Sunday, August 12, 2018

Productivity Improvement Process - Role of Science, Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management

R.M. Currie who developed work study out of Motion and Times Study, described six steps as lines of attack to improve productivity.

1. Improve basic processes by research and development.
2. Improve existing, and provide new plant and equipment
3. Simplify and improve the product and reduce the variety.
4. Improve existing methods of plant operation.
5. Improve the planning of work and the use of manpower.
6. Increase the effectiveness of all employees

Work study has application in lines 4,5 and 6.

The Development and Scope of Work Study
R. M. Currie, M.I.C.E., First Published June 1, 1954 Research Article
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

What would be the role of industrial engineers in the lines of attack indicated by Currie? That answer is not available at the moment with me. I have to search if any industrial engineer has answered such a question.

Detailed List of Activities in Productivity Improvement Process

In principle,  increasing productivity of various economic activities is a responsibility shared by many intellectual and professional disciplines.

In engineering activities, we can identify, scientists, engineers, industrial engineers and managers as principal categories of professionals that have responsibility for increasing productivity of engineering activities.

We can identify the following as activities or tasks that are to be carried out to improve productivity in engineering activities. No doubt, industrial engineers have taken up the specialist responsibility of improving productivity in engineering activities. They describe themselves, efficiency engineers, productivity engineers, productivity service providers and management service providers.

An attempt is made to create a detailed list of activities to bring into focus many subjects that have a role to play in productivity improvement and industrial engineering activities.


1. Research to create knowledge that helps development of new materials, products, equipment and processes.
2. Research that creates knowledge that helps in making existing products and processes more productive. Industrial engineering researchers have an important role in this type of research.
3.Research in the area of management


3. Development of new materials, products, equipment  and processes.
4. Development of productivity improvement devices, attachments, tools and features.
5. Development process modifications that improve productivity.


Design is scaling up the developed solutions to fit the dimensions of application. Design involves form design and strength design. The form design is based on the developed solution. Strength design is based on stress analysis and strength of the material being used. Concurrent industrial engineering needs to be practiced in this stage.

6. Design of new products that are more productive
7. Design of equipment that is more productive
8. Design of new processes that are more productive
9. Design of production systems that are more productive.
10. Design of management procedures that are more productive.
11. Using optimization in design
12. Using samples in processes.
13. Engineering economic analysis
14. Design of payment systems and incentive systems
15. Design of communication systems
16. Design of data processing system


17. Replacement decision
18. Productivity analysis and engineering of products
19. Productivity analysis and engineering of processes
20. Productivity analysis and enhancement of equipment
21. Productivity analysis and enhancement of tools and accessories

Operations - Day to Day working

Production planning - IEs to evaluate and improve planning procedures.
Project planning - IEs to evaluate and improve planning procedures.
Employee involvement in productivity improvement suggestions.
Productivity improvement workshops, events

Saturday, August 11, 2018

Control of Staff Overhead

Control of Staff-related Overhead

Arthur Brearley
Springer, 18-Jun-1976 - Business & Economics - 181 pages

Woodworking Tools

1. The claw Hammer
2. Tape measure
Utility knife
Moisture meter
Nail set
Sliding bevel
Layout square

Written by Ron Smith

Machine Shop - Work Shop - Theory and Practice

Emmanuel Nino

11. Engine lathe processes
13. Boring
14. Drilling
15. Reaming
16. Threading
18. Shaping
19. Shearing
20. Milling
21. Grinding
22. Pressing

Workshop Theory and Practice
Rex Bookstore, Inc.

Engino - Engineering and Technology Toys

Increase your children's knowledge of engineering and technology by providing them Engino toys.

ABET Explanation - What is Engineering?

Definition given by The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET

"The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination;
or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design;
or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions;
all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.”




According to the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET):

ENGINEERING is the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural
sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to
utilize economically the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY is the part of the technological field that requires the
application of scientific and engineering knowledge and methods combined with technical skills
in support of engineering activities; it lies in the occupational spectrum between the craftsman
and the engineer at the end of the spectrum closest to the engineer.

Engineering is the creative application of knowledge:
to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes,
or works utilizing them singly or in combination;
or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design;
or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions,


Student Outcomes
The program must have documented student outcomes that prepare graduates to attain the program educational objectives.
Student outcomes are outcomes (a) through (k) plus any additional outcomes that may be articulated by the program.
(a) an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering
(b) an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data
(c) an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability
(d) an ability to function on multidisciplinary teams
(e) an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems
(f) an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility
(g) an ability to communicate effectively
(h) the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context
(i) a recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning
(j) a knowledge of contemporary issues
(k) an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.


Complex Engineering Problems
Complex engineering problems include one or more of the following characteristics: involving wide-ranging or conflicting technical issues, having no obvious solution, addressing problems not encompassed by current standards and codes, involving diverse groups of stakeholders, including many component parts or sub-problems, involving multiple disciplines, or having significant consequences in a range of contexts.

Engineering Design
Engineering design is a process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs and specifications within constraints. It is an iterative, creative, decision-making process in which the basic sciences, mathematics, and engineering sciences are applied to convert resources into solutions. Engineering design involves identifying opportunities, developing requirements, performing analysis and synthesis, generating multiple solutions, evaluating solutions against requirements, considering risks, and making trade- offs, for the purpose of obtaining a high-quality solution under the given circumstances. For illustrative purposes only, examples of possible constraints include accessibility, aesthetics, codes, constructability, cost, ergonomics, extensibility, functionality, interoperability, legal considerations, maintainability, manufacturability, marketability, policy, regulations, schedule, standards, sustainability, or usability.

Engineering Science
Engineering sciences are based on mathematics and basic sciences but carry knowledge further toward creative application needed to solve engineering problems. These studies provide a bridge between mathematics and basic sciences on the one hand and engineering practice on the other.

Work Study - Evolution - Bibliography

The Development and Scope of Work Study
R. M. Currie, M.I.C.E., First Published June 1, 1954 Research Article
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

(1965) "Work Study Volume 14 Issue 12", Work Study, Vol. 14 Issue: 12, pp.9-72,

Aslib organized a series of meetings in London during the autumn and winter of 1951–2. The first of these was held on 7th November, 1951, at Chaucer House, when Mr. J. P. Torrie, Work Study Officer of the Work Study Section, Technical Department, Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., spoke on Method Study.

J.F. Payne
October 1963

S. J. Dalziel
First published: July 1956

The Meaning of Work: Papers on Work Organization and the Design of Jobs
By Lisl Klein
Lisl Klein worked on thesis human implications of work study

Scientific Management in Britain, A History
PhD Thesis
Kevin Whitston

Management of Productivity Hardcover – 1971
by Joseph E. Faraday  (Author)

Impact of Productivity Linked Reward Systems PLRS on the service sector
Researcher: Dhaka, Brham Pal
Guide(s): Goyal, O P
University: Maharshi Dayanand University
Completed Date: 31/12/1996

Scientific method

Principles of Work Study and Employee Productivity
Readings in Personnel Management
K.V. Ramani - Volume with focus on productivity

"Time and Motion Study", Work Study, Vol. 3 Issue: 11, 1954, pp.11-51,

Time and Motion Study, as its name implies, has always advocated the integration of all Work Study interests. It has always held the view that Motion Study and Time Study are complementary to one another.

Introductory Talk: The Practical Application of Work Study and Incentives to Maintenance Engineering on Continuously Operated Plants
I. S. McDavid, First Published June 1, 1963 Other

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Conference Proceedings