market penetration for its circulator pumps which are over four times as efficient as traditional pumps.

Schneider Electric underscored its partnership with North Carolina State University that successfully saved that institution $1.5 million by reducing energy usage by 10 million kWh.

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power plans to meet 45% of its 2025 power needs through energy efficiency and renewables

Massachusetts continues to lead the country in energy efficiency and to meet their goal to reduce energy use 35% by 2020.  On both coasts and in between, speakers emphasized the ability of governments to drive energy efficiency forward.


2013 ACEEE National Conference on Energy Efficiency as a Resource

Massachusetts Most Energy-Efficient State in 2013 with California Close Behind at #2, Mississippi is Most Improved


Energy Efficiency plans of Japan - Japan's Plans on Energy Conservation

Energy-Efficiency Policies in the Asia-Pacific: Can We Do Better?
Tilak K. Doshi and Nahim Bin Zahur

Related Blog Posts by Me in This Blog

Energy Efficiency Conference - ECEEE

Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events and Examples

Industrial Engineering in Electical Engineering

Cost Reduction Opportunities in Power Plants and Distribution Systems

Economic Analysis - Clean Energy Investment Proposals

Energy Productivity - Efficiency Improvement

Energy Industrial Engineering

National Energy Conservation Day 


Wastage of Today is Shortage of Tomorrow - Conserve Energy

Industrial Engineering eliminates waste of all resources.

National Energy Conservation Day is observed in India on 14th December.

India has an act in this area - The Energy Conservation Act 2001.

The Energy Conservation Act 2001 is implemented by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), a statutory body under Government of India. The act  envisages creation of cadre of professionally qualified energy managers and auditors with expertise in energy management, project management, financing and implementation of energy efficiency projects, as well as policy analysis.

National Certificate Examination for Energy Managers and Energy Auditors

Book I - General aspect of energy management and energy audit
Book II - Energy efficiency in thermal utilities
Book III - Energy efficiency in electrical utilities
Book IV - Energy performance assessment for equipment & utility systems

Download Material from the link

What is Energy Conservation?

Energy conservation means using less energy and avoiding excessive or wasteful uses.
Energy efficiency, on the other hand, means using less energy while getting the same results. Efficiency is therefore a subset of conservation; one way to conserve energy is to use it more efficiently.
The concept of doing more with less offers an approach that seems both feasible and affordable.

Sometimes the two concepts are distinguished by how the savings are achieved. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) says that “energy efficiency is technology-based” (compact fluorescent light bulbs, for example), while conservation “is rooted in behavior” (such as turning off unneeded lights). Moreover, the energy savings from efficiency are easier to predict, measure and especially to sustain, making efficiency easier to treat as an energy resource.1 This distinction, however, is not entirely clear cut; there are efficiency measures that rely on behavior, such as combining car trips to save gasoline.


Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, USA Materials


The document consists of seven appendices.
Appendix 1 describes the 95 ITP-supported technologies currently available commercially and their applications and benefits.
Appendix 2 describes the 132 ITP-supported emerging technologies likely to be commercialized within two or three years.
Appendix 3 describes 128 ITP-supported technologies used in past commercial applications, the
current benefits of which are no longer counted in this report.
Appendices 4 and 5 summarize the benefits of two ITP technical assistance activities: the Industrial Assessment Centers and the Save Energy Now initiative.
Appendix 6 summarizes the benefits of CHP systems attributed to DOE activities.
Appendix 7 describes the methodology used to assess and track ITP-supported technologies.

About DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program

The Industrial Technologies Program, through partnerships with industry, government, and non-governmental organizations, develops and delivers advanced energy effi ciency, renewable energy, and pollution prevention technologies for industrial applications. The Industrial Technologies Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energyʼs Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

The Industrial Technologies Program encourages industry-wide efforts to boost resource productivity through a strategy called Industries of the Future (IOF). IOF focuses on the following eight energy and resource intensive industries:

• Aluminum • Forest Products • Metal Casting • Petroleum
• Chemicals • Glass • Mining • Steel

The Industrial Technologies Program and its Best Practices activities offer a wide variety of resources to industrial partners that cover motor, steam, compressed air, and process heating systems. For example, Best Practices software can help you decide whether to replace or rewind motors (MotorMaster+), assess the efficiency of pumping systems (PSAT), compressed air systems (AirMaster+), steam systems (Steam Scoping Tool), or determine optimal insulation thickness for pipes and pressure vessels (3E Plus).

Training is available to help you or your staff learn how to use these software programs and learn more about industrial systems. Workshops are held around the country on topics such as “Capturing the Value of Steam Efficiency,” “Fundamentals and Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems,” and “Motor System Management.”

Available technical publications range from case studies and tip sheets to source books and market assessments. The Energy Matters newsletter, for example, provides timely articles and information on comprehensive energy systems for industry. You can access these resources and more by visiting the BestPractices Web site at industry/bestpractices or by contacting the EERE Information Center at 877-337-3463 or via email at

Metal Casting Industry

Metal casting industry report - 2004

Search results for aluminum industry - very interesting information from the site.



Market Transformation in Energy Efficiency in India - Government Policy Framework
Report by Deloitte


Energy Efficiency Improvement and Issues - YouTube Videos - Created in 2013

Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events, Articles, Papers

Talk by Mr. Ajay Mathur, Directory General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE),  on 13 May 2010 

Speeches on the occasion of National Energy Conservation Day

2012 National Energy Conservation Day Highlights - Speech of President of India



2011 by Prime Minister of India
2007 by President of India
2005 by Secretary, Minister of Power
2004 By P.M. Sayeed, Union Minister of Power

Related Websites

Energy Use Efficiency - IE for Energy Resource

Energy Conservation Mission - Institute of Engineers India Site on Energy Conservation


Slogans for Energy Conservation

You may not be able to produce energy, But You can definitely save energy.
Spending energy is spending money. Do it wisely.
Energy consumption is a burden on your purse. it is a burden on India's economy. It is a burden on Environment.
Conservation is only careful consumption.
What is conservation? Consumption with care.

More Slogans from EMT website


National Energy Conservation Energy Awards

Last date for receipt of applications for award is over.
Awards will be announced





India  -    The Energy Conservation Act 2001.

Amendment Bill proposed in 2010
An Act to provide for efficient use of energy and its conservation and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty second Year of the Republic of India as follows:—
List of Energy Intensive Industries and other establishments specified as designated consumers

Activities by Government under the Energy Consevation Act

Images of Energy Conservation Day
Images From Times for Syndication

Energy Conservation Competitions

Painting Competition for Energy Conservation Day

The Ministry of Power has launched the National Awareness Campaign in order to promote energy conservation in the country. Painting competition for students at the School, State and at National level has been included as one of the activities of the campaign, which would not only make aware the children about the need of conserving energy but at the same time would educate and involve their parents as well in the above cause. The identified activity is one of the measures, which can help in creating awareness in the domestic sector. The children studying in the standards 4th , 5th & 6th will be eligible to participate in the painting competition.
The competition is being held in three stages, namely, School, State and National Level. Cash prizes worth Rs 33,000 per State/UT (Rs.11.55 lakhs for 35 States/UTs) will be distributed to state level winners on 14th Novemebr,2010 .For winners  of National Competition, cash prizes worth Rs.7.00 lakhs are proposed to be awarded  by the Ministry of Power on 14thDecember,2010 which is also celebrated  as National Energy Conservation day in the presence of eminent dignitaries holding very high positions in the Government.
The salient features of the scheme are as follows: 
 Salient features of the School level Painting Competition Scheme

