Thursday, February 21, 2019

Marketing "Industrial Engineering"



Why industrial engineers have to study marketing management?



Industrial engineers have to study marketing because they have to market "Industrial Engineering."  Because they have to market industrial engineering services.  They can create demand for their services only by marketing them.

What is marketing? One view


Definition of American Marketing Association

Marketing (Management) is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals.


According to the definition marketing is applicable to ideas, goods and services. What is industrial engineering?  Is it an idea or a bundle of services? Whether it is an idea or bundle of services marketing is applicable to it.

Does industrial engineering satisfy needs, wants and goals of individuals or organization?

The answer has to be yes from you. Do you agree or not?

The definition says marketing plans the conception of the idea or service.  So to develop the idea or service of industrial engineering on an ongoing basis requires the support of marketing or marketing knowledge.

What can you get as a return for your industrial engineering services? Marketing helps you in giving an answer or getting an answer.

How do you promote industrial engineering services in your target market segment? Marketing helps you in finding the answer.

Do you know? What is the target segment of F.W. Taylor when he first presented his paper "Piece Rate System" in 1895?

How do you solicit customers for IE services? Marketing will provide the support.

Do you know there is an idea called internal marketing? How to market "industrial engineering" internally in an organization? Marketing may provide the answer.

While the above description relates to marketing "industrial engineering" services, productivity engineering has customer orientation right from the beginning. Productivity engineering has linked its growth to the marketing of goods and services and therefore productivity engineers have to understand marketing implications of their productivity efforts through interaction and interface with marketing persons.


Read in more detail

The Marketing Concept - Kotler
Marketing Management Revision Article Series

Saturday, February 16, 2019

Machines and Tools Related Methods Efficiency Analysis - Machine Work Study


Questions on Machine, Equipment and  Tools:  The tools  and equipment used to perform the operation needs to analysed logically. The following questions are the sort that will lead to suggested improvements:

1. Is the machine tool best suited to the performance of the operation of all tools available?

2. Would the purchase of a better machine be justified?

3. Can the work be held in the machine by other means to better advantage?

4. Should a vise be used?

5. Should a jig be used?

6. Should clamps be used?

7. Is the jig design good from a motion-economy standpoint?

8. Can the part be inserted and removed quickly from the jig?

9. Would quick-acting cam-actuated tightening mechanisms be desirable on vise, jig, or clamps?

10. Can ejectors for automatically removing part when vise or jig is opened be installed?

11. Is chuck of best type for the purpose?

12. Would special jaws be better?

13. Should a multiple fixture be provided?

14. Should duplicate holding means be provided so that one may be loaded while machine is making a cut on a part held in the other?

15. Are the cutters proper?

16. Should high-seed steel or cemented carbide be used?

17. Are tools properly ground?

18. Is the necessary accuracy readily obtainable with tool and fixture equipment available?

10. Are hand tools pre-positioned ?

20. Are hand tools best suited to purpose?

21. Will ratchet, spiral, or power-driven tools save time?

22. Are all operators provided with the same tools?

23. Can a special tool be made to improve the operation?

24. If accurate work is necessary, are proper gages or other measuring instruments provided?

25. Are gages or other measuring instruments checked for accuracy from time to time?

Because of the wide variety of tools available for different kinds of work, this list could be extended almost indefinitely with specific questions. Foundries, forge shops, processing industries, assembly plants, and so on all have different kinds of tools, and different questions might be asked in each case. The list given above, drawn up principally and by no means completely for machine work, will indicate the kind of searching, suggestive questions that should be asked. A special list might well be drawn up by each individual plant to cover the kind of tools that might be advantageously applied upon its own work.

Tool Design. The matter of tools is one that has received a good deal of attention, because a good tool is necessary to do a good job. Therefore, tools that function properly are found on the majority of operations that the methods efficiency engineer studies. If the tool did not function properly, it would not be used. Of course, in some shops where the matter of tools does not receive the proper attention, operations are encountered on which the operator is turning out passable work in spite of his tools rather than because of them.

For the most part, however, it may be said that the tools do function properly from the standpoint of the finished job. Whether or not they function properly from a motion-economy standpoint is another matter. The tool designer is usually more concerned with making a tool that will do a certain job than he is with the motions that will be required to operate it. Therefore, unless he has made a study of the principles of methods engineering or has had the importance of motion economy impressed upon him in some other way, it is probably safe to say that the motions required to operate the tool are the last thing he thinks of.

As a result, tools are designed and built that require much more time to use than they should. The common machine vise is a good example. The quick-acting vise is far superior. On machining operations where the cutting time is short, it will save 20 to 40 per cent of the total operation time. The jaws of the vise are cam-actuated. They are tightened by moving the two levers in opposite directions which conforms to the principles of motion economy. They hold securely without hammering on the levers. They are adjustable to a variety, of sizes of work. In short, they possess many real advantages over the standard vise.

