Sunday, June 30, 2019

June - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Industrial Engineering - Introduction to  Basic Principles and Techniques

Industrial Engineering - Knowledge Online Books - Catalogue

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao

Download full paper - Principles of Industrial Engineering
Proceedings - 2017 Industrial and Systems Engineering Conference


June First Week, 1 to 5 

Industrial Engineering Introduction
Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques

Functions and Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering
Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson

Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
Ergonomics - Introduction

Industrial Engineering Data and Measurements
Work Measurement

Process Industrial Engineering
Product Industrial Engineering

June 2 Week, 8 to 12

Plant Layout - Efficiency
Value Engineering - Introduction

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management in Japan
Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer

System Engineering Process and Its Management
Systems Improvement Process

June 3 week, 15 to 19

Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Productivity, Safety, Comfort, and Operator Health Management

Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
Current Research in IE

Managing Change in Improvement Projects - Comfort Zone to Comfort Zone
Supply Chain Cost Reduction

Total Improvement Management
Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina

Revision of Industrial Engineering Economics

Industrial Engineering Economics - Important Component of Industrial Engineering
Time Value of Money - Time Value of Money Calculations

June 4th Week,  22 to 26

Cash Flow Estimation for Expenditure Proposals - Depreciation and Other Related Issues
Required Rate of Return - Cost of Capital  - Required Rate of Return for Investment or Expenditure Proposal..

NPV - IRR and Other Summary Project Assessment Measures
Income Expansion Projects - Cost Reduction Projects - Replacement Decisons

Present-Worth Comparisons
Rate-of-Return Calculations

Equivalent Annual-Worth Comparisons
Expected Values and Risk of Project Revenues and Costs

Structural Analysis of Alternatives
Engineering Economic Analysis - Subject Update - Recent Case Studies

June Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professors

The blog post was liked by 200+ persons in Linked Group of IE Network in 2018



IE Techniques to be Revised

Principles of Industrial Engineering/Scientific Management by Taylor
Twelve Principles of Efficiency - Harrington Emerson
Product Design Efficiency Engineering (Value Engineering) - Application of Engineering Technology
Methods Efficiency Engineering - Operation Analysis (Maynard) - Application of Engineering Technology
    Plant Layout - Material and Man Movement Analysis and Optimization
    Innovations in Industrial Engineering by Shigeo Shingo - SMED and Poka Yoke
Operations Research - Application of Mathematical Modelling and Optimization in Technology Processes (Product and Process), Business Processes and Managerial Processes.
Application of Statistics in Industrial Engineering - Six Sigma, SPC, SPC, Forecasting
Engineering Economics - Economic Analysis of Engineering Projects - Income Enhancing Projects as well as Cost Reduction Projects - It evaluates and improves capital productivity both long term as well as short term
Human Effort Engineering - Motion study - Principles of Motion Economy, Motion Study
Ergonomics - Application of knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and bio mechanics and findings of experiments on actual working situations

Work Measurement - Productivity Measurement - Cost Measurement

Productivity Management 

High Efficiency/Productivity Systems  Industrial Engineering- Lean Systems Industrial Engineering - Toyota Production System

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

In months after June the articles prescribed have to be modified as a new scheme is started in 2015.

Industrial Engineering - Introduction to  Basic Principles and Techniques - June (28 article are included so far)

Scientific Management of Taylor  (July 17 articles)

12 Principles of Efficiency by Harrington Emerson

Motion Study

Operation Analysis - Method Study - Methods Efficiency Engineering (August 25 articles)

Work Measurement 

Value Engineering


Mathematics and Optimization

Application of Statistics for Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement

Engineering Economics

Business Process Improvement

Management Process Improvement

Productivity Management and Improvement (20 articles)

Lean Systems (December 20 articles)

Updated  25 May 2019,   2 July 2018,  31 May 2018,  4 June 2017, 29 May 2016, 26 May 2016, 16 Feb 2016

Monday, June 24, 2019

Productivity Improvement Techniques

I. Technology Based Techniques


1. CAD
2. CAM
3. Integrated CAM
4. Robotics
5. Laser beam technology
6. Energy technology
7. Group technology
8. Computer graphics
9. Emulation
10. Maintenance management
11. Rebuilding old machinery
12. Energy Conservation


13. Industry 4.0 Technology Set

II. Employee Based Techniques

1. Financial incentives
2. Financial incentives
3. Fringe benefits
4. Employee promotions
5. Job enrichment
6. Job enlargement
7. Job rotation
8. Worker participation
9. Skill enhancement
10. MBO
11. Learning curve
12. Communication
13. Working condition improvement
14. Training
15. Education
16. Role perception
17. Supervision quality
18. Recognition
19. Punishment
20. Quality circles
21. Zero defects