 School Level Painting Competition 2010 for the students of 4th , 5th  & 6th standards has been launched in all the States/UTs’ through an advertisement in the print media starting from 12th  July, 2010 by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE).  
b. Schools Principals are requested to organize painting competition of 2 hours duration at their Schools. Students can use any size of paper, but preferably A4 size drawing sheet, and students can pick any one of the following Theme Topics: 
  More stars, more savings
Today’s energy wastage is tomorrow’s energy shortage
Energy saved is future save

c. The children can use Crayons, Pencil Colour, Water Colour etc. The children may consider the following points while painting.
  Relevance of the theme depicting the selected topics
Relevance of the theme depicting the selected topics
Effective communication of message selected 
Innovativeness/creativity/novel ideas/new techniques as reflected in the painting

d. Schools principals will select 2 best paintings and send them along with information on number of students participated at School level competition at the Nodal Official address of their respective State/UT by 12th October, 2010.  
e. The back of the painting should carry the following information:  
  Name of the Student  Father’s/Mother’s Name   Tel/Mobile No. of Parents 
Standard Roll No.  E-mail ID of Student 
School Name & Address       School Tel No   School Tel No 
Tel No. of Student     E-mail ID of Student    
STATE/UT  Signature of the School Principal    

f. All the participating students at School level painting competition will get a ‘Certificate of Participation’ and 1st & 2nd selected will get ‘Certificate of Merit’ which will be signed by School Principal and Director General – Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power (Government of India). 
g. List of the Nodal officials for all the States/UTs is given in State Nodal Officials List
h. Paintings not signed by the school principal or sent directly by student’s parents will not be accepted.  
i. Paintings are to be sent only at the address of respective Nodal Official of the State/UT and not on the addresses of Ministry of Power and Bureau of Energy Efficiency.  
j. This year, the paintings received from the CBSE schools, located outside India, will be considered under a separate category and the Certificate of Appreciation will be sent under the signature of Director General, Bureau of Energy Efficiency. These schools are requested to send two best paintings directly, along with the details as mentioned above, at the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Sewa Bhawan, R.K.Puram,Sector-1, New Delhi-110066 (INDIA) office address. 
k. It is to be mentioned that those schools who would record 100% participation in the 4th, 5th and 6th standards (as applicable) at the School level Painting Competition, their names will be included in the Painting Competition booklet prepared by BEE. 
l.  The 1st /2nd/ 3rd Prize winners of State level painting competition of the last 2 years(2008 & 2009) are not eligible to participate in this year competition. The Consolation Prize winners of State level Painting Competition may participate, but they would be considered for prizes if they win 1st /2nd/ 3rd Prize at the State level. 
2. Salient features of the State level Painting Competition Scheme
 A committee/jury comprising of 4 to 5 renowned persons in Art, drawing teachers, officials from organizers and State government education department will be constituted by the Nodal officials for selecting up to 50 best paintings out of the total numbers of the paintings sent by the respective School Principal of the State/UT.  
b. The list of 50 selected students eligible for participation at state level painting competition will be uploaded on by 5thNovember 2010.

c. Nodal officials will also communicate with the respective school principals by 5th  November, 2010 through letters, fax, telegrams, telephones, email etc. about the selection of their students and also request them to send the selected school student to participate in State level painting competition on 14th November, 2010 at the selected venue and timings. Tentatively, this venue may be the State capital.

d. The selected students are also to be requested to carry the following material 
  A letter from respective school principal certifying the student’s particulars or Identity Card.
Latest passport size Colored photograph (02 Nos). 
Painting material: crayons, colored pencils, water colors. 
Drawing board etc. (The drawing sheet of size:380 x 510 millimeters (approximately 15 x 20 inches) will be provided by the Nodal official)
Nodal Officials will conduct the on-the-spot painting competition of 2 hours duration at the predetermined venue on 14th November 2010. 

e. Schools/parents to bring the children to the venue and take back the children to their respective places. The selected students reporting at the venue of competition will be paid Rs 1000/- each in cash by the nodal official on the day of their participation at State level painting competition and reimburse sleeper class rail-fare/ state roadways bus fare from the shortest route for self and two guardians. The nodal official will also provide refreshments/lunch to the participating students and their guardians. 
f. The Committee of Experts/Jury of that particular State/UT will select 13 best paintings for
First Prize Rs. 10,000/- Second Prize Rs. 8,000/- 
Third Prize Rs. 5,000/-  Consolation Prize (10nos) Rs. 1,000/- 

g. The chief guest of the function would give away the prizes to winning students.  
h. A Group photograph of participating students along with Chief Guest and respective Nodal official will also to be arranged. 
i. Students participating at State/UT level painting competition will be given some mementoes by the Nodal Officials and Certificate of participation. 
3. Salient features of the National level Painting Competition Scheme
 The first, second and third prize winners of the each State/UT level painting competition along with their guardian (restricted to two adults per student), will be invited to Delhi to participate in the National Level Painting competition of 2 hours duration on 12th December,2010 
b. The participating student in the National Level Painting Competition will be paid a sleeper class rail-fare/ State Roadways bus fare by the shortest route for self and two guardians and a lump sum of Rs. 1000/- per student as incidentals by the respective Nodal Officials. Travel expenses for the North- East region and other far-flung areas where rail and bus connectivity is not available, the concerned Nodal Officials will decide alternate option of travel. The expenditure will be borne by the respective Nodal Officials.  
c. All the participants should carry the requisite drawing material, (except the drawing sheet which will be provided by the Nodal official) on their own, such as: Drawing paper, size: 380 x 510 millimeters (approximately 15 x 20 inches) (Note: The drawing sheet will be provided by Nodal official)
Painting material: crayons, colored pencils, water colors. 
Drawing board, etc 

d. A selection committee/jury comprising of renowned personalities from Art Institutes or Artists, Ministry of Power and BEE officials, would judge the paintings. The Committee of Experts/ Jury will select 23 best paintings for First Prize (1 no) Rs. 1, 00,000/-, Second Prize (4 nos) Rs.  50,000/-, Third Prize (8nos) Rs. 25,000/- and Consolation Prize (10 nos) Rs. 10,000/- each.  Director General, BEE, would also decide 10 nos of consolation prizes of Rs. 10,000/- each  
e. The participating students at the National level painting competition will be requested to stay back till 14th December, 2010 so that they can participate in the National Energy Conservation Day function and winning Students can receive the prizes from the Chief Guest. 

4. Awards for State/UT Education Department and State/UT Nodal Officer
Efforts of the States/UTs Government Education Departments and State/ UT Nodal Officers who have made concerted efforts to support the Painting Competition under the National Campaign for Energy Conservation of Ministry of Power will be awarded. 
A committee constituted under the Chairmanship of DG (BEE) will evaluate and finalize on the basis of highest School & Student participation and percentage improvement over the previous year for the respective State/UT 
The decision of the Jury/Expert committee at all levels of the painting competition will be final.  
Two paintings selected at school Level, paintings at State and National Level would be the sole property of BEE, which will have the right to use it for any purpose it consider appropriate.  
Collection of Paintings of last 5 years State level Competition on Energy Conservation are available at the following link:
NCEC 2009
NCEC 2008
NCEC 2007
NCEC 2006
NCEC 2005

Contact (2010 year)
Ph : 011-26179699
Shri Neeraj Dhingra, Project Engineer, BEE
Smt. Rajini Thomson, Project Engineer, BEE
Energy Story for Use in Schools

Originally posted in Knol 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2334

Economic Analysis - Clean Energy Investment Proposals

Economic and Financial Analysis - An Illustration
The economic analysis presented in the knol Clean Energy 2030, is very interesting to provide an illustration to economic and financial analysis of investment proposals. I extracted the economic analysis portion from that knol to present it here.


