Monday, December 15, 2014

Productivity and IE in Soya Bean Processing





Improving Productivity in Soya-Bean Processing Through the Design and Fabrication of Double Action
Decoating and Separation Machine
C. Agulanna, E.C Oriaku and J.C Edeh
Projects Development Institute (PRODA), PMB 01609 Enugu, Nigeria
2011 paper
http://jeteas.scholarlinkresearch.org/articles/Improving%20Productivity%20in%20Soya-Bean%20Processing.pdf



A TYPICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SCHEME OF SOYOIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY
India Case Study
http://www.apo-tokyo.org/gp/31pagpdp/rama/water_treatment.pdf


DO'S AND DON'TS IN SOY PROCESSING INDUSTRY
http://www.apo-tokyo.org/gp/31pagpdp/rama/dos_and_donts.pdf



Soya Tech Website - USA
http://www.soyatech.com/

Soy Milk Plants - India
http://www.sspindia.com/soymilk-plant.html

Friday, December 5, 2014

UNEP Launches Global Initiative for Resource Efficient Cities




The Global Initiative for Resource-Efficient Cities 

Rio de Janeiro, 18 June 2012

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and partners have unveiled today at the Rio+20 summit in Brazil a new initiative that aims to reduce pollution levels, improve resource efficiency and reduce infrastructure costs in cities across the world.

The Global Initiative for Resource-Efficient Cities will work with local and national governments, the private sector and civil society groups to promote energy efficient buildings, efficient water use, sustainable waste management and other activities.


Cities with populations of 500,000 or more are invited to join the initiative, which aims to attract 200 members by 2015.


Today, urban areas account for 50 percent of all waste, generate 60-80 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions and consume 75 percent of natural resources. In terms of space they occupy only 3 percent of the Earth's surface.

Water savings of 30 percent, and energy saving of up to 50 percent can be achieved in cities with limited investment and encouraging behavioral change, according to UNEP.

The green initiatives in cities can provide employment to some 20 million people in the wind, solar and biofuel industries by 2030.

The Global Initiative for Resource-Efficient Cities will support sustainability efforts in cities with the following core activities:

Promoting research on resource efficiency and sustainable consumption and production
Providing access and advice for city decision-makers on technical expertise, capacity building and funding opportunities for improving resource efficiency
Creating a network for cities and organizations to exchange experiences and peer-review projects for mutual benefit


"Decoupling economic growth from unsustainable resource use and environmental impacts-especially in urban areas - underpins the transition to a low-carbon, resource efficient green economy",



"The new Global Initiative for Resource Efficiency Cities aims to provide cities with a common framework for assessing environmental performance and encouraging innovative sustainability measures. In the context of rapid urbanization and growing pressures on natural resources, there is an urgent need for co-ordinated action on urban sustainability. This is essential both for preventing irreversible degradation of resources and ecosystems, and for realizing the multiple benefits of greener cities, from savings through energy-efficient buildings, or the health and climate benefits of cleaner fuels and vehicles."

The initiative has already been backed by a broad range of international institutions, such as UN-Habitat, the World Bank, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI), Cities Alliance, International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC), Veolia Environment Institute, Bioregional, Urban Environmental Accords Members Alliance and International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

Several cities have already come on board, including the City of Sao Paulo, Malmo, Heidelberg, Quezon City, Gwangju, with national interest having been expressed by Japan, Brazil, France and the United States.

The strong, early interest in this initiative is further evidence that cities, which generate 80 percent of global GDP, understand they are the key decision-makers and implementers of the necessary steps required to move our societies towards a more sustainable pattern of consumption and production,

There was an initiative of  C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group earlier.

Sustainable Cities: Making it Happen  - A Report


The practical steps that cities can take towards resource efficiency are the focus of a new UNEP report, also launched today at Rio+20.

Using case studies from China, Brazil, Germany and a host of other countries, Sustainable, Resource Efficient Cities in the 21st Century: Making it Happen, highlights opportunities for city leaders to improve waste and water management, energy efficiency, urban transportation, and other key sectors.

Among the projects highlighted in the report is the Masdar City development in the United Arab Emirates, which is acting as a test-bed for the development of the skills, innovation and markets required for realizing the eco-city concept at a large scale.

The report also examines several initiatives that aim to meet the rising energy demands of urban centres, in a sustainable way.

Renewable energy feed-in tariff strategies in Germany, for example, have allowed the city of Freiburg to invest in photovoltaic, wind and other renewable energy systems, which now supply over 8 percent of the city's total energy demand. Household energy consumption has been decreased by up to 80 percent due to Freiburg's energy-efficient housing standards.


Integration: Cities need to move beyond merely conducting environmental impact assessments before implementing new developments. In addition to a conservation approach towards greening, the livability of cities and social equality measures should be taken into account.

Governance: Tackling climate change and advancing urban sustainability requires an integrated, consultative approach involving local communities and civil society groups, as well traditional decision-makers.

Smart Urban Design: Supporting low-footprint design that targets public transport, pedestrian zones and cycle lanes and promote compact, multi-use urban development

Finance: Tax incentives and subsidies can be used to stimulate the up-take of green technologies.

Technology Transfer: Transfer of technology and skills to developing countries should be adapted to suit local context, not simply 'off-the-shelf' solutions from the developed world. Capacity building on management and maintenance is an important part of technology and skills transfer.

Innovation: Supporting and/or establishing educational and research bodies that can support the development of skills, capabilities and networks on urban sustainability.

The Feasibility Study on the Development of an Urban CDM



A second UNEP report, also launched today, examines  how cities can better access climate finance through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The Feasibility Study on the Development of an Urban CDM, recommends reforming the existing CDM to allow for methodologies geared towards cities. It also recommends the development of a CDM programme of activities for pilot cities that would inform the future development of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions and assist in the transition to a green economy.

http://www.unep.org/newscentre/default.aspx?DocumentID=2688&ArticleID=9179


2014

One of the first projects of this initiative was to conduct a mapping exercise as part of a  comprehensive review on resource efficiency in cities. In partnership with Sustainable Cities International and, Infrangilis, Travisia Partners identified what  stakeholders and organizations are doing in relation to resource efficiency as well as identified the most appropriate areas for UNEP intervention in the sector.

