Monday, December 23, 2013

Toyota Style Industrial Engineering - American Industrial Engineering - Difference



Toyota Style Industrial Engineering has focus on efficiency and waste elimination from manufacturing processes. They use all techniques advocated by pioneers to achieve their objective with some significant improvements.


Value analysis and engineering
Process Analysis
Operation Analysis
Motion Analysis
Work measurement
 Layout Improvement


 New Techniques - Shiegeo Shingo

SMED
Poka-yoke

Mathematical optimization
Operations Research
Statistics

New ideas - Reduce total costs associated with inventory - setup, inventory carrying cost and shortage cost.
Develop machines with more intelligence.
Involve operators and supervisors in improvement activities apart from industrial engineers and managers.
Strong belief,  commitment and effort for continuous improvement.

Industrial Engineering Techniques for Discussion and Presentation




1. Value Analysis and Engineering

2. Process Analysis using Flow Process Chart and Operation Process Chart - Method Study

3. Operation Analysis - Maynard - Nine areas

4. Principles of Motion Economy - Motion Analysis

5. Work Measurement using Stop Watch

6. OR Models

7. Six Sigma

8. PERT and CPM

9. Value Stream Mapping

10. SMED

11. Poka Yoke

12. Lean Manufacturing

Taachi Ohno - Japanese Books

Creating a Lean R&D System: Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations - Book Information



Creating a Lean R&D System: Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations
Terence M Barnhart
CRC Press, 20-Aug-2012 - Business & Economics - 267 pages

The ability to find and remove barriers between people and their systems in R&D can almost guarantee a doubling in performance, and often delivers multiples of that. R&D teams that have smooth handoffs deliver 100 percent of the required knowledge at those handoffs. As a result, such teams do not lose critical information, have unexpected knowledge gaps appear in their projects, or have uncoordinated knowledge transfers that waste minutes, days, and even months every year.

Creating a Lean R&D System: Lean Principles and Approaches for Pharmaceutical and Research-Based Organizations lays out the logic of why Lean implementation isn’t strictly for manufacturing and describes why it can be just as effective in R&D organizations. Terence Barnhart, former senior director of continuous improvement at Pfizer R&D, describes the theoretical and physical underpinnings of creating a Lean transformation in any R&D organization, as exemplified by the Lean transformation initiated within the R&D division of a global pharmaceutical company.

Describing how to merge Lean principles with the cultural virtues inherent in R&D, the book presents Lean approaches that can be easily applied in pharmaceutical and research-based organizations. It takes a strategic approach to solving two problems unique to the Lean field. The first is in noting the key distinctions between R&D and manufacturing, and developing a Lean approach specific to the R&D environment. The second is that it proposes a systematic middle-out (merger/maneuver) strategy to help you initiate and sustain a Lean culture within your pharmaceutical R&D organization that will help you immediately engage all stakeholders involved.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=I7FE_DLSmJQC

Industrial Engineering in Toyota - Japanese Pages

Sunday, December 22, 2013

Toyota Kaizen Methods: Six Steps to Improvement - 2010 - Book Information



Isao Kato, Art Smalley
CRC Press, 19-Oct-2010 -  156 pages


Toyota Kaizen Methods: Six Steps to Improvement focuses on the skills and techniques practiced inside Toyota Motor Corporation during the past decades. This workbook focuses on the actual training course concepts and methods used by Toyota to develop employee skill level, a core element of Toyota’s success. It is not a book about holding Western-style five-day Kaizen events, which were in reality quite rare during the development of Toyota’s production system and are virtually nonexistent today inside Toyota. Written by two of Toyota’s most revered and experienced trainers, the book —

Traces the origins of Kaizen since the inception of Toyota Motor Corporation
Articulates the basic six-step Kaizen improvement skills pattern taught inside Toyota
Helps practitioners of Kaizen improve their own skill level and confidence by simplifying concepts and removing any mystery in the process
Provides homework assignments and a wealth of forms for analyzing work processes
If you take the time to study the concepts detailed here, you will be reviewing the same methods and techniques that were harnessed by generations of Toyota supervisors, managers, and engineers. These techniques are not the secret ingredient of Lean manufacturing; however, mastery of these timeless techniques will improve your ability to conduct improvement in almost any setting and generate improvement results for your organization.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=RS4nsJGsgmEC

Issued the book from the NITIE library



Monday, December 16, 2013

4-Week Basic Training Program in Industrial Engineering at NITIE, Mumbai, India



We will conduct 4-week training programs for companies on industrial engineering of product design and production processes.


