Friday, April 4, 2014

Estimating Machining Time for Turning

In the case of turning the formula for machine time is

T = [L+A]/[frN]

Where T = machining time in minutes
L = length of the workpiece
A = an allowance for tool approach and exist, normally 2 to 5 mm
fr   = feed rate (mm per revolution of the workpiece)
N = revolutions of the workpiece in rev per minute

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

CNC Machine - Setup Time Reduction - Bibliography - Case Studies


In a machine shop with  45 employees, a four-axis CNC lathe was used to make large aerospace parts that were shipped on a monthly basis.  The change over and setup for one of the routine parts was taking just under 16 hours (two shifts).  Since the set up took so long, the company was typically making 3-5 months worth of parts at a time and store them  and then ship them out of inventory.  Occasionally customers would make changes to parts, which meant that the parts that had already been made were no longer what the customer wanted.  Also as the lathe was making parts of a batch of 3-5 months, the lathe was not availabe for other current, more pressing demands.

Six employees spent five days studying the process and reducing the changeover and setup time. A target of 50% reduction was chosen (Shigeo Shingo says, separating external and internal activities will give the size of saving).

At the end of the five day event, one changeover and set up had been done in 7 hours.  Additional improvements  would take three more weeks to implement setup will take  5 to 5 1/2 hours.

Savings:  The company has four of these lathes and by applying what had been learned to all four lathes, sixty four hours per week could now be used for making parts.  With changeovers taking less than one shift, the company decided that they would make parts for that month requirement only , so the cost of parts being held in storage was eliminated.

Setup Time Reduction on CNC Shaper  2011 article

MS disseration on CNC Machine Setup Time Reduction 2009 - Haiqing Guo - MIT

CNC Programming Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Practical CNC Programming
Peter Smid
Industrial Press Inc., 2003 - Computers - 508 pages

Extraordinarily comprehensive, this popular and authoritative reference covers just about every possible subject a typical CNC programmer may encounter on a daily basis. Fully indexed to help the user quickly locate topics of interest, this "industrial strength" handbook presents most common programming subjects in great depth and is equally applicable to both CNC milling and CNC turning operations. Many advanced subjects are also covered, thus making this an unusually comprehensive reference for machinists, programmers, engineers, and supervisors. Filled with over one thousand illustrations, tables, formulas, tips, shortcuts, and practical examples, this widely respected publication is structured in a logical order that is readily adaptable to virtually all levels of CNC training, from the basic to the advanced.
CNC Programming Handbook has just become more valuable than ever! A new CD-ROM, packed with actual problem-solving projects and enhancing the material presented in the book, is included for the first time. Users will find programming projects and exercises for most chapters, special programming and machining projects, solutions to problems, and numerous reference files useful in CNC programming, as well as several utilities. With the majority of files in Adobe PDF, instructors will be able to quickly and easily print and distribute any of the projects, exercises, and references to their classes. Meanwhile, students and professionals will find this CD an effective self-study aid that allows them to enhance their understanding of the subject one topic at a time. Presents complete information on various programming techniques, from the basic areas to dozens of advanced concepts. Includes more than 1,000 illustrations, tables, formulas, tips, shortcuts and real-world examples. Offers unparalleled reference material useful for skills training at all levels of CNC. Presents an encyclopedic, logically organized approach to CNC programming, allowing the reader to look up a subject of interest only. Uses cross references throughout to guide the reader to the proper answer or solution to a problem.

Understanding CNC Machines, Setup and Operation
Richard N. Jackson
Clinton Gilkie

Organizational Skills Cut Machine Setup Time

CNC Machining Fundamentals

Magnetic vice

Zero point mounting kits for setup time reduction

Set up Reduction – A perfect way for productivity improvement of computer numerical control (CNC) set
up in manufacturing company
by - Patel Chintan Kumar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, C. K. Pithawala College of Engineering and Technology, Dumas Road, Surat-395007, Gujarat, India.
17 August, 2012

Benefits of Presetting systems - CNC Setup

How to reduce setup time in CNC tool grinding?

