Saturday, December 12, 2015


Wastage of Today is Shortage of Tomorrow - Conserve Energy

Industrial Engineering eliminates waste of all resources.

National Energy Conservation Day is observed in India on 14th December.

India has an act in this area - The Energy Conservation Act 2001.

The Energy Conservation Act 2001 is implemented by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), a statutory body under Government of India. The act  envisages creation of cadre of professionally qualified energy managers and auditors with expertise in energy management, project management, financing and implementation of energy efficiency projects, as well as policy analysis.

National Certificate Examination for Energy Managers and Energy Auditors

Book I - General aspect of energy management and energy audit
Book II - Energy efficiency in thermal utilities
Book III - Energy efficiency in electrical utilities
Book IV - Energy performance assessment for equipment & utility systems

Download Material from the link

What is Energy Conservation?

Energy conservation means using less energy and avoiding excessive or wasteful uses.
Energy efficiency, on the other hand, means using less energy while getting the same results. Efficiency is therefore a subset of conservation; one way to conserve energy is to use it more efficiently.
The concept of doing more with less offers an approach that seems both feasible and affordable.

Sometimes the two concepts are distinguished by how the savings are achieved. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) says that “energy efficiency is technology-based” (compact fluorescent light bulbs, for example), while conservation “is rooted in behavior” (such as turning off unneeded lights). Moreover, the energy savings from efficiency are easier to predict, measure and especially to sustain, making efficiency easier to treat as an energy resource.1 This distinction, however, is not entirely clear cut; there are efficiency measures that rely on behavior, such as combining car trips to save gasoline.


Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, USA Materials


The document consists of seven appendices.
Appendix 1 describes the 95 ITP-supported technologies currently available commercially and their applications and benefits.
Appendix 2 describes the 132 ITP-supported emerging technologies likely to be commercialized within two or three years.
Appendix 3 describes 128 ITP-supported technologies used in past commercial applications, the
current benefits of which are no longer counted in this report.
Appendices 4 and 5 summarize the benefits of two ITP technical assistance activities: the Industrial Assessment Centers and the Save Energy Now initiative.
Appendix 6 summarizes the benefits of CHP systems attributed to DOE activities.
Appendix 7 describes the methodology used to assess and track ITP-supported technologies.

About DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program

The Industrial Technologies Program, through partnerships with industry, government, and non-governmental organizations, develops and delivers advanced energy effi ciency, renewable energy, and pollution prevention technologies for industrial applications. The Industrial Technologies Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energyʼs Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

The Industrial Technologies Program encourages industry-wide efforts to boost resource productivity through a strategy called Industries of the Future (IOF). IOF focuses on the following eight energy and resource intensive industries:

• Aluminum • Forest Products • Metal Casting • Petroleum
• Chemicals • Glass • Mining • Steel

The Industrial Technologies Program and its Best Practices activities offer a wide variety of resources to industrial partners that cover motor, steam, compressed air, and process heating systems. For example, Best Practices software can help you decide whether to replace or rewind motors (MotorMaster+), assess the efficiency of pumping systems (PSAT), compressed air systems (AirMaster+), steam systems (Steam Scoping Tool), or determine optimal insulation thickness for pipes and pressure vessels (3E Plus).

Training is available to help you or your staff learn how to use these software programs and learn more about industrial systems. Workshops are held around the country on topics such as “Capturing the Value of Steam Efficiency,” “Fundamentals and Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems,” and “Motor System Management.”

Available technical publications range from case studies and tip sheets to source books and market assessments. The Energy Matters newsletter, for example, provides timely articles and information on comprehensive energy systems for industry. You can access these resources and more by visiting the BestPractices Web site at industry/bestpractices or by contacting the EERE Information Center at 877-337-3463 or via email at

Metal Casting Industry

Metal casting industry report - 2004

Search results for aluminum industry - very interesting information from the site.



                 Picture Source:

Let’s all work together and contribute towards energy conservation: PM

PM Narendra Modi - Man ki Baat




New Technologies for Improving Energy Efficiency - Report by McKinsey & Co.

Energy Efficiency Measures and Targets in India


Bijli Bachao



Market Transformation in Energy Efficiency in India - Government Policy Framework
Report by Deloitte


Energy Efficiency Improvement and Issues - YouTube Videos - Created in 2013

Energy Efficiency and Productivity - International Events, Articles, Papers

Talk by Mr. Ajay Mathur, Directory General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE),  on 13 May 2010 

Speeches on the occasion of National Energy Conservation Day

2012 National Energy Conservation Day Highlights - Speech of President of India



2011 by Prime Minister of India
2007 by President of India
2005 by Secretary, Minister of Power
2004 By P.M. Sayeed, Union Minister of Power

Related Websites

Energy Use Efficiency - IE for Energy Resource

Energy Conservation Mission - Institute of Engineers India Site on Energy Conservation


Slogans for Energy Conservation

You may not be able to produce energy, But You can definitely save energy.
Spending energy is spending money. Do it wisely.
Energy consumption is a burden on your purse. it is a burden on India's economy. It is a burden on Environment.
Conservation is only careful consumption.
What is conservation? Consumption with care.

More Slogans from EMT website


National Energy Conservation Energy Awards

Last date for receipt of applications for award is over.
Awards will be announced





India  -    The Energy Conservation Act 2001.

Amendment Bill proposed in 2010
An Act to provide for efficient use of energy and its conservation and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty second Year of the Republic of India as follows:—
List of Energy Intensive Industries and other establishments specified as designated consumers

Activities by Government under the Energy Consevation Act

Images of Energy Conservation Day
Images From Times for Syndication

Energy Conservation Competitions

Painting Competition for Energy Conservation Day

The Ministry of Power has launched the National Awareness Campaign in order to promote energy conservation in the country. Painting competition for students at the School, State and at National level has been included as one of the activities of the campaign, which would not only make aware the children about the need of conserving energy but at the same time would educate and involve their parents as well in the above cause. The identified activity is one of the measures, which can help in creating awareness in the domestic sector. The children studying in the standards 4th , 5th & 6th will be eligible to participate in the painting competition.
The competition is being held in three stages, namely, School, State and National Level. Cash prizes worth Rs 33,000 per State/UT (Rs.11.55 lakhs for 35 States/UTs) will be distributed to state level winners on 14th Novemebr,2010 .For winners  of National Competition, cash prizes worth Rs.7.00 lakhs are proposed to be awarded  by the Ministry of Power on 14thDecember,2010 which is also celebrated  as National Energy Conservation day in the presence of eminent dignitaries holding very high positions in the Government.
The salient features of the scheme are as follows: 
 Salient features of the School level Painting Competition Scheme