Topics

Introduction to Industrial Engineering
Product Design Efficiency Engineering - Value Analysis and Engineering
Production Methods Efficiency Engineering
Human Effort Engineering
       Motion Analysis and Economical Motion Design
      Work Measurement
Lean Manufacturing
Japanese Innovations in Industrial Engineering
Application of Statistics for Zero Defects and Six Sigma
Optimization and Operations Research applied to Product Design and Production Processes
Accounting and Engineering Economics for Economical Design, Equipment and Production Decisions
Behavioral and Management Aspects of Industrial Engineering



You send an email to  Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao, Professor Industrial Engineering, NITIE ,  kvssnrao55 at gmail.com

Friday, December 13, 2013

Intra Ocular Lens at $5 - Drive Down Cost Creatively



David Green has figured out how to make expensive medical products affordable to the world's poorest people. He helped found Aurolab, a nonprofit manufacturing company in India, to produce surgically implanted artificial lenses for cataract patients for US$4 - $6 apiece, a dramatic reduction in the average US$100 - $150 price for lenses,

http://proxied.changemakers.net/journal/03january/herbst.cfm

Aurolab - Case Study
http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/MakingSightAffordable1/_res/id=sa_File1/INNOV0103_p25-41_ibrahim-et-al.pdf


Intraocular Lens Production at $5 by Fred Hollows Foundation
http://www.hollows.org.au/news-media/fred-hollows-lens-production-passes-four-million

How to Find Low Cost High Quality Alternatives for Value Engineering - Industrial Engineering?



Search intensively for low cost alternatives by:

Studying handbooks

Perusing trade literature

Contacting people who might have pertinent information

Focusing intense creativity sharply on the task to be accomplished

Refining the results obtained by the above methods

Unless this search for low cost alternative is effectively and penetratingly done, the real low cost solutions will not be identified by industrial engineers.

Handbooks only contain information on materials and processes and their uses. They will not contain cost information.

Cost information can be obtained by a combination of the following sources

The cost department and cost ledger, The financial accounting department and ledger
Cost analyses
Catalogues
Suppliers of products and materials
Special cost studies

Miles said 100 times more information than that which was presented in his book is necessary a high degree of value work.

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries - 2013 - Book Information

LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries to Master Today's VUCA World

Josef Packowski
CRC Press, 26-Nov-2013 - Business & Economics - 493 pages


Delivering excellent service to all customers is the key imperative for many sustainable businesses. So why do so many supply chains struggle to fulfill customer requirements at competitive costs? The answer is simple: traditional supply chain planning, which was tailored to a predominantly stable and predictable business environment, cannot handle the new challenges in the world of variability, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity—the VUCA world.

Companies can either accept the drawbacks that often result in high inventories, poor asset utilization, and unsatisfactory customer service or, they can change their view of the fundamental approach to supply chain management. LEAN Supply Chain Planning: The New Supply Chain Management Paradigm for Process Industries to Master Today’s VUCA World introduces a new paradigm and a new approach to managing variability, uncertainty, and complexity in today’s planning processes and systems.

Introducing a cutting-edge supply chain management concept that addresses current problems in the process industry's supply chains, the book presents powerful methods developed by leading research institutes, process industry champions, and supply chain experts. It explains how readers can change their approach to the fundamental planning paradigms in a manner that will help their organizations achieve higher levels of responsiveness, improved levels of customer service, and substantial increases in cost-efficiencies.