We made the following economic assumptions in calculating the cost of the Clean Energy 2030 proposal:

  • Efficiency capital cost of 25 cents per kWh annual savings (one-time cost)
  • Savings from efficiency of 10 cents per kWh (average electricity price)
Renewable energy:
  • Renewable electricity capital costs:
    • Onshore wind: $2 per watt (W) falling to $1.5/W in 2030
    • Offshore wind: $2.5/W falling to $2/W in 2030
    • Solar PV: $6/W falling to $2/W in 2030
    • Solar CSP: $3.5/W falling to $2/W in 2030
    • Conventional geothermal: $3.5/W flat through 2030
    • Enhanced geothermal systems: $5/W falling to $3.5/W in 2030      
  • Intermittency cost of $20/MWh (applied to wind and solar)
  • Avoided fossil capital costs (for plants planned in baseline but not built in our proposal because of efficiency and renewables):
    • Coal: $2/W constant
    • Natural gas and oil: $1/W constant
  • Saved fossil fuel cost (that is not already counted as efficiency savings):
    • Coal: $2/MBtu constant
    • Natural gas and oil: $10/MBtu constant
  • No write-down cost for retiring coal plants (all plants assumed to be older than 40 years when retired), no decommissioning cost or salvage value for plants
  • Transmission infrastructure cost: $0.30/W for wind (including offshore) and solar CSP
  • Plug-in vehicle premiums: $5000 per plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV), $10,000 per pure-electric vehicle (EV), plus $1000 per vehicle for charging infrastructure
  • Higher-efficiency conventional vehicle premium $3000 for 45 mpg (pro-rated for lower mpg, down to zero cost for 22 mpg today)
  • Fuel cost: $4/gallon gasoline today, doubling to $8/gallon by 2030
  • Plug-in electricity cost: 7 cents per kWh (discounted due to flexible smart-charging price)
  • Older vehicle buy-back cost: $5000 per vehicle
Carbon (not counted in net savings):
  • Carbon credit for CO2 not emitted (relative to baseline): $20/ton CO2, doubling to $40/ton in 2030 (applied to both electricity and vehicles)

    Table 1. Economic summary (billions of 2008 US dollars).

    Costs Undiscounted total Net present value*
    Electrical efficiency investment $348 $175
    Renewable capacity investment $1,642 $712
    Transmission capacity investment $133 $59
    Intermittency cost $329 $121
    Coal plant write-down, decommissioning and salvage $0 $0
    Plug-in vehicle premium $1,221 $374
    Plug-in electricity cost $122 $35
    Higher efficiency conventional vehicle premium $325 $146
    Vehicle buyback cost $322 $119
    Subtotal $4,442 $1,742

    Electrical efficiency savings $1,599 $620
    Avoided fossil fuel generation capacity savings $267 $117
    Avoided fossil fuel savings $437 $162
    Plug-in fuel savings $2,193 $626
    Conventional fuel savings $939 $368
    Subtotal $5,435 $1,893

    Net savings $994 $151
    Carbon credits $1,134 $397
    Net savings with carbon credits $2,128 $548
    * Discount rate of 7%/year used for net present value calculations.

    Bottom line: undiscounted savings exceed costs by $994 billion over the 22 years of the scenario, or if carbon credits are included, $2,128 billion.

    Economic variants:
    • Making gasoline significantly more or less expensive changes the cost of the scenario relative to the baseline, and here the change can have a sizable impact on net savings. If gasoline rises to $12/gallon in 2030 rather than $8, an additional $1,189 billion in undiscounted savings are realized. If gasoline remains constant at $4/gallon in 2030, an additional cost of $1,317 billion is incurred, changing the balance to a net cost of $323 billion. 

                    Original knol -

                    Related Blog Posts by Me in This Blog

                    Energy Efficiency Conference - ECEEE

                    Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events and Examples

                    Industrial Engineering in Electical Engineering

                    Cost Reduction Opportunities in Power Plants and Distribution Systems

                    Economic Analysis - Clean Energy Investment Proposals

                    Energy Productivity - Efficiency Improvement

                    Energy Industrial Engineering

                    National Energy Conservation Day 

                    Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity Improvement

                    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

                    A video


                    Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board - 2014 - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

                    Industrial engineers have to take every idea that can give cost reduction, evaluate it for technical and economic feasibility and develop it for practical implementation in their product design and  manufacturing activities.
                    This activity of industrial engineering can be termed technology efficiency engineering.
                    Value engineering is a technique focusing on product designs.
                    Methods efficiency engineering, especially operation analysis explained by H.B. Maynard is an IE technique with focus on manufacturing processes

                    A Compendium of Information on Selected Low-cost Building Materials
                    UN-HABITAT, 1988 - Building materials - 106 pages


                    September 2014

                    Mini 3D Printer Offers Multiple Materials at Low Cost

                    Among consumer 3D printers, the upcoming Lulzbot Mini will be slightly more expensive than its competitors (it aims to retail for about $1400), but it promises to print in a range of materials. In addition to the ABS plastic and PLA plastic that are most common consumer 3D printing materials, the Lulzbot Mini will also be able to print in nylon, heavy plastics and polycarbonates. The Lulzbot Mini is still in development, but at Maker Faire 2014 in Queens, New York a prototype of the upcoming printer, nicknamed "Begonia." was displayed. The final Lulzbot Mini is scheduled to go on sale later this year.

                    20 August 2014
                    eMemory Provides Tailor-Made MTP Solutions in Low-Cost Green Process Platforms,

                    Hsinchu, Taiwan -- Aug. 20, 2014 – eMemory is  an embedded non-volatile memory (eNVM) industry leader,  For bulk consumer micro-controller unit (MCU) applications, it focuses on low-cost, low power consumption and high flexibility for circuit designs, eMemory applies its technical advantages to eliminate redundant cells and assists foundry partners to simplify manufacturing processes and design tailor-made green process platforms.

                    eMemory, by removing redundant on-chip cells,  is able to help customers to simply process and reduce mask layers from 27, as typically required, down to less than 15 mask layers  creating a 30% or greater cost savings.

                    18 August 2014

                    Cheaper Solar Cells Using Recycled Lead from Car Batteries

                    In recent years, researchers have worked on solar cells that use a compound called perovskite. The cells have quickly achieved over 19 percent efficiency in converting sunlight to usable electricity,
                    A study, published in Energy and Environmental Science, shows that these solar cells can be built  using recycled lead. The solar cells only need thin sheets of perovskite (about half a micrometer thick), and the lead from just one car battery could make enough solar panels to power 30 households.

                    These cell are. definitely cheaper,  study co-author and W.M. Keck Professor of Energy at MIT Angela Belcher said. “And the efficiencies right now are at almost 20 percent, which is competing with the 20 to 25 percent in silicon.” This increase from single-digit efficiency has only taken a couple of years, she said, while silicon took a decade to reach its peak efficiency.

