Sunday, September 11, 2016

Human Behavior Analysis Associated with Industrial Engineering Projects

Industrial engineering projects has implications for operators and also the systems they improve are man machine systems. Hence, unless the cooperation of operators is obtained, the system improvement will not take place. It means, industrial engineers have to analyse the expected behavior from operators, their supervisors and engineers toward the new proposed systems and take adequate steps to get favorable reaction.

The following questions are to be asked by them or analysed by them. They have to take the help of Organization Behavior specialists, Human Resource Managers and Industrial Relations experts in this regard.

1. Who are the people affected by the proposed new system? What type of employees are they?

2. What has been their feeling toward changes in the past? How will the traditions of their group be
affected by the proposal?

3. Who are the leaders of the group involved? What will be their reaction? How can they be sold on the proposal?

4. What is the immediate supervisor's probable reaction? Are his ideas incorporated in the proposal?
How can he be brought into the plan so that he feels favorably toward it? Can he be given the
major credit for the plan?

5. What is the attitude of the union toward such a proposal? How is the union contract involved?

6. Will the proposal require that men be laid off or demoted? Can satisfactory transfers be arranged?

7. Will wage rates and incentive rates be fairly adjusted as part of the change? Will men be asked
to take more responsibility or do more work without extra compensation? Will men be asked to work
against their own interests?

8. How will the proposal affect persons in other departments in the plant? What will be their reaction?

9. Will the proposal take all the responsibility and skill away from certain jobs? If so, will present employees lose prestige with their fellow workers? Will it be possible to keep present employees satisfied under the new conditions?

10. Have the workers involved had ample opportunity to express their views regarding improvements
included in the proposal? Have their ideas been given honest consideration and credit?

11. Do employees trust the data of the industrial engineers? Are they convinced performance standards are fairly set?

12. How are lines of promotion affected by the proposal? Will some workers be cut out of advancement they have worked toward under the present setup?

13. What kind of appeal  would be most successful in getting acceptance from the workers? Who
should introduce and sell the plan to them?

14. What is the proper timing for introducing the proposed plan? Are the workers or supervisors temporarily upset about something? When should the plan be installed?

15. What are the long-time human relations effects of the proposal?

Industrial Engineering and Human
Engineering and Science Monthly
February 1944
pp. 14 - 15

Operator Productivity Improvement Using Appropriate Hand Tools

Hand tool manufacturers are continuously developing new hand tools and power tools that give more productivity. Motion study specialists and human effort engineers have to monitor developments in hand tools and power tools to do engineering economic analysis and acquire them for the organization as early as possible.

Combination tools save the time of releasing and picking the tools.

Read some of the claims made by tool manufacturers regarding productivity improvement possibility.

High Performance Tools for Carpet Cleaning

High Tension Hacksaw

High Productivity Tools from Damar International

Industrial engineers can also design hand tools. Their familiarity with number of hand tools will provide them with concepts to make more productive hand tools.

Information on more productivity improving hand tools welcome.

The Two-Handed Process Chart for Motion Study

The two-handed process chart for Motion Study

The two-handed process chart is a process chart in which the activities of a worker's hands (or limbs) are recorded in their relationship to one another

The two-handed process chart  shows the two hands (and if the feet are involved, feet also) of the operative moving or static in relation to one another, usually in relation to a time scale.

The two-handed process chart is prepared for analysis of  repetitive operations. At least, one complete cycle of the work is to be recorded. Recording of every movement of the hand is recorded.

Symbols and Meanings

O     OPERATION Is used for the activities of grasp, position, use, release,
etc., of a tool, component or material.
=>  TRANSPORT Is used to represent the movement of the hand (or limb) to
or from the work, a tool or material.
D    DELAY is used to denote time during which the hand or limb being charted is idle (although the others may be in use).
   HOLD is used to represent the activity of holding the work, a tool or material — that is, when the hand being charted is holding something.

