Thursday, December 1, 2016

Methods improvement - The Current Role of the Foreman - Supervisor

Methods improvement and the foreman, by J. W. Roberts and Clem Zinck.

Main Author: Roberts, John William, 1901-
Published: New London, Conn., National Foremen's Institute [1951]
Subjects: Supervisors, Industrial.
Physical Description: 174 p. illus. 21 cm.

Good and detailed content on work simplification is there in this book

The Training Within Industry Report, 1940-1945: A Record of the Development of Management Techniques for Improvement of Supervision, Their Use and the Results
War Manpower Commission, Bureau of Training, Training within Industry Service, 1945 - Employees - 330 pages

Training Within Industry Individual Manuals

Scans of the original manuals. Each manual has color covers, front and back. All manuals setup for duplex printing. Single sided printouts will have some blank pages. See Printing Notes for details.

Bulletin Series --- Original Text, 5.9MB
JI: Job Instruction Manual --- Original Text, 2.6MB
JM: Job Methods Manual --- Original Text, 4.0MB
JR: Job Relations Manual --- Original Text, 3.7MB
UJR: Union Job Relations Manual --- Original Text, 4.1MB
PD: Program Development Manual --- Original Text, 4.0MB
JS: Job Safety Manual --- Original Text (from Canadian Department of Labor, Found at National Archives), 2.1MB
Individual Manual Printing Notes

Work Simplification - Alan Mogensen


Alan Mogensen

3. To creat a sense of "belonging," and of "participating." and of "accomplishing"  in each and every employee is a vital responsibility of managemet. Work simplification stresses this human factor. Here, of course, the foreman plays a vital part.

5. Work simplification rests of the principle that any work that does not add value to the product, does not give or receive essential information, does not plan or calculate is essentially WASTE.

7. The major specific wastes in a process are TRANSPORTION, DELAY or STORAGE, and INSPECTION. The major waste in a man-machine combination is IDLE TIME by both the operator and the machine.   The major  wastes in the activity of a worker in  a process, a man-machine combination or in hand operation  are TRANSPORTION, DELAY , and FAILURE TO REDUCE THE ELAPSED TIME of activity by the use of KNOWN FASTER DEVICES.

11. Ingenuity has great possibilities. Often the results of a new twist are startling. Work-simplification techniques give full scope to ingenuity and see to its proper application.

Friday, November 25, 2016

Productivity Management - Management Function-Wise Explanation

Productivity Management - Traditional Management Function-wise Explanation

Planning for Productivity 

The top management is to set productivity objectives and goals that are in line with and integrated into organisation’s long-term strategic plans. To ensure that these goals are met, key performance indicators and targets need to be identified and developed. The organisation’s productivity performance can be monitored against these targets.

Phase I – Diagnose

For any productivity intervention to be effective, management should have a thorough understanding of the organisation’s current situation. This can be done through a productivity diagnosis.

A productivity diagnosis covers a qualitative assessment of organisation’s performance in relation to the productivity levers and a quantitative assessment of organisation’s performance based on certain key indicators that are linked to the various productivity levers.

These assessments are undertaken specifically to:
Measure the gap between the current situation and the productivity goals set by the organisation in the past.
Identify organisation’s strengths and weaknesses in the area of productivity improvement.
Determine the underlying causes of the gaps (for the weak areas).
Determine areas for improvement.

Qualitative Assessment of Performance

The key levers that affect productivity can be identified.

Technology - Adoption on appropriate technology on a continuing basis

Machinery & Equipment - Selection of appropriate machinery and equipment and their replacement based on engineering economic analysis

Operators - Human effort engineering - Design manual activities incorporating motion studies, principles of motion economy and ergonomics

Productivity Levers

Demand - Reduction of price and reduction of external failure of products
Management Systems and Processes
Productivity Knowledge Management
Productivity Innovations
Skills of Operators and Managers
Attitudes of Operators and Managers

These  levers are areas or actions that an  organisation can focus on to improve productivity significantly.