                    23 June 2014
                    Eliminating Use of Rare Metals for Cracking of Ammonia to produce Hydrogen for Cars

                    Researchers at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK are proposing a new type of process that is an alternative to the use of rare or transition metal catalysts for the cracking of ammonia (NH3) to produce hydrogen. A paper on the process appears in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The new process decomposes ammonia using the concurrent stoichiometric decomposition and regeneration of sodium amide (NaNH2) via sodium metal (Na).

                    May 2014

                    LTGS Brick, low cost construction material
                    Compared to a traditional brick fired at 1000°C in a kiln, the LTGS brick needs about eight times less energy for an equivalent strength.

                    April 2014
                    Houses costing less than $5,000 in China - 3D Printing
                    A Chinese company has demonstrated the capabilities of its giant 3D printer by rapidly constructing 10 houses in less than 24 hours. Built from predominantly recycled materials, these homes cost less than US$5,000 and could be rolled out en masse to ease housing crises in developing countries.

                    Low Cost Process to Produce MEG from Carbon Dioxide

                    A new process to convert carbon dioxide to chemicals has been unveiled by New Jersey-based Liquid Light Corp, a startup co-founded by Princeton University chemistry professor, Andrew Bocarsly, and a former graduate student, Emily Cole.

                    Its initial focus has been on ethylene glycol (MEG) which has a $27 billion market.
                    Whereas other processes to manufacture MEG require $617 to $1,113 of feedstocks derived from natural gas, oil or corn, Liquid Light says its process requires $125 or less of CO2 to make a ton of MEG  that will sell for $700 to $1,400 per ton.


                    12-year-old builds low-cost Lego braille printer

                    Shubham Banerjee, a California seventh grader, developed for a science fair project, $350 braille printers. The commercial ones can cost upwards of $2,000.
                    The better way he came up with involved the clever use of a $350 Lego Mindstorms EV3 kit along with a few bucks worth of hardware from Home Depot. He calls his creation the Braigo.
                    The Braigo Facebook page is constantly updated with details of the project.

                    Solar Power at 11 cents per kWh

                    Target  6 cents per kWh
                    Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced that the SunShot Initiative program is already 60 percent of the way toward its goal of bringing the average price for a utility-scale solar power plant down to the target price of six cents per kilowatt-hour.
                    It means it is now available at 11 cents by the end of 2013. That’s now less than the average price of electricity in the U.S., which is about 12 cents per kWh, according to the Energy Information Administration.

                    Blood Sugar Test at Rs. 2 Cost in India

                    A low cost testing device which promises to be a boon for diabetic patients by detecting their sugar level in less than a minute with much lesser amount of blood will be available in the next six to 12 months.
                    Indian Council for Medical-supported research in IIT, Mumbai, and Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, had developed two devices and testing strips for the estimation of blood glucose.
                    Testing blood sugar levels from this device will take just about a minute and may cost less than Rs 2 and require 1,000 times less blood than what glucose meters currently use.

                    Microsoft said to cut Windows price 70% to push low-cost devices
                    Manufacturers will be charged $15 to license Windows 8.1 and preinstall it on devices that retail for less than $250, instead of the usual fee of $50

                    HyperSolar makes further progress in Low Cost Solar Powered Hydrogen Production
                    Its artificial photosynthesis technology is now capable of producing 1.2 volt open circuit voltage for use in direct solar hydrogen production.
                    The theoretical voltage for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen is 1.23 volts, and approximately 1.5 volts in real-world systems.

                    Texas Instruments CC2500
                    Low-Cost Low-Power 2.4 GHz RF Transceiver

                    Nvidia launches low-cost, low-power Maxwell GPU
                    Nvidia has unveiled its new Maxwell GPU architecture, promising high-performance and Full HD gaming at a reasonable cost and with low power consumption.

                    Low-Cost, Acid/Alkaline-Resistant, and Fluorine-Free Superhydrophobic Fabric Coating from Onionlike Carbon Microspheres Converted from Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate

                    Carrier iQ brings low-cost Big Data analytics to telecommunications market
                    Carrier iQ, a pioneer in mobile intelligence, today announced the worldwide availability of iQ xPlore SmartStart. iQ xPlore SmartStart provides mobile network operators (MNOs) with a no-hassle path to understanding the customers' experience using device-sourced big data analytics.

                    Stratasys Introduces 3D Printer to Provide Low Cost Entry to Advanced Digital Dentistry
                    the Objet Eden260V Dental Advantage 3D Printer produces surgical guides and dental models in-house directly from intraoral scanner output.

                    A Low Cost Cardiovascular Diagnostic Instrument For Rural Healthcare

                    A Low-Cost, 3D Wireless Sensor Network Testbed

                    The Windfreak SynthNV is a 34.4MHz to 4.4GHz software tunable RF signal generator controlled and powered by a PC running Windows XP, Windows 7, or Android via its USB port. It includes an on board RF power detector which can be used with the sweep function as a basic RF network analyzer.

                    Low-Cost Earth-Imaging Micro-Satellites

                    Low-Cost Robots from Indian Manufacturers for use by  Indian SMEs

                    5 Feb 2014
                    SUST students invent low-cost method to purify seawater
                    Two students of Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST) have invented a method to purify seawater using local technology.

                    Citroen C4 Cactus Ushers In A New Kind Of Low Cost Car

                    Karton Group Brings Low-Cost Cardboard Furniture to the Masses


                    A simple, low-cost CVD route to thin films of BiFeO3 for efficient water photo-oxidation

                    Moss Bay EDA, Intercept unleash low-cost EMC sol'n
                    ntercept Technology has joined forces with Moss Bay EDA to release what they say is a low cost electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) solution.

                    Shark Bot India's cheapest 3D printer to be launched by  Kunhar Peripherals.

                    Digigram Lowers Barriers to Live Video Streaming With Low-Cost AQILIM *FIT/LE Broadcast-Quality Encoder
                    New Encoder Enables Use of Live Streaming in Growing Array of applications
                    DMN Newswire--2014-2-3--
                    Digigram announced the release of the AQILIM *FIT/LE professional video encoder, an intuitive and cost-effective solution for high-quality live event broadcasting over an IPTV network or multiscreen video distribution over the Internet.

                    APS Elastomers Compounds Low Cost TPUs For Shoe Heels And Wheel Applications

                    In addition to thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), APS Elastomers offers other thermoplastic elastomer raw materials (TPEs) such as styrenic-based thermoplastic elastomers (TPE-S), thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), thermoplastic polyester elastomers (COPE) and fluoropolymers (PVDF).
                    For information contact: Marketing Department, APS Elastomers, 30735 Cypress Road, Suite 400, Romulus, MI 48174. Email:, Web:

                    New Low-Cost Anti-Soiling Solar Panel Coating Can Optimize Efficiency
                    New coating for solar panels developed by researchers from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has shown the remarkable ability to repel various types of liquids, including water, as well as solid particles, which are known to reduce energy efficiency

                    Pegasus Touch Laser SLA 3D Printer: Low cost, High Quality
                    by Full Spectrum Laser
                    383 backers $819,535 pledged of $100,000 goal

                    Bajaj Auto unveils low cost car RE 60

                    Manufacturing relocating from China to cheaper locales like Southeast Asia.
                    China is losing its competitive edge as a low-cost manufacturing base, new data suggest, with makers of everything from handbags to shirts to basic electronic components relocating to cheaper locales like Southeast Asia. FDI is showing decline.