This holistic practitioner’s guide describes how to establish the right accountabilities for performance management and also provides a set of meaningful metrics to help measure your progress. Supplying detailed guidelines for transforming your supply chain, it includes first-hand reports of leading organizations that have already adopted some of the facets of this paradigm and used the relevant instruments to achieve unprecedented improvements to customer service, supply chain agility, and overall equipment effectiveness.


http://books.google.co.in/books?id=zSUtAgAAQBAJ

Lean Distribution: Applying Lean Manufacturing to Distribution, Logistics, and Supply Chain - 2012 - Book Information

Lean Distribution: Applying Lean Manufacturing to Distribution, Logistics, and Supply Chain

Kirk D. Zylstra
John Wiley & Sons, 19-Jun-2012 - Business & Economics - 240 pages


"Kirk Zylstra's focus on the customer is a fresh approach to lean. Companies that can bear the burden of variability will develop a strategic advantage in today's volatile market."
—Travis Jarrell Institute of Industrial Engineers Program Committee Chair
"Lean Distribution is a comprehensive yet concise work with clear leanings. Kirk's experience across a range of industries brings a unique understanding of common opportunities and solutions available to optimize distribution processes. Lean techniques, typically effective in manufacturing processes, are applied in the downstream supply chain in a practical and productive manner that will offer something to any business distributing tangible goods."
—F. Jeff Duncan Jr. VP, CIO, and Director of Technology Louisiana Pacific Corp.

"Lean Distribution has robustly captured the revolution occurring in today's increasingly competitive and global supply chain. Eliminating losses through lean manufacturing and lean distribution initiatives will become even more critical enablers to organizations developing cost-advantaged supply chains."
—Rick McDonald Director of Manufacturing The Clorox Company

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=jhaGGLoPdE0C

Lean Supply Chain Management Essentials: A Framework for Materials Managers - Bill Kerber, Brian J. Dreckshage - 2011 - Book Information

Lean Supply Chain Management Essentials: A Framework for Materials Managers

Bill Kerber, Brian J. Dreckshage
CRC Press, 27-Jun-2011 - Business & Economics - 274 pages


Presenting an alternate approach to supply chain management, Lean Supply Chain Management Essentials: A Framework for Materials Managers explains why the traditional materials planning environment, typically embodied by an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, is an ineffective support system for a company that wants to adopt Lean practices. It begins by defining supply chain management basics, including roles, objectives, and responsibilities from a traditional framework. Next, it describes Lean basics and explores the conflicts between Lean and the traditional framework.

The book focuses on the materials management aspects of Lean, such as leveling work into the value stream, heijunka scheduling, standard work, and the concept of intervals, including Every Part Every Interval (EPEI). By combining traditional materials management tools, such as Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP), with Lean manufacturing approaches and applying them to different manufacturing environments, the authors clarify the logic behind why you are doing what you’re doing with Lean components and how they fit together as a system. Specifically, they explain how to:

Determine which leveling strategy to use to smooth production
Calculate interval to determine lot sizes in various production environments
Apply Lean to purchasing, warehouse, and logistics areas
Use your value stream map for green initiatives and risk management
Replace capacity planning and shop floor control with visual factory, operator balance charts, EPEI, and plan for every part
Illustrating why balancing demand and capacity is better than trying to balance supply and demand, the book includes a definitive chart that matches Lean tools to the planning and control charts that have served as the model for ERP systems. It integrates the principles learned from Toyota’s fifty-plus-year journey with Lean principles to provide the up-to-date understanding required to approach the application of Lean to your supply chain with a methodology that allows for experimentation, learning, and continuous improvement.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=kmnsDjqKJm4C

Sunday, December 8, 2013

The SMED System: Shigeo Shingo's Explanation


Before the SMED system development by Shingo, efficiency of setup required two things:

1. Knowledge relating to the structure and function of the machinery and equipment, as well as a thorough acquaitenance with tools, blades, dies, jigs, etc.

2. Skill in mounting and removing these items, and also in measuring, centering, adjusting, and calibrating after trial runs.