Sustaianble Cities International secured a second contract to produce a background paper on city level resource efficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and carry out a two-day workshop as a parallel event at the World Urban Forum in Medellin, Colombia. This project was conducted as a partnership between Fundacion Corona, the Latin American Network for Democratic, Fair and Sustainable Cities. Practitioners from four cities of the LAC region attended as well as representatives from UNEP, and a final report was produced that included suggestions for priority areas where UNEP initiatives could add value in the region.
http://www.travesiapartners.com/work/unep-global-initiative-for-resource-efficient-cities/

Industrial Engineering - Bulletin Board

_________________________________________________________________________________

Industrial Engineering Knol Books by Narayana Rao


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Low Cost Materials and Processes - Information Board - 2014 - Database for Industrial Engineering and Value Engineering

Branding for Industrial Engineering


Industrial Engineering Strategy

Industrial Engineering of Technical Processes

  Manufacturing Systems Industrial Engineering
  Material Handling Systems Industrial Engineering
Quality and Inspection Systems Industrial Engineering
Storage and Warehouse  Systems Industrial Engineering
Supply Chain Systems Industrial Engineering
Logistics Systems Industrial Engineering
  Information Systems Industrial Engineering
Lean Manufacturing Systems Industrial Engineering
    Maintenance System Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering of Business Processes

Marketing and Selling Processes  Industrial Engineering
Purchase Processes  Industrial Engineering
Accounting Processes  Industrial Engineering
Customer Service Processes  Industrial Engineering
Human Resource Recruitment  Process Industrial Engineering

Continued in 

Productivity and Industrial Engineering News - Bulletin Board - February 2014


November 2014
Industrial Engineering Strategy - Decisions to be taken by top management
Toyota Production Industrial Engineering updated by adding all chapters of the book


July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - Started on 17 June 2014


February 2014

Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer - Contribution to Industrial Engineering  Updated on 18.2.2014

3 Feb 2014
IntelliJ IDEA 13 Wins Jolt Productivity Award for Coding Tools 2014!
Dr. Dobb’s Journal named IntelliJ IDEA 13 the winner of the Jolt Productivity Award for Coding Tools 2014, an annual award given to the best IDEs and coding tools.
http://www.drdobbs.com/joltawards/jolt-awards-coding-tools/240165725?pgno=6

January 2014


31.1.2014

Vacuum drying - increased moulding productivity - Plastics Processing

“Vacuum drying is six times faster than with desiccant systems, which not only makes possible much shorter cold startups but also reduces the risk of material degradation, since resin is exposed to elevated temperature for 80% less time,” said Mr. Smith. “This remarkable drying speed is attributable to a far more efficient method for extracting moisture from resin pellets — so much more efficient that vacuum dryers reduce energy consumption by up to 60% in comparison with desiccant dryers.”
http://www.eppm.com/machinery/vacuum-dryer-claims-increased-moulding-productivity/


Solutions to Drive Warehouse Productivity
In this webcast, Eric Hepburn, Vice President of Distribution Center Management for Penske Logistics, shares proven techniques on how to devise a labor management strategy that can make a huge impact on your distribution operations.
http://www.dcvelocity.com/videocasts/?videocast_id=53

30.1.2014


Three reasons why blogging helps research productivity
http://www.scilogs.com/expiscor/three-reasons-why-blogging-helps-research-productivity/


Efficient cooling system improves productivity in plastic moulding


As cooling time is the biggest factor in plastic moulding cycle and one of the deciding factors for the quality requirements, better control upon the same will improve the productivity to a great extent.
Analysis of cooling performance at regular intervals is always advisable to maintain and/or improve the cooling efficiency.
The pump/s, pipe diameter and cooling tower are selected accordingly and the design is optimised. Design can be optimised for new plants and for modification of existing plant.
http://www.business-standard.com/content/b2b-chemicals/efficient-cooling-system-improves-productivity-in-plastic-moulding-114012900974_1.html



Wave Walker Boosts Productivity
WaveWalker can considerably boost productivity in tasks such as drilling and pipeline and cable-laying.
http://www.marinelink.com/news/productivity-walker363586.aspx

Bangladesh boosts garment productivity with SewEasy System for industrial engineering
The SewEasy SMV estimation system, established on PMTS technology serves factories since 1996, and is based on MTM.
http://www.ft.lk/2014/01/30/bangladesh-boosts-garment-productivity-with-seweasy-system-for-industrial-engineering/


Remarkable increase in productivity with the new SEHO SelectLine
SEHO Systems GmbH, a worldwide leading manufacturer of automated soldering systems and customer-specific solutions, will present the new SEHO SelectLine selective soldering system
http://www.globalsmt.net/smt/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=21145&Itemid=413


H.C. Starck's Newton facility awarded Industry Week's 2013 Best Plants
The global supplier of technology metals was able to reduce waste, optimize productivity, streamline processes, improve efficiencies, and reduce cost.
http://www.thefabricator.com/news/shopmanagement/h-c-starck-s-newton-facility-awarded-i-industry-week-i-s-2013-best-plants



29.1.2014

Productivity and Online Learning


The Need for Greater Productivity through Online Learning, Part 1
http://wcetblog.wordpress.com/2014/01/21/greater-productivity-part-1/
The Need for Greater Productivity through Online Learning, Part 2
http://wcetblog.wordpress.com/2014/01/23/greater-productivity-part-2/
The Need for Greater Productivity through Online Learning, Further Thoughts
http://wcetblog.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/the-need-for-greater-productivity-through-online-learning-further-thoughts/


Productivity Commission of New Zealand suggests 25 recommendations that it believed would boost the productivity of the services sector
http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/industries/9663187/Productivity-Commission-suggests-overhaul


Tap behavioural economics for productivity boost
Businesses must select leaders and managers who can engage their employees
http://www.businesstimes.com.sg/premium/editorial-opinion/opinion/tap-behavioural-economics-productivity-boost-20140129

Preparing For Productivity: The Rise Of The Maintenance Planner
http://www.facilitiesnet.com/maintenanceoperations/article/Preparing-for-Productivity-The-Rise-of-the-Maintenance-Planner--14695#

Guide to assessing productivity in your organisation - Productivity South Africa
Download the Guide to assessing productivity in your organisation - (139KB)


The Domino N600i
The only digital colour label press that combines
the productivity of flexo with the flexibility of digital printing
http://www.domino-printing.com/N600i/N600i-Colour-Digital-Label-Press.html

Resource Productivity of Japanese Manufacturing Subsidiaries in the Philippines: A Comparative Case Study.
Source: DLSU Business & Economics Review . Jul2011, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p15-28. 14p. 5 Charts.
Author(s): Cortez, Michael Angelo A.
(EBSCO Host)

Industrial Productivity
What determines how much a worker can produce in different periods and in different countries? The answer is found in the study of a sensitive ratio between the cost of labor and the cost of machinery
By Seymour Melman
Scientific American Volume 193, Issue 1