Productivity levers do not operate in silos. Improvements made to one lever require complementary actions on some other levers, for it to be effective. For example, the adoption of new technology inevitably requires the complementary actions of training of employees and redesign of work processes. Similarly, weakness in one lever is likely to have an adverse effect on other levers.

Quantitative Assessment of Performance

There are 10 common indicators used to gauge an organisation’s productivity performance:

 Labour productivity
 Sales per employee
 Value added-to-sales ratio
 Capital productivity
 Sales per dollar of capital
 Capital intensity
 Labour cost competitiveness
 Labour cost per employee
 Profit-to-value added ratio
 Profit margin

Along with an analysis of organisation’s overall performance, the performance of the operational units and functions also needs to be measured.

To know how well an  organisation is faring in the area productivity,  a comparison the organisation’s performance against some standard has to be made. This can be done across time and space, with external entities (e.g. benchmarks and organisations within the same industry) and within the organisation (e.g. between departments for setting departmental goals) . Such comparisons provide valuable information on the organisation’s relative standing vis-à-vis competitors and the best-in-class performers.

Organisations who want to assess themselves against their competitors can use the Inter-firm Comparison (IFC) tool. Some industry organizations conduct IFC studies involve comparing productivity ratios of organisations in the same industry. Their identities are kept confidential and summary results are circulated or sold as reports to the members of the industry organization.

Phase II –

Develop Road Map

After the diagnosis is completed, a productivity road map or action plan has to be developed. The road map indicates specific activities to achieve productivity goals in a coordinated and systematic manner.

Components of Productivity Road Map

A productivity road map addresses the following:

What affects productivity?
 Identify the specific actions that need to be taken in relation to the findings from the diagnosis.
 Spell out the key performance indicators, targets and deliverables for the actions to be taken.

Who affects productivity?
 Identify the units or individuals who will carry out the actions.
 Assign responsibilities and accountabilities to the parties identified.

When are the activities to be undertaken?
 Set milestones and timelines for the actions to be taken.
The actions should then be taken and monitored according to the road map.

Organizing for Productivity

Establish Productivity Management Function

Establish A Productivity Management Structure
Good management of productivity requires commitment and focus from top management. A dedicated organisational structure must be set up to facilitate the productivity improvement effort. Depending on organisation’s policy decision, needs, size and characteristics, this structure may take the form of:
 a productivity management unit, headed by a Productivity Manager who reports directly  to senior management; or
 a cross-functional team comprising productivity coordinators appointed from the various  operational units.
In engineering organizations, the best practice is to establish industrial engineering department  take care of productivity management because engineering products and processes have to be improved to improve productivity.

The typical scope of work of a Productivity Manager is given under a separate topic. The scope relevant to a particular organisation can defined depending on the structure and complexity of the productivity management function in an organisation.

Staffing Productivity Department

Productivity department requires productivity coaches and study experts. The norms for productivity department personnel may have to be established. Let us say each engineering and production manager requires one industrial engineer to support him in engineering organizations.

Other Resources for Productivity Department
Productivity department may need a laboratory of its own or  a work area where they can try out alternative ways of doing work.

Directing Productivity Effort

Garner Participation and Commitment

A harmonious and open corporate culture is essential to continuous productivity improvement. This can be achieved through the following:

Commitment from Top Management
Top management set the direction of an organisation. For any productivity plan to succeed, senior leadership must be fully committed to the cause. This commitment can be expressed through direct communication with employees on your productivity goals and strategies, as well as allocation of resources for productivity improvement. A senior employee could also be put in charge of the organisation’s productivity efforts.

Communication and Creation of Awareness
Employees must have a clear understanding of productivity concepts, the organisation’s productivity goals and how these goals will benefit them as well as the organisation. They then need to be armed with the right tools to improve their productivity and know how they can play a part in the productivity journey.

It is, therefore, important to set up open communication channels between departments, staff and management to facilitate exchange of ideas and information, create trust and engage employees.