 School Level Painting Competition 2010 for the students of 4th , 5th  & 6th standards has been launched in all the States/UTs’ through an advertisement in the print media starting from 12th  July, 2010 by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE).  
b. Schools Principals are requested to organize painting competition of 2 hours duration at their Schools. Students can use any size of paper, but preferably A4 size drawing sheet, and students can pick any one of the following Theme Topics: 
  More stars, more savings
Today’s energy wastage is tomorrow’s energy shortage
Energy saved is future save

c. The children can use Crayons, Pencil Colour, Water Colour etc. The children may consider the following points while painting.
  Relevance of the theme depicting the selected topics
Relevance of the theme depicting the selected topics
Effective communication of message selected 
Innovativeness/creativity/novel ideas/new techniques as reflected in the painting

d. Schools principals will select 2 best paintings and send them along with information on number of students participated at School level competition at the Nodal Official address of their respective State/UT by 12th October, 2010.  
e. The back of the painting should carry the following information:  
  Name of the Student  Father’s/Mother’s Name   Tel/Mobile No. of Parents 
Standard Roll No.  E-mail ID of Student 
School Name & Address       School Tel No   School Tel No 
Tel No. of Student     E-mail ID of Student    
STATE/UT  Signature of the School Principal    

f. All the participating students at School level painting competition will get a ‘Certificate of Participation’ and 1st & 2nd selected will get ‘Certificate of Merit’ which will be signed by School Principal and Director General – Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power (Government of India). 
g. List of the Nodal officials for all the States/UTs is given in State Nodal Officials List
h. Paintings not signed by the school principal or sent directly by student’s parents will not be accepted.  
i. Paintings are to be sent only at the address of respective Nodal Official of the State/UT and not on the addresses of Ministry of Power and Bureau of Energy Efficiency.  
j. This year, the paintings received from the CBSE schools, located outside India, will be considered under a separate category and the Certificate of Appreciation will be sent under the signature of Director General, Bureau of Energy Efficiency. These schools are requested to send two best paintings directly, along with the details as mentioned above, at the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Sewa Bhawan, R.K.Puram,Sector-1, New Delhi-110066 (INDIA) office address. 
k. It is to be mentioned that those schools who would record 100% participation in the 4th, 5th and 6th standards (as applicable) at the School level Painting Competition, their names will be included in the Painting Competition booklet prepared by BEE. 
l.  The 1st /2nd/ 3rd Prize winners of State level painting competition of the last 2 years(2008 & 2009) are not eligible to participate in this year competition. The Consolation Prize winners of State level Painting Competition may participate, but they would be considered for prizes if they win 1st /2nd/ 3rd Prize at the State level. 
2. Salient features of the State level Painting Competition Scheme
 A committee/jury comprising of 4 to 5 renowned persons in Art, drawing teachers, officials from organizers and State government education department will be constituted by the Nodal officials for selecting up to 50 best paintings out of the total numbers of the paintings sent by the respective School Principal of the State/UT.  
b. The list of 50 selected students eligible for participation at state level painting competition will be uploaded on by 5thNovember 2010.

c. Nodal officials will also communicate with the respective school principals by 5th  November, 2010 through letters, fax, telegrams, telephones, email etc. about the selection of their students and also request them to send the selected school student to participate in State level painting competition on 14th November, 2010 at the selected venue and timings. Tentatively, this venue may be the State capital.

d. The selected students are also to be requested to carry the following material 
  A letter from respective school principal certifying the student’s particulars or Identity Card.
Latest passport size Colored photograph (02 Nos). 
Painting material: crayons, colored pencils, water colors. 
Drawing board etc. (The drawing sheet of size:380 x 510 millimeters (approximately 15 x 20 inches) will be provided by the Nodal official)
Nodal Officials will conduct the on-the-spot painting competition of 2 hours duration at the predetermined venue on 14th November 2010. 

e. Schools/parents to bring the children to the venue and take back the children to their respective places. The selected students reporting at the venue of competition will be paid Rs 1000/- each in cash by the nodal official on the day of their participation at State level painting competition and reimburse sleeper class rail-fare/ state roadways bus fare from the shortest route for self and two guardians. The nodal official will also provide refreshments/lunch to the participating students and their guardians. 
f. The Committee of Experts/Jury of that particular State/UT will select 13 best paintings for
First Prize Rs. 10,000/- Second Prize Rs. 8,000/- 
Third Prize Rs. 5,000/-  Consolation Prize (10nos) Rs. 1,000/- 

g. The chief guest of the function would give away the prizes to winning students.  
h. A Group photograph of participating students along with Chief Guest and respective Nodal official will also to be arranged. 
i. Students participating at State/UT level painting competition will be given some mementoes by the Nodal Officials and Certificate of participation. 
3. Salient features of the National level Painting Competition Scheme
 The first, second and third prize winners of the each State/UT level painting competition along with their guardian (restricted to two adults per student), will be invited to Delhi to participate in the National Level Painting competition of 2 hours duration on 12th December,2010 
b. The participating student in the National Level Painting Competition will be paid a sleeper class rail-fare/ State Roadways bus fare by the shortest route for self and two guardians and a lump sum of Rs. 1000/- per student as incidentals by the respective Nodal Officials. Travel expenses for the North- East region and other far-flung areas where rail and bus connectivity is not available, the concerned Nodal Officials will decide alternate option of travel. The expenditure will be borne by the respective Nodal Officials.  
c. All the participants should carry the requisite drawing material, (except the drawing sheet which will be provided by the Nodal official) on their own, such as: Drawing paper, size: 380 x 510 millimeters (approximately 15 x 20 inches) (Note: The drawing sheet will be provided by Nodal official)
Painting material: crayons, colored pencils, water colors. 
Drawing board, etc 

d. A selection committee/jury comprising of renowned personalities from Art Institutes or Artists, Ministry of Power and BEE officials, would judge the paintings. The Committee of Experts/ Jury will select 23 best paintings for First Prize (1 no) Rs. 1, 00,000/-, Second Prize (4 nos) Rs.  50,000/-, Third Prize (8nos) Rs. 25,000/- and Consolation Prize (10 nos) Rs. 10,000/- each.  Director General, BEE, would also decide 10 nos of consolation prizes of Rs. 10,000/- each  
e. The participating students at the National level painting competition will be requested to stay back till 14th December, 2010 so that they can participate in the National Energy Conservation Day function and winning Students can receive the prizes from the Chief Guest. 

4. Awards for State/UT Education Department and State/UT Nodal Officer
Efforts of the States/UTs Government Education Departments and State/ UT Nodal Officers who have made concerted efforts to support the Painting Competition under the National Campaign for Energy Conservation of Ministry of Power will be awarded. 
A committee constituted under the Chairmanship of DG (BEE) will evaluate and finalize on the basis of highest School & Student participation and percentage improvement over the previous year for the respective State/UT 
The decision of the Jury/Expert committee at all levels of the painting competition will be final.  
Two paintings selected at school Level, paintings at State and National Level would be the sole property of BEE, which will have the right to use it for any purpose it consider appropriate.  
Collection of Paintings of last 5 years State level Competition on Energy Conservation are available at the following link:
NCEC 2009
NCEC 2008
NCEC 2007
NCEC 2006
NCEC 2005

Contact (2010 year)
Ph : 011-26179699
Shri Neeraj Dhingra, Project Engineer, BEE
Smt. Rajini Thomson, Project Engineer, BEE
Energy Story for Use in Schools

Originally posted in Knol 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2334

Green Industrial Policy

Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (ESOS) - UK

The Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (ESOS) is an energy assessment and energy
saving scheme and is established by the Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme Regulations
2014 (ESOS Regulations).
The scheme applies to large undertakings and groups containing large undertakings in the

The qualification date for the first compliance period is 31 December 2014.
A large undertaking is:
- any UK undertaking that meets either one or both of the conditions below:
 it employs 250 or more people1

 it has an annual turnover in excess of 50 million euro (£38,937,777), and an annual
balance sheet total in excess of 43 million euro (£33,486,489)

New Technologies to Help in Energy Conservation and Efficiency Improvement

Energy-management system
Advanced analytics
Smart grids

Immersion-cooling technology
Liquid-desiccant systems
Pressurized-plenum-recirculation-air system

Automated-compressor-staging and capacity control systems
Variable-head-pressure controls
Direct-contact water heaters


Ultra-supercritical plants
High-efficiency combined-cycle gas turbine


Fluidized-bed advanced-cement-kiln system
Combustion-system improvements (gyrotherm)
High-efficiency grate coolers (reciprocating)
Improved preheating/precalcining

Oil refining and chemicals

Advanced-process control
Membrane gas separation
High-pressure recovery
Steam compressors

Pulp and paper

Advanced-thermomechanical pulping
Heat recovery in thermomechanical pulping
High-consistency paper making
Impulse drying in wet-pressing process

Coke-dry quenching
Cyclone-converter furnace
Endless-strip production
Top-gas-recycling blast furnace
Mining Automated-mine-ventilation control and


Automated-mine-ventilation control and air reconditioning
High-pressure grinding rolls
In-pit crushing-conveyance and high-angle conveyance systems
Low-loss conveyor belts
Stirred-media mills

McKinsey & Co.