3M™ High Productivity Pad 7300, 20 in, 5/case
http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_US/Facilities-Care-Cleaning-NA/commercial-cleaning/cleaning-supplies/~/3M-High-Productivity-Pad-7300-20-in-5-case?N=4294929802+6702276&Nr=AND(hrcy_id%3AGSMS2G8GX9gs_F2TPJQMRJ6_N2RL3FHWVK_GPD0K8BC31gv)&rt=d


Value Engineering of Ventilator

Productivity and IE in Stock and Commodity Exchange Trading


Integrated production planning and control: A multi-objective optimization model
Cheng Wang, Xiao-Bing Liu
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management
Vol 6, No 4 (2013)
http://www.jiem.org/index.php/jiem/article/view/771


A Novel Optimization Method on Logistics Operation for Warehouse & Port Enterprises Based on Game Theory
Junyang Li, Xiaomin Zhu, Runtong Zhang
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management
Vol 6, No 4 (2013)
http://www.jiem.org/index.php/jiem/article/view/597



2014 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications(ICIEA 2014)

Papers on the following topics will be presented in oral and poster sessions:
· Decision Analysis and Methods
· E-Business and E-Commerce
· Engineering Economy and Cost Analysis
· Engineering Education and Training
· Global Manufacturing and Management
· Healthcare Systems and Management
· Human Factors
· Information Processing and Engineering
· Intelligent Systems
· Manufacturing Systems
· Operations Research
· Production Planning and Control
· Project Management
· Quality Control and Management
· Reliability and Maintenance Engineering
· Safety, Security and Risk Management
· Service Innovation and Management
· Supply Chain Management
· Systems Modeling and Simulation
· Technology and Knowledge Management

Conference papers will be selected to be published in Journal of Industrial and Intelligent Information (JIII, ISSN: 2301-3745, 10.12720/jiii, www.jiii.org).


28.1.2014


Rokla Rockwheel cutting unit increases productivity in abrasive material mining
http://www.im-mining.com/2014/01/28/rokla-rockwheel-cutting-unit-increases-productivity-in-abrasive-material/

Productivity From Packaging Line Solutions
Rennco is a manufacturer of semi-automatic and fully automatic vertical bagging machines and medical device heat sealing systems
http://goarticles.com/article/Productivity-From-Packaging-Line-Solutions/8349528/

Low-cost and more versatile robots to increase productivity
Rise of the machines: Robots on the factory floor
Vanguard Plastics in Southington, Conn., has put a robot named Baxter($25,000) in its plant to work side by side with some of the 22 people on its floor.
http://www.cnbc.com/id/101362018

New Inserts Boost Productivity in a Wide Range of Tough Turning Applications
Walter's new geometries bring production efficiencies for turning high temperature alloys, titanium machining and tough roughing jobs.
http://www.fabricatingandmetalworking.com/2014/01/new-inserts-boost-productivity-in-a-wide-range-of-tough-turning-applications/

Drum Debarker — Continuous Wood Feeding And Other Productivity-Boosting Mechanisms
http://chasseurs-orages.org/drum-debarker-continuous-wood-feeding-and-other-productivity-boosting-mechanisms/

Reduce press downtime between jobs in stamping machines
http://www.thefabricator.com/article/stamping/cutting-time-between-coils

How We Increased Productivity on the Shop Floor
By PAUL DOWNS
Paul Downs founded Paul Downs Cabinetmakers in 1986. It is based outside Philadelphia.
http://boss.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/27/how-we-increased-productivity-on-the-shop-floor/?partner=rss&emc=rss

Tips for Maximizing Productivity and Decreasing Costs in Welding Job Shops
http://www.millerwelds.com/resources/articles/tips-for-maximizing-productivity-and-decreasing-costs-in-job-shops

Analysis of buffered assembly line productivity
Ryspek Usubamatov, Abd Alsalam Alsalameh, Rosmaini Ahmad, Abdul Rahman Riza, (2014) "Analysis of buffered assembly line productivity", Assembly Automation, Vol. 34 Iss: 1, pp.34 - 40
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17104126&show=abstract


Comprehensive, quantitative bioprocess productivity monitoring using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and chemometrics.
Analyst, 2014, Accepted Manuscript
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/an/c4an00007b#!divAbstract

InfoPrint Productivity Tracker
Insights to help drive out cost
https://www.infoprint.com/internet/ipww.nsf/vwWebPublished/swip_infoprint-productivity-tracker_en


Converged infrastructure boosts Oracle DBA productivity
Converged infrastructure boosts DBA productivity, according to a new Wikibon report. Wikibon’s research examined Oracle database administrators (DBAs) in particular and found that highly converged infrastructure lowered costs and raised productivity between 40 and 50 percent.
http://siliconangle.com/blog/2014/01/27/converged-infrastructure-boosts-oracle-dba-productivity/



27.1.2014

$1 billion Soros backed fund for Supply Chain Efficiency Improvement Projects

Niedermaier, CEO of New York-based Tau Investment Management has teamed up with investor Alexander Soros— the son of billionaire financier George Soros to raise $1 billion  to revamp the vast number of firms that form supply chains for various products. He said firms participating in supply chains are full of inefficiencies and outdated equipment that can be upgraded for a nice profit. His Tau Investments has chosen as its first target textile and apparel manufacturing in emerging markets, a $1 trillion industry.
http://www.cnbc.com/id/101359907

Management and Productivity
http://www.economist.com/news/business/21594223-it-no-longer-just-plausible-theory-good-management-boosts-productivity-measuring

Decreasing workplace transparency can increase productivity.

Harvard Business School Assistant Professor Ethan S. Bernstein shows that decreasing the observation of employees can increase their productivity.  His paper "Transparency Paradox: A Role for Privacy in Organizational Learning and Operational Control"  won the 2013 Best Published Paper Award from both the Academy of Management's Organization and Management Theory Division and Organizational Behavior Division.
http://forbesindia.com/article/harvard/hiding-from-managers-can-increase-your-productivity/36859/1

Tivoli Storage Productivity Center - IBM
Tivoli Storage Productivity Center simplifies the following data and storage management processes:
Storage administration options where you can choose from an advanced GUI or VMware plug-in. It also includes Cognos® Business Intelligence and pre-designed reports.
Storage and device management to give you fast deployment with agent-less device management – while intelligent presets improve provisioning consistency and control.
Integrated performance management features end-to-end views, including devices, SAN fabrics and storage systems. The server-centric view of storage infrastructure enables fast troubleshooting.
Data replication management that enables you to have remote mirror, snapshot and copy management and supports Windows, Linux, UNIX and System z data.
http://www-03.ibm.com/software/products/en/tivostorprodcent/