III. Product based techniques

1. value engineering
2. Product diversification
3. Product simplification
4. Research and Development
5. Product standardization
6. Product reliability improvement
7. Advertising and promotion

IV. Task based technques

1. Methods engineerinng
2. Work measurement
3. Job design
4. Job evaluation
5. Job safety design
6. Human factors engineering
7. Production scheduling
8. Computer aided data processing

V. Material based techniques

1. Inventory control
2. MRP
3. Materials management
4. Quality control
5. Material handling systems improvement
6. Msterial reuse and recycling


Sunday, June 23, 2019

Work Study - Work Content Analysis - Basic and Excess Work Contents

Work Content Analysis

To appreciate how work study acts to cut down costs and reduce the time of a certain activity, it is necessary to examine more closely the time and cost of activities.

The total time of a job is made up of basic work content and excess work content.

Work content means the amount of work contained in a given product made by a process measured in work-hours or machine hours.

A work-hour is the labour of one person for one hour.
A machine-hour is the running of a machine or piece of plant for one hour.

We can also think of work content of a process in similar terms.

Basic Work Content

Basic work content is the time (work-hours and machine hours) taken to manufacture the product if the design and specification were perfect, if  the process and equipment used were perfect and if there were no loss of working time from any cause whatsoever during the process period (excluding planned rest pauses). It is the irreducible minimum time theoretically required to produce one unit of output.

Excess Work Content

In practice, actual work content are in excess of basic work content due causes such as:

A. Poor Design and Specification

A1. Poor design and frequent design changes
A2. Waste of materials
A3. Incorrect quality standards (unnecessary tight tolerances)

B. Inefficient Process, Method of Manufacture or Operation

B1. Poor layout and utilization of space
B2. Inappropriate material handling
B3. Frequent stoppages as production changes from one product to another
B4. Inefficient operation
B5. Poor planning of inventory
B6. Frequent breakdowns of machines and equipment

C. Human Resource Issues

C1. Absenteeism and lateness
C2. Poor workmanship
C3. Accidents and occupational hazards

Industrial Engineering and Management Techniques to Reduce Excess Work Content

A. Poor Design and Specification

A1. Poor design and frequent design changes - Product industrial engineering
A2. Waste of materials - Material usage analysis and improvement
A3. Incorrect quality standards (unnecessary tight tolerances) - Quality Control - Tolerance cost analysis

B. Inefficient Process, Method of Manufacture or Operation

B1. Poor layout and utilization of space - Plant layout improvement
B2. Inappropriate material handling - Material handling industrial engineering
B3. Frequent stoppages as production changes from one product to another - Production planning, Setup time reduction
B4. Inefficient process and operation - Process analysis, Method study, Operation analysis
B5. Poor planning of inventory - Inventory planning
B6. Frequent breakdowns of machines and equipment - Preventive and predictive maintenance

C. Human Resource Issues

C1. Absenteeism and lateness - Personnel policies and HRM
C2. Poor workmanship - Training
C3. Accidents and occupational hazards

Flexible Manufacturing System- Introduction

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is an integrated computer-controlled complex of numerically controlled machine tools, automated material and tool handling and automated measuring and testing equipment that, with a minimum of manual intervention and short change over time, can process any product belonging to certain families of product its stated capability and to a predetermined schedule.

From: Agile Manufacturing: The 21st Century Competitive Strategy, 2001

FMS is  a solution  to overcome challenges of high product variety and small life time production while still making reliable and good quality and cost effective yields. Flexible manufacturing system has advanced as a tool to bridge the gap between high mechanized line and CNC Machines with efficient mid-volume production of a various part mix with low setup time, low work-in-process, low inventory, short manufacturing lead time, high machine utilization and high quality. FMS is especially attractive for medium and low-capacity industries such as automotive, aeronautical, steel and electronics.”

“”Flexible manufacturing system incorporates the following concepts and skills in an automated production system.

1. Flexible automation
2. Group technology
3. Computer numerical control machine tools
4. Automated material handling between machines”

Types of  FMS

“Flexible manufacturing systems can be separated into various types subject to their natures:”

“Flexible manufacturing system can be illustrious subject to the kinds of operation performed:”
a. “Processing operation. It performs some activities on a given job. Such activities convert the job from one shape to another continuous up to the final product. It enhances significance by altering the geometry, features or appearance of the initial materials.”
b. “Assembly operation. It comprises an assembly of two or more parts to make a new component which is called an assembly/subassembly. The subassemblies which are joined permanently use processes like welding, brazing, soldering , adhesive bonding, rivets, press fitting.”