The History of SMED

In 1950, Shingo was conducting an efficiency improvement survey at Toyo Kogyo's Mazda plant. As the large body-molding presses of 350, 750 and 800 tons were declared as bottlenecks, Shingo did a production study.

There was an incident of a missing bolt and one hour was wasted in finding the bolt. Shingo had written that gave him the idea that external set operations have to set up as standard procedures and one has to make sure that all items required for set up are there before one starts the set up procedure. Shingo established the external set up procedure of making all items required for a set up  and the efficiency was raised by 50% and the bottle neck problem disappeared.

The Second Idea

In 1957, Shingo was studying the operation of a large planer which is machining diesel engine beds. He noticed that centering and dimensioning of the engine bed had to be done and was being conducted on the planer table only. He came with the idea of buying an extra planer table on which this activity can be done while on the machine a job is getting machined. When the job was completed, the table was pushed out and the second table was pushed in ready with the job. This solution resulted in 40% increase in productivity.

The Third Important Event

In 1969, Shingo studied the set operation of 1,000 ton press at Toyoto Motor Company/s plant. The setup time was four hours and it was known that Volkswagen in Germany was doing the same set up in two hours. Shingo in association with Toyota engineers have identified the external setup operations and internal setup operations and improve the process to a time of 90 minutes. According to Shingo, it took six months of effort to reach that stage.

At this stage, Toyota management thought of a challenging goal. Can be reduced drastically to only  three minutes? This challenge resulted in the inspiring insight in Shingo. Can we convert much more internal activity (setup activity that was being done on the machine) to external activity. So a search began for eliminating activities from internal setup activity to move them the external activity. Shingo had written that 8 ideas came in quick succession and they developed these 8 ideas in 3 months time to reach the single digit setup time. So Shingo remarked that it took 19 years of time to make a drastic improvement to the setup operations.


The SMED System - Book by Shigeo Shingo - Chapter Summaries 


Foreword

SMED system is the most essential method for achieving Just-In-Time Production. SMED system will revolunize existing production systems and I hope you will practice it after reading this book.

Introduction

In many factories, diversified low-volume production is a problem. The main difficulty is the setup operations and adjustments required - calibration, switching of tools or dies etc. Frequent setups of course are necessary to produce a large variety of goods in small lots.

But now I can tell you, you can cut your setup time and increase productivity. You can do setups in three minutes for tasks which had taken 3 hours earlier. The theory and techniques are made available to you in this book. Japanese industrial engineers have long understood the need to reduce setup times and many examples are made available by them in books. But in this book for the first time principles are provided so that you can apply them to your situation even though it does not match any of the previous examples or applications.

Why the setup times remained high for long. Managers and industrial engineers neglected the task and left it to the skill of workers.

People have to realize that high volume production and large lot production are the same. Even high volume production can be achieved through small lots and economy of manufacturing can be realized.  Traditional production planning assumes inventory as inevitable but new production system based on SMED works on the concept of confirmed production and eliminates inventory.

It took 19 long years for me to develop the SMED system.

Chapter 1 The Structure of Production


Production activities may best be understood as a process consisting of operations.

A process refers to a continuous flow by which raw materials are converted into finished goods. An operation is action performed by men, machine or equipment on raw materials, or intermediate or finished goods (for example packing). A process can have one or more operations.

Manufacturing processes can be further divided into four distinct phases (traditional IE categories)

1. Processing (termed as operation) 2. Inspection  3. Transportation 4. Storage.

The storage phase can be further categorised into:
1. Storage of raw materials.
2. Storage of finished goods
3. Lot waiting for process: The entire lot is in a queue before a machine
4. Waiting for a lot: Some of items of the lot are yet to be processed and some are processed.

Each operation on a lot will have preparation and clearing. These are termed setup operations.
The principal operation carried out on workpieces include essential operation, auxiliary operation like loading the workpiece and removing it and margin allowances (activities) that irregularly happen like sweeping up cuttings and personal activities of the operator like taking rest for fatigue and drinking water etc.

It is important to note that there are setup operations in inspection, transportation and storage also.