Mobilisation of Employees
Employees should be involved in each stage of the productivity effort — from the setting of targets and development of initiatives, to the measurement and management of productivity performance. Their involvement helps to foster commitment and provides them with a sense of ownership.

Control of Productivity Improvement 

Implement Measurement System

Importance of Productivity Measures
Productivity improvement initiatives must be complemented by a sound measurement system, which forms an integral part of an organisation’s management information system.

Productivity measures can be used to:
Evaluate the effectiveness of action plans
Monitor performance
Set targets and formulate strategies
Account to various stakeholders – customers, investors, employees, suppliers and funding agencies
Link effort and reward for employees

Productivity Measurement

Since productivity is the relationship between output and the input used to produce that output, there are various ratios you can use to measure the performance of different operational units within your organisation. By adopting an integrated approach to productivity measurement, you can learn how each of your departments affects your organisation’s overall performance.

Key management indicators at the top are broad indicators that provide management with information related to productivity and profitability. They are then broken down into activity indicators and operational indicators.

Activity indicators provide a snapshot of costs, activity levels and resource utilisation rates, which are particularly useful for middle and higher management.
Operational indicators are usually physical ratios that address the operational aspects that need to be monitored and controlled.

You should consider the following points in selecting productivity ratios:

Ratios should measure something significant.
 Only elements that have an important impact on the business performance should be measured.
Ratios should be meaningful and action-oriented.
 Ratios used must be relevant to the objectives and operations of your organisation.
 They should explain the pattern of performance and preferably signal a course of action.
Component parts of the ratios should be reasonably related.
 The numerator and the denominator should correspond with each other. For example, it would not be appropriate to relate sales with the number of employees in the human resources department as they are not directly responsible for sales.

Implement Performance Management System

Productivity measurement tells an organisation how it is performing and why, and what it should do in view of its performance. The next step is to use these measures to manage productivity performance.

Performance management covers two main areas: (a) activities to monitor performance; and (b) activities to reinforce performance and motivate employees.

Activities to Monitor Performance

Productivity Level and Growth

An organisation’s productivity performance can be monitored in terms of the productivity level measured by the various productivity ratios, or the change in productivity level over time. Productivity level represents the efficiency and effectiveness of resource utilisation achieved at a given point in time. Comparison of productivity levels must be made between similar entities. For example, the management of a restaurant chain may compare the labour productivity of outlet A against that of outlet B.
The change in productivity level over time is expressed as a percentage. It indicates dynamism and the potential for achieving higher productivity levels. An organisation with a consistently high productivity growth rate may overtake another with a negative growth rate, even if its current productivity level is lower.

Comparison of Performance

Within the organisation, comparisons can be made against its productivity goals and targets to evaluate the effectiveness of the productivity efforts; and against its past performance for trend analysis. Comparisons can also be made across different operational units and different employees for performance appraisals.

Review and Feedback Mechanism
Information on any organisation’s productivity performance is rendered useless if it does not lead to further improvements. It is therefore important to put in place a review and feedback mechanism to gather valuable information for strategic planning and training purposes. The information should be made readily available to all employees to improve the performance of the organisation or the unit that they are in.
Activities to Reinforce Performance and Motivate Employees
To sustain the productivity drive, a clear link between rewards and achievements must be established. The wealth generated by the organisation should be distributed back to those who have contributed to the production process.

Productivity incentive schemes can take different forms:
Recognition Schemes
 Awards can be given out to individuals or teams to encourage continuous productivity improvements.
Productivity Gain-Sharing Schemes
 The value added created by the organisation is shared with employees, based on a formula agreed upon by both management and employees.
Staff Performance Appraisal Linked to Productivity Improvements
 Employees’ contributions to productivity efforts are recognised in their performance appraisals. Good performers should be rewarded with higher bonuses or salary increments.

Scope of Work of a Productivity Manager

The duties of a productivity manager include planning, coordinating, controlling and monitoring of productivity programmes within an organisation. The productivity manager is also responsible for getting cooperation from all management levels to achieve the productivity goals and objectives that have been set.