Increasing  the productivity of sales force.by simplifying the Insurance form filling process

Tata AIA Life Insurance Company Ltd today said it has implemented a host of new processes that will make life insurance simpler and increase the productivity of its sales force.
Tata AIA Life is one of the first insurance companies in India to fully switch over to a ‘Standard Proposal Form’ for all products consequently offering convenience in making completion of applications faster and easier for the customers. This also makes the agent sales kit lighter since different proposal forms for different products would not be required any further.
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/companies/tata-aia-life-aims-to-enhance-productivity/article5620363.ece

Productivity in Germany

Highest 111.June 2012
102.3 in November 2013
http://www.tradingeconomics.com/germany/productivity

Impact of Temperature and Climate Variability on Milk Productivity of Bovines
Mitigation Measures - India
http://www.ndri.res.in/PanApps/chapters/2.pdf

22 Productivity Principles From Proverbs

http://www.churchleaders.com/worship/worship-articles/172409-eric-mckiddie-productivity-principles-from-proverbs.html?p=1

Improving field service productivity with tablet pcs
http://www.motioncomputing.com/downloads/Marketing_Brochures/industries/industry_fieldservice_web.pdf



Modern Compass Improves Oilfield Productivity, Cuts Costs

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) comments that multiple reservoirs of oil and gas can be now be accessed from a single platform by drilling vertically and then horizontally, but drill operators need to know which way their drill bits are going to maxi­mize production and avoid collisions with other wells. One way to accomplish this important task is to install a magnetometer—a sort of modern-day compass—in a drill-string instrument package that follows the drill bit.
http://www.bpnews.com/index.php/in-the-news/97-modern-compass-improves-oilfield-productivity-cuts-costs


ATC 900 the most productive tire changer solution on the market

The dual-disc bead breaker, center clamp system and automatic demounting tool make the ATC 900 the most productive tire changer solution on the market. Leverless demounting and powered wheel lift reduce technician fatigue and opportunity for injury. Dual disc bead breakers and servo positioned and electronically synchronized so the technician can efficiently maintain a safe and ergonomic bay position.
http://www.johnbean.ca/tc-atc-900.asp

December 2013

Industrial Engineering of Warehouses - Efficiency Improvement of warehouses
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/12/warehouse-industrial-engineering.html


The New role of Industrial Engineering  by Jan Kosturiak and Robert Debnar (Article in 2008)
Practices in USA, Europe and Japan Compared and Changing Directions Identified.

The American school of Industrial Engineering combines statistical methods in quality, mathematics and optimisation methods of operation research, simulation and  the methods for work analysis and facilities layout planning. The base of the methods of the Japanese school of Industrial Engineering is the Toyota Production System oriented on waste elimination in the entire value stream. But also Japanese universities and companies incorporated simulation, mathematics and operation research programmes into the traditional Industrial Engineering methods. In an  issue of Harvard Business review, Toyota´s President Katsuaki Watanabe emphasizes the importance of combining continuous improvement (Kaizen) with radical innovations (Kakushin).

 The traditional focus of Industrial Engineering is on process analysis and improvement.  and also the human aspects related to flexibility, productivity and creativity.

 Information technology is being increasingly integrated into IE courses and alongside the basic subjects that deal with hard facts, there are more and more classes looking at issues of teamwork, people motivation, communication skills, emotional intelligence and ethics.




USA

Europe

Japan

Focus of Industrial Engineering

Systems Optimisation, Statistical Process Control, Simulation, Bottleneck Management, Project Management  - USA

Complex process optimisation, CIM, CAD/CAM, Flexible Automation, Systems Engineering, Digital Factory - Europe

Waste Elimination, Simplification, Visualisation, Low Cost Automation,  Common Sense, Lean, TPS, Kaizen - Japan

Typical Role of the Industrial Engineer

Systems Integrator, Optimiser, Process Improvement and re-engineering - USA

Production Process Optimisation, - Europe

Lean Manager, Teacher, Trainer, - Japan

Who are the Industrial Engineers?

Industrial Engineering Department, Operation Management - USA

Department of Work and Process Organisation, Production Planning Department _ Europe

Hancho – Supervisor on Shop Floor, Every Employee from CEO to the Worker on the Line has some IE Skills - Japan


Leading  associations and organizations

Institute of Industrial Engineers, Maynard´s, Lean Institute, MIT, Purdue University, Goldratt Institute - USA

REFA, MTM, Fraunhofer - Europe

Toyota, Nissan, Omron, JMA, JUSE - Japan

Some IE  Leaders

Babbage Towne, Hasley, Gantt, Taylor, Gillbreth, Ford, Deming, Shewhart, Pritsker, White, Malcom

Fayol, Mitrofanov, Altschuller, Schulmpeter, T.Baťa, J.Baťa, Warnecke

Toyota, Suzaki, Imai, Takeda, Shingo, Ishikawa, Taguchi, Ohno, Monden





Focus on the “empolyee´s muscles” (performance – physical intelligence) and brains (kaizen – mental intelligence) shifting to  Focus on the employee´s heart (self motivation, emotional intelligence)  and soul (moral and ethics – soul intelligence)

Management philosophy
Trade Off Thinking - High Quality OR Low Cost, Affordable OR Customized to Breakthrough Thinking, High Quality AND Low Cost, Affordable AND Customized

Improvement Concepts
Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, TOC shifting to Systematic Innovation, Lean Product Development

Management principles
Management by objectives, process and project management shifting to  Management by opportunities, company as a  living organism


Mass customisation,  individualisation, global competition, fast overcoming of traditional rules and standards mean that many change processes are running in companies world wide under the slogan “give your customer what he wants – but faster than your competitors”.

There are three fundamental concepts in industrial engineering focused on customer value:

1. Lean Management

2. Theory of Constraints based Total Productivity Management

3. Six Sigma

Over the last decade, many companies have tried to copy Toyota‘s principles. They are applying methods for waste elimination from production and business processes, they compare benchmark indicators like value added index or working hours per product. But the essence of Toyota’s excellence is not yet captured . Toyota has been developing this system consistently for over 50 years. Toyota has developed a system of knowledge which creates reusable knowledge, maintains it, and leverages its use in the future. Nobody from Toyota employees wrote a handbook of the Toyota Production System, this is the business of other management gurus. The values and principles of the Toyota Production System are developed in the minds and daily jobs of all the employees. All the knowledge gained throughout the design or production process, what works and what doesn’t work, could be captured and consistently applied for all future projects. Toyota doesn´t call its system “lean”, but it is lean, Toyota doesn´t speak about knowledge management, but it does it!

