Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Analysis of Cost of Sales Account

To do total cost industrial engineering, Industrial engineers have to analyze cost of sales account.
Cost of sales account is an appropriate summation of job cost accounts, process cost accounts and cost center costs. Industrial engineers should be able to divide the total cost of sales of the company into various underlying accounts to identify cost reduction challenges and opportunities.

Accounting: Cost of Goods Manufactured/ Cost of Goods Sold: Part I



Accounting: Cost of Goods Manufactured/Cost of Goods Sold (Part II)




See the recording keeping specified for Textile Industry in India regarding cost.


Account Based COPA - Simplification with Simple Finance  in SAP

Updated 26 Apr 2016, 18 April 2016

Sunday, April 24, 2016

April 4th Week - IE Knowledge Revision


22 April to 26 April 2016

Statement of Cash Flows - Review Notes
Financial Statement Analysis - Review Notes

Cost Accounting

23 April 2016

Role of Costing and Cost Accounting in the Organizations
Introduction to Cost Terms - Review Notes

Traditional Cost Objectives and Their Utility
Job Costing - Review Notes

Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Budgeting
Process Costing - Review Notes

Cost Center Reports and Analysis
Cost of Sales Account Analysis

April 3rd Week - IE Knowledge Revision

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Programmer Productivity - Bibliography


Function Points were first described by Albrecht (Albrecht, 1979), and have since been accepted by much of the software development community. The basic idea is that LOC are not measured, but rather the functionality of the developed program. This clearly removes the numeric advantage or disadvantage of the programming language. Some languages take longer to achieve the same functionality, but run faster and are more portable. Function Points still do not address the problems of internal documentation (DECLAREs, COMMENTs, etc.) in the software itself..

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Smart Industrial Devices, Equipments and Machines - Sensor Attached Equipments

March 2016

Wearable Sensors for Low-Voltage Motors
New sensors from ABB are designed to bring condition monitoring and preventative maintenance to low-voltage motors that are typically not part of asset management programs.

Arduino Essentials - IoT Books Information

Programming the Photon: Getting Started with the Internet of Things

Christopher Rush
McGraw Hill Professional, 08-Apr-2016 - Technology & Engineering - 240 pages

Explore the Internet of Things and build useful, functioning Photon projects

Quickly learn to construct your own electronics devices and control them over the Internet with help from this DIY guide. Programming the Photon: Getting Started with the Internet of Things features clear explanations and step-by-step examples that use inexpensive, easy-to-find components. Discover how to connect to Wi-Fi networks, attach hardware to I/O ports, write custom programs, and work from the cloud. You will learn how to troubleshoot and tweak your Photon creations—even interface with social media sites!

· Set up your Photon board and connect to the Particle cloud

· Start constructing and programming custom IoT projects

· Learn the syntax of both the C and Arduino languages

· Incorporate switches, sensors, and other input devices

· Control hardware through the Photon’s outputs

· Control your creations through the Internet

· Add functions with Particle shields and add-on boards

· Link real-time data to your board via the IFTTT Web Service

· Integrate with websites—Facebook, Twitter, Gmail, and more!

Make: Action: Movement, Light, and Sound with Arduino and Raspberry Pi

Simon Monk
Maker Media, Inc., 04-Feb-2016 - Technology & Engineering - 360 pages

Beginning with the basics and moving gradually to greater challenges, this book takes you step-by-step through experiments and projects that show you how to make your Arduino or Raspberry Pi create and control movement, light, and sound. In other words: action!

The Arduino is a simple microcontroller with an easy-to-learn programming environment, while the Raspberry Pi is a tiny Linux-based computer. This book clearly explains the differences between the Arduino and Raspberry Pi, when to use them, and to which purposes each are best suited.

Using these widely available and inexpensive platforms, you'll learn to control LEDs, motors of various types, solenoids, AC (alternating current) devices, heaters, coolers, displays, and sound. You'll even discover how to monitor and control these devices over the Internet. Working with solderless breadboards, you'll get up and running quickly, learning how to make projects that are as fun as they are informative. In Make: Action, you'll learn to:

Build a can crusher using a linear actuator with your Arduino
Have an Arduino water your plants
Build a personal traffic signal using LEDs
Make a random balloon popper with Arduino
Cool down your beverages with a thermostatic drink cooler you build yourself
Understand and use the PID control algorithm
Use Raspberry Pi to create a puppet dance party that moves to your tweets!