                    BeetleCopter, the low-cost alternative for wildlife photography
                    A British photographer and entrepreneur has developed drone technology for shooting documentary-quality wildlife footage at extremely low cost.


                    Fujitsu Laboratories and Furukawa Electric Develop Low-Cost Multi-Fiber Optical Connector

                    The conventional method of connecting optical fibers requires high-precision polishing that aligns the tips of the fibers, making the cost of this process considerable. Fujitsu Laboratories and Furukawa Electric have developed a connector  with a spring mechanism that obviates the need for this polishing process, slashing by more than half the cost required to connect optical fibers.

                    Bubble CPAP, a Low Cost Alternative for Treating Neonates with Severe Respiratory Illness developed Rice University Engineering Students

                    Frugally Engineered Car - Success in European Markets also
                    Euro 7,700 car Logan of Renault is a success.


                    LT1097 Low Cost, Low Power Precision Op Amp


                    British women to have £1,000 'no-frills' IVF: Budget procedure inspired by Alka-Seltzer to be available within weeks.
                    Newly developed method economises on expensive drugs and incubators
                    Instead it uses cheap test-tube set and reaction inspired by hangover pills

                    China Seeks Low-Cost Production... In the US (Pt. 2)

                    New Low-Cost Design of Staircase Climbing Wheelchair

                    Large Aperture at Low Cost Three-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Range Sensor Using Scanning MEMS Micromirrors and Synchronous Detector Switching

                    New low-cost gas sensor technology from TTP uses speed of sound
                    TTP’s SonicSense delivers accurate gas sensing at a fraction of the cost of existing methods.
                    Drawing on TTP’s expertise in nonlinear acoustics and piezoelectric technology, the new SonicSense devices will cost between £3 and £6 each in volume production. TTP is investigating a wide range of industrial and medical applications, from gas safety and process control to respiratory monitoring and anaesthesia

                    Low-Cost High-Volume Scale Up of CVD Films and Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications

                    Low Cost Hearing Aid

                    Rishikesh Kumar, a B.Sc student developed a hearing aid for just Rs 80. He used a micro-receptor along with a transistor mounted on a small box which catches sound. Through an earphone, the set-up sent it to the person's ear. A rechargeable battery was also added to the box which provided power to the device and gave a back-up of 12-13 hours.

                    P2084A: Low Cost Frequency Multiplier

                    Development of a Low-Cost, Portable, 12-Lead ECG Machine

                     for Health- Care Centres Across Rural India
                    Citation: Mehta P, Sudheer KM (2013) Development of a Low-Cost, Portable, 12- Lead ECG Machine for Health-Care Centres Across Rural India. J Med Diagn Meth 2:120. doi: 10.4172/2168-9784.1000120
                    Pourus Mehta
                    Electronics Division
                    Bhabha Atomic Research CentreM
                    OD Lab, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India
                    E-mail: pdmehta @

                    Frugal Engineering: The Mantra To Design Resource-efficient Embedded Systems and Chips
                    Optimization in designing embedded systems

                    JATCO,a Nissan subsidiary.  the world’s leading manufacturer of continuously variable transmissions,is developing a standard automatic transmission to compete in lower-cost countries such as India.

                    Low Cost 3D Depth and Thermal Sensors


                    Snom Introduces Low Cost Gigabit Ethernet VoIP Phone
                     “Gigabit Ethernet is typically a hallmark of more expensive phones, but Snom is delivering that capability at $139 (MSRP)."

                    28.1 2014

                    Low Cost 3D Printing Book for Free Download

                    Low Cost 3D Printing for Science
                    Low Cost 3D Printing for Education
                    Low Cost 3D Printing for Sustainable Development

                    low-cost irrigation systems for rural farmers
                    KB Drip system, provides low cost micro-irrigation technology that helps small farmers increase their yields by as much as 50%.  The company selling the system estimates that each system increases net additional income for user farmer households by $400 US per year.

                    Low-cost preparation of high-k expanded graphite/carbon nanotube/cyanate ester composites with low dielectric loss and low percolation threshold

                    PulsedLight Develops Low-Cost New Optical Ranging Sensor Technology for Drones and Robots

                    Inert Low Cost Flow Meter for OEM Applications

                    The Low-Cost High-Flow Exhaust - Part Two for Car


                    The ADXL185B z-axis sensor and the ADXL189B x-axis sensor are g range configurable, integrated single-axis satellite sensors, compliant with the PSI5 Version 1.3 specification. The ADXL185B/ADXL189B enable low cost solutions for front and side impact airbag satellite sensor applications.

                    Lemken offers a low-cost four-furrow plough
                     It needs a tractor up to about 170hp and the four-furrow model costs £16,411.

                    Low Cost Price Gps Vehicle Tracking System Rs: 3999

                    IIT students developed low cost water filter
                    The laboratory prototype uses 120 gm of filtering material based on composite nano-materials, which is enough to produce 3,600 litres of completely clean drinking water. Assuming daily use of 10 litres of drinking water, the filter is good enough for an entire year for the family. Going by the estimate of inventors, the filter will cost Rs 500 whereas the cost of the cartridge will be Rs 150.

                    One step closer to low cost solar cells
                    Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology - OIST
                     An OIST research team led by Yabing Qi is investigating solar cells based on organic materials that have electrodes both flexible and transparent, enabling the fabrication of these solar cells at a low cost.
                    The main component for fabricating Flextrodes is PET, the same inexpensive and readily available plastic that comprises disposable drink bottles.  The possibility of this technology being available for widespread public use may be just around the corner. Perhaps the next window decoration you put up will be one composed of organic solar cells, providing not just nice aesthetics, but clean energy as well.

                    Google Search Link for Low Cost Material  - All results of this search were included in this post.

                    28.1 2014

                    Low Cost 3D Printing Book for Free Download

                    Low Cost 3D Printing for Science
                    Low Cost 3D Printing for Education
                    Low Cost 3D Printing for Sustainable Development

                    ORNL makes low-cost carbon fibre available to US companies

                    Low Cost, Net Shape Fabrication of Rhenium and High Temperature Materials for Rocket
                    Engine Components

                    Vacuum Plasma Spray techniques (VPS) have been developed to reduce the cost and fabrication
                    time of metal and ceramic rocket engine components. Refractory metals and ceramics such as
                    Re, Hf, W, W/Re, HfC, and HfN are being used for their high melting temperatures and chemical
                    stability. However, the difficulty of forming these materials into complex shapes has limited
                    their application in the past. The VPS technique involves spraying material onto a mandrel of the
                    desired shape and subsequently removing the mandrel. A primary advantage of VPS forming
                    over other powder metallurgy techniques is that near-net-shape spray forming of components
                    significantly simplifies and reduces the cost of fabrication due to the high material utilization and
                    reduction of laborious machining.