“There are typical varieties of FMS based on the number of machines in the system:”
a. “Single machine cell (SMC). It consists of completely automated machines which are capable of performing unattended operations within a time period lengthier than one complete machine cycle. It
is skilful of dispensing various part mix, reacting to fluctuations in manufacture plan, and inviting introduction of a part as a new entry. It is a sequence dependent production system.”

b. “Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC). It entails two or three dispensing workstations and a material handling system. The material handling system is linked to a load/unload station. It is a simultaneous production system.”

c. An Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). “It has four or more processing work stations (typically CNC machining centers or turning centers) connected mechanically by a common part handling system and automatically by a distributed computer system. It also includes non-processing work stations that support production but do not directly participate in it e.g., part / pallet washing stations, co-ordinate measuring machines. These features significantly differentiate it from Flexible manufacturing cell (FMC).”


“FMS is further classified based on the level of flexibility related to the manufacturing system. Two categories are depicted here:”

a. Dedicated FMS. “It is made to produce a certain variety of part styles. The product design is considered fixed. So, the system can be designed with a certain amount of process specialization to make the operation more efficient.”

b. Random order FMS. “It is able to handle the substantial variations in part configurations. To accommodate these variations, a random order FMS must be more flexible than the dedicated FMS. A random order FMS is capable of processing parts that have a higher degree of
complexity. Thus, to deal with these kinds of complexity, sophisticated computer control system is used for this FMS type.”

“A flexible manufacturing system consists of two subsystems:”
 Physical subsystem
 Control subsystem
Physical subsystem includes the following elements:
1. Workstations. “It consists of NC machines, machine-tools, inspection equipments, loading and unloading operation, and machining area. More recent Flexible manufacturing system,
however, include other types of processing equipment also.”

2. Storage-retrieval systems. “It acts as a buffer during WIP (workin-processes) and holds devices such as carousels used to store parts temporarily between work stations or operations.”
3. Material handling systems. It consists of power vehicles, various types of automated material handling equipment such as conveyors, automated guided vehicles, in floor carts and
robots are used to transport the work parts and sub-assemblies to the processing or workstation.


1. Pallets and fixtures
2. Machining centers
3. Robots
4. Inspection equipment
5. Chip removal system
6. In process storage facility
7. Material handling systems


Welding in flexible manufacturing systems

Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) process the workpiece from where it may be stored through the welding process and onto its final location in the factory. They can have several positions for loading and unloading the pallets carrying the workpieces. Systems may use one or more robots, and several different types of work- pieces can be welded one after the other, with only short changeover times. The use of buffer stocks enables production to continue completely unattended for some time. The entire facility is monitored and controlled by a supervisory computer system.

Klas Weman, in Welding Processes Handbook (Second Edition), 2012, Woodhead Publishing Series

Benefit of FMS -  Integrated structural configurations

Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) have allowed a different approach to engine design. The reduced cost of machining has made possible integrated structural configurations, with more functions assigned to the same piece of metal. The overall number of parts can thus be reduced significantly over earlier engines (by up to 40 per cent in some designs), fostering improved reliability, lower weight and increased compactness without compromising on ease of maintenance. FMS also facilitates the offering of market-adapted solutions without raising cost: individual engines can be optimized at the factory for the proposed application.

Doug Woodyard, in Pounder's Marine Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines (Ninth Edition), 2009

Lecture note on FMS

Low Cost Automation

There is a very good site offering tutorials on low cost automation

Tutorial 1. Principal Components for Low Cost Automation

The LCA is comprised of the following configuration, and this establishes the reference for the components' functionality.

LCA = Mechanism + Actuator + Controller

Fundamental technologies required for automating screw fastening process

173 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers - 9: Automating Screw Fastening - 1
174 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers -10: Automating Screw Fastening - 2

175 Production Technology Level-up Course for Machine Designers - 11: Automating Screw Fastening - 3

Related articles

Automation - Current Status and Issues

Productivity Automation Engineering

Updated on 24 June 2019, 22 February 2014

Wage Incentives - Literature Review

Productivity Incentives - Principle of Industrial Engineering

Wage incentive methods, their selection, installation and operation, by Charles Walter Lytle
Published: New York, The Ronald press company [1943]
Available on hathitrust, Record 001431848

Taylor's differential piece rate system:: This system introduced to penalize a slow worker by paying him a low piece rate for low production and to reward an efficient worker by giving him a higher piece rate for a higher production. Thus if a worker completes the work within or less than the standard time, he is paid a higher piece rate and if he does not complete the work within the standard time, he is given a lower piece rate.