Getting Started with Arduino Wiring for Windows 10 IoT Core

Agus Kurniawan
PE Press, 24-Jan-2016

If you have experiences in Arduino development using Sketch program, your Sketch program can run on Raspberry Pi 2 with Windows 10 IoT Core. This book helps you get started with Arduino Wiring development using Visual Studio 2015. The following is highlight topics in this book:

* Setting Up Development Environment

* Digital I/O

* Serial Communication

* Analog I/O

* Working with I2C/TWI Protocol

* Working with SPI Protocol

Arduino Essentials

Francis Perea
Packt Publishing Ltd, 24-Feb-2015 -  206 pages

If you are a hobbyist who wants to develop projects based on microcontroller platforms, then this book based Arduino platform will be useful. For Internet of Things projects, this platform is being recommended.


Beginning Arduino

Michael McRoberts
Apress, 17-Sep-2013 - Technology & Engineering - 424 pages

Want to light up a display? Control a touch screen? Program a robot? The Arduino is a microcontroller board that can help you do all of these things, plus nearly anything you can dream up. Even better, it's inexpensive and, with the help of Beginning Arduino, Second Edition, easy to learn.

In Beginning Arduino, Second Edition, you will learn all about the popular Arduino by working your way through a set of 50 cool projects. You'll progress from a complete Arduino beginner to intermediate Arduino and electronic skills and the confidence to create your own amazing projects. You'll also learn about the newest Arduino boards like the Uno and the Leonardo along the way. Absolutely no experience in programming or electronics required!

Each project is designed to build upon the knowledge learned in earlier projects and to further your knowledge of Arduino programming and electronics. By the end of the book you will be able to create your own projects confidently and with creativity. You'll learn about:

Controlling LEDs Displaying text and graphics on LCD displays Making a line-following robot Using digital pressure sensors Reading and writing data to SD cards Connecting your Arduino to the Internet

Getting Started with Arduino

Massimo Banzi
Co-founder of the Arduino project
"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 13-Sep-2011 - Computers - 118 pages

Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that’s taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here!

Inside, you’ll learn about:

Interaction design and physical computing
The Arduino hardware and software development environment
Basics of electricity and electronics
Prototyping on a solderless breadboard
Drawing a schematic diagram
Getting started with Arduino is a snap. To use the introductory examples in this guide, all you need an Arduino Uno or earlier model, along with USB A-B cable and an LED. The easy-to-use Arduino development environment is free to download.

Join hundreds of thousands of hobbyists who have discovered this incredible (and educational) platform. Written by the co-founder of the Arduino project, Getting Started with Arduino gets you in on all the fun!

Beginning Arduino Programming

Brian Evans
Apress, 17-Oct-2011 - Computers - 272 pages

Beginning Arduino Programming allows you to quickly and intuitively develop your programming skills through sketching in code. This clear introduction provides you with an understanding of the basic framework for developing Arduino code, including the structure, syntax, functions, and libraries needed to create future projects. You will also learn how to program your Arduino interface board to sense the physical world, to control light, movement, and sound, and to create objects with interesting behavior.
With Beginning Arduino Programming, you'll get the knowledge you need to master the fundamental aspects of writing code on the Arduino platform, even if you have never before written code. It will have you ready to take the next step: to explore new project ideas, new kinds of hardware, contribute back to the open source community, and even take on more programming languages.

What you’ll learn Start programming quickly with Arduino sketches. Write code that interacts with devices, such as LEDs, sensors, and motors. Work with loops, functions, randomness, and delays in your Arduino projects. Develop a style of writing code that reflects your individuality. Use many of the Arduino libraries to control even more devices. Read from RFID readers, write data to SD memory cards, and connect to the Internet using Ethernet. Who this book is for
This book is for all Arduino board users who want to learn to program the Arduino board, regardless of hardware version or which devices are connected to the board. You do not need to have programmed before, but if you have, then you'll learn how to apply core coding features in the Arduino context.