Greening the future: New technologies that could transform how industry uses energy

August 2015


Harsh Choudhry
Mads Lauritzen
Ken Somers
Joris Van Niel

You can download the report from McKinsey Company website

Wednesday, November 25, 2015

Robust Design - Productivity during Design & Development

Robust Design is an engineering methodology for improving productivity during design & development so that high quality products can be produced at low cost.

Robust Design is an engineering methodology for improving productivity during design & development so that high quality products can be produced at low cost.

Robsut design optimization is systematic and efficient way to meet the challenge design optimization for performance, quality & cost. 

It is capable of

Making product performance insensitive to raw material variation, thus providing scope for  the use of lower grade alloys, 
Making designs robust against manufacturing variation, thus reducing material cost for rework & scrap,
Making the design least sensitive to the variation in operating environment.

It uses a new structured development process so that design engineering time is used more productively.

The Robust Design method uses a mathematical tool called Orthogonal Arrays to study a large number of decision variables with a small number of experiments. It also uses a new measure of quality called signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio to predict the quality from the customer's perspective.

To be updated using material from Ulrich and Eppinger

Development Cost of Cars - Efficiency Practices and Lean Product Development

January 2014
Maruti invested 5.7 billion rupees ($91.7 million) to develop the Celerio in the belief that Indians want an automatic car. 5.7 billion rupees is equal to Rs. 570 crore.

September 2013
Grand i10, which is built upon a new platform with a development cost of nearly Rs 1,000 crore, features India specific dimensions and is 100 mm longer than its European version.

May 2013
General Motors opened a new $130 million enterprise data center, which will serve as its computing “backbone” for its global operations. The facility is located at its Technical Center in Warren, Michigan.
GM Says the new IT Center Will Reduce Vehicle Development Costs. The company also plans to build another $100 million facility in Milford, Mich.

Tata Nano
Engine Management System for Tata Nano

Chevy Volt Development Cost $1 to 1.2 billion

Mahindra & Mahindra launched its multi-purpose vehicle Xylo
Xylo, with its competitive price ranging from Rs 6.24 lakh to Rs 7.69 lakh, is pitched against MPV (multi-purpose vehicle) market leader Toyota Innova . While Toyota’s low-end Innova E costs Rs 7.60 lakh, the low-end version of Mahindra MPV, Xylo E2, at Rs 6.24, comes with additional comfort features including power steering, power windows and central locking. Toyota’s high-end Innova G4 is priced Rs 9.29 lakh while Mahindra’s high-end variant Xylo E8 costs Rs 7.69 lakh and offers additional comforts including digital drive assist system and flatbed front seats.
Xylo, which was under development for four and a half years, has come out of an all-new platform called Ingenio. The entire product development has cost Rs 550 crore. According to managers of the company, the product development process has improved significantly in the last six and a half years. The development cost of Scorpio and Xylo is the same, even though Xylo was developed recently.

Ford spent an estimated six years and $6 billion developing its world car - the Mondeo/Contour/Mystique.
The Mondeo was launched on November 23, 1992, and sales began on 22 March 1993.
Instigated in 1986, the design of the car cost Ford US$6 billion. It was one of the most expensive new car programs ever. North American models were marketed as the Ford Contour and Mercury Mystique until 2000, and as the Ford Fusion from 2013 onwards.

Corvette 5 Upgrade - Budget $200 million


Product Development in the World Auto Industry
Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University

GM-10 Development Project - W-Body by General Motors - $7 billion budget

Ford Fiesta
Development Cost - $1 billion

Ford Management decides to study the possibility of producing a class "B" car, smaller than the European Escort Mk. 1,  The commitment: seven men, $100,000 and 8 months to create a firm proposal.

Lee Iacocca, then President of Ford, and Henry Ford II, Chairman, agree that the proposal looks promising,.

 Ford Fiesta project is code named "Bobcat." The Ghia design studio in Turin, under De Tomaso, produces styling model which is used in marketing studies. Other pre-prototypes studied are produced in England and Germany, and all are rated along side compeitors. $1.3 million total is spent in marketing studies, including showing prototypes and competitors to 900 customers from 7 countries.

Henry Ford II and Lee Iacocca introduce Bobcat prototype to Ford of Europe staff in Germany 1000 days before start of production. This prototype has styling almost identical to the final production version. Styling is later finalized, with a compromise between two similar Ford Europe design studio efforts approved.

Construction of an automobile production complex is started in Valencia, Spain to produce Fiesta. Annual capacity to be 400,000 engines, and 300,000 complete automobiles. First prototype Ford Fiesta driven by Henry Ford II and Lee Iacocca.

Ford Fiesta is upgraded in minor ways to exceed the new higher targets set by the latest competition. European pre-production engines produced, and the Ford Fiesta is transferred from the development to production startup stage. Board decides to produce federalized version of the Ford Fiesta at Saarlouis, Germany, for export to the United States. Plans are made to produce 1600cc 'Kent' engines at Dagenham, England, to be shipped to Germany and mated with transmissions made in Bordeaux, France. All to be assembled into Fiestas to be exported to the U.S.

Total Ford Fiesta production: 109,838 units (partial year).
Production is started of 957cc European version, which weighs approx 1650 lbs.

Total Ford Fiesta production: 440,969
Sales of U.S. Fiestas begin, 1978 model year designation. Four model variants are available: Base, Decor, Sport and Ghia. All have the same engine and four speed manual transmission, with interior trim and instrumentation being the primary differences. The exceptions are the Sport model, which includes stiffer shock valving and a 12mm. anti-sway bar at the rear, and the Ghia which includes servo assisted brakes.

Why does it cost upward of a billion dollars to develop a new car?

Car companies have to spend enormous amounts developing new models. The price tag to develop a new vehicle starts around $1 billion. According to John Wolkonowicz, Senior Auto Analyst for North America at IHS Global, "It can be as much as $6 billion if it's an all-new car on all-new platform with an all-new engine and an all-new transmission and nothing carrying over from the old model." $6 billion was spent by Ford in developing Monde model during 1986-1993.

Thousands of parts have to work every time one turns the key and every time one presses the accelerator and every time one presses the brake. And they have to do it for about 15 years. And they also have to pass all the government inspections.

When an automaker designs a new car, it has to identify consumer tastes a few years down the road, and  also it has to create a car that is feasible to produce on an assembly line and still make a profit.

A new car development team usually includes a few hundred of engineers, split into such groups as chassis and body, suspension, drivetrain, control systems and other major subsystems. Other teams may be dedicated to control noise, vibration and harshness, meeting government regulations, or finding the most ergonomically correct setup for the widest variety of differently sized humans that could get behind the wheel. With the rise of in-car infotainment systems, there are engineers working on the latest gadgets to include in the car.