Chapter 2. Setup Operations in the Past


The blind spot: The unspoken assumption that drastic reductions in setup time are not possible. But with the development of SMED, the concept of economic lot size has diappeared from the profit-engineering agenda. Moreover, SMED has substantially reduced the level of skill required for setups and production operators themselves can do the setup.

3. Fundamentals of SMED


In the spring of 1950, Shingo was conducting an efficiency improvement survey at Toyo Kogyo's Mazda plant. At the presses were bottleneck machines, Shingo conducted a production analysis and observed a die change.  As he observed the time wasted after the machine was stopped for setup change, it dawned to him that setup operations fundamentally were two types: Internal setups which are to be done after a machine is stopped and external setups which can be conducted when the machine is in operation. The external set up were identified and only internal setups were done when the machine is stopped. The setup time reduced by 50%.

The first step of SMED was discovered and Shingo started advising companies on improving setups.

The second insight

Shingo was doing study of open-sided planer at the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Shipyard for methods improvement. He observed that marking-off procedure for centering and dimensioning the engine bed ws being conducted on the planer table and it was taking significant time. The idea came came to install a second planer table and perform the setup operation on it separately. Then the table was shifted in less time and it saved time and increased productivity.

The third experience

In 1969, the divisional manager of body shop at Toyota Motor Company told Shingo that they were taking 4 hours to make a die change and they know that in Volkswagen they were doing in two hours. Shingo worked with them to separate internal and external setup items and got the die change time reduced to one and half hours.

After a month, Shingo was informed that management want the setup time to go to three minutes. Shingo was strartled but challenged. The thinking led to the idea that some more internal elements can be converted into external elements. In three months, three minute goal was reached and Shingo says, he named the method SMED.

This SMED concept then spread to all types of setups in Toyota.

Basic steps in the Setup Procedure

1. Preparation, checking of all required items, tools and materials   30%
2. Removing old tools and mounting new tools 5%
3. Centering, dimensioning and setting other conditions 15%
4. Trial runs and adjustments 50%
5. Returning Old tools - Negligible

The time taken for trail runs and adjustments can be shortened by improving the prior process of centering, dimension and setting.

Basic Steps of SMED

Separating Internal and External Setup
Converting Internal Operations to External Operations
Improving Internal Setup Operations
Improving External Operations

4. Techniques for Applying SMED





Separating Internal and External Setup

Doing External Setup Operations Efficiently - Preliminary Steps

Use a checklist

Make a list of all the parts required with names and specifications and make sure that they are there before the setup. For it to happen without any shortcoming, Shingo recommended that a drawing is made with all the parts pictures and keep the parts on those drawing.

Then there has to be one more list that specifies details of pressure, temperature and other settings that are part of external setup. One has to go through this checklist and ensure that every item is having the required specification and also functioning. These list of items and checklists have to be separate for every machine.

The old die and related items should be transported back either after the setup is completed or by people who are specific to transportation. The machine should not be made to idle due to the transport operation of old die and related items.


Converting Internal Operations to External Operations

The first step in converting internal operations to external operations is to create operating conditions of the dies externally. Then only internal operations are to push the dies and attach them to ram and body.


Preheating Dies

Old practice was to heat dies in die casting by injecting hot metal between them. Instead of that if dies were preheated using gas or electric heat externally, 30 minutes could be saved.

Standardization of dies of various sizes or items on a machine can be done by shape standardization to reduce setup time. But the dies of even small parts can be large because of that. Instead Shingo suggested function standardization.

Function Standardization

What are the functions in attaching die to machine? Clamping, centering, dimensioning, expelling,grasping, and maintaining loads.

Efficient function standardization requires that for each die, the function providing features are only standardized as required by examining the die feature by feature or element by element.

Clamping height can be changed by adding shims to smaller dies. Centering can be done centering jigs. The dies can be made as a set and they can be inserted and withdrawn like a casette so that die inserting time can be only 20 seconds. Various locating elements can be used to adjust the dies in the required positions externally.


