Saturday, August 13, 2016

Industrial Engineering Methods - Classified Articles with Links

Updated  31 June 2016,

History of Industrial Engineering

Contribution of Taylor to Industrial Engineering - Shop Management and Scientific Management

Industrial Engineering - Definition, Explanation, History, and Programs

Motion Study - Explanation by Frank B. Gilbreth - Index

H. Harold Bass
Supervisor Research and Development Group
Industrial Engineering Division
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York
1963, University of California

Deployment of Industrial Engineering West Germany after WWII

Product Design Efficiency Improvement

Analysis of Material in Methods Efficiency Engineering

Product Design Efficiency Engineering

Value Engineering - Introduction

Functional Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) - Value Engineering Method

Value Engineering - Examples, Cases and Benefits

Value Engineering Applications in India (Tisco 1993 paper in Value World)

Fifth Annual Industrial Engineering Institute of the University of California, 1953
By L, D, Miles General Electric Company

Scaling Lean Product Management for Better Innovation
Ash Maurya  wrote the step-by-step guide for implementing Lean startup practices, titled Running Lean, created the Lean Canvas tool, and blogs regularly about these topics at

Ash has written a new book  "Scaling Lean: Mastering the Key Metrics for Startup Growth," about applying Lean Startup principles to go from new product concept to a product that will have a predictable success with customers. The concepts discussed in the book apply to any product innovation effort that involves creating a new product or improving an existing one.

Process Efficiency Improvement  - System Efficiency Improvement

Methods Efficiency Engineering

Method Study

Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes

Work Station Design - Introduction

Process Analysis - Questions/Check List

Method Study - Case Studies

Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Operation Analysis

5S System - Work Place Design (Industrial Engineering)

Seven Wastes Model

SMED - Single Minute Exchange of Dies - An Industrial Engineering Innovation

Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo

Optimization of Engineering Systems and Engineering Management Systems

Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Mathematical Programming for Industrial Engineers
Mordecai Avriel, Boaz Golany
CRC Press, 16-May-1996 - Mathematics - 656 pages

Fuzzy Applications in Industrial Engineering
Cengiz Kahraman
Springer, 31-May-2007 - Mathematics - 598 pages

Technological Concepts and Mathematical Models in the Evolution of Modern Engineering Systems: Controlling • Managing • Organizing
Mario Lucertini, Ana Millàn Gasca, Fernando Nicolò
Birkhäuser, 06-Dec-2012 - Mathematics - 246 pages

Using Statistics and Improving Productivity

Statistics - Applications by Industrial Engineers - Knol Book

Statistics and Industrial Engineering

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering

Lean Six Sigma

Factory Organization in Relation to Industrial Education
Author(s): Hugo Diemer
Source: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 44, The
Outlook for Industrial Peace (Nov., 1912), pp. 130-140
Diemer suggested a department of records with knowledge of statistics

Industrial Engineering Economics

Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Engineering Economic Analysis - Case Studies

Engineering Economics - Bulletin - Information Board

Human Effort Engineering

Motion Study - Explanation by Frank B. Gilbreth - Index

Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering

Principles of Motion Economy

Principles of Motion Economy - Some More Details - R.M. Barnes

Ergonomics - Introduction

Human Effort Engineering - Bulletin Board

Ergonomics Chapter in ILO OSH Handbook

Measurements for Industrial Engineering

Work Measurement

Time Study Equipment

Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)

MOST - Maynard Operation Sequence Technique - Chapter Contents

Productivity Measurement

Productivity Management

Review of Total Productivity Management

Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking

Work Simplification
Active involvement of operators in improving work under industrial engineering

Mason Haire .68

E.P. Degarmo

All three articles in UCAL,Berkeley, conference on IE, 1951

The organization and use of industrial engineering techniques in
Hong Kong industry, 1979

John V. Valenteen
UCAL, IE workshop 1956

Industrial Engineering - Current Issues

Engineering Economic Analysis of New Technologies - Robots, 3D Printing, IoT, Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources, Electric Cars, Driverless Cars,
Digital Transformation of Engineering Activities, Guidelines for Efficient Implementation.
Specialization in Industrial Engineering with Focus on Engineering Branches
Value Creation and Awareness Enhancement
Ethics of Industrial Engineers
Emphasis on System Level Industrial Engineering (D. Scott Sink)
Total Cost Industrial Engineering and Total Productivity Management
Analytics and Industrial Engineering
Digital Tools and Industrial Engineering (Virtual Reality, Online Training of IE Tasks)
Augmented Activities of IE.