Lot testing goes in the development process. They test, test, and test some more until they get it right. They test to meet performance requirements. They test for durability. They test for fuel mileage. They test for aerodynamics. They test for safety compliance. Testing costs money.

Today many tests can be done on the computer before prototypes are built, but those computers and the software cost more money and eventually, real-world tests must be done and unique prototypes must be built. Some of that real-world testing can take place at automakers' private proving grounds or closed test tracks, but the need to test in extreme weather conditions lures them to the roasting desert of Death Valley and the frigid winter of Lapland. The logistics of getting humans, prototypes and test equipment to these regions does not come cheap, either.

You will find designers (interior and exterior), model makers, marketing people, manufacturing specialists, assembly line workers, industrial engineers,  purchasing analysts, and number of outside consultants and also number of accountants -- working on new product development at any given time. You require many executive decision makers. There is also support staff assisting with human resources, IT and other essential services of a modern corporation. As a part of development assembly plants have to designed and tooling to stamp parts out has to be created.

At an average total compensation for each engineer, designer, accountant, marketing person and executive  in the neighborhood of $100,000 per year (counting benefits such as medical insurance, pensions, education, vacation and other perks) and a team of 1,000 people would mean $100,000,000 per year.  With four years to develop a car, that's at least $400,000,000 for compensation alone. Those employees need computers, office space, engineering laboratories and many  other resources required to design and engineer such a complex machine. The mobile bill alone is probably in the neighborhood of a million bucks a year for such a group. One billion dollars can be easily accounted for.

Re-tooling a factory can easily eclipse the human cost of developing a new car.

In the Book "The Machine That Changed the World" Womack et al. note that average American producer requires 60.4 months and 903 employees to come out with a new car design. The prototype lead time is 12.4 months and die development time is 25 months.

Related Articles by Narayana Rao

Lean Product Development and Product Development Productivity - Bibliography

To be updated

25 Nov 2015, 22 feb 2014

Lean Product Development and Product Development Productivity - Bibliography

Siemens NX 9 Delivers up to 5X Product Development Productivity across Industries
Technology Breakthroughs Establish New Flexibility and Productivity Paradigms for Working with 2D Data and Massive Assemblies
New Functionality Expands NX Leadership in Freeform Shape Design, PLM Integration, and Product Development Decision-Making
PLANO, Texas, October 14, 2013

Sustaining LPD program - A Presentation - Katherine Radeka

Book - Design Productivity Debate - 1996 - Alex H.B. Duffy
Preview Google Book


Improving the NPD Process by Applying Lean Principles: A Case Study.
By: Nepal, Bimal P.; Yadav, Om Prakash; Solanki, Rajesh. Engineering Management Journal. Sep2011, Vol. 23 Issue 3, p65-81. 17p. 4 Diagrams, 9 Charts, 1 Graph.

A Framework for Organizing Lean Product Development.   Full Text Available
By: Hoppmann, Joern; Rebentisch, Eric; Dombrowski, Uwe; Thimo Zahn. Engineering Management Journal. Mar2011, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p3-15. 13p. 3 Charts.

Lean Product Development Research: Current State and Future Directions.   Full Text Available
By: León, Hilda C. Martínez; Farris, Jennifer A. Engineering Management Journal. Mar2011, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p29-51. 23p. 2 Diagrams, 7 Charts, 1 Graph.

A Multilevel Framework for Lean Product Development System Design.   Full Text Available
By: Letens, Geert; Farris, Jennifer A.; van Aken, Eileen M. Engineering Management Journal. Mar2011, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p69-85. 17p. 4 Diagrams, 2 Charts.

Lean Product Development as a System: A Case Study of Body and Stamping Development at Ford.   Full Text Available
By: Liker, Jeffrey K.; Morgan, James. Engineering Management Journal. Mar2011, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p16-28. 13p. 3 Diagrams.

Improving the NPD Process by Applying Lean Principles: A Case Study.   Full Text Available
By: Nepal, Bimal P.; Yadav, Om Prakash; Solanki, Rajesh. Engineering Management Journal. Mar2011, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p52-68. 17p. 5 Diagrams, 7 Charts, 2 Graphs.

The Toyota Way in Services: The Case of Lean Product Development.   Full Text Available
By: Liker, Jeffrey K.; Morgan, James M. Academy of Management Perspectives. May2006, Vol. 20 Issue 2, p5-20. 16p. 1 Diagram, 3 Charts. DOI: 10.5465/AMP.2006.20591002.

Rediscovering the kata way. (cover story).   Full Text Available
By: SOLTERO, CONRAD. Industrial Engineer: IE. Nov2012, Vol. 44 Issue 11, p28-33. 6p. 1 Color Photograph, 2 Diagrams, 1 Chart.

The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development by Donald G. Reinertsen.   Full Text Available
By: Radeka, Katherine. Journal of Product Innovation Management. Jan2010, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p137-139. 3p. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2009.00705_1.x

By: Cooper, Robert G.; Edgett, Scott J. Research Technology Management. Mar/Apr2008, Vol. 51 Issue 2, p47-58. 12p.


 Johannes Hinckeldeyn , Rob Dekkers , Jochen Kreutzfeldt , (2015) "Productivity of product design and engineering processes: Unexplored territory for production management techniques?", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 35 Iss: 4, pp.458 - 486

Focus on implementation: a framework for lean product development
Type: Conceptual paper
Author(s): L. Wang, X.G. Ming, F.B. Kong, D. Li, P.P. Wang
Source: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management Volume: 23 Issue: 1 2012

Rethinking lean NPD: A distorted view of lean product development
Type: General review
Source: Strategic Direction Volume: 23 Issue: 10 2007

Towards lean product lifecycle management: A framework for new product development
Type: Conceptual paper
Author(s): Peter Hines, Mark Francis, Pauline Found
Source: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management Volume: 17 Issue: 7 2006

Updated  25 Nov 2015, 19 Feb 2014

Lean Product Design - How Toyota Designs Cars - Womack, Jones and Roos

Chapter 3 Content

Product Development and Engineering in Lean Enterprise

Ohno and Toyoda decided early that product engineering inherently encompassed both process and industrial engineering.. They formed product design teams with experts from process and industrial engineering teams. Career paths were structured so that rewards went to strong team players without regard to their function. The consequence of lean engineering  was a dramatic leap in productivity, product quality and responsiveness.

Lean Production and Changing Consumer Demand

Toyota's flexible production system and its low cost and time product engineering let the company supply the product variety that buyers wanted with little cost penalty. In 1990, Toyota offered consumers around the world as many products as General Motors even though Toyota was only half of GM's size. Toyota requires only half the time and effort required by GM to design and produce a new car. So Toyota can offer twice as many vehicles with the same development budget.  Japanes car makers offer as many models as all of the Western firms combined.  The product variety offered by Japanese is growing where that offered by Western companies is shrinking.

Japanese on an average are producing 500,000 copies in four years, whereas western companies making 2 million copies in 10 years.

Toyota is making profit by producing only two-thirds of the life-of-the-model production volume of European specialist firms and therefore it can attack the craft-based niche producers like Aston Martin and Ferrari. American mass producers could not attack them due to insufficient volume.

Chapter 5  Designing the Car

Honda's product development process is different from that of General Motors. The Large Project Leader in charge of car development is given great power. He recruits appropriate persons from various functional departments for the life of the project.