                    Moving towards lowest cost fish production
                    S.K.Retting Presentation

                    Reduce the energy required by existing hydraulic injection moulding machines by up to 50 %

                    ENGEL's new retrofit solution ecodriveR is reasonably priced, can be fitted with little hassle and reduces the energy required by existing hydraulic injec-tion moulding machines by up to 50 %, increasing their cost-effectiveness sig-nificantly as a result. ENGEL has been a leading developer of energy-efficient drive concepts for many years now


                    Lightweight Steel Twist Beam Achieves 30 Percent Mass Reduction At Lower Cost Than Alternative Materials in Automobiles

                    "U-Beam" design – based on a tubular shape using advanced steels – achieves a 30 percent mass reduction relative to the baseline assembly, at a modest 15 percent cost increase, considerably less than the cost of similar weight savings from materials like aluminum.

                    Pilot-Scale Evaluation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Adsorption Using Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials for Removal of Pesticides and Organic Matter in Drinking Water Production

                    Low Cost Beers from Cassava

                    NRL Develops Low Cost, High Efficiency Solar Sensor

                    Research scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Electronics Science and Technology Division have developed a novel low cost, highly efficient spectral sensor for field analysis of solar cell irradiance performance and spectral distribution.

                    3-Year Project for Low-Cost OLEDs in Germany

                    Conventional OLEDs are manufactured using expensive vacuum processes, but a collaboration of researchers from cynora GmbH, Novaled AG and the University of Regensburg aim to explore new functional soluble materials for inexpensive OLED production under the cyCESH project, which began June 1, 2013


                    Inkjet Catalyst Printing and Electroless Copper Deposition for Low-Cost
                    Patterned Microwave Passive Devices on Paper
                    Benjamin S. Cook,1† Yunnan Fang,2† Sangkil Kim,1  Taoran Le,1  W. Brandon Goodwin,2
                    Kenneth H. Sandhage,2,3,* and Manos M. Tentzeris1,*
                    1 School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
                    2 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
                    3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA

                    A scalable, low-cost process for fabricating copper-based microwave components on flexible, paper-based
                    substrates is demonstrated. This low-cost copper patterning process is readily scalable and may be used to generate a variety of copper-based microwave devices on flexible, paper-based substrates.
                    Electronic Materials Letters, Vol. 0, No. 0 (0000), pp. 1-8

                    High Performance and Low Cost PVC Composited Material

                    Low Cost Asymmetric Thin Film as Accelerating Wound Healing Material

                    Indium tin oxide synthesized by a low cost route as SEGFET pH sensor

                    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has emerged as important engineering materials, since their versatile optical and electronic properties have found application in many fields including optoelectronics and photonics

                    Low Cost Precision Cleaving of Semiconductor Wafers and Other Materials
                    Researchers  have developed a high-throughput, low cost method for precise cleavage of silicon, germanium and virtually any material. This approach harnesses electromagnetic forces for cleaving standard cylindrical ingots and wafers along certain crystallographic planes. The process results in nearly zero material loss and can be scaled for high throughput on low-cost equipment that is easy to maintain. This invention could be used for kerfless cleaving of silicon and has general industrial applications for almost any material that requires precise cleaving. The inventors have built a prototype processing chamber and are testing its performance in cleaving 100 mm diameter silicon and germanium.
                    AUTM Association of University Technology Managers

                    Coconut shells as low cost filling material for anaerobic filters in rural areas

                    Low-Cost Bricks From Recycled Paper Mill Waste
                    Made from 90% recycled paper mill waste (RPMW) and 10% cement, the mixture is mechanically mixed and pressed into molds and then cured in the sun.
                    Blocks made from these cast-off materials are half the cost of normal bricks and much lighter.

                    Japan has now found large deposits of rare earth materials in the ocean. The find was made by professor Yasuhiro Kato and his team from Tokyo University in Japan's Exclusive Economic Zone around the island of Minami-Torishima. This can lead to reduction of price rare earth materials by China once Japan starts mining from the ocean.

                    PCB Surface Finishes & Cost Effective Pb Free Assembly Materials

                    Low-cost all solid-state rechargeable batteries for Electric Vehicles.

                    Solid Power is developing ultra high energy, inherently safe and low-cost all solid-state rechargeable batteries. Our technology enables batteries that run considerably longer on a single charge as compared to current Li-ion batteries. Further, our battery material's inherent safety eliminates the need for the various safety features commonly associated with lithium-ion batteries, thus resulting in considerably lighter, less complex and less costly battery systems. Finally, our battery materials are made from exceptionally cost-effective and Earth-abundant materials resulting in further cost reductions. Specific attributes of our battery technology includes:
                    A specific energy (Wh/kg) that is nearly 3-times greater than current Li-ion batteries
                    Low-cost ceramic ceramic precursor materials
                    Materials that are inherently non-volatile and non-flammable

                    A Low Cost and Efficient Solar-Thermal System (2013)
                    A recyclable copper piping system was used for the indirect heating part of the system so as to keep costs low. Phase change materials were utilized for the storage tank to ensure the water kept its heat even when not being heated with solar energy. Finally, a Fresnel lens was used for the solar tracking device, which helps the system collect the full potential of solar energy.

                    Wonder nanomaterial created from low-cost chemical
                    It is named the Multi-use Titanium Dioxide (TiO2). The material is formed by turning titanium dioxide crystals into patented nanofibres, which can then be easily fabricated into patented flexible filter membranes which include a combination of carbon, copper, zinc or tin, depending on the specific end product needed.
                    The material is capable of concurrently producing both hydrogen and clean water when exposed to sunlight, desalinating water as a high flux forward osmosis membrane, being made into a low-cost flexible solar cell to generate electricity and doubling battery life when used as the anode in lithium ion batteries.

                    “HBLED Grade AlN A New Low Cost Ceramic Material for High Power Semiconductor Applications based on Aluminum Nitride
                    The new HBLED grade AlN has a thermal conductivity of 100 W/m-K.
                    AlN (95%) has a thermal conductivity of  170 W/m-K

                    Low-cost LEDs for saving energy and improving health
                    Gallium nitride has been described as “the most important semiconductor since silicon” and is used in energy-saving LED lighting. A new £1million growth facility will allow Cambridge researchers to further reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of LEDs, with potentially huge cost-saving implications.

                    Large-Area Low-Cost Gold Nanostructures through Colloidal

                    Isis3D creates low-cost, high-quality desktop 3D Printer for everyone

                    The Isis3D features 20 Micron positional accuracy and "easy to use and remove" support material.
                    The Isis One desktop 3D printer is available for pre-order for US$2,199 (EUR1,659 / GBP1,407).

                    Lower-cost graphene-like material developed by Queen's University chemists

                    Researchers at Queen's University have discovered a cheaper method for making a substance similar to graphene, a wonder material discovered in 2004. Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms, arranged in a lattice pattern, with a wide range of applications including mobile device screens, solar cells, aircraft components, hydrogen fuel cells, and fast-charging lithium-ion batteries.

                    Low-Cost & High Performance Silicon Interposers and Packages (LSIP)

                    The Low-Cost Silicon Interposer (LSIP) industry consortium at Georgia Tech is addressing the limitations of current organic packages as well as wafer-based silicon interposers that are being produced in wafer fabs.


                    Lowering the Weight, Volume and Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries with High Rate Separators
                    The cell using the Dreamweaver separator is 19% lighter, has 25% less volume, has 40% lower foil costs and 58% lower separator costs, resulting in 27% lower total material costs. For higher power cells, the savings could be up to 27% of material costs. For common automotive batteries, the savings could be 21 – 110 kg and $880 - $4,675/automobile.