Suggestions that will improve the quickness of operation of tools should be made to tool designers as they are conceived. If they are presented with a summary of the yearly saving in dollars and cents that they will effect, interest in better tool design from a use-time standpoint will be aroused. This is very desirable, for tool designers as a group are clever arid ingenious, and if the importance of reducing the time required to operate tools Is clearly demonstrated, they will be able to assist materially toward this end by producing more suitable designs.

Hand Tools. There is a tendency to pay too little attention to the hand tools used upon even the more repetitive operations. To many, a screw driver is a screw driver, and if it fits the slot in the screw to be driven, it is considered satisfactory. This is far from being the case, however. Screw drivers vary widely in design, and some are more suitable than others. Screw drivers come in a number of different styles. There are the solid screw drivers, the ratchet screw drivers, the spiral screw drivers, and the various types of power-driven screw driyers. Even the variation among screw drivers of a given type is tremendous. They vary in size, of course, but in addition they vary in about every other way imaginable. The handles vary in diameter, length, cross section, shape, and nature of gripping surface. Points are wide, narrow, blunt, sharp, taper toward the point like a wedge, or are narrower right above the point than at the point. A lately introduced type has a special point to fit a special screwhead which offers many advantages.

When all these factors are considered, the wide variation in even such a simple tool as a screw driver becomes apparent.

There is, of course, one screw driver that is better for a given application than any other. For medium work with the conventional screwhead if a solid screw driver is to be used, the one with the largest cylindrical handle which can be comfortably grasped by the operator should be chosen. The handle should, of course, be fluted to prevent slipping. The diameter of the handle will vary with the size of the operator's hand, but two or three standard sizes are sufficient for most hands. The diameter of the handle should be large, because the larger the handle within the limits of the human hand, the more easily can a given torque be applied. To prevent slipping, the point should not be wedge-shaped but should be slightly larger at the point than just above it. Few screw drivers commonly encountered in industry meet these simple specifications.

If many screws have to be driven, a ratchet, spiral, or power-driven screw driver can often be used to good advantage. If many screws of the same size are to be driven, a piece of hardened tubing slipped over the end of the screw-driver point will make it much easier to locate the screw driver in the slot.

The same sort of searching analysis can be made for every type of hand tool used. Wrenches, hammers, chisels, saws, scissors, knives, pliers, and drills all come in a great variety of styles. Standardization on a limited number of the better styles within a plant will tend to prevent the use of the more inefficient tools. Tests must be made to determine which styles are actually the most efficient, however, for the judgment of the operators cannot be relied upon. A man will prefer a certain tool because of its apparent strength, the color of its handle, its pleasing appearance, or its familiarity. Unbiased tests are much more reliable.

Judgment must be used, of course, in determining the amount of time that can economically be spent in analyzing the tools used on any one job. Unless a job is highly repetitive, it will not pay to try to discover the best screw driver for that particular job. Instead, the whole subject of hand tools including screw drivers may be investigated in a general way, and good tools may be adopted for standard use. The tool supply should be plentiful, for it is not uncommon to see operators not only using the wrong size of tool, but also using a chisel for a hammer or a screw driver for a crude chisel merely because the proper tool is not available. An insufficient supply of proper tools may reduce the amount expended for tools, but it will prove costly in the long run.

Source: Operation Analysis by Maynard
Full Knol Book - Method Study: Methods Efficiency Engineering - Knol Book

Modern Developments in Tools

2001

Duraspin Screw Fastening System increases productivity by 31%.
https://www.rsmeans.com/consulting/Senco.pdf


Updated 17 February 2019,  4 July 2015
First published 23 Nov 2011

The Link between Productivity and Sustainability - Circular Economy Concept



Proposition: Productivity improvement helps in preventing environmental degradation and promoting sustainability (planet, profits and people). 


The current efforts to prevent environmental degradation, to promote sustainability, and circular economy identify productivity improvement as one of the solutions to the problem They call for increased productivity and resource efficiency. Industrial engineers, productivity professionals in engineering have to respond to the demand and deliver the required services in various engineering based sectors of the economy. Productivity improvement of material, energy, information systems, machines and even labor (man) contribute to sustainability.

To achieve sustainable development, promoting productivity is a key issue.

For green transformations which aim to decouple the direct connection between human wellbeing, resource use and environmental degradation, the issue of improving resource productivity becomes increasingly important. Resource productivity is the quantity of a good or service that is obtained through the expenditure of a unit of resource.

According to the United Nations Environment Programme, Japan uses only 0.3 kg of materials per 1 dollar of its GDP, compared to 6 kg in China, 4 kg in India and 9 kg in Vietnam.

What is the link between productivity, circular economy and the SDGs?
22 May 2017
Patrick Schröder
Research Fellow
Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.
https://www.ids.ac.uk/opinions/what-is-the-link-between-productivity-circular-economy-and-the-sdgs/



Supporting (and removing obstacles to) circular economy business models can provide a triple win:

increasing productivity and economic growth
improving the quality and quantity of employment
saving lives, by reducing environmental impacts such as water pollution, air pollution and climate change.