Attributes of a Productivity Manager


• Well-versed in productivity concepts, frameworks and tools
• Prior knowledge or relevant experience in the organisation’s sector of work

Abilities & skills

• Good people management and negotiation skills
• Strategic view of the organisation’s productivity objectives

Key Responsibilities of a Productivity Manager

• Establish productivity management structure, responsibilities and accountabilities
• Mobilise employees to participate in the productivity drive
• Manage and facilitate actions taken to improve productivity
• Establish productivity measurement system and performance management system Establish structure, responsibilities and accountabilities
• Review current reporting structure and assess if it is suitable for productivity management accountability
• Assess need for a productivity management committee or unit within the organisation
• Establish productivity accountability at different management levels
• Decide process of setting overall productivity goals

Mobilise employees

• Educate employees on:
 i. Meaning and scope of productivity, its benefits and how it can be improved and measured
 ii. Role of every employee and how to adopt a positive mindset towards productivity initiatives

• Communicate to employees on:
 i. Organisational objectives in productivity
 ii. Organisation’s targets and overall direction and strategy to achieve its productivity objectives

• Involve employees at different levels in the productivity drive by:
 i. Engaging them throughout the whole productivity journey - planning, development of measures and implementation of initiatives
 ii. Showing them the impact of their efforts in improving productivity and the consequent benefits
Manage and facilitate productivity improvements

• Diagnose
 i. Assess performance in relation to the key productivity levers
 ii. Identify areas for improvement and productivity levers to address

• Develop road map
 i. Work out action plan to address findings from diagnosis
 ii. Set targets and assign responsibilities
 iii. Monitor progress of actions taken

Establish productivity measurement system and performance management system
• Identify and implement measures to track productivity performance against targets and benchmarks
• Identify and implement employee incentive schemes to motivate employees

Thursday, November 24, 2016

Waste to Profits through "Reduce, Recycle, Reuse"


“From Waste to Profits through Reduce, Recycle, Reuse”

Reduce Waste

The first step is to audit the facility’s waste stream. Audits reveal the type and amount of waste per department and opportunities for improvement. Once the composition of the waste stream is identified, companies can call waste reduction specialists to come and advise them on how to reduce waste. The company can also ask  their managers and staff for suggestions on how to reduce waste. Based on the waste reduction ideas and plans, they should establish policies with goals, lines of accountability and a training plan. The employees standard operating plans have to be revised to reflect waste reduction plans.  Waste reduction can be promoted as a value so that culture based behavior changes. The company can provide incentives for achieving waste reduction goals.

Some Ways to Reduce Waste in Hotels

Refillable amenity dispensers can replace soap, lotion, shampoo and conditioner bottles in hotel guestrooms. Now attractive dispensers are available and guest would appreciate the concern of the hotel to reduce waste but provide the required items in a clean manner.

Incandescent lights can be substituted by fluorescent or LED bulbs. They give good return on investment and save waste as fluorescent bulbs last five times as long as incandescents and LEDs operate 25 times longer.

Modular mattresses can be used by hotels. Only,  the mattress tops can be replaced initially.  Rest of the unit can be used for another five to seven years.

Hotel restaurants reduce waste by using washable table cloths and dinnerware, reusable coffee filters and by providing condiments in bulk dispensers.

There are more waste prevention opportunities for  hotels such as: eliminating unrequested newspapers; asking  suppliers to reduce excess packaging.

( )               

Total Cost Industrial Engineering - An Illustration

Total cost industrial engineering is determining  cost reduction target at the total cost level of the organization and achieving the target by using industrial engineering methods and techniques in various departments of the organization. Total productivity management is the name under which it is promoted.

The illustration is based on  Top-down Production Management: A Recent Trend in the Japanese Productivity-enhancement Movement by W. Mark Fruin and Masao Nakamura, published in



Step 1. Corporate goal setting for cost reduction.  Set  company-wide numerical goals and targets.