Table of Contents Getting Started Sketching in Code Working With Variables Making Decisions Digital Ins and Outs Analog in, Analog out Functions, Time, and Interrupts Arrays for Arduino Writing New Functions for Arduino Arduino Libraries Arduino Hardware 10 Where to Go from Here? Appendix A: Common Circuits Appendix B: Arduino Math

Arduino Cookbook

Michael Margolis
"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 24-Mar-2011 - Computers - 662 pages

Create your own toys, remote controllers, alarms, detectors, robots, and many other projects with the Arduino device. This simple microcontroller board lets artists and designers build a variety of amazing objects and prototypes that interact with the physical world. With this cookbook you can dive right in and experiment with more than a hundred tips and techniques, no matter what your skill level is.

The recipes in this book provide solutions for most common problems and questions Arduino users have, including everything from programming fundamentals to working with sensors, motors, lights, and sound, or communicating over wired and wireless networks. You'll find the examples and advice you need to begin, expand, and enhance your projects right away.

Get to know the Arduino development environment
Understand the core elements of the Arduino programming language
Use common output devices for light, motion, and sound
Interact with almost any device that has a remote control
Learn techniques for handling time delays and time measurement
Use simple ways to transfer digital information from sensors to the Arduino device
Create complex projects that incorporate shields and external modules
Use and modify existing Arduino libraries, and learn how to create your own

Make: Arduino Bots and Gadgets: Six Embedded Projects with Open Source Hardware and Software
Tero Karvinen, Kimmo Karvinen

"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 17-Mar-2011 - Computers - 296 pages

Want to build your own robots, turn your ideas into prototypes, control devices with a computer, or make your own cell phone applications? It's a snap with this book and the Arduino open source electronic prototyping platform. Get started with six fun projects and achieve impressive results quickly.

Gain the know-how and experience to invent your own cool gadgets.

With Arduino, building your own embedded gadgets is easy, even for beginners. Embedded systems are everywhere—inside cars, children’s toys, and mobile phones. This book will teach you the basics of embedded systems and help you build your first gadget in just a few days. Each learn-as-you-build project that follows will add to your knowledge and skills.

Experiment with Arduino, the popular microcontroller board
Build robots and electronic projects with easy-to-follow instructions
Turn your ideas into working physical prototypes
Use Android phones as remote controls in your projects
Work with an uncomplicated programming language created for artists, designers, and hobbyists
Get everyone involved, with projects that even beginners can build

Arduino Microcontroller Processing for Everyone!

Steven F. Barrett
Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2010 - Computers - 325 pages

This book is about the Arduino microcontroller and the Arduino concept. The visionary Arduino team of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino, and David Mellis launched a new innovation in microcontroller hardware in 2005, the concept of open source hardware. Their approach was to openly share details of microcontroller-based hardware design platforms to stimulate the sharing of ideas and promote innovation. This concept has been popular in the software world for many years. This book is intended for a wide variety of audiences including students of the fine arts, middle and senior high school students, engineering design students, and practicing scientists and engineers. To meet this wide audience, the book has been divided into sections to satisfy the need of each reader. The book contains many software and hardware examples to assist the reader in developing a wide variety of systems. For the examples, the Arduino Duemilanove and the Atmel ATmega328 is employed as the target processor.Table of Contents: Getting Started / Programming / Embedded Systems Design / Serial Communication Subsystem / Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) / Interrupt Subsystem / Timing Subsystem / Atmel AVR Operating Parameters and Interfacing.

Physical Internet - Efficient Sustainable Logistics Movement

Universal interconnection of logistics services

Physical Internet where goods travel in modular containers for the sake of interconnection in open networks. 

Ballot, E, B. Montreuil and F. Fontane (2010).

Topology of Logistic Networks and the Potential of a Physical Internet

CGS-Production and Logistics Systems, École des Mines de Paris, France et CIRRELT, Université Laval, Québec, Canada

Abstract : The topology of the logistic networks that contribute contemporary logistics is minimally examined or challenged in the assessment and improvement of the performance of supply chains, logistic and freight transportation. In this paper, it is shown that the topology of logistic networks has a major performance impact and that it can be significantly improved if the actual organization of flows is substituted by an organization founded on the universal interconnectivity of logistic networks: the Physical Internet.

The performance of contemporary vs. Physical Internet enabled network topologies is measured and contrasted through transportation throughput requirements, flow travel, and total costs.