Preparing the chart requires observation and this  enables the motion  study specialist to gain
an intimate knowledge of the motions involved in the job. Each motion is subjected to questioning from ECRS perspective. From the questioning, improvements are developed. A brain storming group can be formed for the questioning of each motion. The group can be shown some successful motion study examples through videos or printed articles and reports.  The ideas that are generated should be written down in chart form when they occur. Different ideas are  compared.  The best method is
generally that which requires the fewest movements.

The two-handed process chart can be applied to assembly as well as component making jobs.  In the assembly of small parts with close fits, "positioning" should be shown as a separate movement
apart from the actual assembling movement. Attention gets focused on the different movements that way improvements in each movement can be thought of during simplifying activity.

Guidelines for Layout around the Workstation

Guidelines for  Layout around the Workstation to Increase Productivity of Operator Motions

The guidelines are based on principles of motion economy only.

(1) Both hands have to be utilized for productive work. If similar work is being done by each hand, there should be a separate bins for supply of materials or parts for each hand.

(2) If the eyes are used to select material, as far as possible the material should be kept in an area where the eyes can locate it without there being any need to turn the head.

(3) Use semi-circular arrangements as hands can move over semicircle only in sitting position.

(4) Provide comfortable seating Design the workplace using anthropometric data.

(5) Use appropriate bins depending on the shape of components and make it easy for the operators to pick up or slide the components.
accommodate material.
(6) Hand tools should be picked up with the least possible disturbance to the rhythm and symmetry of movements. As far as possible the operator should be able to pick up or put down a tool as the hand moves from one part of the work to the next, without making a special movement.
(7) As curved movements take less time compared to straight line movements and reversals, tools should be placed on the arc of movements, but  they have to be away from the path of movement of  material or components from bin to the work place.

(8) Tools should be easy to pick up and replace; as far as possible they should have an automatic return, or they should be at the place close to the location of the next piece of material to
be moved so that tool can be released and the material can be picked up.

(9) Finished work should be:
(a) dropped down a hole or a chute using a foot movement.
(b) dropped through a chute, as the hand making the first motion of the next cycle;
(c) put in a container placed so that hand movements are kept to a minimum;
(d) placed in a container in such a way that the next operative can pick it up easily.
(Industrial engineers have to learn the design of delivery chutes for components)

(10) Always look into the possibility of using pedals or knee-operated levers for locking or indexing devices on fixtures or devices for disposing of finished work.
(Industrial engineers have to learn the design of foot operated pedals and the mechanisms that tranfer the motion to the workholding devices to release the component.)

Industrial Engineering - Lehigh University


Faculty specialising in systems related to various branches of engineering are there in the department.

Energy grids and energy systems

Expert and Novice Performance in an Industrial Engineering - Book Information

Industrial Engineers work in many areas in engineering organizations

Material handling
Product Design
Product packing
Stores and Material Handling in Stores
Inspection and Testing
Supply Chain  - Implementing industrial engineering in all supply chain partner organizations
Airconditioning and other utilities
Captive powerplants

Friday, September 9, 2016

November - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Productivity Measurement

Productivity Measurement

Measuring Productivity - OECD


How to Measure Company Productivity using Value-added:
A Focus on Pohang Steel (POSCO)

The productivity slump—fact or fiction: The measurement debate
August 2016

Work Measurement

Time Study

Work Sampling


Optimization of Labour Productivity Using MOST Technique

Cost Measurement

Role of Costing and Cost Accounting in the Organization

Cost Accounting - Introduction

Job Costing - Review Notes

Process Costing - Review Notes

Cost Center Reports and Analysis

Cost Behavior Analysis and Relevant Costs Concept

Productivity Management and Improvement Management - Management of IE Projects, Studies, and Department

Total Productivity - Different Perspectives

Strategic  Total Productivity Optimization

Total Cost Industrial Engineering

Determinants of Productivity - Syverson - 2011

Don't be in a hurry - Productivity Improvement Requires Time - F.W. Taylor

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Updated  11 September 2016,  4 January 2015