Step 2. Top-down explosion process. Explode the corporate-level goals and targets systematically into actions by specific departments (or by specific product lines) and select numerical goals and targets for individual departments (or specific product lines). Repeat Step 2 until goals and targets are selected or assigned to all layers of relevant organizational units and individuals with the responsibility for cost reduction (industrial engineers in engineering departments).

Step 3. Implementation and assessment.  Compare the corporate performance and departmental performances  with the originally set goals. Take control actions in the current year. Incorporate changes in the planning system for the next year.

The strategic planning decided that it is necessary to achieve a 15% reduction in the unit estimated production cost taking into consideration the improvements in the product planned in order to give a 10% reduction in the existing price. This means that the current production cost (200000 yen) must be reduced by  35000 yen. The composition of the unit production cost is: labor 30% (60000 yen), raw materi als 60% (120000)  and overhead 10% (20000).

After initial analysis by cost reduction - industrial engineering top level team,  it was decided that the cost-reduction target, 35000 yen, will be allocated between labor and raw materials as labor 14000 yen, and raw materials 21000 yen.

Labor Cost Reduction - Further Assignment

The labor cost reduction target is to be assigned to five workshops:  molding, machine, welding, assembly and inspection workshops.  Discussions of the top level CR-IE team with the shop level CR-IE team lead to the following cost reduction targets at the shop level: molding 840 yen,  machinery 4194 yen, molding 840 yen, welding 2285 yen, assembly 6000 yen, and inspection workshop 660 yen.

Assembly level cost reduction target further break up. 

 The assembly workshop has eight assembly lines A-H.   Lines B, C and E employ large labor hours, consist of similar job tasks and an improvement in one can be implemented on the lines.
(f) The numerical target for cost reduction for the assembly workshop is 6000 yen. The cost target was converted into 1676 hours reduction target. Lines B, C and E are operational 95% of the time and hence our labor input reduction effort has to be from reduction of assembly time. The opportunity to get savings from downtime is limited.

Assembly Line Level Effort

22 jobs are done on these assembly line with six stations. Each station is given 0.15 minute. The  total utilized labor time for all the stations is only 0.53 minutes.  Hence effort was made to reduce the station time or cycle time to 0.09 minutes. The output from the lines have gone up by 40% due to this productivity improvement initiative and the assembly workshop met its cost reduction target.

The simplified description shows how a corporate level cost reduction target is converted into shop level and assembly line level or work centre level cost reduction targets. The top level CR-IE team, department level CR-IE team and shop level CR-IE team interact with fix shop level cost reduction targets. The industrial engineer, in engineering departments joins with engineering managers, supervisors and operators of the shop to engage in productivity improvement project. They get the needed help from higher level CR-IE team members to complete the project.
The implementation of a top-down TPM program requires substantial inputs of a bottom-up persons of the shop. Without cooperation from the shopfloor no meaningful numerical targets could be derived and hence an effective implementation of any target would not be possible.
The main characteristics of TPM is that it deals with corporatewide goals. Another is that it deals with specific numerical targets for cost reduction.

Bottom-up approaches to productivity improvement are important for continuous improvement but may only provide sub-optimal solutions from the firm’s perspective when a corporate-wide optimal solution is required. TPM has been found to be effective for overall optimization and hence for improving firms’ overall profitability in a planned way over the typical sales and profit planning periods.

Related Article

Productivity Management

Sunday, November 20, 2016

Productivity Management

Principles of Industrial Engineering 

1. Develop science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.
2. Engineer methods, processes and operations to use the scientific laws related to the work of machines, man, materials and other resources to improve economic efficiency and productivity.
3. Select or assign workmen based on predefined aptitudes for various types of man - machine work.
4. Train workmen, supervisors, and engineers in the new methods, install various modifications related to the machines that include productivity improvement devices and ensure that the expected productivity is realized.
5. Incorporate suggestions of operators, supervisors and engineers in the methods redesign on a continuous basis.
6. Plan and manage productivity at system level.

Productivity Management

What is management?