The lean concept originated in Toyota is oriented on waste identification and elimination from the whole process chain (Value Stream Management). In other words – lean focus is the maximisation of added value in all the production, logistical, administrative and development processes. TOC (Theory of Constraints) is based on the identification and elimination of the system´s constraints with the goal ongoing throughput improvement. The throughput is defined as the rate at which the organisation generates money through sales. In other words, throughput is the added value in the process chain per time unit. The Six Sigma philosophy identifies and eliminates variation from the value stream so that defects approach zero and quality delights the customer. Six Sigma, Lean and TOC continuously improve knowledge in pursuit of perfection and involve and empower the employees.

Many companies are oriented on low cost strategies. But some cost attack programmes or the transfering of production facilities to low cost countries showed that it is not the right and strategic solution. In recent years, many West European and US manufacturing firms have moved their production plants to the low cost countries. Over time, they recognised that they had lost some competitive advantages because some departments were physically separated (e.g. product design and development, production engineering, production, logistics) and the communication and co-operation between them was limited. Also many cultural differences reduced the effects of the low cost location. Not even the massive implementation of lean management, Six Sigma or other world class concepts can sometimes bring any radical improvement. Company success is not only in the optimisation of current processes (doing right things right).


 What is the new role of industrial engineering in coming years?

1. The industrial engineer will still focus on value stream improvement, but not only in manufacturing. Administrative, product development, customer service and logistical processes offer huge improvement potential.

2. The integration of traditional concepts for process improvement like Lean, Six Sigma and TOC. These concepts for waste elimination, reduction of process variation and throughput increase will be combined with concepts for customer value creation.

3. Today, the typical job position of industrial engineers is in the production and logistics departments. In the future, the industrial engineers will penetrate into the departments for product and process development and innovation management, where the higher opportunities to reduce costs, eliminate waste and improve quality rather than production are.

4. Industrial engineers have to increase their orientation on the people. Not only in the traditional sense – ergonomics, but also in the areas of emotional intelligence, co-operation, knowledge management, coaching, training, leadership, communication, etc. The companies should be able to solve the following important questions regarding knowledge management: How to share, communicate and develop the best corporate practices in the organisation? How to transfer knowledge between employees on the projects and actions in the company? How to increase and measure knowledge? How to change knowledge into innovation as fast as possible?

5. The design and development of teamwork in the entire company – this is the crucial competence of industrial engineers for the future. They need to work in  the creative teams of strong individuals, focused on innovation ability.  The other important task is to work in  multi-cultural teams in the global production networks.

6. Work analysis and measurement is the traditional competence of industrial engineers. New opportunities for this discipline are in logistics, distribution, office, and product and process development.

7. Industrial engineers will penetrate from production departments to other company areas. There are many new application fields for traditional IE methods – e.g. 5S in information systems, simulation and value stream management of supply chain networks, simplification and streamlining of management processes – waste in meetings, reporting, etc.


The most used methods and concepts of industrial eingineering in the industrial companies are  – Value Stream Industrial Engineering  (not only in production processes, but also in office, logistical chains and product development processes),  – Work Analysis and Measurement (in European companies more traditional methods are used MTM or UAS, American companies use MOST more often),  – Computer simulation (in Europe EM Plant or Witness, in US companies more often, Arena, Automod, etc.),  – TPM based waste elimination - Total Productivity Management based on TOC  – Quality in process – SPC, poka yoke, andon, jidoka, stop line  – 5S and Quick Changeover  – Different Systematic Problems Solving Approaches – Kaizen (individual improvement ideas, workshops, quick win activities, Improvement Projects with DMAIC methodology  – Planning of U shaped  Lines with one piece flow and Low Cost Intelligent Automation (LCIA) concepts  – Team work, visual management, management by objectives  – Pull systems in production and logistics (internal and external milk run concepts)  – Traditional IE problem solving methods – FMEA, QFD, Project Management, A3 reports, etc. -
http://www.ai-online.com/Adv/Previous/show_issue.php?id=2244#sthash.JUZRM87e.dpuf



Productivity Solutions - Corus
http://www.fdm-uk.co.uk/corus-case-study.html


November 2013



Toyota Production System can be described as Just in Time Quality Production System.
Quality denotes customer acceptance and zero defects.
A defect in JIT system is very costly. Hence, good amount of effort goes into defect prevention activity in Toyota system.
What is the communication system used for ensuring just in time production. Customer has to inform the supplier what he wants and when he wants.

EM - The Trade Magazine on Efficient Manufacturing
http://www.efficientmanufacturing.in/pi-india/index.php?StoryID=437

October 2013

An Interesting Book published in 1921
What industrial engineering includes; for industrial executives; 101 things to do, 1001 results others secured
Author: Knoeppel, C.E., & co. (New York). Full book can be downloaded from Archive.Org

Wearable technology for warehouse

Industrial Engineering - History  article published

September 2013

It should be stated here emphatically that there is nothing that can permanently bring about results from scientific management, and the economies that it is possible to effect by it, unless the organisation is supported by the hearty co-operation of the men. Without this there is no scientific management. - Gilbreth in Applied Motion Study, Book. Page No. 29-30


Frugal Engineering - Product design for Bottom of the pyramid consumers - An emerging paradigm. Industrial engineers have to understand and contribute to it as value engineering is an important component of it.      Frugal Engineering - Introduction Note - Bibliography and Case Studies

How to Make a Pareto Chart using Excel Pivot Table

Economically Efficient Design of Products and Production Processes - Presentation Transcript

How to Get Your Trucks Loaded by the End of the Week
http://blog.eisbrennerproductivitygroup.com/blog/bid/331188/process-improvement-plan-tip-of-the-month-loading-trucks?utm_campaign=Loading+Trucks&utm_source=linkedin&utm_medium=social&utm_content=1431326

Walmart ready to give loans to Bangladesh companies for improving safety. It procures from 280 firms in Bangladesh.
http://www.livemint.com/Companies/xtrIzpopi01i9MOrbsu8aN/WalMart-ready-to-loan-50-million-to-Bangladesh-factories.html#!

