Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering.
IE Knowledge: Articles, Books, Course Pages and Materials,Lecture Notes, Project Reviews, Research Papers Study Materials,YouTube Video Lectures
Flexibility Versus Efficiency? A Case Study
of Model Changeovers in the Toyota
Paul S. Adler • Barbara Goldoftas • David I. Levine
School of Business Administration, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1421
Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720
Much organization theory argues that efficiency requires bureaucracy, that bureaucracy impedes flexibility,
and that organizations therefore confront a tradeoff between efficiency and flexibility. Some researchers have challenged this line of reasoning, arguing that organizations can shift the efficiency/flexibility tradeoff to attain both superior efficiency and superior flexibility
The authors analyze an auto assembly plant that appears to be far above average industry performance in both efficiency and flexibility. NUMMI, a Toyota subsidiary located in Fremont, California, relied on a highly bureaucratic organization to achieve its high efficiency. Analysis of two recent major model changes, the authors find that NUMMI used four mechanisms to support its exceptional flexibility/efficiency combination.
ORGANIZATION SCIENCE/Vol. 10, No. 1, January–February 1999 pp. 43-68
Lean Enterprise Institute, 04-Mar-2012 - Business & Economics - 300 pages
This is an honest look at the origins of lean, written in the words of the people who created the system. Through interviews and annotated talks, you will hear first-person accounts of what these innovators and problem-solvers did and why they did it. You'll read rare, personal commentaries that explain the interplay of (sometimes opposing) ideas that created a revolution in thinking.
Material cost is a very important part of the total cost of any product. Therefore the analyst should check the material for the possibility of using lower cost materials.
Questions. The following questions will prove suggestive in connection with an analysis of material:
1. Does the material specified appear suitable for the purpose for which it is to be used?
2. Could a less expensive material be substituted that would function as well?
M30 concrete in place of M35 concrete in India.
3. Could a lighter gage material be used?
Example: Reduction of automobile body sheet thickness by Maruti Suzuki in India.
4. Is the material furnished in suitable condition for use?
5. Could the supplier perform additional work upon the material that would make it better suited for its use?
6. Is the size of the material the most economical?
7. If bar stock or tubing, is the material straight?
8. If a casting or forging, is the excess stock sufficient for machining purposes but not excessive?
9. Can the machinability of the material be improved by heat-treatment or in other ways?
10. Do castings have hard spots or burned-in core sand that should be eliminated?
11. Are castings properly cleaned and have all fins, gate ends, and riser bases been removed?
12. Is material sufficiently clean and free from rust?
13. If coated with a preserving compound, how does this compound affect dies?
14. Is material ordered in amounts and sizes that permit its utilization with a minimum amount of waste, scrap, or short ends?
15. Is material uniform and reasonably free from flaws and defects?
16. Is material utilized to the best advantage during processing?
Change of design and cutting patter in Maruti Suzuki in India.
17. Where yield from a given amount of material depends upon ability of the operator, is any record of yield kept?
18. Is miscellaneous material used for assembly, such as nails, screws, wire, solder, rivets, paste, and washers, suitable?
19. Are the indirect or supply materials such as cutting oil, molding sand, or lubricants best suited to the job?
20. Are materials used in connection with the process, such as gas, fuel oil, coal, coke, compressed air, water, electricity, acids, and paints, suitable, and is their use controlled and economical?
Special materials will evoke special questions, but the list here given will indicate the kind of questions that should be asked and will stimulate suggestions for improvement on many kinds of the more common materials.