In 1986, Professor Kim Clark of Harvard Business School undertook a world wide survey of product development activities in motor industry. Clark found that a totally new Japanese car required 1.7 million hours engineering effort on average and took forty-six months from first design to customer deliveries. By contrast, the average U.S. and European proect of comparable complexity took 3 million engineering hours and consumed sixty months.  Thus the Japanese methods have a two-to-one difference in engineering effort and a saving of one-third in development time. It turns on its head one of our most common assumptions. A project can be speeded up with increase in cost and effort.

The authors say there are four basic differences between lean design and western design methods.

1. Leadership of the product design team
The lean producers invariably employ some variant of the Shusa system pioneered by Toyota (Honda terms it Large Project leader (LPL)). The Shusa is the leader of the team and his job is to design and engineer a new product and get it fully into production. In Japanese auto industry, the cars are commonly known by the Shusa's name.

2. Teamwork
In American or European companies 900 engineers are involved in a typical project over its life, but Japanese companies use only about 485 engineers. But importantly, there is little turnover in the Japanese teams. There is more turnover in American teams.

3. Communication
In the best Japanese lean project, the numbers of people involved are highest at the very outset. Difficult trade-offs are decided at the start stages of the project.  As development proceeds, the number of people involved drops as some specialties complete the job.

4. Simultaneous Development

Example of Die development:
The die designers in Japanese projects are in direct, face to face contact with the design team and they know the number of panels to be made and approximate sizes. So they go ahead and order blocks of die steel in parallel to the design process. They even make rough cuts before the detailed design of the panels is done.

The Consequences of Lean Design in the Market Place

Lean design companies can offer a wider variety of products and replace them more frequently that mass-production competitors. The Japanese firms are using their advantage in lean systems to expand their product range rapidly, even as they renew existing products every four years. Between 1982 and 1990, they nearly doubled their product portfolio from forty-seven to eighty-four models.

Training of Engineers in Japan

All engineers including design engineers first assemble cars. At Honda, for example all entry-level engineers spend their first three months in the company working on the assembly line. The're then rotated to the marketing department for the next three months.  Then they spend an year in various engineering departments - drive train, body, chassis and process machinery. Then design engineer's assignment starts in an engineering department. As a first assignment, they are assigned to a routine new-product development team. In the next assignment they may be put on a more challenging task.  After this, they are given additional academic inputs and then put on advanced projects, which involve using revolutionary and advanced materials.

But Honda, asks all its engineers to spend one month in operations and ensures that even people working in advanced technologies are connected to the current demands of  the market.

Japanese Became High-Tech Wonders

Not only in manufacturing, even in design practice Japanese have a gone a notch or two ahead of its Western Competitors.

Japanese bet on increase in fuel prices and made investments in small four cylinder engines. But fuel prices fell and consumers were looking for larger cars with more power. Japanese engineers made use of many known technologies to increase power of four cylinder engines.  There features were: fuel injection rather than carburettors, four valves per cylinder, balance shafts in the bottom of the engine, turbochargers and superchargers. a second set of overhead cams, and even an additional set of cams. The engineers work very hard on what is known as refinement - paying attention to the smallest details of an engine design that gives better performance. Finally, attention was given to manufacturability so that complex engines work properly every time.  These innovations convinced buyers in North America that Japanese cars are now high-tech. When the American producers wanted to do similar innovations, problems have cropped up.

Japanese companies are now having patents than American companies in automobiles.

So far, Japanese have not made epochal innovations. They did a brilliant scavenging process that used ideas nearly ready for the market. How will they fare in more difficult challenges? The authors concluded..

Set-based concurrent engineering

To be updated

25 Nov 2015, 20 Oct 2013

Sunday, September 13, 2015

Industrial Engineering and Productivity Improvement - Coal Mining Sector - by - Prof K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao

How to improve supply chain productivity for Miners: Part Two

Mining in the 21st Century - Quo Vadis
19th World Mining Congress 2003

First Keynote Address on Sustainable Development and Coal Mining. Important.

William M. Boal* July 2014
Coal was a vital industry, employing 860,000 workers in the U.S. at its peak in 1923, and the United Mine Workers of America was a huge union, counting 422,000 dues-paying members in the U.S. at its peak in 1921.

The paper examines the effect of unionism on productivity in coal mines of west virginia. It did not give any numerical estimates of productivity per employee in any year of the study.  2015 annual meeting paper. It can be downloaded from

Desk Reference: Rock Mechanics, Drilling & Blasting
Agne Rustan, Claude Cunningham, William Fourney, Alex Spathis, K.R.Y. Simha
CRC Press, Nov 10, 2010 - 466 pages

K.S. Prakasha Rao, Modelling and simulation of coal extraction and transportation system, Industrial Engineering Journal, July 1996, Vol 25, No 7, pp 13-20 (along with P. Subramaniam)

Great Britain - 1987

Saleable coal per man shift (OMS - output per shift) in coal mines during September 1983 was 2.44 tonnes. Two years later, it increased to 2.71 tonnes. During 1986/7, it averaged 3.29 tonnes. In March 1987, it increased to record level of 3.76 tonnes. It is a striking rise in productivity in three and half years as compared to long term trend.

Efficiency and Capacity of Boilers
Chapter of Steam: Its Generation and  Use

Productivity Change in the Coal Industry and the New Industrial Relations
Ray Richardson and Stephen Wood
British Journal of Industrial Relations
Volume 27, Issue 1, pages 33–55, March 1989

Mine Management  - The Book has focus on productivity
by Douglas Sloan

Coal Mining Process and Methods

Websites  -

Modern American Coal Mining: Methods and Applications
Bise, Christopher J.
SME, Oct 18, 2013 - 576 pages
Modern American Coal Mining: Methods and Applications covers a full range of coal mining and coal industry topics, with chapters written by leading coal mining industry professionals and academicians. Highlights from the book include coal resources and distribution, mine design, advances in strata control and power systems, improvements in surface mining, ventilation to reduce fires and explosions, drilling and blasting, staffing requirement ratios, management and preplanning, and coal preparation and reclamation.

The text is enhanced with 11 case studies that are representative of underground and surface mines in the United States. Narrative descriptions and appropriate mine plans are presented, with attention given to unique features and situations that are addressed through mine design and construction. A useful glossary is included, as are many examples, figures, equations and tables, to make the text even more useful.

Design of Underground Hard-Coal Mines
J. Pazdziora
Elsevier, Dec 2, 2012 - 246 pages

The escalating worldwide demand for energy has had the effect, among other things, of promoting the development of coal mining. In some countries specialist design offices were set up and students trained as specialists in mine design and construction. Poland, a country having mining traditions stretching over many centuries, is a good example, and has gained a place in the forefront, not only as a coal producer and exporter, but also as an originator and exporter of technical mining know-how. The author of this book has himself had 25 years of practical experience in mine design, in the supervision of mining investment implementation both at home and abroad, and also in directing the activities of the Chief Mine Design and Studies Office in Poland, plus more than 20 years' teaching experience in the training of mining engineers, in particular as head of the Mine Design Department of the Mining Faculty at the Silesian Polytechnic University in Gliwice. This vast wealth of experience has prompted him to write the present book which discusses the basic problems met with in the design of underground hard-coal mines.

The author's primary aim has been to deal with all those questions in mine design which have not yet been answered in mining textbooks and which, from his own personal experience, he considers to be of importance. Accordingly, he presents the general principles governing the design of new mines and the reconstruction of working mines, the development of mining regions, the design of coal-preparation plant, and energy economy in mines. Making use of the broad experience gained by the Polish mining industry in the implementation of mining investment projects, he has quoted several examples of technical and organizational solutions which effectively shorten the mine construction cycle.