Management is a planned and systematic activity for effectiveness and efficiency in accomplishing objectives.

An activity is management effectively by planning and confirming that it meets the requirements of the customer and the profit goals of the organization (includes partnerships and sole proprietors). Then  the organization of resources has to be designed, resources are to be acquired, human resources are to be trained and directed, other resources are allocated for various tasks, and put under the charge of operators, supervisors and managers and control action is taken to ensure that results follow plans or modified plans.

Efficiency is also attained by taking care of it during planning, organizing, acquiring of resources and their allocation, training and directing human resources and control phases.

Effectiveness is concerned with providing the goods and services that persons desire with various benefit and attribute bundles.

Efficiency is concerned with minimizing the resources spent in the production of desired goods or services.

Important Functions in Productivity Management

Organization Productivity Policy  Management

Department Productivity Policy and Management

Cross-functions Productivity Policy and  Management

Production Training and Promotion

Top Management Productivity Control

Promotion of Productivity Improvement Program

1. Spelling out the goals of the productivity program for the next year and next five years or a five year plan by the CEO

2. Forming a Productivity Steering Committee of Top Executives

3. Demonstrating the commitment to productivity program by the CEO and other top executives

4. Organizing and Reorganizing the Productivity Management Department

5. Declaring the Introduction of Productivity Improvement Program or Yearly Productivity Plan by the CEO.

6. Organizing Grade by Grade Training in Productivity Improvement.

7. Creating Productivity Improvement Circles in each department.

8. Forming cross functional Management Committees

9. Productivity Audits by Various Levels of Management

10. Productivity Rewards at Productivity Case Study Contests and Productivity Review Seminars.

11. Best Practice Identification Workshops

12. Sending Operator Teams and Manager Teams to National and International Teams to present their achievements and learn from other organization achievements.

13. Productivity News Letter Creation and Distribution through print and online channels.

14. Reporting Productivity achievements in Annual reports of the company.

Organizing and Reorganizing the Productivity Management Department

If presently there is no specific department that looks after productivity improvement, the organization has to create one to have systematic productivity improvement program. At the top of the productivity program there can a single manager or a cross functional committee chaired by one of the members of the committee. This department may need to be reorganized periodically to take care of increased responsibility and induction of more people, or reduction of more people, or starting of new sections to take care of new methods and techniques etc.

Productivity Promotion Office

The Need for Productivity Promotion Office

Etzioni’s (1965, 1975) model of organizational change refers to the conforming or nonconforming behavior of various persons in the organization and the expectations and performance goals of those in charge of planning and managing change. The total organization will change when nonconforming person's number approaches zero.  The model identified a sequence of four phases in change: education and promotion; commitment; performance; withdrawal of the special promotion effort as the organization change is completed successfully. The model does not, however, give the duration, and hence timing by which phase succeeds one another.

Japanese quality author, Hitoshi Kume writes that to build or develop a system in which people are proactive towards work improvement to improve output, certain new ways of presenting things are necessary.

1. People have to be presented information that helps in better understanding of the current situation of the organization. People are generally happy with long-surviving routines and do not see waste or the loss caused by them to the organization. Only when the fact that organisation is suffering due to that routine in a big way and there is a way to eliminate that waste through some effort is brought into their consciousness that people start thinking about the issue.  Such an insight sometimes can come to people when they are attending lectures by experts in waste elimination or in implementing some techniques that eliminate that waste, or by listening to success stories told in case study competitions, when visiting plants with best practices or consultant presentations. When the senior managers of the company realize this existence of waste, they can create a promotion team to make all the persons in company become aware of the waste. Productivity promotion has to do this type of promotion.