Virtuous Circle: How the Circular Economy Can Create Jobs and Save Lives in Low and Middle-income Countries
29 August 2016
https://www.ids.ac.uk/publications/virtuous-circle-how-the-circular-economy-can-create-jobs-and-save-lives-in-low-and-middle-income-countries/


Increasing productivity key to revive growth and support sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific
Asia Pacific needs to achieve major productivity gains to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and achieve inclusive growth -  UN ESCAP executive secretary Shamshad Akhtar.
28 April 2016
https://www.eco-business.com/opinion/increasing-productivity-key-to-revive-growth-and-support-sustainable-development-in-asia-and-the-pacific/

Full chapter: Increasing productivity for reviving economic growth and supporting
sustainable development - UNESCAP
https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Chapter3_Survey2016_1_2.pdf

There are a number of practical steps that have the potential to improve decision making in this context

They involve improving:
the efficiency of resource use
our understanding of ecological systems
our ability to measure the capital stock.
Markulev, A. and Long, A. 2013 On sustainability: an economic approach, Staff Research Note, Productivity Commission, Canberra.
https://www.pc.gov.au/research/supporting/sustainability


Wuppertal Institute Research Project

"The Wuppertal Institute undertakes research and develops models, strategies and instruments for transitions to a sustainable development at local, national and international level. Sustainability research at the Wuppertal Institute focuses on the resources, climate and energy related challenges and their relation to economy and society. Special emphasis is put on analysing and stimulating innovations that decouple economic growth and wealth from natural resource use."

Increase of Resource Productivity as a Core Strategy for Sustainable Development

07/2005 - 06/2007

 The German Sustainability Strategy and the EU Sustainability Strategy alike intend to focus on an increase of resource productivity. Resource productivity is also an important factor for increasing competitiveness, innovations, environmental protection, and employment.

The project shall develop options on how to reconfigure the framework of economic action in connection with entrepreneurial and sectoral strategies aiming to result in a radical increase of resource productivity.

Three main theses constitute the project's background:

Thesis 1:
A significant increase of resource productivity requires an abolishment of counterproductive incentive structures and the establishment of supporting incentive systems instead. It has to be analysed where favourable incentives should be enforced and where, as far as possible, counterproductive shifting effects, e.g. negative rebound effects have to be reduced. The combination of financial, legal and informational incentives is crucial.

Thesis 2:
Parts of the economy actively work on the increase of resource productivity. Few successes of pioneers, however, do not suffice for followers and diffusion effects, the more so as signals of the economic framework are not precise. The task is to develop increase rates of resource productivity such as those realised in labour productivity systematically.


Thesis 3:
A new incentive structure is required for the increase of resource productivity. Its dynamic is essentially spurred by the private economy. It generates positive macroeconomic effects and minimises intersectoral and interregional shifting of environmental damages at the same time.

Work packages:

Advancement of information systems for the measuring of resource productivity
Identification of restraints, success factors and potentials beyond current trends
Development of incentive structures and instruments
Assessment of hypothetical microeconomic and sectoral enhancement potentials of resource productivity.
https://wupperinst.org/en/p/wi/p/s/pd/85/



Lightweighting - Material Productivity Improvement Method
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2019/02/lightweighting-material-productivity.html

Machine Utilization - Efficiency - Productivity - Improvement - Information Board and Bibliography






Turning Process

Possible Defects - Design Rules - Cost Drivers
https://www.custompartnet.com/wu/turning


Milling Process
Possible Defects - Design Rules - Cost Drivers
https://www.custompartnet.com/wu/milling






AMP for Machine Performance Evaluation and Improvement
Advanced Manufacturing Media
__________________


__________________



Mazak iSMART Factory Initiative Spreads to Japan Plant
July 13, 2017 by Mazak Corp. - Press Release

The next-generation iSMART Factory

These next-generation factories use advanced manufacturing cells and systems together with full digital integration to achieve free-flow data sharing in terms of process control and operation monitoring. In the Mazak iSMART Factory, the MTConnect  open communications protocol works with process support software and provides connectivity and the capability to monitor and then harvest data from all the different production floor machines, cells, devices and processes.


Mazak reports that the firm experienced double-digit increases in productivity and machine utilization in each facility immediately after the implementation of digital process monitoring through MTConnect and Mazak's SmartBox technology.” For the Oguchi Mazak iSMART Factory, the MTConnect open protocol allows the plant to use its own in-house cyber monitoring software. This software then works conjunction with Mazak’s Smooth Monitoring software so the plant can monitor operations and optimize production efficiency.
http://advancedmanufacturing.org/mazak-ismart-factory-initiative-spreads-japan-plant/

Mazak, Merlin, MT Connect
2015

MTConnect is an open-source, royalty- free manufacturing protocol that easily connects devices and systems from different suppliers to capture and share information in a common format, such as XML. By establishing an open and extensible channel of communication for plug-and-play interconnectivity between devices, equipment, and systems, MTConnect allows sources to exchange and understand each other’s data. Many key machine manufacturers support the protocol. This raw data is to be read and analyzed to turn it into more actionable information using additional software that translates the machine data into graphic reports including dashboards that provide information on the current performance of cells, departments, and overall plants and the targets. These comparisons can be done for smaller and smaller periods so that fabricators/production shops react and solve problems early to be on target.