Spencer Tool Setter with CNC software program that assists your operator in accurately measuring and recording tool lengths into the CNC memory.

Setup Reduction For CNC Machining & Turning Centers CD Rom Course $239.00

Vacuum Clamping technology for cnc tools

CNC Tool Cart

Increasing CNC Production throughput with Tool Presetting with a YouTube video of 14 minutes embedded

Workstops and Gang Tool Holders for CNC

CNC Machine Productivity Series Articles

CNC Machine Productivity - Basic article

Whether to focus on saving Machine Cycle Time or Machine Setup Time to improve Shop Productivity?

Top Shops - What do they do differently?

Are you using High Speed Machining? - Above 18,000 rpm

By incorporating new CNC programming software to make full use of its new five-axis machining capabilities, Bob Lewis Machine Co. has reduced setups and programming time.
Case Study From: 4/19/2013 Modern Machine Shop

Cycle Time Reduction for Bearing House Assembly
K. Saran Kumar Reddy, T. Panneer Selvam and R. Venkatraman
Published: June 30, 2012

Mill/Turn centers or Multitasking machines.

Drastic Reduction in piece times with high performance cnc machining - 2008

Business Processes Improvement - Bibliography - 2014

5 Early Warning Signals for a BPI Project

5 Early Warning Signals for a BPI Project - Part 1

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

Assembly of Rim and Tyre of Tractors - Problem of Batch Manufacturing

Problems in the Current System at Mahindra and Mahindra Plant, Nagpur

1. More handling during shifting is involved in existing process.
2. Haphazard inwarding of tyres & rims without considering arrival of vehicles, available space & requirement for assembly.
3. Distance travelled by the worker & vehicle is more from storage to assembly & from assembly to production line.
4. Inventory of Tyres & Rims is the major concerns as it is “A” class material.
5. Limited space availability for storage & mixing of tyres & rims.
6. Vehicle turnaround time is very high up to 18 hours from inwarding in plant to outward.
7. Waiting time of direct vehicles is extended up to 8 days due to nonavailability of space for unloading.
8. Paying high vehicle detentation charges due to vehicle detentation
9. Non availability of space for unloading of Tyres & Rims which are urgent for production due to limited space for unloading.
10. Damages of Tyres & Tubes due to wrong storage & internal handling.
11. Damage of Tyres & Rims during assembly.
12. Production loss due to wrong tyre- rim assembly fitment.
13. Location specific Tyre fitment controlling is also major concern.
14. Obselence of Tyres due to end of shelf life.
15. Lack of SOPs


Total shift 3
Total hour per shift 8
Lunch and tea break per shift 40 min
Maintenance time per shift 10 min

A. Throughput time
1. Process time=214 sec
2. Inspection time=22 min, 5 sec
3. Move time=19 min, 16 sec
4. Queue time=40days, 8 hrs, 3 min,48 sec
Throughput time= (process time +inspection time+ move time +queue time)
= 40 days, 8 hrs, 3 min, 48 sec

B.Overall Equipment Efficiency

Planned production time = (1440-120)
 = 1320

Operating production time = (1320-30)
 = 1290

Availability = (Operating time/ planned Production time)

Performance = (Ideal Cycle Time * Pieces  Produced) / Operating Time
 = (2.5*500)/1290

Performance = (Ideal Cycle Time * Pieces
 Produced) / Operating Time
 = (2.5*500)/1290
 = 0.9689

Quality = (Good Pieces / Pieces
 = 0.95

0EE = (Availability* Performance
 = 0.899

C.Takt time
Takt time = (operating time/customer
= 1290/500
= 2.58min/piece

D.From Current state VSM

Value Added Time =84 Min.
Production Lead Time =40 day,54 hrs,20 min.

Critical: Against as value added time of 84 minutes, the lead time is 40 days, 54 hrs, 20 min

The system can be redesigned using the lean tools such as layout modification, visual factory, multiskilled labour, kaizen, kanban and 5S as appropriate.