Updated 31 July 2016,  14 July 2016,  23 June 2016,  12 June 2016

Leadership and Productivity

How Leaders Can Improve Productivity and Profits Simultaneously

Leadership's Impact on Productivity and Engagement
November 2013 -  Gordon Tredgold

April 2010
Leadership and its Impact on Productivity
Singapore Productivity Association

Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, in his keynote address at SNEF 30th Anniversary CEO and Employers Summit in July 2010, highlighted that “a huge part of the responsibility for improving productivity falls on employers and business leaders”. He emphasised the point advocated by F.W. Taylor that leadership has to take interest, study existing processes and develop new processes to upgrade productivity for businesses.

While management is “getting things done through others”, leadership involves “getting others to want to do things”.

Leadership at Various Levels in Organisations


The first steop is leading one’s self. Leaders who can lead themselves meaning who can convince themselves about the utility of a particular action for himself and the organisation,  and possess  the core leadership skills  to lead others would enjoy a high degree of success in leading others in the long run. This calls for an understanding and awareness of strengths and weaknesses, clarity of personal vision, and ability to be creative and curious, understanding others that come in contact with him or have a stake in his activities and a sense of one’s personal brand of leadership.


Middle managers play a critical role in communicating and explaining the organizations programmes to members their teams. It is critical for middle managers to know how to influence others through communication, relationship building and management of tasks entrusted to them.


In the case of senior leaders, who are leading fulld departments,  the  perspective must be
to engage and generate passion in others. Creating a vision for success and aligning all members of the team to that vision is required. It requires an understanding of team leadership and organization dynamics. The senior leaders have to create an environment which maximises the abilities of all team members. Leading for success in the team environment requires a great deal of grace, patience, focus and finesse.

Business Unit
Leaders who operate at this level are responsible and therefore measured by tangible results, which they must produce at the business unit level. It demands leaders who could align efforts of various function with the unit-level business objectives. Leaders at this level must be able to measure performance, improve business processes, create an environment which fosters accountability. They also have to empower functional heads, so that they are proactive, focussed and successful.


Leaders operating at the organisation perspective are usually concerned with the strategic direction, enhancing value to the customer, increasing competitive advantage and developing competencies and capabilities for future,   They require the skills and capacity to position themselves and their teams to maximise value today and in the future. These leaders have to monitor the changing marketplace and are react in time to ensure  the long-term viability and effectiveness of the organisation and, business units.

Leaders Drive Productivity:  Are you building a High Performance Environment?
Successfactors article

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Design for Assembly (DFA)

Design for Manufacturing

Basic DFA Guidelines

Minimise part count by incorporating multiple functions into single parts
Modularise multiple parts into single subassemblies
Assemble in open space, not in confined spaces; never bury important components
Make parts such that it is easy to identify how they should be oriented for insertion
Prefer self-locating parts
Standardise to reduce part variety
Maximise part symmetry
Design in geometric or weight polar properties if nonsymmetric
Eliminate tangly parts
Color code parts that are different but shaped similarly
Prevent nesting of parts; prefer stacked assemblies
Provide orienting features on nonsymmetries
Design the mating features for easy insertion
Provide alignment features
Insert new parts into an assembly from above
Eliminate re-orientation of both parts and assemblies
Eliminate fasteners
Place fasteners away from obstructions; design in fastener access
Deep channels should be sufficiently wide to provide access to fastening tools; eliminate channels if possible
Provide flats for uniform fastening and fastening ease
Ensure sufficient space between fasteners and other features for a fastening tool
Prefer easily handled parts

Case Studies

Motorola University Teaches Smarter, Faster Product Designs - Laptop DFA

Boothroyd and Dewhurst’s DFA Software Drives Cost Savings for Motorola's DS9208 Scanner
Presented by: Chris Foley
At the International Forum on Design For Manufacture and Assembly
June 13-15, 2011, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

Simplifying Veterinary Device Relieves Maturing Product Symptoms
DFMA guides IDEXX subassembly redesign, radically reducing parts, weight, assembly time, and cost

Kenan-Flagler Business School, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599

Product Design Efficiency Engineering - Component of Industrial Engineering

Updated  13 August 2016, 27 June 2016

Productivity, Industrial Engineering and Cost Reduction in Automobiles

Value Engineering of Automobiles


Cost-effective continual re-engineering (or continuous improvement in manufacturing parlance) of a product is the essence of frugal re-engineering.