The benefits of implementing these analytics include:


Productivity problems can be identified fast—accelerating resolution.
Plant-wide productivity typically increases by 10 to 50 percent.
Dashboard metrics can be available for everyone on the shop floor to see.

Merlin is  an industrial Internet platform for monitoring machines and equipment. Merlin is designed to monitor every machine in a shop--CNC machines, non-CNC machines, fabrication centers, and manual processes—providing information tied together in a production process manufacturing execution system.

Merlin uses various protocols (MTConnect, FANUC, Focas2, OPC, to name a few) to access relevant signals and monitors all machines and equipment in a plant.

Merlin using MTConnect is installed at Mazak Corp.’s machine tool manufacturing facility in Florence, Ky. The company employs about 750 people has a facility of about 800,000 sq. ft with a variety of machines and equipment  including laser cutting, press brake bending, welding, finishing, and equipment for other fabrication processes. It produces turning centers, multitasking machines, and vertical machining centers, including 5-axis models.



The Kentucky iSMART Factory  provides  high quality and reliable products through its Production-On-Demand practice. The comprehensive machine monitoring system provides secure reporting for shop floor and the plant-wide communication provides truly powerful results. The claims that
simply making basic dashboards visible on the shop floor increased productivity by roughly 20 percent. Machines that are stopped, waiting for materials or programs, are color-coded red on the dashboards and the entire plant comes to know of them. So, there are more responsive actions in the entire plant to make them work again as early as possible. Machine monitoring delivers instantaneous, automatic, and timed proactive e-mail and text alerts to minimize downtime. Detailed analyses of downtime root causes point to areas requiring more operator training. Identification and removal of unnecessary optional stops helps recover lost production time.

Benefits of implementing MTConnect and Merlin at Mazak included a 42 percent improvement in machine utilization.
http://www.canadianmetalworking.com/article/management/entering-a-new-information-age-for-machine-utilization


Tradeoff between Machine Utilization and Inventory


Should machine be idle or inventory stagnate.

Economics will decide the right decision. But what the Japanese have done is there optimized an alternative strategy. The alternative strategy of low inventory was optimized by reducing the need for inventories. Set up times were reduced and zero defects programme was implemented successfully that made small lots economically feasible. Hence there was no need to worry about machine utilization. It can be idle if there is no customer demand.  Produce when needed became the principle but machine has to be available when needed. So availability of the machine to satisfy the customer demand in the shortest planned time became the objective.


Bibliography

2017

http://www.mmsonline.com/articles/look-beyond-machine-utilization-when-installing-a-machine-monitoring-system


2010
Lessons in Machine Effectiveness Versus Efficiency
by Darrell Casey, Celerant Consulting
http://www.peoriamagazines.com/ibi/2010/mar/lessons-machine-effectiveness-versus-efficiency


Updated on 17 February 2019, 18 July 2017


Lightweighting - Material Productivity Improvement Method


Dec 2018

Lightweighting as method and technology is mature enough now to make a significant impact on manufacturing of cars and air planes and thus help the planet also in promoting less resource consumption. It is a material productivity improvement method.



Gregory E. Peterson is a  principal materials engineer for the Michigan Manufacturing Technology Center, a consulting organization that helps manufactur­ers improve profits and performance.

The MMTC and Peterson were asked in 2017 to find a lighter alternative to the C2’s steel frame for  and produced a composite frame comprising ultra high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber. It weighs 33% (or 89 lb.) less. The frame is also 450% stronger. Thus , the Michigan Manufacturing Technol­ogy Center helped develop an aftermarket Corvette (C2) frame that is lighter and stronger than the original.

The amount of fiberglass in the Corvette has given way to more complex, even lighter composite materials. The Formula One engineers create vehicles that can rocket to 62 mph in about 1.7 seconds and weigh less than 2 tons. They’re so good at lightweighting they have a minimum weight of 1,618 lb.

A thumb rule of  lightweighting is that a 10% weight reduction leads to a 6% to 7% increase in fuel economy.

There are more ways to make cars lighter nowadays. The parts are changing in shape and composition, blending various metals and carbon fiber reinforced plastic, relying on next-gen design software and techniques such as additive manufacturing.

If the structure becomes lighter, other elements do as well, from the suspension to the brakes to the tires.