Source for the Observations

International Conference on Emerging Frontiers in Technology for Rural Area (EFITRA) 2012
Proceedings published in International Journal of Computer Applications® (IJCA)
Value Stream Mapping Tool for Waste Identification in
Tyre-Rim Assembly of Tractor Manufacturing

Monday, March 24, 2014

BECOMING LEAN ENTERPRISE: THEORY AND CASE STUDIES - Training Program by Narayana Rao at NITIE, Mumbai, India


About the Programme

In lean enterprises new product and process innovations are accompanied by product and process efficiency innovations. Lean enterprises are committed to the economic principle that states market decides price of a new product or existing product. Profit is earned by cost reductions due to efficiency improvement. Lean enterprise model was demonstrated to the world by Toyota which excelled in both technology innovation and technology efficiency engineering. The excellence was visible in all functional areas. Toyota system was explained to others by Taiichi Ohno, a production manager and Shigeo Shingo, an industrial engineer. It was explained to the western audience by MIT research team. Today many companies of the world have embraced lean enterprise principles.  It is confrontational global competition now and firms who do not make efforts to implement world class management practices will find it difficult to sustain their market shares. The programme provides an understanding of the theory of lean enterprise supported by various case studies from the literature.

Objectives of the Programme:

The participants will:

appreciate the importance of lean enterprise concept
get conversant with principles of lean enterprise
become aware of implementation in various companies through case studies.


  • Toyota lean enterprise system (Descriptions by Taiichi Ohno, Yasuhuri Monden, and Jim Womack and Dan Jones
  • Lean system design - Principles and Action Plan Proposed by Shigeo Shingo (Celebrated Japanese Industrial Engineer) and  Jim Womack and Dan Jones (Lean Thinking Specialists) 
  • Toyota style industrial engineering (Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo)
  • Total productivity management (Japan Management Association)
  • Lean manufacturing
  • Lean product design
  • Lean supply chain design
  • Lean marketing and retailing
  • Total industrial engineering ( Prof. Yamashina - World Class Manufacturing Consultant)

For Whom Meant

Operating executives in manufacturing, product design, supply chain, marketing and industrial engineering departments/functions.

Venue: NITIE
Duration: 5 days
Starts on 19.May 2014
Ends on  23 May 2014
Faculty: Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao, Professor, NITIE
Programme Brochure:

The Programme is listed at number 40 in the NITIE MDP  Brochure:

The Programme can be Customized for the Company

The programme can be offered as a company based programme or unit based programme in the premises of a company with 25 persons as participants in the batch. If you are interested, please send an email to kvssnrao55  at the rate

In the case of company programmes, every day plant visits will be part of the programme to identify areas of improvement, which participants can take up subsequent to the programme.

About the Faculty

Prof K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao is a graduate in mechanical engineering, post graduate in industrial engineering and doctorate in capital markets, with professional experience in manufacturing industry and stock broking industry. His academic involvement includes areas: basics of industrial engineering, strategic aspects of industrial engineering, lean management and thinking, logistics management, inventory control, cost management, management accounting, engineering economics, production planning and control, operations research, financial accounting, cost accounting, security analysis and portfolio management, financial management and mergers acquisitions.  He has addressed recently Tata Steel executives on the topic Lean Management for Productivity Enhancement.

Prof Rao brings a multidisciplinary approach in his training programmes combining engineering, management, economics, accounting and finance. He is also involved in teaching research methodology and review of research in management at the PhD level.

The details of fee etc. for unit based programmes are also given in the NITIE MDP Brochure:

Engineering Economics - Bulletin - Information Board

An Economical Operation Analysis Optimization Model for Heavy Equipment
A. Jrade, N. Markiz, and N. Albelwi E W
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
Vol:61 2012-01-20

Use of Economic Analysis to evaluate design alternatives

The Role of Engineering Economics in the Evaluation of
Investment Projects by the Bank of Amazon-Brazil
2012 conference paper


Software Engineering Economics
by Barry W. Boem

Saturday, March 8, 2014

Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - Bulletin Board - February 2014

A division of Aldevron, a biotech company has invited researchers from University of Wisconsin-Madison to study its processes and improve the speed. The normal focus in biotech companies is to make efforts to improve yield.