The book is addressed chiefly to investors and engineers engaged in preparing plans for the development of mining regions, for the construction of new mines, and the reconstruction of existing mines and preparation plants, as well as to students in mining departments of technical schools and universities. The information offered here is of great practical value and may well stimulate the development of new ideas for design and implementation concepts.

Measuring Coal Supply in a Power Plant - Issues

International Coal Preparation Congress 2010 Conference Proceedings
Rick Q. Honaker
SME, 2010 - 978 pages

This 992-page book is a compilation of 118 state-of-the-art technical papers presented at the industry's most prestigious gathering. A CD containing the full text is included. Read what coal preparation experts from 20 countries have to share on a variety of current issues, including: • Water-based coal processing facilities and a review of plant designs and operations used throughout the world.• Breakthroughs in dense medium separations, water-based separation processes, froth flotation, and de-watering.• New wear-resistant materials proven to help plant operators reduce maintenance costs, elevate plant availability, and maintain a high level of process efficiency.• Groundbreaking methodologies that maximize the amount of coal recovered while meeting the required product specifications.• The processing and potential uses of waste.• Innovative online monitoring and control methods and the latest on the application of modeling and simulation.• Advancements in technologies that can upgrade coal without the use of water, including density-based, thermal, and optical dry cleaning.• And much, much more.


Coal: Research and Development to Support National Energy Policy
Chapter 4 Coal Mining and Processing
National Academies Press Book

Manual of pillar extraction

India - Coal Mining Technologies

Coal Mining technologies - Tribal Energy and Environment Information

Industrial Engineering Methods in Coal Mining

Product Design Efficiency

Application of Value Engineering in Optimizating Mine Production System Capacity
Dai, Shao-jun; Hao, Chuan-bo
2nd International Conference on Value Engineering and Value Management, 2009/10/16-2009/10/17, pp93-99, 2009.
In the process of checking production capacity, coal mine has surplus production capacity in some parts of production systems or processes, and it causing unnecessary resource wastes; therefore it is essential to optimize production capacity of coal mine production system which having much more resources wastes. In order to solve the problem, the paper propose that it used value engineering method to estimate the cost, function and value of optimize scheme of coal mine production system capacity, established model of choosing experts and optimizing model of coal mine production system capacity, then took and analyzed an example. The result shows that value engineering method is suitable for optimizing coal mine system capacity and it can guide coal mine practical...

Methods Efficiency

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2014 1
ISSN 2250-3153
Optimum Utilisation of Continuous Miner for Improving Production in Underground Coal Mines
Vijaya Raghavan*, Dr Syed Ariff**, Paul Prasanna Kumar***
*Department of Mining Engineering, Dr.Thimmaiah Institute of Technology, Oorgaum, Kolar Gold Fields-563120
**Assistant Professor, Professor, Senior Lecturer.
***Department of Mining Engineering, Dr.T.Thimmaiah Institute of Technology, Oorgaum, Kolar Gold Fields-563120

raghavan_pp  at  -  Vijaya Raghavan

Analysing the Benefits of Value Stream
Mapping in Mining Industry
N. Pavan Kumar
Team Lead, Cyient Ltd., Plot No.11, Software Units Layout, Infocity, Madhapur, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Devi Prasad Mishra1*
, Mamtesh Sugla2
, Prasun Singha3
1 Department of Mining Engineering, Indian School of Mines (Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India)
2 JPMorgan India Pvt Ltd, Mafatlal Centre, Nariman Point (Mumbai, Maharashtra, India)
3 Marandoo Mine, Rio Tinto Iron Ore (Pilbara Region, Western Australia, Australia)
* Corresponding author: devi_agl @, tel.: +91 9430191673, fax: +91 326 2296628/2296563

Journal of Sustainable Mining
J. Sust. Min. Vol. 12 (2013), No. 3, pp. 48–53

Industrial Engineering Optimization

Optimizing through value driver modelling - PWC


LI, Z. and TOPUZ. E. Optimizing design capacity and field dimensions of underground coal mines. APCOM 87. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Symposium on the Application of Computer and Mathematics in the Mineral Industries. Volume I: Mining. Johannesburg. SAl MM. 1987. pp. 115 - 122.

Industrial Engineering Statistics

Risk Management in Mines - The Six Sigma Way
S. K. Sinha
Indian Institute of Coal Management, India

Industrial Engineering Economics

American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 2014, 4, 31-39
Published Online January 2014 (
Introduction of Innovative Equipment in Mining: Impact
on Productivity
Bryan Boudreau-Trudel1, , Kazimierz Zaras2, , Sylvie Nadeau1, , Isabelle Deschamps3

Soviet Mining
November–December, 1989, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 577-582
Effect of the efficiency of capital expenditures on the optimal design output of a mine
A. A. Ordin

Human Effort Engineering

Mining Publication: Ergonomics and Mining: Charting a Path to a Safer Workplace
Original creation date: September 2006

Image of publication Ergonomics and Mining: Charting a Path to a Safer Workplace
Ergonomics processes described in the literature have been associated mostly with manufacturing, financial, electronics, and office settings where working conditions tend to be rather constant and repetitive. The information presented in this document demonstrates, however, that an ergonomics process can also be implemented in a setting such as mining where working conditions frequently change and workers are periodically exposed to extreme weather conditions. This document describes how Bridger Coal Company implemented an ergonomics process at its Jim Bridger Mine from 2001 through 2004. The process developed by the Ergonomics Committee, the promotion of the process to management and employees, and the impacts of the process on working conditions at the mine are reviewed. Barriers overcome and lessons learned are also described. Quotes from Bridger Coal Company employees are included in the document to add a personal perspective. Other industries with working conditions similar to mining, such as construction and agriculture, may find this information useful.

Authors: J Torma-Krajewski, LJ Steiner, P Lewis, P Gust, K Johnson

Work Measurement, Cost Measurement, and Productivity Measurement

Time Studies in Underground Coal Mining by Ludwig W. Koch
University of Utah - MS Thesis in Department of Mining and Geological Engineering
December 1958

Management of IE Studies, Projects

Productivity Measurement

Productivity in the Mining Industry: Measurement and Interpretation
Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper
December 2008

India - Cola Mining Companies

The Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. is a Government owned public sector company with around 69000 employees.It is the second largest coal producing company in India.It is situated in the state of Andhra Pradesh,India.   Presently, company operates 36 underground coal mines and 14 opencast mines.

The Superintending Engineer, Industrial Engineering
Dept,.O/o. The Singareni Collieries Ltd., GM's Office,
Mandamarri, Dist., Adilabad Dist.-504 231., AP

Related Article

Mining - Productivity, Industrial Engineering and Lean Production

Updated  20 June,  12 June,  21 April 2015
First published on 28 March 2015

Improving R & D Productivity

Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 9, 203-214 (March 2010) | doi:10.1038/nrd3078

How to improve R&D productivity: the pharmaceutical industry's grand challenge
See also: Correspondence by Denee et al.

Steven M. Paul1, Daniel S. Mytelka1, Christopher T. Dunwiddie1, Charles C. Persinger1, Bernard H. Munos1, Stacy R. Lindborg1 & Aaron L. Schacht1

Thursday, September 10, 2015

A Study of the Toyota Production System from an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint - Shigeo Shingo - Google Book

The first and only book in English on JIT, written from the industrial engineer's viewpoint. When Omark Industries bought 500 copies and studied it companywide, Omark became the American pioneer in JIT.

Here is Dr. Shingo's classic industrial engineering rationale for the priority of process-based over operational improvements in manufacturing. He explains the basic mechanisms of the Toyota production system, examines production as a functional network of processes and operations, and then discusses the mechanism necessary to make JIT possible in any manufacturing plant.