For example, plastic parts can be redesigned to be made of polypropylene instead of costlier fiber-reinforced plastic, and low-temperature specs can be relaxed for window-channel grease in temperate regions that don't have harsh winters.



The Nissan Smyrna Plant set a new benchmark for productivity in fiscal year 2003, according to Harbour Report North America. The Report noted that the plant, located in Tennessee state and which
produces the Altima, reached the figure of 15.74 labor hours per vehicle—the highest ever in the history of the Report.

In a remarkable seventh year running, Nissan’s Sunderland, UK plant was ranked number
one in Europe, according to the World Markets Research Centre. And Nissan remains the productivity leader at home in Japan.

Productivity alone is not the goal, of course. Through Nissan Production Way (NPW) , the company continues to work towards true Douki-Seisan—a build-to-order system schedule that is synchronized
with the customer’s needs, to provide a higher level of service, more individualized choice, and swifter product production and delivery. The NPW sets out two “never ending” goals: to continuously work for the synchronization of Nissan’s manufacturing with customer needs, and an ongoing
quest to identify problems in the manufacturing process and to put solutions in place.

Updated 13 August 2016,  17 June 2015

Review of Total Productivity Management

Review of Total Productivity Management
Yoshiro Saito, JMA Consultants Inc.
Tokyo, Japan
Masanaka Yokota, JMA Consultants Inc.
Tokyo, Japan
Chapter in Maynard's Handbook of Industrial Engineering, 5th Edition, 2001
Total productivity management (TP management) provides a system for coordinating all the various improvement activities occurring in a company so that they contribute to top management’s goals for the entire company. Starting with a corporate vision and broad goals, these activities are developed into supporting objectives, or targets, throughout the organization. The targets are specifically and quantitatively defined.   The chapter describes how to introduce, develop, and expand a TP management program.
TP management is, in a sense, a top-down program because it always starts by identifying
the goals of top management.
Saito and Yokota advocated that TPM employ the following concepts:
● Break away from conventional internally oriented, comparative productivity campaigns
that seek incremental improvements, and instead focus on achieving ambitious new targets.
● Change from kaizen activities, which build up incremental improvements, to an approach
based on an image of the ideal—seek extreme results.
● Pursue the concept of the ideal total system.
● Apply management technology in a systematic and theoretically correct manner.
● Evaluate the current condition of management and further develop the company’s own
management techniques.
TP management also requires that each company develop and establish its own original management
system.The concepts underlying TP management offer a new way of thinking about productivity.
What is evident is that TP management derives its targets from the overall plan and is working out in a top down approach to achieve them. The bottom up spontaneous improvement activities are to be encouraged but have to dovetailed into supporting the TP targets. TP management is a proven technique according to Saito and Yokota and they claim that their organization had 10 years of experience in providing management guidance to organizations in implementing TP management.
The focus of TP management is extended from company profits to customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction and even social satisfaction.
The improvements are classified into two external deliverables and internal structural improvements.
Productivity management is a primary focus area for IE departments and they have to adopt this TP management approach to serve their organization in a strategic manner.
The TP management program of a company is described by the author. The TP program seeks to achieve the following goals:

1. Clarify the objectives that the company (or business unit) as a whole should pursue, focus
and work simultaneously toward accomplishment of the objectives.

2. Create an organization that can take the general, companywide objectives and systematically
develop them into specific targets, based on confirmation of which activities are most
important for accomplishing corporate goals (IE department needs to teak for this purpose).

3. Create and standardize a three-level process, in which (1) general objectives are developed
into (2) individual targets, which are then translated into (3) plans and activities. This
process ensures that each plan and activity advances individual objectives and targets that
are in accordance with management goals (These department wise targets assigned to operating departments  as well as IEs working for those departments).