26 Feb

New Lessons from Toyota - 2014 

Deryl Sturdevant,  Retired as president and CEO of Canadian Autoparts Toyota (CAPTIN)
The two pillars of the Toyota Production System are the philosophy of continuous improvement (kaizen) and training, skilling  and empowerment for people, particularly line workers. Involvement of line workers in improvement activities in a systematic manner rather than in a sporadic manner through suggestions schemes is a special feature of TPS. The line management is responsible for improvement on a continuous basis apart from the staff help. It is an American idea implemented very well in Japan.  Evaluation tools keep upgrading the bar every year in Toyota.

Rank-and-file workers know far more any particular tool than do executives. The job of executives is to understand how all the tools combine to make an effective and efficient system.

For creating any change, you need knowledge and passion. With lean journey also it is the same. You need knowledge and passion.

SMED activity is still going on in Toyota. In making an aluminum-alloy wheel five years ago, changeover required about four or five hours. But now, the process was modified so that the changeover time is down to less than an hour.

One of the basic Toyota approaches: Try and perfect any improvement before you recommend implementing it elsewhere. But once again as a principle, perfection is a moving target.

The Lean System of Motivation

Bringing lean thinking to energy
Beset by rising costs, resource-intensive manufacturers are applying lean-management thinking in new ways to reduce the amount of energy used in production, to increase resource productivity—or both.
McKinsey Article - Feb 2014

The Remedy: Bringing Lean Thinking Out of the Factory to Transform the Entire Organization

21 Feb

Industrial Engineering - Productivity Enhancing Technology Development

1000th Published Post in Industrial Engineering Knowledge Center Blog
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering.
Technology is a subsystem in the Systems made efficient by industrial engineers. Hence creating efficient technology or more productive technology is a task of industrial engineering

19 Feb 2014

The Productivity Manual: Methods and Activities for Involving Employees in Productivity Improvement

Elizabeth A. Smith, Taylor & Francis, 1995 - Business & Economics - 234 pages
Managers and supervisors will appreciate the manual's straightfoward, problem-solving approach. Trainers will benefit from the quantitive and qualitive techniques for measuring, analyzing, and reporting organizational and personnel achievements.
Google Book Link

PepsiCo’s (PEP) productivity plan

PepsiCo’s (PEP) productivity plan from 2015 through 2019 will result in cost savings of $1 billion a year, About 40 percent  will come from labor cuts. Under the plan, PepsiCo will increase investment in manufacturing automation, close some manufacturing facilities, reengineer its distribution network in developed markets to be more efficient, share more back-office services, and simplify organization.
Productivity at the company hasn’t kept pace with sales growth. There are opportunities because of previous investments made in information systems, to make supply chain more efficient and go-to-market systems more efficient.
PepsiCo employed 278,000 employees in fiscal 2012, down from 297,000 a year earlier.

UK's Productivity’s Lost Decade – And How To Avoid Another
Strong GDP and employment growth throughout 2013 has highlighted productivity’s continued weakness. At the onset of the recession in Q1 2008, productivity initially fell. However, it has not recovered and remains 4% below the pre-crisis peak on an output per hour basis. Productivity has now fallen back to where it was in Q4 2005. Without improvements, we will have lived through almost a decade of stagnant productivity.

Getting Lean with Your Healthcare Practice:
Five Tips for Improving Provider Productivity with an EHR
EHR - Electronic Health Records

Introduction to Software Productivity
Galorath Incorporated
2010 presentation

Book Review: Growing the Productivity of Government Services by Patrick Dunleavy and Leandro Carrera
In this book Patrick Dunleavy and Leandro Carrera ask why government productivity has been so neglected in the study of economics and public management. Chapters cover customs regulation, tax services, and the need to embrace digital change, and the book concludes with some clear and practical advice.