                    Low Cost Graphene & 2D Layered Material Inks for Printed Electronics
                    Cambridge Graphene Platform's inks are composed of chemically pristine graphene (or other 2D materials), are produced with a scalable production process, require no post-processing and are suitable for many coating techniques.

                    New material could lower cost and improve organic photovoltaics
                    UK start-up Oxford Photovoltaics is working to commercialise a new material which could lead to low-cost organic photovoltaic (OPV) panels. Peroskite could lead to cheaper, more efficient OPV cells. Recent efficiency increases up to 15%  indicate that it could be used in OPVs to improve the cost, and the efficiency of the panel.

                    How to Build a Low-Cost High-Efficiency Inverter

                    Low cost polymer LEDs and solar cells
                    The new plasmonic material, can be applied to both polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs), with world-record high performance, through a simple and cheap process.

                    Low-Cost Housing for the Urban Poor in Akure, Nigeria: Materials and Techniques of Construction

                    Cost Reduction of 3D Printing Raw Material Plastic filament

                    $250 Filament Extruder that turns plastic pellets into filament for 3D printing process.
                    Use: Producing 392 chess pieces in a particular color requires one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of plastic. One spool of commercially available filament costs  about $50. A kilogram of pellets can be converted into filament for a cost of  $10. Buying 25 kilograms of pellets in bulk means one kg of filament can be had at cost of just $5.

                    Read more: How an 83-Year-Old Inventor Beat the High Cost of 3D Printing |

                    Arsenic bioremediation by low cost materials derived from Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana) and Walnut (Juglans regia)more by Amir Habib
                    Ecological Engineering 51 (2013) 88–94

                    Water-based chemical synthesis of low cost CIGS thin films

                    Currently, the conversion efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) based solar cells is exceeding 20%. However, conventional vacuum based fabrication of thin film is expensive and not easy for mass production. In order to produce CIGS thin film solar cells in a cost effective way, a solution based synthetic method, which employs water as a solvent was developed.

                    Perovskites: The Emergence of a New Era for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells

                    The adsorption technique is effective and economical to application level. But the regular commercial activated carbon is expensive. Low cost adsorbent prepared from Neem leaves. From the experimental finding it has been observed that the adsorbent material can be used successfully for removal of color. The maximum removal efficiency was observed up to 80% for prepared Neem leaves at optimum value of parameter.

                    The natural fibre is an effective adsorbent for cationic pollutants, it can be equally effective for anionic pollutant following surface modification.

                    Pages 9 to 11

                    Low-Cost Permanent Magnet Material in PM Synchronous Machines

                    Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) are considered a viable option in various types of applications.
                    But,  the main reason for the high price of PMSMs is the use of expensive neodymium or samarium-cobalt magnets.  Many parties are seeking for opportunities to use ferrites instead. In the case of multiple pole machines using ferrites in the outer rotor approach, with its low rotor yoke height, offers an interesting alternative. The air gap diameter of these machines can be made larger than in conventional inner rotor type motors without increasing the machine outer dimensions. In this paper, an outer rotor PMSM with ferrite magnets is analyzed and tested.

                    High Efficient  Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal System (CSP) with low cost materials

                    Low Cost Photobioreactor for Algae cultivation

                    DIY Plywood Flooring for High Gloss, Low Cost

                    The right type of wood and ply can make plywood a very practical flooring choice. It made for an affordable, clean and warm floor for their master bedroom.

                    Project: Plywood flooring for a bedroom; Size: 160 square feet; Budget: $700; about $4.35 per square foot

                    Graphene-like MoS2 as a low-cost counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells
                    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on asprepared
                    MoS2 as the counter electrode material provided overall energy conversion efficiencies of 2.9% (100 mW cm-2), while
                    analogous DSCs based on a platinum counter electrode provided efficiencies of 5.2%. Considering that the Pt-free catalytic layer was
                    prepared by drying at 120 ºC, this material opens up an alternative to low-cost, less energy-intensive Pt-free counter electrodes.

                    New Low-Cost, Transparent Electrodes
                    researchers report creating a sturdy, transparent, and indium-free electrode from silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) that could replace indium-based electrodes in some applications.
                    "Silver and titanium are much more abundant than indium in the earth's crust, and so we anticipate that electronic devices based on silver and titanium dioxide would be a more sustainable materials system and be manufactured at a low cost,"

                    Low-cost Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts Rival Platinum for Hydrogen Evolution
                    Published: 12 March 2013

                    The electrocatalytic production of hydrogen from water is a key process that may lead to the feasibility of hydrogen-powered energy production devices.  The most efficient catalyst for this process is currently platinum; however,its cost is high. In their paper published in Energy & Environmental Science, researchers at Brookhaven National Lab have examined a new, inexpensive molybdenum carbide catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes that is easy to produce and has superior hydrogen evolution properties.

                    Google search results page 8

                    An inexpensive new way to grow thin films of a material prized in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries

                    Engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed an inexpensive new way to grow thin films of a material prized in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries
                    The UC Berkeley researchers demonstrated that indium phosphide, a III-V compound, could be grown on thin sheets of metal foil in a process that is faster and cheaper than traditional methods, yet still comparable in opto-electronic characteristics.

                    Automotive Parts 3D Printed Using Low-Cost Titanium Powders

                     3D printing with metal has been prohibitively expensive because titanium powders currently sell for $200 - $400 per kilogram, until now. Metalysis has developed a new way of producing low-cost titanium powder.
                    The Metalysis process could reduce the price of titanium by as much as 75%, making titanium almost as cheap as specialty steels. We believe that titanium made by the Metalysis process could replace the current use of aluminium and steel in many products.
                    In addition to titanium, Metalysis is developing tantalum powder and will use its technology to produce a wide range of specialist metals (including rare earths).

                    Effective enhancement of electrochemical performance for low-cost cathode material Li1.231Mn0.615Ni0.154O2 via a novel facile hydrothermal modification

                    Journal of Power Sources, Volume 246, 15 January 2014, Pages 569–573

                    Engineered Material Systems Introduces Low-Cost Conductive Adhesive for Die Attach Applications
                    DELAWARE, OH ― October 2013 ― Engineered Material Systems, a leading global supplier of electronic materials for circuit assembly applications, debuts its CA-165 Low-Cost Conductive Adhesive designed for chip-on-board or general die attach applications in circuit assembly, photonics or camera modules.

                    ECM CA-165 is approximately half the cost of a pure silver-filled die attach adhesive

                    Preparation of Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using Coal Tar Pitch, a Low-Cost Material, for Printable Devices

                    We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules.

                    Page 7

                    Sustainable Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment by Sorption Using Low-cost Materials
                    The research showed that coconut shell (CS) can be an important low-cost sorbent for copper removal from inorganic wastewater. However, arsenic removal was only possible with iron-oxide-coated sand (IOCS).

                    New low-cost, high-energy batteries could be powered by rhubarb, plants
                    Rhubarb and other simple green plants could be the source of materials for a new generation of batteries with the potential to transform energy systems, according to new research by Harvard University.

                    Scientists create a low-cost, long-lasting water splitter made of silicon and nickel
                    Stanford University scientists have created a silicon-based water splitter that is both low-cost and corrosion-free. that could help pave the way for large-scale production of clean hydrogen fuel from sunlight.