August 2013

Taylor's Contribution to Industrial Engineering in Shop Management and Scientific Management

F.W. Taylor's Shop Management Classified into Themes

Defintion of Management - F.W. Taylor
Difference in Production Quantity between a first class man and an average man - F.W. Taylor
Developing and Employing First Class People in an Organization
Confronting Soldiering - Slow Pace of Work
Halsey Plan - F.W. Taylor's Comments
Task Management


Plant Layout Optimization - Case Studies
http://www.raymondnet.com/AGRCo-Articles/Presentations/awi2004.pdf


July 2013


31.7.2013
Laboratories to accompany Intro to IE Course
http://iris.lib.neu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=ind_eng_capstone

24.7.2013

North Eastern University's Allen Soyster, former IIE President
________________

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Robots operating CNC Machines
http://www.universal-robots.com/GB/Cases/Sky_Engineering.aspx
Video included in the web page.


Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study
Daniel F. Moreira and Helena M. Ramos
Journal of Energy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 620698, 9 pages
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/energy/2013/620698/

Accounts Payable Automation DHL EXEL Supply Chain - IBM ECM Presentation

________________

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Door Handle Assembly on Conveyor
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May 2013



9.5.2013
An interesting note on productivity of knowledge workers.
Knowledge at Wharton article
Productivity in the modern office: A Matter of impact
http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=3250

10.3.2013
http://www.myopencourses.com/  has some interesting subjects including ergonomics by Prof Debkumar Chakraborty, IIT Guwahati. Check the site.

10.2.2013

An Interesting paper on Innovation and TQM relation. A good matrix of man, machine, material, method, culture was given in the paper


Process Techno - Innovation Using TQM in Developing Countries Empirical Study of Deming Prize Winners

 The companies studied are Indian companies

By Fasil Taddese(1), Hiroshi Osada(2)

1 (Ph.D Student) Graduate School of Innovation Management, Tokyo institute of Technology. Japan. Tel: +81-3-90-9818-6778. E-mail: fasil.t.aa   at m.titech.ac.jp
2 (Ph.D) Professor of Management of Technology. Graduate School of Innovation Management, Tokyo Institute of Technology. Japan. Tel: +81-3-3454-8979. E-mail: hosada  at mot.titech.ac.jp
http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0718-27242010000200005&script=sci_arttext




Productivity Improving Technologies - Wikipedia Article - Good article
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity_improving_technologies_(historical)


1994 Ergonomics Conference Proceedings VI - Good description of methods engineering class room exercise is there in it.
Google Book Link - http://books.google.co.in/books?id=v996lADepAEC


1.2.2013
Manufacturing Design for Productivity - Airconditioner Assembly Line
A good report with good literature review
http://www.belgeler.com/blg/n9o/manufacturing-design-for-productivity-optimization-of-assembly-line-for-air-conditioning-control-panels-verimlilik-iin-retim-tasarimi-klima-kontrol-paneli-montaj-bandi-optimizasyonu

26.12.2012
26 December 1791 - Birthday of Charles Babbage Industrial Engineering Pioneer - http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/03/purpose-and-evolution-of-industrial.html

24.11.2012
News Resources for Food manufacturers to improve their productivity
http://www.spring.gov.sg/NewsEvents/PR/Pages/New-Resources-for-Food-Manufacturers-to-Improve-Productivity-20121012.aspx

25.10.2012
Google Book Link for the book The Dynamics of Progress; Time, Method and Measure
Rationalising production, human activity are discussed in detail in this book
http://books.google.com/books?id=xlzCWmXguwsC

3.9.2012
A good presentation on Basis of Industrial Engineering - Methods Improvement and Work Measurement - 235 slides
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/8ce8ad310b4c2e3f572763fb.html



28.8.2012

USC Viterbi Daniel Epstein Department of Industrial Engineering


With the formation of the new Daniel J. Epstein Institute, the Epstein Department is uniquely positioned to be the thought leader in shifting the industrial engineering profession paradigm from cost and time minimization to one that includes quality of life factors as well.


Stan Settles
Epstein Department Chair


27.8.2012

A Collection - Cost Reduction - Concepts Papers, Cases, Reports and News
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/08/cost-reduction-concept-papers-cases.html
updated


25.8.2012
Addressing the potential rebound effect of efficiency improvement in a polyethelene plastic bag production company.

Daphne Anne Patricio,  Jerrick Christopher Dy, and Dr. Anna Bella Siriban-Manalang
Industrial Engineering Department, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

Dr. Anna Bella Siriban-Manalang is now a very popular speaker in various global forums on lean systems and sustainability.
http://apiems.net/archive/apiems2010/pdf/MM/333.pdf
(emails of writers available in the paper)



25.7.2012
http://eng.rmutsb.ac.th/events/industrial/data/Work%20Study/principles%20of%20motion%20economy.pdf

Part handling aids
soft drop chute
http://www.indiamart.com/novanative-plastix-solutions/part-handling-aids.html

22.7.2012
Physiology of Race Walking
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2012/07/physiology-of-race-walking.html

11.7.2012
Ergonomics - Knol Book  more chapters added to the book

7.7.2012
Birthday of Frank Gilbreth - Our appreciation of Gilbreth for his contribution to  development of a discipline.
Bricklaying System - Book by Gilbreth
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=DL_DjA0Px04C - It is a full view book

Let Industrial Engineering Be Your Guide on the Road to Foodservice Design Efficiency
http://www.fesmag.com/home-highlights/9989-let-industrial-engineering-be-your-guide-on-the-road-to-foodservice-design-efficiency


5.7.2012
University of Tennessee - Global IE student education and project camp
More than 90 students from developing countries will converge on the University of Tennessee campus this month for a College of Engineering program to learn cutting-edge industrial engineering practices  in the area lean systems and gain cultural experiences.
http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2012/jul/03/higher-education-briefs-july-4/

1.7.2012
July 7 is Frank Gilbreth's Birthday. Knowledge day for Industrial Engineering

Interesting Articles


Democracy or Seduction? The Demonization of Scientific Management and the
Deification of Human Relations By Kyle Bruce 2009
http://www.rockarch.org/publications/resrep/bruce.pdf

Critical Theorising, Taylorist Practice, and ILO Chrys Nyland, Confernce paper, 2001
http://www.management.ac.nz/ejrot/cmsconference/2001/Papers/Management%20Knowledge/Nyland.pdf

The Politics of Management Thought: A Case Study of the Harvard Business School and the Human Relations School, Ellen S. OConnor, Stanford,
Academy of Management Review, January 1999
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/259040

Elton Mayo on Hawthorne Studies
http://reussirlem1info.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/eltonmayostudiudecaz.pdf

27.6.2012
An interesting article by Juran
The Taylor System and Quality Control
http://www.juran.com/elifeline/elifefiles/2009/11/Taylor-System-and-Quality-Control_JMJuran-94.pdf

One more article of interest
http://agileviews.chagrinriverconsulting.com/2009/01/02/fred-taylor-and-scientific-management.aspx

Quality Wars - Google Book
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=MpQR01fTv7YC

16.6.2012
Sakamoto, Shigeyasu, "Process Design Concept: A New Approach to IE", Industrial Engineering, March 1989, pp. 31-34.