Apart from speed, more and more the drive is for better fuel economy, or more recently increased range on an electric vehicle. The need to reduce your carbon footprint because governments around the world are demanding it is also promoting lightweighting projects.


Now for various reasons, lightweighting has become a top priority of carmakers. 

Lightweighting could potentially reduce vehicle mass by half and boost fuel efficiency by 35%. That’s dramatic; it will take a lot of work.

Innovations in metallurgy, material science and 3D-printing are leading the acceleration.


Aluminum provides a 40% to 45% mass improvement over steel. In 2015, Ford began making its bestselling F-150 pickup truck body out of aluminum, lightening it by 700 lb.

  LIFT (Lightweight Innovations for Tomorrow) Consortium is a public-private partnership of universities, manufacturers and the U.S. Navy’s Office of Naval Research. 

There is  the problem of  cost in  implementing light weight  materials. Traditional carbon steel is currently priced around $0.40/lb., and aluminum more than doubles carbon steel’s price at $0.88.

LIFT, part of the Manufacturing USA network, exists to find the right lightweight materials and way to implement them in the subsequent manufacturing processes. Their statement is that you want to get in the range of about $2 incremental cost for every pound saved. Otherwise, it’s really not a good value for the customer. 

Aluminum sheet now falls within this range, as does the third generation of advanced high-strength steel. AHSS  can reduce weight by 25%-39% over conventional steel. Aluminum has less mass than AHSS, but is weaker and is more expensive. Aluminum is lighter than Advanced High-Strength Steel, but costs more. AHSS seems to have the edge in emissions when comparing well-to-wheel scores. A life cycle assessment model by the WSA found that AHSS reduced at best 6,600 lb. of CO², while aluminum was 3,300. But recycling of aluminum is one-tenth of the energy of getting it out of ground and there’s a lot available. This may give preference to aluminum.

Magnesium is an up-and-coming metal. It costs $2.10/lb. but can reach up to 60% in weight savings.

The real solution from LIFT’s perspective will be found when the perfect combination of these metals (and plastics and carbon fiber) are implemented. In each scenario they first tinker with the array of prospective materials to create optimal strength, safety and fuel economy. Then they have to ensure the different metals don’t negatively interact

The Corvette frame developed by MMTC, which will be commercialized by a low-volume manufacturer in Michigan, used continuous bonds with structural adhesives, while being 450% stiffer in bending, is easier to manufacture, and requires inexpensive tooling and minimal labor.

High (Carbon) Fiber 

“Carbon fiber has the best potential for lightweighting, but takes a lot of energy.
Carbon fiber is 55% lighter than carbon steel and can be ten times stronger, but the limiting factor is cost. Despite the price, which could be up to $500/lb., aerospace manufacturers value the performance and use it. Half of the Airbus A350 XWB airliner’s total weight is carbon fiber reinforced plastic. Formula One, where expense always comes in a distant second to performance, also relies heavily on the material.

A new low-cost carbon fiber is available at $5/lb. Engineers are now figuring out how to attain the high throughput the auto industry needs. A Boeing or Airbus can take several hours to create one part. The goal is to reach 90 seconds to make a carbon fiber lift gate or hood.

The cycle time is limiting CFRP at BMW. The i3 and i8 hybrid sports cars had been made out of CFRP and could get up to 76 mpg. But for the new iNext cars are produced in Din­golfing, Germany, where the cycle times are 60 seconds, BMW has to  revert back to a metal frame. 


The carbon fiber industry will be worth about $6.1 billion in 2023, more than double the 2017 value, according to a markting research estimate. 

The education of people involved in the manufacturing has to be in using fibres. With composites, you’re concerned with how the fibers are aligned, the thermoset system like epoxy, temperature, and the time exposed to that temperature to achieve the properties you want.


A New Design Method 

Climate change is real. A driving force behind GM’s is the vision of a future with zero crashes, zero emissions and zero congestion.

Why does a seat belt bracket look the way it does? Because of machining requirements. But what if machining was re­placed by additive manufacturing?

A revolutionary new approach GM starts with is Autodesk’s generative design software, an engineering software tool that uses artificial intelligence and cloud computing to manifest dozens to hundreds of possible models based on physical requirements. For a bracket, it must attach at certain lengths and support specific loads, AI eliminates material that was sub-optimized only for the manufacturing process.

Generative design opens up a whole new set of lightweighting opportunities. 
The end result that GM achieved is a stainless-steel bracket that looks more like a human knee, smoother with ligament-like supports, as opposed to a robust, square shape comprised of eight welded pieces. The new version is also 40% lighter and 20% stronger.


General Motors - Generative Design
uploaded by Autodesk ___________________


___________________


https://www.industryweek.com/technology-and-iiot/road-lightweighting-tech-materials-leading-way

Design for Additive Manufacturing - Bibliography
Design for 3D Printing - Additive Manufacturing - Product Industrial Engineering - Article - Paper Collection

Design for Productivity - Productivity Engineering - Product Industrial Engineering
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2019/02/design-for-productivity.html
____________________

____________________



____________________

____________________



_____________________


_____________________

Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering



Process Analysis, Operation Analysis and Method Study are the popularly known methods in Process Industrial Engineering. Japanese industrial engineering improvements brought out new techniques like SMED, Poka Yoke, 5S and Seven Waste model etc.