12 Feb 2014

Productivity Day in India

It is important to study carefully the definition of management by Koontz and O'Donnell

"Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims."

Also they say in the chapter on productivity,

"In reality this entire book on management is about productivity."

Are management professionals and professors following that idea?



 THE WORLD'S TOP 10 MOST INNOVATIVE Solutions from COMPANIES IN PRODUCTIVITY Improvement of people in general

NitroDesk Announces Cockpit Mobile Productivity Management Solution
Cockpit allows for management of TouchDown corporate data container

Committed to sustainable productivity
Atlas Copco is a world-leading provider of sustainable productivity solutions. We serve customers in more than 180 countries with products and service focused on productivity, energy efficiency, safety and ergonomics.

Photoshop Keyboard Eliminates Shortcuts For Increased Productivity
The Shortcut-S is a computer keyboard created specifically for designers that use Photoshop and other graphics and video software. The keyboard has 319 tactile keys that are customizable.!vr6Gl

9 Feb 2014

11 Ways to Improve Your IT Team's Productivity

What is Lean Management?

Lean Management is management with simultaneous emphasis on customer satisfaction or goal achievement and productivity or resource consumption.

Liquid Lean: Developing Lean Culture in the Process Industries

Published: February 24, 2010 by Productivity Press Content:346 Pages |
Author(s):Raymond C. Floyd

Forth International Productivity Cartoon Festival: 

No. 164, 6th Boostan St., Opposite White Tower ( Burj-e-Sefid) , Pasdaran Ave., Tehran, Iran.,-iran-2014

The programme is a collaboration between BCA Academy and The Singapore Contractors Association Ltd (SCAL).  It caters to the specific needs of the contractors and builders in managing construction productivity. The course will be conducted over 12 sessions.  Each session will last for 3 hours in the evening, once a week.

Wide range of connectors with molded-on control cables, guarantees high productivity for your machines and systems, even in the most rugged conditions.

Designed for harsh environments, especially "no-contact" zones in the food industry, the new generation of connectors supplements the proven connectors of the M12 Food & Beverage Classic Line.

Labour Productivity in Coal Mining Sector in India: With Special to Major Coal Mining
The production of coal has increased from 35 million tons in 1951 to 409.3 million tons in 2004. At the same time, the Average Daily Employment (ADE) has increased from 352 thousand in 1951 to 405 thousand in 2004.

Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK)
Oracle User Productivity Kit (UPK) is an easy-to-use, comprehensive content development, deployment and maintenance platform designed to increase project, programme and user productivity. With over 4 million users globally, it features out-of-the-box integration with core systems and the ability to support any application.

Productivity & Efficiency at Forefront of LexisNexis at LegalTech New York 2014
Portfolio of integrated analytical, workflow and productivity solutions drives insights and better outcomes for law firms and legal departments
“Driving efficiency and productivity is at the core of our business,” said Bob Romeo, CEO of Research & Litigation Solutions at LexisNexis.

Role of information literacy in agricultural productivity and food security: An international perspective
80th IFLA General Conference and Assembly, Lyon, France in August 2014

German firm to train farmers in productivity in Uganda

The National Center for Transportation Systems Productivity and Management (NCTSPM)
conducts transportation related research in the areas of safety, state-of-good-repair, and economic competitiveness. NCTSPM is a collaboration between Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia Transportation Institute, Florida International University, University of Central Florida, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and each university’s state Department of Transportation.

Port productivity: Handling freight more efficiently
February 5, 2014|By Doreen Hemlock, Sun Sentinel
Some 140 port experts from around the nation met in Fort Lauderdale this week to discuss ways to boost port productivity in a conference.