5 Applying SMED to Internal Operations

Improving Internal Operations or Reducing Time of Internal Operations

Implementation of Parallel Operations

Die-change operations on plastic molding machines, and die-casting machines and large presses require work both at front and at the back of the machine. If two work parallelly  one at the back and one at the front lot of time is saved.

The Use of Function Clamp

The length of the bolt should be determined such that only one turn is required for fastening or loosening. Such bolt will be called functional clamp.

Examples of One Turn Attachments

The Pear Shaped Hole Method

The U Shaped Washer Method

The Split Thread Method

The U-Slot Method

The Clamp Method

One Motion Methods
  Cams and clamps
  Wedges, tapered pins and knock pins
   springs

Magnetism and Vacuum Suction

Interlocking Methods
(Punch and die assembly for making interlocking integral fasteners - Patent No. US2924312)

Instead of fastening, many times, two pieces can be interlocked and it is sufficient.

Interlocking Method for Press Dies

In a press, the upper die is attached to the machine ram and the lower die is attached to the machine tool. Why there should be same number and diameter of bolts in both sides. While the die attached to the ram has to be supported against gravity, the die attached to the machine bed need not be so supported. Shingo suggests holding plates and cradles for the holding plate to hold the die.


Seeing is believing. Watch in YouTube video die changes in less than 9 minutes
SMED - YouTube Videos


Related Development:

Design for changeovers
http://etidweb.tamu.edu/hsieh/ENTC410/Design%20for%20Mass%20Customerization/DesignForChangeOver.pdf
The paper is on original equipment manufacturer making design of machine that facilitates quick setup changes

Kaizens - Production Improvement Ideas Implemented - India - Kaizen Eye



http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=3006
Fevicol keeps drying in its drum, leading to wastage of same
Drum is covered from all sides within a wooden box with cover on the top also.
Drying of fevicol has reduced upto the 60 %. Quality of fevicol remains as is throughout its consumption from the drum, for change in its viscosity is NEGLIGIBLE.

http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=3000
Zero rejection on CV line::ASSY C/MEMBER Cyl Mtg.

http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=2500
Tube light should glow only if machine starts

http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=2000
To eliminate the hand/finger injuries at Rieter winder

http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=1500
Elimination of extra time for counting.

http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=1000
Eliminate graphite primer drops falling on the floor.


http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=529
To reduce the maintenance cost of air supply units.


http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=102
Problem: 3 operator,3 machines were input for 210 nos. Production.The line was  Covering more area (40 sq. Mtrs)
Improvement: Line balancing done & layout  Made compact .Now 2 operators & 3 Machines are the input for 210 nos. Production.The area covered is 28 sq. Mtrs.

http://www.kaizeneye.com/visit/kaizen_detail.aspx?kz_id=101
Problem: Position of hinge used to get shifed While clamping manually in ye-2 r/b Non split fixture.More time was taken for clamping.
Improvement
Pneumatic clamping done for quality & productivity improvement.

Saturday, December 7, 2013

Crank Shaft Design, Manufacture, and Inspection - Students Projects - IE Course




Productivity Improvement Of Crankshaft by Priti Mandwe
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 7, JULY 2013
http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/july2013/Productivity-Improvement-Of-Crankshaft.pdf

Improving Productivity of Crank Shaft Machine Line Using TPS Techniques and Simulation - 2013 paper
http://www.academia.edu/3255498/IMPROVING_PRODUCTIVITY_FOR_ENGINE_CRANK_SHAFT_MACHINING_LINE_USING_TPS_TECHNIQUES_AND_SIMULATION




Crankshaft introduction
http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/sketch-of-crankshaft_4384.html

Crankshaft nomenclature
http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/sketch-of-crankshaft_607.html

Dimensions of crankshafts - Thumb rules
http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/sketch-of-crankshaft_07.html

Counterweights on crankshaft
http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/sketch-of-crankshaft.html

Crank shaft materials
http://www.the-crankshaft.info/2009/07/crankshaft_06.html

Crank shaft material choice for durability
http://www.irday.com/html/Engine%20fuel%20engineering/20080412/9349.html