The term 'Operations Analysis" was used by James Anderson in his book on Industrial Engineering published in 1928. He said operation analysis is the short form for long form "Job Standardization, Motion Study and Time Study."

 The job standardization implies what Taylor did with machine tools before he undertook study of operator's activities and movements.

H.B. Maynard has authored a full book on operation analysis.

The First Step


The first step in the study of any process/job is to make a thorough analysis by resolving it into its component parts or elements. Each part or element may then be considered separately, and the study of the process thus becomes a series of fairly simple problems.

A process consists of operations. In process analysis, each operation is examined to rationalize it for doing it as well as doing it at that step in the sequence of operations.  Eliminate, combine, and rearrange (ECR) analysis is done for each operation of the process. In a way, it is an examination of the division of a process into operations to improve the efficiency of the process.

During primary analysis of an operation, the operation is broken down into such general factors as material, inspection requirements, equipment & tools, man  and working conditions. Each one of these factors is then examined minutely and critically in order to discover possibilities for improvement. This kind of analytical work of the operation is covered by the term " operation analysis." As we know man's activities are examined using "motion study."

For examining the factors that go into an operation, more detailed methods are available. Motion study, for example,  is 'focused on the method of the operator.

Approach to Operation Analysis


During the training for operation analysis, number of examples of operation analysis and consequent improvement of the operations have to be given to develop favorable attitude in operation analysts and its team members toward potential of operation analysis to improve productivity and reduce cost.

Operations can be improved periodically due to increased technical knowledge and its application possibilities.  In, this connection, the history of a certain bench operation furnishes an excellent and by no means uncommon illustration of this point (Maynard). The job originally was done on day-work, and past production records showed that the time taken per part was 0.0140 hour, or slightly less than 1 minute. The job was time-studied and put on an incentive basis with an allowance of 0.0082 hour. The operator worked made a fair bonus on this job, and the feeling existed for some tune that the proper method was being followed.

After the operation had been set up for 6 months, however, a suggestion for improvement was advanced say by the foreman. The suggestion was not based upon systematic analysis but rather was the result of inspiration. The suggestion was put into effect;  the job was restudied, an allowance of 0.0062 hour was set. This last method was followed for 6 months more, when another suggestion, also of the inspirational type, was advanced. It was adopted, and a new time value of 0.0044 hour was established.

The job was a prominent one, and the improvements attracted considerable attention. The job was selected for detailed motion study. A completely new method was devised which followed the principles of correct motion practices. The new method was time-studied and standard time of 0.0013 hour was set.

The operation was thus improved to an extent where the time required was only approximately one-eleventh of that taken at first on the old day-work basis.   An improvement of such great magnitude justifies the statement that the latest method is a very good method; but in view of the past history of the job, it would be unwise to say that the best method has been attained.

As the result of many similar experiences, methods engineers are using the terms  "the best method yet devised"  implying recognition of the fact that further improvement may be possible (Even Gilbreth stressed this point). Carrying this thought to a logical conclusion, the .best method of doing an operation from a labor-economy standpoint is reached only when the man-machine time required has been reduced to zero. Until this point has been reached, further improvement is always possible.

This example  furnishes a foundation for the approach to operation analysis. If it is clearly recognized, it insures an open mind. It inspires further attacks from different angles and leads to progress.

The Questioning Attitude.


An open mind paves the way for successful analytical work, The analyst must take the initiative in originating suggestions himself, answering them and involving others in answering them. 

Other things being equal, the greatest amount of originality or creativity is evinced by those who have an inquiring turn of mind.  Improvements come from first examining what is with an open mind and then inquiring into what might be.

This point should be clearly understood, and what is known as the " questioning attitude" should conscientiously be developed. In making an investigation of a job, nothing should be taken for granted, and everything should be questioned. Then the answers should be determined on the basis of facts.

One who is successful in bringing about improvements in operating methods  asks questions and gathers answers which he evaluates in the light of his knowledge and experience. He questions methods, tools, and layouts. He investigates all phases of every job he studies, in so far, at least, as he has time. He even asks questions when the answers appear obvious, if he thinks he can bring out something by so doing.

The questions asked take the general form of "what," "why," "how," "who," "where," and "when. " What is the operation? Why is it performed? How is it done? Who does it? Where is it done? When is it done in relation to other operations? These questions, in one form or another, should be asked about every factor connected with the job being analyzed. Typical questions that arise during the study of industrial operations are as follows:

If more than one operator is working on the same job, are all operators using the same method? If not, why not? Is the operator comfortable? Sitting down as much as possible? Has the stool or chair being used a comfortable back and a seat that is wide enough? Is the lighting good? Is the temperature of the work station right? Are there no drafts? Are there arm-rests for the operator? If the operation can be done either seated or standing, is the height of the chair such that the elbows of the operator are the same distance from the floor in either case?