In this article Sakamoto advocated process design based on the management requirements or the system requirements. My opinion is that designing a system based on requirements is the job of experts in that discipline. For example forging experts would design forging process and welding expert would design welding process. Industrial engineers enter the picture only after the initial visioning of the process was done by the concerned field experts.


15.6.2012
Paper: The New Role of Industrial Engineers may not include Traditional Industrial Engineering Practices
Michael Sanders and Kenneth Morrison
http://search.asee.org/search/fetch;jsessionid=djkl88nc1vdx?url=file%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%2FE%3A%2Fsearch%2Fconference%2F28%2FAC%25202004Paper826.pdf

Competencies for Industrial Engineers
Training.gov.au document
http://training.gov.au/Training/Details/MEM23083A

High Velocity SAS Coding: Application of IE to software Development
http://www.wuss.org/proceedings08/08WUSS%20Proceedings/papers/app/app09.pdf

Implementation of industrial engineering principles to improve a Mercedes Benz vehicle service centre
http://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/10814

Piloting Lean Principles at Intermountain Health Care
http://www.oahhs.org/quality/lean-transformation/200505-1.pdf

14.6.2012
Book Information

Kaizen for Quick Changeover
by Keisuke Arai, Kenichi Sekine
Google book link
http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Kaizen_for_Quick_Changeover.html?id=dKZBFGYJrhY


13.6.2012
2nd International Conference on Industrial Engineering (ICIE) at SVNIT Surat, 20-22 February 2013
http://pithadia.blogspot.in/2012/06/2nd-international-conference-on.html

12.6.2012
Articles in Japanese - Translate using Google translate and read them
Analysis techniques for efficient transportation layout
http://monoist.atmarkit.co.jp/mn/articles/1101/13/news109.html
See all its pages


27.4.2012
____________________ ____________________
Industrial Automation and Control  NPTEL Video Lecture Series Play List
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxMdDsud5vg&feature=BFa&list=PL0A716BE00290E413

19.4.2012
Introduction to Industrial Engineering by Jane M. Fraser is now available at
http://ie.binus.ac.id/2012/03/22/introduction-to-industrial-engineering/

3.4.2012
Productivity improvement initiatives of Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority, Pakistan

 20.3.2012

Miniature V-8 engines
Industrial engineering students are to be encouraged to take up similar production activities on hobby basis.


17.3.2012

Funding of Value Engineering Projects through Corporate versus Business Unit Level - Cisco case study - 2008 - MS thesis  MIT

Cost Analysis for Light Duty Vehicles - Analysis for EPA - 2009 analysis


8.11.2011

Twinkle, Twinkle India's NITIE  Poem incorporating IE tools and principles

Process action teams at Boeing article 2007 Boeing News

Engineering Ergonomics at Boeing article 2007 Boeing News
Mechanism of ballistic movement
Ph d Thesis

29.6.2011

What is Industrial Engineering? Article By KVSSNRao
What is Industrial Engineering? Videos
What is industrial engineering? Going's Answer in 1911 (Summary)
What is industrial engineering? Going's Explanation in 1911 (Full chapter)

What is industrial engineering?
1934 article
https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/35164/OS_ENG_v18_i02_007.pdf?sequence=3

Evolution of Industrial Engineering
Link to access the article
NC State University article.
Interesting point. Emphasizes discrete mathematics

26.6.2011
Hindu education plus article on IE and IE B.Tech and M.Tech programmes in India
http://www.hindu.com/edu/2008/07/08/stories/2008070850090300.htm

New knols


15.5.2011
2011 - Knol Day of Economics - 15th May - Birthday of Paul Samuelson
Economics is an important for industrial engineers.

Industrial engineering directs the efficient conduct of manufacturing, construction, transportation, or even commercial enterprises of any undertaking, indeed in which human labor is directed to accomplishing any kind of work . Industrial engineering has drawn upon mechanical engineering, upon economics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, accountancy, to fuse from these older sciences a distinct body of science of its own . It is the inclusion of the economic and the human elements especially that differentiates industrial engineering from the older established branches of the profession (Going, 1911)

IEs have to remember economists and their contribution to improving engineering economics.


Emmy Aware Winning Video on Industrial Engineering from University of Buffalo.

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZpPDoLX_9K4

Article on the video on IIE website
http://www.iienet2.org/details.aspx?id=24404
___________________


26.4.2011
Department of Industrial Engineering, ICAI Engineering School, Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid
http://esd.mit.edu/careers/icai-posting.pdf  (Job advertisemet in 2009)
3.3.2011
Software for Motion Economy

Generating Economic Motion Plans for Manual Operations - Masters Thesis (Computer Engineering)
http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/12606524/index.pdf


6.2.2011

IE Conference, India, February 2011

West Bengal University of Technology (WBUT)
BF 142 , Sector-1, Salt Lake City,
Kolkata 700064,

The 1st National Conference on Industrial Engineering (NCIE-2011) is being organized by the Department of Industrial Engineering & Management at West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata India. The focus of the conference is on recent advances in the area of Industrial Engineering & Management in improving the productivity of industrial firms.

Paper Submission Deadline: 5th February 2011
Registration Deadline: 12th February 2011
Conference Date: 17th and 18th February 2011


Industrial Engineering Knol Books



1.11.2010
---------------
 New Concept to be explored
---------------

6.2.2010

Interesting links on value engineering

DoD value engineering handbook

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Europe District value engineering program identified more than $150 million in potential savings on projects in fiscal 2009 – the most ever identified in a fiscal year to date.
The biggest contributors to the windfall include $21 million in accepted savings from a Missile Defense Agency site in Poland and $18 million in potential savings from a family housing project at Wiesbaden.

23.1.2010

Recent Knols Posted


4.12.2009
A case study of use to industrial engineers
Handling Plastics in a Materials Recovery Facility Appendix A
Optimization of Actual Operations
Appendix A Material Recovery Facility Case Studies
28.9.2009

Job announcement for Industrial Engineering Manager in Linkedin

Industrial Engineering Manager
Extensive Meat Background (5-10 Years) with experience in Time and Motion Studies. It is a Corporate Position and is based out in KY.
Posted in linkedin around 22.8.2009
13.7.2009

Task Analysis

A small presentation on task analysis by Prof. Alan Hedge, Cornell University, 2008


Message from a Past IIE President - December 2008


Article "Leading the Way: The Future of Industrial Engineering is in our Hands", by Louis Martin-Vega, Dean of Engineering at North Carolina State University, Industrial Engineer, December 2008.