Ballot, E., B. Montreuil & C. Thivierge (2012),

Montreuil B. (2011)

Towards a Physical Internet: Meeting the Global Logistics Sustainability Grand Challenge

Logistics Research, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, p. 71-87.

Abstract : This paper starts with the assertion that the way physical objects are currently transported, handled, stored, realized, supplied, and used throughout the world is unsustainable economically, environmentally, and socially. Evidence supporting this assertion is exposed through a set of key unsustainability symptoms.

It suggests exploiting the Digital Internet metaphor to develop a Physical Internet vision toward meeting this grand challenge. The paradigm breaking vision is introduced through a set of its key characteristics. The paper then proceeds with addressing the implications and requirements for implementing the Physical Internet vision as a means to meet the grand challenge.

It concludes with a call for further research, innovation, and development to really shape and assess the vision and, much more important, to give it flesh through real initiatives and projects so as to really influence in a positive way the collective future.

Functional Design of Physical Internet Facilities: A Road-Rail Hub 

in Progress in Material Handling Research: 2012, MHIA, Charlotte, NC (2012).

Abstract : Montreuil, Meller and Ballot enumerated the type of facilities that would be necessary to operate a Physical Internet (PI, π), which they termed, “π-nodes.”

This paper is part of a three-paper series for the 2012 IMHRC where the authors provide functional designs of three PI facilities. This paper covers a PI road-rail hub. The purpose of a PI road-rail node is to enable the transfer of PI containers from their inbound to outbound destinations. Therefore, a road-rail π-hub provides a mechanism to transfer π-containers from a train to another one or a truck or from a truck to a train. The objective of the paper is to provide a design that is feasible to meet the objectives of this type of facility, identify ways to measure the performance of the design, and to identify research models that would assist in the design of such facilities. The functional design is presented in sufficient detail as to provide an engineer a proof of concept.

Montreuil, B., R.D. Meller, C. Thivierge, C., and Z. Montreuil (2012),

Functional Design of Physical Internet Facilities: A Unimodal Road-Based Crossdocking Hub

in Progress in Material Handling Research: 2012, MHIA, Charlotte, NC (2012).

Abstract : As part of the 2010 IMHRC, Montreuil, Meller and Ballot proposed a set of facility types that would be necessary to operate a Physical Internet (PI, π), which they termed π-nodes. This paper is part of a three-paper series for the 2012 IMHRC where the authors provide functional designs of three PI facilities. This paper covers a unimodal road-based crossdocking hub designed specifically to exploit the characteristics of Physical Internet modular containers so as to enable the efficient and sustainable transhipment of each of them from its inbound truck to its outbound truck. The objective of the paper is to provide a design that is feasible to meet the objectives of this type of facility, identify ways to measure the performance of the design, and to identify research models that would assist in the design of such facilities. The functional design is presented in sufficient detail as to provide an engineer a proof of concept.

First work in the field of flows transportation

Sarraj, R., E. Ballot, S. Pan, D. Hakimi, B. Montreuil (2013),

Interconnected logistic networks and protocols: simulation-based efficiency assessment, 

in International Journal of Production Research (2013).

Abstract : Logistic networks intensely use means of transportation and storage facilities to deliver goods. However, these logistic networks are still poorly interconnected and this fragmentation is responsible for a lack of consolidation and thus efficiency. To cope with the seeming contradiction of just-in-time deliveries and challenging emissions targets, a major improvement in supply networks is sought here.

This new organisation is based on the universal interconnection of logistics services, namely a Physical Internet where goods travel in modular containers for the sake of interconnection in open networks.

If from a logical point of view, merging container flows should improve efficiency, no demonstration of its potential has been carried out prior to the here reported research. To reach this potentiality assessment goal, we model the asynchronous shipment and creation of containers within an interconnected network of services, find the best path routing for each container and minimise the use of transportations means. To carry out the demonstration and assess the associated stakes, we use a set of actual flows from the fast-moving consumer goods sector in France. Various transportation protocols and scenarios are tested, revealing encouraging results for efficiency indicators such as CO2 emissions, cost, lead time, delivery travel time, and so forth.

As this is a first work in the field of flows transportation, the simulation model and experiment exposes many further research avenues.


A Presentation on Physical Internet

Physical Internet Manifesto