Can a fixture be used? Are the position and height of the fixture correct? Is the fixture the best available? Is the fixture designed in accordance with the principles of motion economy? Would a fixture holding more than one piece be better than one holding a single piece? Can the same fixture be used for more than one operation? Can a clamp, a vise, or a fixture be substituted for the human hand for holding? Are semiautomatic tools such as ratchet or power-driven wrenches or screw drivers applicable?

Is the operator using both hands all the time? If so, are the operations symmetrical? Do the hands move simultaneously in opposite directions? Can two pieces be handled at one time to better advantage than one? Can a foot device be arranged so that an operation now performed by hand can be done by foot?

Are raw materials properly placed? Are there racks for pans of material and containers for smaller parts? Can the parts be secured without searching and selecting? Are the most frequently used parts placed in the most convenient location? Are the handling methods and equipment satisfactory? Would a roller or a belt conveyor facilitate handling? Can the parts be placed aside by means of a chute?

Is the design of the apparatus the best from the viewpoint of manufacturing economy? Can the design be changed to facilitate machining or assembly without affecting the quality of the apparatus? Are tools designed so as to insure minimum manipulation time? Can eccentric clamps or ejectors be used?

Is the job on the proper machine? Are the correct feeds and speeds being used? Are the specified tolerances correct for the use to which the part is to be put? Is the material the most economical for the job? Can the operator run more than one machine or perform another operation while the machine is making a cut? Would a bench of special design be bettor than a standard bench? Is the work area properly laid out?

This list of questions could be extended almost indefinitely, but enough have been given to illustrate the sort of questions that should be asked during a methods efficiency study. The importance of asking such questions is paramount. The chief difference between a successful analyst and one who seldom accomplishes much is that the former has developed the questioning attitude to a high degree. The latter may be capable of making the same improvements as the former, but they do not occur to him as possibilities because he accepts things as they are instead of questioning them.

Operation Analysis Need Not Be Confined to Methods Engineers. Although the questioning attitude is developed by the methods engineer as an aid to thorough analysis, it need not be and should not be solely his property. The other shop supervisors will find it equally useful for attacking their particular problems and finding solutions for them. If they focus it on operating methods, they will be able to make many improvements in the course of their daily work. Thus, methods-improvement work will progress more rapidly than it would if it were left entirely to the methods engineer.

If a plant is small and has insufficient activity to justify employing anyone in the capacity of methods engineer, it will be particularly desirable for all members of the supervisory force to develop the questioning attitude. It is extremely easy to view things without seeing them when they are supposedly familiar. Those most familiar with the work are the least likely to see opportunities for improvement, unless they consciously try to remain as aware of their surroundings as they would be were they new to the plant. Where the supervisory group does not change often, the cultivation of the questioning attitude is almost essential to progress.

Questions should not be asked at random, although this would be better than asking no questions at all. Rather, it is better to proceed systematically, questioning points in the order in which they should be acted upon. It would be unwise, for example, to question the tools, setup, and method used on a certain job before the purpose of the operation was considered. Better tools might be devised, and the method might be changed ; but if it were later found upon examination of the purpose of the operation that it need not be done at all, the time and money spent on tool and methods changes would be wasted.

The systematic job analysis will be discussed in this knol book in sufficient detail to give a thorough understanding.

Making Suggestions for Improvement. 


When a job is examined in all its details with an open mind and when all factors that are related to it are questioned, possibilities for improvement are almost certain to be uncovered if the job has not been studied in this way before. The action that is taken upon the possibilities will depend upon the position of the one who uncovers them. If he has the authority to take action and approve expenditures, he will undoubtedly go ahead and make the improvements without further preliminaries. If, however, he does not have that authority, he must present his ideas in the form of suggestions to the one who does.


In the first place, the true worth of each suggestion should be carefully evaluated before it is offered. If he establishes a reputation for offering only suggestions of real merit, one will find it easier to secure an attentive hearing than if he is continually advancing suggestions that have to be examined to separate the good from the impractical.

The quickest way to prove the merit of any suggestion is to make or obtain estimates of the cost of adopting it and of the total yearly saving it may be expected to effect. These two figures will show just how much must be spent and how long it will be before the expenditure will be returned. If a suggestion costs $1,000 to adopt and will save $100 per year, it is not worth presenting unless there are unusual circumstances. If, on the other hand, the expenditure will be returned within a reasonable length of time, the suggestion is worthy of careful consideration.