Crankshaft design - some questions
http://orion.math.iastate.edu/lhogben/classes/crankshaft.pdf

Crankshaft analysis

Evolution of crankshaft design analysis
http://support.mscsoftware.com/cgi-bin/kb_files/Cummins_Pfleuger_paper.pdf?name=ri%2F1-13%2F1-13B2-2668%2FCummins_Pfleuger_paper.pdf


Improving Productivity of Crank Shaft Machine Line Using TPS Techniques and Simulation - 2013 paper
http://www.academia.edu/3255498/IMPROVING_PRODUCTIVITY_FOR_ENGINE_CRANK_SHAFT_MACHINING_LINE_USING_TPS_TECHNIQUES_AND_SIMULATION
____________________________________________________________________________

Students' Projects and Posts


Crankshaft design, manufacturing and testing procedure Chevrolet Aveo U-VA 1.2 LS 76 BHP 4 Cyl Engine
Design of Crankshaft   Maruti Suzuki 800  - 37 BHP 3 cylinder
Process Design  Crankshaft TVS WEGO
Crank Shaft Design    45 HP 3 cylinder engine
Design and Manufacture of Crank shaft - Maruti Swift - 4 cylinder 53 HP engine
Design of crank shaft for Mahindra Xylo - 4cylinder d2 variant Diesel CRDE technology, ९५भ्प
 Design of crankshaft of Hero Honda Splendor -single cylinder air cooled engine, power 5.5KW @8000 RPM
Design of Crankshaft_Taurus Tipper_Ashok Leyland
Design Crank Shaft Ford figo            4 Cylinder 1.2 lt Power 70 भप

design and manufacture of crankshaft for FORD FIESTA

_______________________________________________________________
Orinally posted by me in http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/crank-shaft-design-manufacture-and/2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2712

Automation & Productivity Tools By Langlais Computer Consultants, LLC - USA


http://www.cncsw.com/


Langlais Computer Consultants, LLC
67 Posa Drive
Bristol, CT  06010
Phone:  (860) 589-0093
Email:  lcc-sales@cncsw.com
Bristol, CT, USA

Engineering Review - India

ANTECH TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE - CAD CAM Training for Productivity - Pune - India


http://www.antechmicro.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=18&Itemid=24

ANTECH TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE
(Training and Projects)
16 B Parvati Industrial Estate
Parvati
Pune 411009
India
Tel No. : +91 20 32313236, +91 9823515053
Email : atc@antechmicro.com

ANTECH head quarters in Pune - India develops, markets & support innovating solutions in the field of CAD/CAM/Embedded technology to Engineering Industries. Our Focus is on manufacturing sector and would like to remain in the same. Antech today is well diversified group and followings is the partial list of our products and services.

DNC, BTR and machine monitoring solutions. (Wire /Wireless)
CAD CAM for CNC wire EDM, laser, Gas cut and turret punch press
Technological solutions for Engg. Colleges and polytechnics
Training programs in CAD CAM
Training programs in Embedded & VLSI
3D CAD CAM software from UGS Solutions, USA
Consultation in CNC turret punch press

AAA Innovations - CNC Machining Productivity Consultants - India


http://aaainnovations.net/Aboutus.html

Benefits Provided

Less Machine Investment required

Cost Savings

Productivity Improvement

Cycle Time Reduction

Advance Future Technology

Service Delivery on Time

Avoidance of Accidents of CNC Machines


ACCIDENTS OF CNC MACHINE PREVENTED FROM :

Sudden breakage of insert in the auto cycle
Insert wear
Due to more material cutting (variation in input material)
Wrong offset value input
During changeover setting of different components.
Semi-skill associate while operating the machine
IMPROVES

Overall equipment availability
Productivity (from 10% to 50 %)
Machine life
Tool utilization (tool life can be improved by 20% to 250%)
Life of fixture parts, holders etc
SAVINGS

Machine damages by avoiding the accidents
Production losses due to setting after accident
Production losses due to machine breakdown (after accident)
SAFTEY