Merricks multiple piece rate: Under this method, three piece rates are applied for workers with different levels of performance. Wages are paid at ordinary piece rate to those workers whose performance is less than 83% of the standard out put. 110% piece rate is given to workers whose performance is between 83% and 100% of standard. 120% of ordinary piece rate is given to those workers who produce more than 100% of the standard output.

Gants's task and bonus plan: This plan is based on careful time and motion study. A standard time is fixed for doing a particular job, worker's actual performance is compared with the standard time and his efficiency is determined. If a worker takes more time then the standard time to complete the job (Below 100%) he is given wages for the time taken by him and if a worker takes the standard time to perform job (100% efficiency), he is given wages for the standard time and bonus of 20% of wages earned. If the worker take less time than the standard time his efficiency is more than 100% and he is given wages for the actual time and bonus at the rate of 20%.

Halsey premium plan: Under this method standard time is fixed for the job and worker is given wages for the actual time taken to complete the job at the agreed rate per hour plus a bonus to one half on the wages of the time saved.
Total wages = T x R + % (S - T) R
Where, T = actual time, R = Rate per hour, S = Standard time, % = 50% otherwise mentioned in the question.

Updated on 24 June 2019,  15 July 2018
First published on 19 December 2013

Industrial Engineering and Productivity Management - NITIE Course 2019

US $421 billion Productivity Cost Reduction Benefit for Year Due to Industry 4.0 - Productivity Analysis

PWC 2016 -  Industry 4.0 Utility - Revenue and Productivity  Potential - Survey based Study

Cost reduction of 3.6% per annum is the potential of industry 4.0.

Compare 3.6% estimate with 7% growth rate in GDP the top growth country is planning.


Definition of Industrial Engineering

Pioneering Efforts of Taylor and Gilbreth 

Productivity – Definition, Types

Introduction to Productivity Improvement Techniques

Productivity Management

Work Content Analysis

Method Study - Use of Recording Techniques   

Principles of Motion Economy

Work Measurement

Plant Layout 

Material Handling

Value Engineering

Job Evaluation and Wage Incentives

Introduction to Automation in Manufacturing


Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering Or  Industrial Engineering Review of Methods

For successful work in any field, it is important to define beforehand what is to be accomplished. The goal-determination step includes:

1. General goal: Most industries have as a goal a better product for a lower cost. For industrial engineering projects, the general goals most of the times are going to be cost reduction and increased productivity.
2.After the general goals is decided the next decision is "where to start the work?" Will it be  single operation or full process.?
3. For each specific problem, a specific goal is to be determined.

Some of the specific goal alternatives are:

Eliminate time spent in obtaining and tools
Reduce discomfort of the operator
Improve the organization of the workplace
Eliminate some make-ready time.
Eliminate some put-away time.
Reduce operator delay
Reduce total cycle time.
Reduce scrap.

Principles of  Methods Efficiency Design

1. Change the material being used or contemplated to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
2. Change the present or contemplated design of product to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
3. Change the present or contemplated sequence of modification work on the material or product to help meet the goal of for operation being studied.
4. Change the equipment used or contemplated  for the operation to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
5. Change the method or hand pattern used or contemplated for the operation to help the goal for operation being studied.

(Source: Gerald Nadler, Motion and Time Study, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1955,   p.193. Nadler in turn gives credit to Marvin E. Mundel, Motion and Time Study Principles and Practice, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1950, pp. 23-26.)

Suggested Articles on Industrial Engineering

Method Study

Method Study - ILO Book Description

Process Industrial Engineering

Suggested YouTube Videos on Industrial Engineering

What is Industrial Engineering?

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor-Narayana Rao Video presentation

Functions of Industrial Engineering

Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering - Curriculum and Practice Areas

Product Industrial Engineering - Introduction

Process Industrial Engineering - Introduction

Value Engineering - Introduction - Miles Way

Value Engineering Techniques

1. Avoid Generalities

 2. Get All Available Costs

 3. Use Information from Only the Best Source

 4. Blast, Create, Refine


   6. Identify and Overcome Roadblocks

 7. Use Industry Specialists to Extend Specialized Knowledge

  8. Get a Dollar Sign on Key Tolerances

   9. Utilize Vendors’ Available Functional Products

 10. Utilize and Pay for Vendors’ Skills and Knowledge

 11. Utilize Specialty Processes

 12. Utilize Applicable Standards

 13. Use The Criterion “Would I Spend My Money This Way”


1. Engineering Chapter  - Design and Production Related Chapters

2. Product Industrial Engineering - Value Engineering - New Design Ideas, New Materials,

3. Process Industrial Engineering - New Manufacturing Ideas, Processes, Specialty Processes

4. Smart Factory Implementation Description
High Productivity Through Smart Factories - Industry 4.0 - Bulletin Board

IE & PM Course Details of 2015