When it has been definitely decided that the suggestion is sound and valuable, it should be presented to the proper authorities for approval. Here, again, estimates of expenditure and return will prove valuable. The statement that much time will be saved or even that a saving of 0.0050 hour per piece can be made is not likely to mean so much as figures showing a saving of a certain number of dollars per year. A complete presentation which includes cost and savings totals will be appreciated, for if they are not furnished, they must be requested anyway, and this will only postpone final action.

An example of a good presentation of a labor-saving idea is as follows :

Works Manager:

By analyzing the cork-tube winding operation in the Cork Department, it has been found that one-third of the winder's time is spent in doing work requiring a high degree of skill and the remaining two-thirds in doing work that could be satisfactorily performed by unskilled labor.

The time consumed by the portion of the cycle that requires high skill is almost exactly one-half of that required for the balance. Therefore, it will be entirely feasible to place four winding machines in a group, using one skilled man with two unskilled helpers to run them. In this manner, the average production of three skilled workers running three machines will be obtained at a greatly reduced cost.

Under the proposed setup, the skilled worker will apply the cork to the cloth core which has been set up by one helper and will then move to another machine which the other helper has set up. Each helper will tie the ends of a finished cork-covered tube, will remove the tube, and will set up another while the skilled man is busy at other machines.

The skilled man receives 60 cents per hour and the unskilled men 40 cents per hour each. The labor cost per tube will therefore be approximately 0.76 cent as compared with the present cost of 1 cent each.

On the basis of present activities, this will amount to a yearly saving of $2,361.55. There will be a certain amount of idle machine time under the proposed arrangement; but since we have more machine equipment than we require for our present volume of business, this need not be considered.

This matter has been discussed with the foreman,  and he believes that the arrangement will work satisfactorily. In order to proceed with the proposed change, it will be necessary to relocate 12 machines.  Maintenance Department estimates that this can be done for a cost of $480.

In view of the savings that can be made, the suggestion is recommended for acceptance by you

Signed

In this report, enough details are given to explain the general nature of the suggestion. The total yearly saving of $2,361.55 is shown, as also are the cost of adopting the suggestion and the source of the estimate. The fact that the suggestion meets with the approval of the foreman of the department, always a most important point, is also clearly stated. As a result, all questions that are likely to arise in the mind of the manager are answered in advance, and there is a good likelihood that he will give immediate approval.

Occasionally, ideas occur which appear to possess advantages to the originator other than those which can be measured in dollars and cents. In presenting suggestions of this nature, advantages and disadvantages should be presented in tabulated form, so that a decision can be quickly made.


Source: Maynard's Operation Analysis

Full Knol Book - Method Study: Methods Efficiency Engineering - Knol Book
Next Article on the Topic - Scope and Limitations of Methods Efficiency Engineering



Process analysis is an examination of the division of a process into operations to improve the efficiency of the process. Process analysis examines the sequence of steps specified to convert inputs into outputs.

Process analysis now is extended to analyzing the process in other dimensions.



Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing
October 2006, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 571-583
Evaluation of techniques for manufacturing process analysis
J. C. Hernandez-Matias, A. Vizan, A. Hidalgo, J. Rios
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10845-006-0025-1


Updated 17 February 2019, 30 July 2017,  28 June 2015
First posted 16 Feb 2014

Tuesday, February 12, 2019

February - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan with Links






February 1st Week


The Nature of Organizing - Review Notes
Departmentation in Organizations - Review Notes



Line-Staff Authority and Decentralization - Review Notes
Effective Organizing and Organizational Culture - Review Notes



Summary - Principles - Organizing
Human Resource Management and Selection




Performance Appraisal and Career Strategy
Manager and Organization Development



Summary - Principles - Staffing
Resourcing; A Function of Management


Feb 2nd week



Human Factors and Motivation
Leadership - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes






Supervision - Introduction - Public Administration Point of View
Committes and Group Decision Making - Review Notes




Communication - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes
Summary of Principles - Directing - Leading



The System and Process of Controlling - Review Notes
Control Techniques and Information Technology


12 February

Productivity Control
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/productivity-control.html

Overall Control and Preventive Control - Review Notes

Feb 3rd Week



Summary - Principles of Controlling
Global and Comparative Management



Organizing - Global Management Issues - Review Notes
Staffing - Global Management Issues



Leading - Global Management Challenges
Controlling - Global Management Challenges - Review Notes



Management and Entrepreneurship: Science, Theory and Practice
Managerial Skills



Principles of Management - List
Principles of Management - Subject Update Articles Recent Years


February 4th Week


Marketing Management Revision Articles


The Marketing Concept Kotler
Marketing Strategy - Marketing Process - Kotler's Description



Scanning of Environment for Marketing Ideas and Decisions
Marketing Strategy - Differentiating and Positioning the Market Offering



Management of Marketing Department and Function
Marketing Research and Market Demand Forecasting


Consumer Behavior
Analysis of Consumer Markets


Organizational Buying Processes and Buying Behavior
Market Segmentation and Selection of Target Segments



One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December


Updated 3 February 2018
16 February 2016

.