Productivity Improvement - Manufacturing Process Improvement Consulting by Maverick
As your productivity improvement consultant, MAVERICK begins by evaluating the current state of your operations regarding man, machine, material and methods — lean manufacturing’s 4M perspective on improving production processes. Then we compare benchmark findings with best-in-class operations and help you close the gaps. Because we are able to leverage the experience of 500 professionals working across the country — noting what works and what doesn’t — we’re able to incorporate best practices that might not be obvious otherwise.
Columbia, IL (World HQ)
265 Admiral Trost Drive
PO Box 470
Columbia, IL 62236

The Lean CFO: Architect of the Lean Management System

Published: September 16, 2013 by Productivity Press Content:151 Pages
Author(s):Nicholas S. Katko

5 Feb 2014

2014 Asia-Pacific Productivity Conference

The Centre for Efficiency and Productivity Analysis (CEPA) in the School of Economics at The University of Queensland is pleased to invite you to attend the 10th Asia Pacific Productivity Conference (APPC) from 8 -11 July 2014 in Brisbane, Australia.
Conference Dates: Jul 8, 2014 to Jul 11, 2014
Deadline for paper submissions: Feb 15, 2014
Deadline for participant registration: Thursday, May 15, 2014
The conference will consist of theoretical and applied sessions, as well as special-focus sessions targeting specific industries and topics. This will include topics on efficiency and productivity in industries such as the banking and energy sectors, regulated industries, agriculture, USA productivity, EU and APEC productivity, Asia-KLEMS and many more.

Heidelberg India fixing productivity with maintenance tips
Heidelberg India hosted a seminar on key maintenance and advanced trouble shooting techniques in sheetfed offset printing in Kochi.
Haribabu, head of customer service at Heidelberg addressed the audience on activities required for a print-shop, and how such efforts promote best results in print production through his presentation on ‘benefits of maintenance’.,heidelberg-india-fixing-productivity-with-maintenance-tips.aspx

Improving productivity and profitability
Maintenance can help American businesses avoid losing more than $500 billion every year to equipment breakdowns or inefficiencies.

Variable-speed drive gives Energy Savings + Productivity Improvements - ABB
 While there is a gradual improvement in those willing to invest in drives, there still remains some 90 percent of installed motors that are not speed controlled. A further 95 percent of the 11 million motors installed in the UK are oversized. Savings of more than 50 percent can be achieved by the use of a drive on these applications.

Global Total factor productivity (TFP) dipped below zero in 2013

Total factor productivity (TFP), that is, how well labour inputs combine with capital inputs to generate output, was also low, dipping below zero in 2013

DAVE: a tool for software QA productivity
DAVE stands for DAta VErification. The way it works is rather simple: first, the user chooses the environments (dev, test or prod). Second, they enter either the email address or the order key/id of the customer they’re trying to verify and press the Submit button


. It adopted and integrated lean manufacturing and continuous improvement principles into its culture and work processes. During this journey, it was determined that SFI's welding operations at its Memphis plant needed to be radically revamped and updated.

SFI's welders have been using the Lincoln Power Wave® machines and Power Feed™ wire feeders for nearly a year now and have seen a consistent 15-percent productivity gain.

4 February 2014

Professionalism in precision sheet metal manufacturing
A commitment to reducing waste and making key investments helps DeWys Manufacturing earn The FABRICATOR’s 2014 Industry Award

The Powermax125, a professional-grade plasma metal cutting and gouging system, that works as hard as you do. With the maximum power and performance for air plasma in our line, the Powermax125 severs 57 mm (2-1/4") thick metals at 125 mm/min (5 ipm). With 100% duty cycle and Powermax reliability, it is ready for the most demanding cutting and gouging jobs.

Increasing Marketing Productivity and ROI with Tealium iQ - Case Study

The McKinsey Infrastructure and Capital Productivity Academy (MICA)

Productivity and Efficiency of Groundnut Farming in Northern Taraba State, Nigeria
G.B. Taphee, A.A.U. Jongur

The Construction Productivity Handbook

Textura-PQM Software Helps Subcontractors Improve Efficiency and Enhance Productivity

Improving productivity, efficiency and safety through automation and reliable communication infrastructure Editor | February 3, 2014

Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - January 2014