He outlined four challenges for the profession

1. All IEs need to expand their roles as advocates of IE.
2. All IEs have to try harder to intersect with sister engineering disciplines.
3. Increase domain expertise in emerging areas like energy and environment managment.
4. Use modern educational tools in IE curriculums.




BOOKS

Ergonomics in manufacturing

 By Waldemar Karwowski, Gavriel Salvendy
3/6/2009

Industrial Engineering Blogs

3/6/2009

Knols on Industrial Engineering

Written by

Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.


Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Industrial Engineering Strategy

Industrial engineering is profit engineering. If a company is not employing industrial engineering it is unnecessarily foregoing profits inherent in the products that it developed and designed to the performance satisfaction of good number of users. Profit conscious managers and owners have to understand and employ industrial engineering to achieve the full potential of their products.

What are your strategic decisions related to industrial engineering function?

1. What is your productivity/Efficiency Improvement - Cost Reduction goal?

2. Are you planning to realize experience curve effect benefits?

3. How much of the cost reduction - productivity improvement should come from specialist industrial engineers and other engineers and managers?

4. What will be the ratio of industrial engineers to other engineers and managers?

5. What bottlenecks or limiting factors have you identified in you facilities?

6. What techniques are going to receive special emphasis?

7. What is your training plan for specialist industrial engineers and other engineers and managers?

8. What is the top management attention to industrial engineering - productivity improvement - cost reduction activity?

9. What is the research and development budget for IE activity?



1. What is your productivity/Efficiency Improvement - Cost Reduction goal?

Total productivity management promoted by Japan Management Association, covered as a chapter in the Maynard Handbook (5th Edition) advocates setting up targets for cost reduction and productivity improvement. Similarly, Yamashina talks of manufacturing cost reduction deployment as a strategic decision in his world class manufacturing implementation. Total industrial engineering is one of the pillars of WCM promoted by Yamashina.

2. Are you planning to realize experience curve effect benefits?

Experience or learning curve effect is identified as one of the strategic cost drivers by strategic management literature in implementing cost leadership strategy (Creating and Executing Strategy: The Quest for Competitive Advantage, 14 Edition, Arthur Thompson Jr., A.J. Strickland, John E. Gamble and Arun K Jain, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006  p.119). Companies have to determine the slope of their learning curve and assess whether it is in line with the industry and have to take actions to improve learning in organization. Hence they have to plan to realize the experience curve effect.

3. How much of the cost reduction - productivity improvement should come from specialist industrial engineers and other engineers and managers?

F.W. Taylor (1911)  identified that production work was being carried out without the support adequate science. Taylor developed science of machine working as well as manual working in certain activities and developed his scientific management thought and promoted industrial engineering as a subject and as a full discipline in engineering institutions.  He recommended specially educated and trained industrial engineers to take up the work of developing science in various production activities and improvement of production processes using the science. According to Taylor, foreman at that time was already overloaded and similar is the case with senior production managers also as they were working without the support of staff specialists.

By 1930s, the situation changed. Alan Mogensen identified that processes redesigned by industrial engineering using the recent discovered science can further be improved by the involving operators and supervisors as they observe many minor improvement opportunities in the doing the work day after day. He came out with work simplification program to involve operators, supervisors and engineers in operation/process improvement. According to Allen Mogensen, Work Simplification is the organized use of
common sense — on the part of everyone Involved — to find easier  and better ways of doing work.

Toyota Motors made exemplary use of utilizing the knowledge of every body in the production system to improve processes and operations. Now companies have a policy choice to make. What proportion of planned cost reduction will come from science/analysis based projects from industrial engineers and what proportion will come from line organization. The targets have to be included in the budgets of the various departments accordingly.



4. What will be the ratio of industrial engineers to other engineers and managers?

This decision is contingent of the decision above. The company has to employ some industrial engineers to promote total industrial engineering. Above that the number of IEs to be employed and their engineering background, and functional experience depends on the company's policy decisions regarding the planned cost reduction and responsibility given to IE and line departments.


5. What bottlenecks or limiting factors have you identified in you facilities?

Manufacturing cost reduction deployment is a topic in project appraisal chapter of financial management books as well as engineering economics and managerial economics books. They recognize that certain project proposals contain cost reduction a the benefit of the project. Yamashina in his WCM explicits recognizes cost reduction projects as a major input into the budgeting process and comes out with a mathematical model to select a cost reduction project portfolio for the coming period. In this context, company has to identify its limiting factors or bottlenecks whose productivity has to be improved by employing industrial engineering techniques. Based on this identification, the company personnel may come up with productivity improvement projects that make a significant improvement in the operation of the bottleneck facilities.


6. What techniques are going to receive special emphasis?

IE techniques are continuously refined and new techniques are being developed. The company has to opportunity of taking decisions on the intensive use of some techniques during the coming periods. For example many companies in India are now focusing on six sigma and industrial engineering techniques named as lean manufacturing or Toyota Production System to realize cost reduction and productivity improvement.



7. What is your training plan for specialist industrial engineers and other engineers and managers?

Based on the strategic decisions in the area of industrial engineering, the company has to conduct training programs to sensitize the employees on the need to use specified techniques and provide skills to those employees who presently do not have them. There is always a need to share recent success stories within the company as well as from other companies.


8. What is the top management attention to industrial engineering - productivity improvement - cost reduction activity?

If productivity is a strategic issue (it is for many companies as world's top companies declare their productivity improvement and cost reduction targets - Volkswagen and Coca Cola in 2014), top management has to participated in planning, organizing, resourcing, directing and controlling productivity improvement. They need to allocate time and participate in various activities related to productivity. Long time back, when Birla group was introducing WCM, in the first work shop of defect or waste identification, it was said that K.K. Birla, the chairman of the group himself participated to observe the work place and identify waste. Motilal Oswal, Motilal Oswal Securities Limited was another CEO, who participates in many training programmes organized by the company with enthusiasm.


9. What is the research and development budget for IE activity?

If companies have to use industrial engineering and enjoy the increased profits, they have to contribute to its theoretical development and first time application of the theory in company systems. Theoretical development is referred to as research and first time application is referred to as development. While, the big companies have a major responsibility to fund big projects, even smaller companies can contribute through their industry associations, industrial engineering professional organizations. In the context, it is important to note that the 2014 National Conference on Industrial Engineering by NITIE, was sponsored by BHEL, RCF, Neyveli Lignite Corporation and  Adani Gas Ltd.