4. Take advantage of the strengths and capabilities of all employees in the organization and
challenge them to contribute and  grow. Then, make it clear to them how their actions are contributing to
the targets and objectives.This will increase their eagerness to participate in improvement
5. Create a strategic management system that can adapt to changes in the business environment
and at the same time obtain dramatic improvements in business results based on management’s design.
Saito and Yokota have not specifically identified the role of IE department in this activity. As this is a part of IE Handbook, the editors must have asked the authors to customize it for application by IE departments.
A brochure by JMA Consultants on Total Productivity Management
Strategic Administration by Total Productivity Improvement
by Michitoshi Oishi Ph. D., and Miriam Christi Midori Oishi
Top Down Production Management: A Recent Trend in the Japanese Productivity-enhancement Movement
W. Mark Fruin and Masao Nakamua
Total Improvement Management - Brochure
The 2001 Total Productivity (TP) Management Conference was held by JMA on June 18-19 in Tokyo.

Total Productivity Management Prize (TP Prize), the TP Prize is one of the JMA commendations and was established in 1982, commemorating the 40th anniversary of JMA. It's objective is to publicly recognize companies and organizations that achieved excellence in productivity management. 
 In 2001, TP Prizes were awarded to Aizu Plant of Olympus Opto-Electronics Co. Ltd., Internet Systems Platform Division of Hitachi, Ltd; and Display Device Company & DDC Division of LG Electronics Inc. 
 Using TP management, Olympus Opto-Electronics quickly responded to a changing business environment to consistently achieve its stated business goals in endoscope production. Hitachi Ltd. employed TP management to materialize management reform in terms of speed to market in the increasingly competitive personal computer industry. LG Electronics Inc. likewise applied TP management to realize economic value added (EVA) cash flow management.
For year 2003, TP Prize was awarded to Topcon Corp., which also received a special award for TP Management Promotion, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Philippines Corp., and The Kansai Coke and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Kakogawa Plant. 
Total productivity management: a systemic and quantitative approach to Compete in Quality, Price and Times By David J. Sumanth, St. Lucie Press, 1998
Management Consultants, Inc., Miami
___________________________________________________________________ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2298

Productivity Management Articles to be updated

Updated 12 August 2016,  8 March 2012

Supply Chain Industrial Engineering and Cost Reduction/Management Ideas

Increasing Productivity Through Your Supply Chain

Boosting Innovation and Productivity through Supply Chain Management in Highway Construction


LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries to Master Today's VUCA World

Josef Packowski
CRC Press, 26-Nov-2013 - Business & Economics - 493 pages

Delivering excellent service to all customers is the key imperative for many sustainable businesses. So why do so many supply chains struggle to fulfill customer requirements at competitive costs? The answer is simple: traditional supply chain planning, which was tailored to a predominantly stable and predictable business environment, cannot handle the new challenges in the world of variability, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity—the VUCA world.

Companies can either accept the drawbacks that often result in high inventories, poor asset utilization, and unsatisfactory customer service or, they can change their view of the fundamental approach to supply chain management. LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries to Master Today’s VUCA World introduces a new paradigm and a new approach to managing variability, uncertainty, and complexity in today’s planning processes and systems.

Introducing a cutting-edge supply chain management concept that addresses current problems in the process industry's supply chains, the book presents powerful methods developed by leading research institutes, process industry champions, and supply chain experts. It explains how readers can change their approach to the fundamental planning paradigms in a manner that will help their organizations achieve higher levels of responsiveness, improved levels of customer service, and substantial increases in cost-efficiencies.

This holistic practitioner’s guide describes how to establish the right accountabilities for performance management and also provides a set of meaningful metrics to help measure your progress. Supplying detailed guidelines for transforming your supply chain, it includes first-hand reports of leading organizations that have already adopted some of the facets of this paradigm and used the relevant instruments to achieve unprecedented improvements to customer service, supply chain agility, and overall equipment effectiveness.

5 Ways to Increase Productivity and Performance in Your Supply Chain

Focusing on tactics that will increase a supply chain’s productivity is essential to earn adequate profits through achieving positive customer satisfaction. Apart from improving products and processes, there are some other very effective ways to do this.