                    Novel materials and system designs for low cost, efficient and durable PEM electrolysers
                    The electrolyser will demonstrate a capability to produce hydrogen with an efficiency of at least 75% (LHV) at rated capacity with a stack cost below €2,500/Nm3h-1 and a target lifetime in excess of 40,000 hours (< 15 μVh-1 voltage increase at constant load).

                    A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors
                    we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term ‘carbomorph’ and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer.

                    Oxford Photovoltaics, an Oxford University spin-out, has reported a new high of 15.4% efficiency for its perovskite solar cells.
                    The improved efficiency represents a significant step forward in the scale-up and commercialisation of low-cost, efficient, flat-junction perovskite solar cells that can be readily incorporated into glass building facades.

                    Scientists develop low-cost techniques for 'earthquake-proofing' homes
                    Researchers at Imperial are developing techniques for improving traditional construction methods used by people in rural communities in Latin America, so that they are more able to withstand earthquakes. The aim of the project is to show people how they can build homes more robustly while still using traditional materials in a sustainable and low cost way.

                    Page 6
                    Using Earthbags for Low Cost, Disaster Resistant Housing

                    A low cost, controllable method for accurately polishing (semi)conducting materials

                    R&D on Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Composites for Energy Applications

                    Low-cost  titanium for 3D printing

                    Taking the ore material - the titanium oxide - and bunging it into a salt bath that's a mix of calcium salts and other chemicals at a very high temperature and  passing  electricity through it and it makes the titanium straight from the ore. This way, the researchers found  a way to convert rutile sand into titanium directly. at very low cost. You're then left with the powder you need to consolidate the material and  probably one of the best of ways converting this power into solid objects is 3D printing.

                    High-quality, lower-cost nanofibers

                     Using a small amount of well-placed double-walled carbon nanotubes, provided by collaborator MER Corp., to guide the formation and orientation of the nanocrystalline graphitic structure, they found they can use UNL-developed nanomanufacturing processes to create high-quality continuous carbon nanofibers.
                    The new fabrication process creates the greatest structural improvements at low temperatures, contributing to its potential low cost and ease in manufacturing.

                    Pages 3 to 5

                    Development of Sustainable, Ultra-Low Cost Construction Materials
                    The combination of internally cured RCA and integration of natural reinforcement materials allows for the production of concrete that is comparable to virgin aggregate as a construction material.

                    Using Trap Grease as a Low Cost Material for Biodiesel Feedstock Production

                    Hemp fiber used to develop low-cost graphene-like nanomaterial.

                    Researchers from the University of Alberta developed a new low-cost process to turn hemp bast fibers into graphene-like materials that can be used in energy storage electronics. A part of the hemp plant called the bast, which is usually thrown away during industrial hemp production as a waste product is used. It is a nanocomposite made up of layers of lignin, hemicellulose, and crystalline cellulose. If you process it the right way, it separates into sheets similar to graphene.

                    Low-cost, open-source 3D metal printer in development

                    Joshua Pearce and his team at Michigan Tech developed a 3D metal printer as work in process and raw. However it is ‘low-cost’ with a parts list price totalling under $1,500 worth of materials.

                    Quinones - Low Cost Material for Energy Storage Batteries

                    Vanadium, the material typically used now, in energy storage battery costs about $80 per kilowatt-hour. Michael Aziz, a professor of materials and energy technologies at Harvard University, says the quinones will cut the energy storage material costs down to just $27 per kilowatt-hour.

                    Stabilization of Expansive Soils Using Low Cost Materials

                    International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)
                    Volume 2, Issue 11, May 2013

                    Low-Cost Snap Cure Conductive Adhesive For Photovoltaic Stringing And Bussing Applications
                    Engineered Material Systems (EMS), a leading global supplier of electronic materials for photovoltaic applications, is pleased to debut its CA-175 Snap Cure Conductive Adhesive for ribbon stringing and bussing in photovoltaic applications

                    Consistent blast furnace operation whilst using low cost raw materials 

                    (Consistent BF)
                    The industrial experience with regard to using nut coke, ferrous fines and injected coals as important low cost raw materials was raised from test campaigns and operational modifications at five blast furnace plants.

                    Alternative Walling System for Low Cost Housing by Using Bamboo
                    International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE)
                    ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-6, May 2013

                    Low-cost Solutions For Dynamic Window Materials

                    The cost of AZO (aluminum-doped zinc oxide) is about 25% of ITO

                    Silicide Nanopowders as Low-Cost and High-Performance Thermoelectric Materials

                    Google search pages 1 and 2
                    Rather than using custom laminates here, 3XA uses low cost press board and plywood, which not only reduce fabrication and building costs,

                    Engineers at Oregon State University have determined that ethylene glycol, commonly used in antifreeze products, can be a low-cost solvent that functions well in a “continuous flow” reactor – an approach to making thin-film solar cells that is easily scaled up for mass production at industrial levels.

                    Low Cost Bricks
                    Seth Eyeru, a builder with Eco-Construct Uganda Limited says earth blocks are also known as compressed stabilised earth block (CSEB), stabilised soil blocks (SSB), stabilised earth blocks (SEB) and are produced from stabilised soil which is slightly moistened, poured into a press and then compressed either with a manual or motorised press.

                    Asian Scientist (Jul. 24, 2013) – Korean researchers have developed a new plasmonic material for low cost polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) and polymer solar cell (PSC) applications. The new material, synthesized through a simple and cheap process, offers significantly enhanced performance over materials currently used in optoelectronic devices (OEDs).

                    Sand as a low-cost support for titanium dioxide photocatalysts
                    the deposition of TiO2 as coatings on grains of sand presents an effective low-cost approach to providing enhanced levels of available catalyst surface area while maintaining easy material recoverability from treated water for titanium dioxide photocatalysts for environmental remediation.

                    Low cost Indigenous raw materials for making sanitary napkins
                    Innovator: Mr Jaydeep Mandal, Aakar Innovations Pvt. Ltd.
                    Proposal Description
                    The technology is raw material for making Biodegradable Sanitary Napkins from indigenous pulps
                    (Bagasse (Sugarcane waste), Bamboo stem, Knit-wear waste, banana stem, Water Hyacinth etc.)
                    as an absorbent material and bio-degradable & compostable plastic.

                    Low Cost Environmental Remediation Catalyst
                    Innovator: Mr Bharat Lodha, Battelle Science and Technology India Pvt Ltd.
                    Proposal Description
                    The technology is a catalyst material for environmental remediation application. The technology
                    utilizes an engineered mixture of natural-protein (novel catalyst) with zero valent iron, which
                    improves the degradation of recalcitrant contaminants in soil and water. The cost of the developed
                    catalyst material is very low as compared to existing catalysts (Pd, Pt, Ni, Co etc.).

                    Low Cost Composites for Cars
                     These cars are expected to be built on a new kind of material called poly-diallyl-phthalate (PDP), which is used for industrial applications.  Tata

                    LTGS Brick, low cost construction material
                    This brick uses a very cheap material available in great quantity: lateritic clay earth. This special and abundant earth, mixed with a simple geopolymer binder is compressed to give the shape of a brick then heated in a furnace. Heated at 85°C, LTGS brick is water stable and has enough compressive strength to build a wall. Heated at 250°C, it resists to freezing. At 450°C, its strength increases more, so that it is possible to manufacture structural elements like beams for doors and windows.

                    Interesting Sites to Keep Track of

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