#Provides original source material on Just-in-Time
#Demonstrates new ways to think about profit, inventory, waste, and productivity
#Explains the principles of leveling, standard work procedures, multi-machine handling, supplier relations, and much more
#If you are a serious student of industrial engineering, you will benefit greatly from reading this primary resource on the powerful fundamentals of JIT.

Table of Contents


Mechanism of the production function
Improvement of process
Improvement of operation
Development of non-stock production
Interpretation of the Toyota Production System
Mechanism of TPS
Development of a "kanban" system
Regarding TPS
Course of TPS
Introduction and development of TPS

My Summary of the book

Industrial Engineering in Toyota Production System - Lean Production

Detailed Table of Contents

1. Introduction
           Production Mechanism
2. Improving  process
           Process Elements
                 Basic Process Analysis
           Process Improvement
           Improving Inspection
           Transport Improvement
           Eliminating Storage (Delays)
3. Improving operations
           Common Factors in Operations
           Improving Setup (Exchange of Dies and Tools)
           Improving Principal Operations
                 Separating worker from Machine
                 Development of Pre-automation or Autonomation
                 Improving Margin Allowances

4. Conclusions on Developing Non-stock production
            Naturally Occurring Stock
            "Necessary Stock"
Interpretation of the Toyota Production System

5. The Principles of the Toyota Production System
           What is the Toyota Production System?
           Basic Principles
                 Waste of Overproduction
                 Separation of Worker from Machine
                Low Utilization Rates
                 Perform an Appendectomy
           Fundamentals of Production Control
                 Adopting a Non-Cost Principles
                 Elimination of Waste
                 Mass Production and Large Lot Production
                 The Ford and Toyota Systems Compared

6. Mechanics of the  Toyota Production System: Improving Process - Schedule Control and Just-in-Time
             Schedule Control and Just-in-Time
                   Production Planning
                   Schedule Control and Stockless Production
                   Adopting SMED
                   Flexibility of Capacity
                   Elimination of Defects
                   Eliminating Machine Breakdowns

7.  Mechanics of the  ToyotaProduction System: Improving Process - Leveling and the Nagara System
             What is Leveling?
                    Balancing Load and Capacity
                    Segmented and Mixed Production
                    Segmented Production Systems and Small Lot Production Systems
                    The Toyota Complex Mixed Production System
                    Lveling and Non-Stock
              The Nagara System

8. Mechanics of the  ToyotaProduction System: Improving Operations
             Components of Operations
                    Preparation and After-Adjustment
                    Principal Operations
                    Marginal Allowances
             Standard Operations
                    Standard Operations and Toyota Production System
                    Three Temporal Aspects of Standard Operations
             From Worker to Machine
             Manpower Cost Reduction
                    Improving Methods of Operation

Development of a "kanban" system
Regarding TPS
Course of TPS
Introduction and development of TPS

Updated 10 Sep 2015
First Published  16 Sep 2014

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System

Toyota Production System or Lean Philosophy

Elimination of Waste
Low Inventory
Low Order to Delivery Period using low cycle time.

Toyota Production System - Lean Tools or Techniques

Poka Yoke
Value stream mapping to find cycle time and processing time.
TIE - Total Industrial Engineering.
TQM – Zero defects
TPM – High OEE
TPMgmt – Annual Planned Cost Reduction

Shigeo Shingo

A Study of Toyota Production System from an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint by Shigeo Shingo

Book published by Productivity Press
Components of Lean System

Shigeo Shingo said
80% of the lean system (TPS) is waste elimination that is industrial engineering,
15% - production management and
5% - kanban (sign board) communications

What is Industrial Engineering?

Industrial Engineering is eliminating Muda, Muri and Mura.
IE is improving technology for cost reduction (Machines and Men) (Fundamental).
IE is improving management processes of planning, organizing and controlling (associated activity)
IE is improving business processes (Augmented)

In Preface to the Japanese Edition

Shigeo Shingo had written that management consultants were not allowed to disclose any confidential or proprietary information. Taiichi Ohno authored two books describing Toyota Production System (TPS).  That allowed Shigeo Shingo, to use the published material as the basis to explain industrial engineering principles behind TPS.

Shigeo had as his objectives in writing the book:

1. Explaining the principles of the Toyota Production System.
2. Explanation of the system of practicing these principles.
3. Description of the practical application of the methods following these principles.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Production is a network of processes and operations.
Process – transforming material into product is accomplished through a series of operations.
Process – flow of material in time and space.
Process analysis examines the flow of material or product.

In an operation a transformation occurs.
Process analysis questions whether that transformation is required.
Operation Analysis
Operation analysis examines the work performed on products by workers, machines and tools.
Process analysis, operation analysis, motion study and time study form part of methods efficiency engineering.
Process analysis and operation analysis are engineering activities specific to each branch of engineering.

Chapter 2 Improving Process

Improve process before improving individual operations.
Process is flow of material through operations.

Process Chart - Gilbreth

Processing operation
Inspection operation
Transport operation
Storage operation – Temporary, Permanent (Delay operation)

Process Improvement
Process can be improved in two ways.
The first improves the product itself through design efficiency engineering (value engineering, design for manufacture, design for assembly, and design optimization techniques).
The second improves manufacturing method through methods efficiency engineering, motion studies and production optimization and variability reduction methods.

ECR Method of Process Improvement

Eliminate the operation – sometimes it is found to be not necessary or sometimes it is due to improvement of earlier operation.
Combine operations with earlier one or latter one.
Rearrange the sequence of operations

Processing Operations Analysis

Examples in the book
Manufacturing operations can be improved by alternatives related to proper melting or forging temperatures, cutting speeds or tool selection.
Examples related to vacuum molding, plating and plastic resin drying are given in the book.
Eliminating Flashing in Castings (Die)
Flashing in die castings occurs due to escape of air.
Removing the air in mould with a vacuum pump eliminated flashing.
Removing Foam in High-Speed Plating
Spraying or showering the surface to be painted resulted in a 75% reduction.
Drying Plastic Resin
Letting the resin dry a little at a time by allowing it to float to the surface resulted in a 75% reduction of electric power consumption.

Analysis of Inspection Operations

Shingo said normal inspection is judgment inspection.
It separates good and defective items.
Rework done on defective items if possible
Informative inspection asks for process improvement.
It is like medical examination that leads to treatment.
Statistical Process Control
SPC is sampling based informative inspection.
But Shingo says even it is not sufficient to assure zero defects.
To assure zero defects we need to inspect every item but at low cost per item.
Shingo’s Suggestions
Informative Inspections

Self Inspection
Successive Inspection
Enhanced Self Inspection – Inspection enhanced with devices  - poka-yoke

Example 2.4 – Vacuum Cleaner Packing
Cleaner along with attachments and leaflets to be packed.
When a leaflet is taken from the pile,  a limit switch is operated.
When attachments are taken from the container, a limit switch is operated.
Then only, the full package is allowed to be sealed.
The purpose of inspection is prevention of the defect.
Quality can be assured when it is built in at the process and when inspection provides immediate and accurate feedback at the source to prevent the defective item to go further.
Self Inspection
It provides the most immediate feedback to the operator.
He can improve the process and also rework on the item.
Disadvantage inherent.
There is potential for lack of objectivity.
He may accept items that ought to be rejected.
Successive Inspection
The operator inspects the item for any defect in the previous operation before processing it.
Shingo says, when this was introduced defects dropped to 0.016% in Moriguchi Electric Company in television production
Inspection enhanced by Poka Yoke
Human operation and inspection can still make errors unintentionally.
Poka Yoke will take care of such errors.
Ex: Left and right covers are to be made from similar components with a hole in different places.
The press was fitted with a poka yoke which does right cover pressing only when the hole is in proper place.
Source Inspection
This is answering the question: What is the source of the defect in the process/operation?
Two types proposed.
Source Inspection – Vertical, Horizontal
Vertical source inspection traces problems back through the process flow to identify and control conditions external to the operation that affect quality.
Horizontal source inspection identifies and controls conditions within an operation that affect quality.
Poka-yoke Inspection Methods
Poka-yoke achieves 100% inspection through mechanical or physical control.
Poka-yoke can either be used as a control or a warning.
As a control it stops the process so the problem can be corrected.
As a warning, a buzzer or flashing lamp alerts the worker to a problem that is occurring.