2. Encouraging operators to come out with improvement suggestions is important for their self development. Both Taylor and Gilbreth, the pioneers of scientific management and industrial engineering emphasized this point. The operators have to first follow the standard method designed as the best method at that point in time by the industrial engineering or scientific managers and then have to keep giving suggestions which will improve the method further. In the early days of scientfic management and industrial engineering all those suggestions were referred back to industrial engineers. But in Japanese companies, especially in Toyota Motors, after the second world war, this responsibility of evaluating and accepting the suggestions of operators was given to the supervisors and engineers of the shop. Engineers and supervisors are made responsible for continuous improvement of the processes with the involvement of the operators. Productivity promotion offices of the current day have to take up this self development aspect of productivity improvement  (good process change - kaizen) ideas as an important issues and ask all operators to think all the time to improve the method whenever they get an idea because of their reading, observation, or responding to an issue while working. It is to be stressed that supervisors are always ready to listen to improvement ideas and they have some time set apart for listening to improvement ideas of operators working under them.

3. Productivity promotion office also has to promote among all the supervisors and human relations personnel the idea that apart from doing the job effectively and efficiently and achieving results specified as a standard, a proactive mindset that thinks of more effectiveness and efficiency has to be developed in all operators. Supervisors have to provides the required inputs in creative thinking and provide routines or behavior opportunities and role plays in which creativity is exhibited and thus becomes a habit among operators.

4. Successful productivity improvement effort results in tangible results. Each successful project provides a taste of productivity improvement to the other members of the organization. The success when verified, validated and celebrated develops more operators and supervisors committed to the program. The role of Productivity Promotion Office or Section is to produce this snowballing effect. Productivity is to be promoted for bringing the abilities of people into production projects development and implementation. The chief of productivity promotion office is especially responsible for creating enthusiasm for productivity in the organization.

Productivity promotion office has to specially target persons who are not enthusiastic about productivity improvement at any point in time. Frederick Taylor indicated in 1911 itself, that objective demonstration, and teachers who are capable of the holding the hand of the operator and train him in the new efficient method are necessary for change of the mindset of people who are apprehensive of the new efficient methods. Productivity promotion office has to develop trainers of the new productive method and arrange for demonstration of objective and tangible results from a stream of productivity projects to convert more and more people into active supporters of the productivity program.  The persons working in the productivity promotion office need leadership ability, the ability of influencing people, perseverance to do productivity promotion over long periods of time, and have to be broad-minded and tolerant. They should not short tempered people who get upset with too few converts to productivity projects. The persons of the productivity promotion office have to be full of enthusiasm and belief in the productivity policy announced by the top management.

The Role of the TQM Promotion Office

1. Acting the secretariat for the CEO and Productivity Steering Committee.

2. Drafting the Productivity Policy

3. Drafting the Productivity Promotion Plans

4. Program of promoting the productivity policy of the organization

5. Establishing the productivity management system

6. Program of promoting productivity circles.

7. Planning productivity training activity.

8. Keeping record of productivity improvement projects and unresolved issues relating to productivity improvement.

9. Planning top management audits of productivity practice.

10. Organizing productivity result sharing seminars, case study sessions, best practice sessions, and celebration events.

11. Compiling annual results of productivity improvement activity and collaborating with financial , cost and management accounting to arrive at financial contribution and capital and revenue expenditure incurred for productivity improvement activities and projects.

12. Preparation of books, articles, magazines and videos.

13. Establishment of a desk for providing productivity related help.

14. Management of productivity initiatives website of the organization.

15. Management of productivity library

Sustaining The Productivity Movement

Productivity promotion activity can be initiated and run successfully for number of years by the active participation of productivity promotion office. But once the promotion activity is reduced and stopped, the productivity improvement may slacken. It is not easy to sustain an activity without the an effort to sustain it. Hence, the productivity promotion section is to be substituted productivity sustenance section. This section has to develop information that reminds all the productivity improvement efforts other organizations and their results and remind the personnel of the organization the need to continuously promote productivity in their departments.

1. Every year the productivity policy management has to take place
2. Cross function committees are to be formed and the chairmen have to be appointed again.
3. Training programs at all levels have to continue as appropriate
4. Productivity circle activity has to continue
5. Top management audits have to take place.
6. Daily work management to achieve productivity has to implemented and practiced.
7. Important productivity breakthroughs have to be publicized.