Efficient Communication: Communicate with your supply chain partners  in a clear and concise manner that defines supply chain goals and the methods to achieve those goals. This communication is crucial to a supply chain’s operations and productivity. By scheduling meetings devoted to collaborative problem-solving, management is able to make essential changes regarding performance. This diligent problem-solving ensures a unified understanding of productivity and operations that will facilitate open communication between supply chain partners.

Development of Procedure Standards: The development of procedure standards reduces error within the supply chain and saves both time and money. Focus on the reduction of probable variation in areas such as receiving, quality control, shipping, shift scheduling, and facilities management. This is one of the many ways to increase collective productivity and establish procedure standards.

Determination of Importance: Continuous improvement to supply chain productivity depends on the areas where attention is given.  Measuring outcomes in critical areas that drive business, for example: Safety, Service/On-Time Delivery, Inventory Accuracy/Turns, Productivity, Cost per Unit/Total Landed Cost, Product Damage/Claims, Customer Satisfaction

Engage, Align, and Empower Workforce: Encourage supply chain partners to focus on the core skills of employees and empower them. This focus will foster confidence and result in a continuous increase of productivity. Gaining the buyin of workforce makes it possible to create new ways to engage and align, to ultimately increase productivity. Be sure to define supply chain’s goals in a clear and concise method that will allow employees and management of supply chain partners to take advantage of existing and future opportunities for improvement.

Construct a Powerful Training Program: First, formulate a comprehensive plan to increase productivity, reduce costs, and improve customer service and satisfaction levels. Then tie an incentive plan into the supply chain’s core mission, a critical element to building a performance-based approach. Train supply chain partners and their employees in implementing the new plan.  This constructive training will drive a successful organization and improve supply chain productivity.

Increasing productivity within the supply chain is achieved through a top down approach – everything rises and falls on the supply chain leader. Leaders must practice effective communication, create procedure standards, determine a hierarchy of importance, encourage empowerment of  the workforce of supply chain partners, and arrange powerful training programs. Management and employees of the supply chain leader have to first create and establish a performance-based culture within their company and then in its supply chain partner companies.
Adapted from


Labor management systems: Labor is a significant expense item in warehousing costs. A robust warehouse labor management system (LMS) can help you understand this expense. An LMS lets you  examine tasks such as receiving, put-away and processing at the individual level. You can evaluate performance elements more closely, isolate problem areas and make better decisions about training, staffing and management. It also enhances accountability for all employees, which often brings out their best performance.

Picking devices and technologies: Sometimes, the best order-picking alternative is an employee’s hands. At other times, a device that picks a whole layer of cases at a time could be economical  and much faster,  Some of these machines can double or triple picking volumes for the same time.  Hands-free voice picking devices are another fiscally friendly upgrade.

Cut down lighting costs: Warehouse energy bills can exceed $100,000 annually.  Today’s energy-efficient  lighting technologies offer brighter, greener and less expensive electricity alternatives.

A relighting project may demand upfront investment,  but provide saving up to 50 percent as soon as new lights are installed. These projects also could earn tax breaks or incentives from local governments and utilities. They also could reduce the expense of any carbon offset purchases your company plans to make.

Interleaving: In the average warehouse, forklift operators move between a couple of points such as a loading dock and storage racks. On the initial trip, these vehicles usually are full — and fully utilized. But they’re empty while returning, a process known as deadheading. Deadhead journeys can add up to countless empty miles and wasted operator time.

Interleaving rearranges workflow so forklift operators travel in a circular motion or some other route configuration, better using the traveling time between racks and loading docks. Interleaving designs vary significantly from facility to facility. And since most all facilities use forklifts, this growing practice deserves a closer look. Granted, it requires robust systems capacity and cooperative operators who will embrace the change. However, the ultimate payoff can be significant

There are some  more money-saving warehousing investments such as thermal-shrinking machines, financial gainsharing incentives and space utilization tools.

Adopted from

Supply Chain by Rajiv Saxena
Industrial Engineer's quarterly column about supply chain and logistics solutions (July 2011)

Ken Ackerman's Warehousing Fourm

Supply Chain Industrial Engineering -  Presentation Video


Updated  12 August 2016, 8 April 2013