Three types of control poka-yoke
Contact method - identify defects by whether or not contact is established between the device and some feature of the product's shape or dimension
Fixed value method - determines whether a given number of movements have been made

Motion step method - determines whether the established steps or motions of a procedure are followed

Choosing/Designing  Poka Yoke
First decide stage of inspection – Self or Successive
Second – Type of regulation
Control or warning.
Third decide Error Sensing type – Contact, fixed number or motion step

Analysis of Transport Operations

Transport within the plant is a cost that does not add value.
Hence real improvement of the process eliminates the transport function as much as possible.
This involves improving the layout of process.

Ex – 7. Transport Improvement
Tokai Iron Works – process layout -  presses, bending machines, embossing
Layout Change: Flow based layout.
A 60 cm wide belt conveyor with ten presses on either side.
WIP reduced. Production time shortened. Delays disappeared.
200% increase in productivity.
Only after opportunities for layout improvement have been exhausted should the unavoidable transport work that remains be improved through mechanization.

Eliminating - Storage Operations (Delay)

Process Delay – Permanent storage – Whole lot is waiting
Lot Delays – Temporary storage – One item is being processed. Other items in the lot waiting.
Another classification is storage on the factory floor and storage in a controlled store.
Eliminating - Storage Operations (Delay)
There are three types of accumulations between processes:

E storage - resulting from unbalanced flow between processes  (engineering)
C storage - buffer or cushion stock to avoid delay in subsequent processes due to machine breakdowns or rejects (control)
S storage - safety stock; overproduction beyond what is required for current control purposes

Eliminating E-Storage

E-storage is due to engineering/planning/design of the production-distribution  system
This can be eliminated through leveling quantities, which refers to balancing flow between high and low capacity processes and synchronization.

Leveling would mean running high-capacity machines at less than 100% capacity, in order to match flow with lower capacity machines that are already running at 100% on short interval basis.
At Toyota, the quantity to be produced is determined solely by order requirements (Takt time).

Presence of high capacity machines should not be used to justify large lot processing and resulting inventory.
Process capacity should serve customer requirements/production requirements and should not determine them
The lots especially one piece lot is processed without delay in a flow.
It is efficient production scheduling that ensures that once quantities are leveled (output is matched), inventories do not pile at any stage due to scheduling conflicts.
Synchronize the entire process flow.

Eliminating C storage - Cushion

Cushion stocks compensate for:
machine breakdowns,
defective products,
downtime for tool and die changes and
sudden changes in production scheduling.

Eliminate Cushion Storage
Prevent machine breakdowns:
Determining the cause of machine failure at the time it occurs, even if it means shutting down the line temporarily.
Total Productive Maintenance movement.

Eliminate Cushion Storage
Zero Defect Movement.
Total quality management.
Use better inspection processes:
Self Inspection.
Successive Inspection.
Enhancement to inspection through Poka Yoke
Eliminate Cushion Storage
Eliminate Lengthy setups and tool changes
Implement SMED to eliminate long set-up times and tool changes
Running smaller batch sizes to allow for quick changes in production plans

Eliminate Cushion Storage
Absorb Change in Production Plan
Running smaller batch sizes allows for quick changes in production plans without disturbing flow production to significant extent.

Eliminating Safety (S) storage

Safety stock is kept not to take care of any predicted problem but to provide additional security
It may guard against delivery delays, scheduling errors, indefinite production schedules, etc.
Ex. 10 Delivery to stores
In example 2.10 Shingo mentions a company wherein vendors supply to store and from store components are supplied to assembly line.
Shingo suggested that vendors should directly supply the day’s requirements to assembly floor and in case of any problem, components in the store can be used.
Less Need for Safety Stock Observed
That practice led to the observation that very less safety stock is needed in the store.

Shingo recommends keeping a small controlled stock that is only used when the daily or hourly scheduled delivery fails or falls behind.
In case of unexpected defects also it can be used.

The safety stock can then be replenished when the scheduled materials arrive, but the supply of materials due for the process go directly to the line, rather than normally going into storage first.
This is the essence of the just-in-time supply method.

Eliminating lot delays
While lots are processed, the entire lot, except for the one piece being processed, is in storage (is idle).
The greatest reduction in production time can be achieved when transport lot sizes are reduced to just one; the piece that was just worked on.

Using SMED (single-minute exchange of dies), set up time is decreased so large lot sizes are no longer necessary to achieve machine operating efficiencies.
SMED facilitates one item lot sizes.

Layout Improvement - Flow
Transportation changes can be accomplished through flow  layout and using gravity feed Chutes which result in shorter production cycles and decreases in transport man-hours.

Reducing Cycle Time
Generally, semi-processed parts are held between processes 80% of the time in a production cycle time.
It quantity leveling is used and synchronization of flow is created, the cycle time can be reduced by 80%.
By shifting to small lot sizes will further reduce cycle time.

TPS – Reduction of Delays or Storage
Methods of reducing production time delays (JIT) is the foundation of Toyota Production System.
It clearly brings down production cycle time and thereby offers small order to delivery time.

Process Improvements in Toyota
Mixed model small lot production was attempted in Toyota to compete with American manufacturers.
First, inefficiencies in processing operations, inspection operations and transport operations were removed.
Then storage operations were attacked and inventories eliminated.
Toyota surpassed American manufacturers.

Now TPS is promoted as Lean System

Chapter 2 End

Ch. 3 Improving Operations

Operation may be classified as follows:

Set up operations - preparation
Principal operations - performance
Margin allowances - machine breaks
Personal allowances - worker breaks

Improving Setup

Improving principal operations
The easiest way to improve principal operations is to separate the worker from the machine.
Reduce involvement of man in machine running and production.
This involves the "one worker, many process" theory.
One worker attends 5-6 machines,
The principle is that cost reduction is more important than high machine operating rates.
Machines should not unnecessarily function and produce excess inventory.
But the operable time of the machine should be high.
Whenever needed machine must be ready for production.

Machine detects problem and stops.
Workers correct the problem.
The next step is to make the machine correct the problem

Improving margin allowances

Main operations are automated by marginal activities like removing chips, feeding materials and stocking products are still done by hand by men.
They also need to be automated.
Lubrication: Consider automatic lubrication, use of oil impregnated metals etc.
Cutting oil – Consider automatic oiling or cutting without oil.
Chip removal – Consider powdering chips or automatic lubrication and chip removal.

Workshop allowances

Automate the following:
Automate feeding for materials.
Automate product storage.
By adopting the SMED system, Toyota achieved dramatic reductions in setup time and inventory cost.
Adding multi-machine handling and autonomation further increased productivity.

Summary of Remaining Chapters of the Book

Updated 9 Sep 2015
First published 9 Sep 2014