Man accidents on machine are avoided during setting
FUTURE

It can be very effectively used in making the automation of machine successful by avoiding accidents in automated machine, which is the major limitation of automation.
TIME REQUIRED

Time duration for completion of one machine 24 - 40 hrs. (That is actual machine hold time).

http://aaainnovations.net/WhyOurService.html

SMED - Single Minute Exchange of Dies - Bibliography



Setup time reduction: SMED-balancing  integrated model for manufacturing systems with automated transfer
2013 paper
http://www.enggjournals.com/ijet/docs/IJET13-05-05-259.pdf

Setup Time Reduction of Medical Device Assembly Process
2011 - MS Dissertation
Changeover time from 0.15mg to 0.3 mg
Gonzenbach, Derek L.
http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2011/2011gonzenbachd.pdf

Setup Time for Reduction of Electronics Assembly - 2005
http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0f94x554#page-1

SMED process description and videos

The power of smed - procedure also discussed
http://www.maintenanceworld.com/Articles/jonesM/Single-Minute-Exchange-Die.html


Setup Time Reduction - PCB Assembly - 1997
http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6kn3d2gm#page-1

SMED Guide - Treitsch - Defence guide - Uses pictures from Shingo's book
http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ada255893


A Revoultion in Manufacturing: SMED by Shigeo Shingo - Google Book with Preview facility
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ooXVVIfqEQwC

Kaizen for Quick Changeover
by Keisuke Arai, Kenichi Sekine
Google book link
http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Kaizen_for_Quick_Changeover.html?id=dKZBFGYJrhYC



Presentation on SMED - 2005 presentation on Best Practices
http://bec.msoe.edu/sig_presentations/setup_reduction_2005_nov.pdf




Line Improvement in SMT Electronics - MS thesis
http://www.smtnet.com/library/files/upload/SMT-Line-Improvements.pdf


SMED Implementation Step by step Part 1
http://www.leanexpertise.com/ArticlesLX/SMED%20Step%20by%20Step.htm

Part 2
http://www.leanexpertise.com/ArticlesLX/SMED%20Step%20by%20Step%20Part%202.htm

Setup time reduction in a batch manufacturing plant - BS thesis
http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1090&context=imesp


SMED steps in die cutting - pictorial description - 52 pages
http://www.aadieinc.com/newsletters/ABC%20SMED.pdf



 Paperboard Packaging / Feb, 2000
A Proactive Approach to Pre-makeready : Here's what you can do to make sure that makeready proceeds quickly and smoothly
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3116/is_2_85/ai_n27556318/

SMED
https://workspace.imperial.ac.uk/insolex/Public/18%20SMED.pdf

SMED Quick Changeover
http://members.peo.on.ca/index.cfm/document/1/ci_id/44383/la_id/1

SMED: Literature Review  - 2012
http://www.thinkinglean.com/img/files/PAPER_3.pdf

An Application of SMED Methodology in an Electric Power Controls Company - 2011
http://www.incdmtm.ro/mecahitech2011/articole/Pp47-55.pdf


Good presentation on SMED
http://www.freeleansite.com/training.html


http://www.thefabricator.com/article/toolanddie/how-to-implement-quick-die-change


http://www.ptonline.com/articles/extrusion-goes-'just-in-time'-with-quick-die-changers


Die Making and Die Design
Franklin D. Jones
1915
https://archive.org/details/diemakingdiedesi00jone





GS Productivity Solutions Limited - Bristol, UK - CNC Productivity Consultants



http://www.gspsltd.co.uk/


What can GS Productivity Solutions provide?
When you are looking for innovation to help improve efficiency and quality, GSPS are able to offer cutting edge solutions, all the nescessary training and the technical job knowledge and back up to ensure that your manufacturing facility is always running at peak performance.

Our team specialise in the sale (at the right price!), the installation (at the right time!) and the training (to right level!) of only the products we consider will fit your company and your job.  If we don’t cover what you need, we’ll  probably know someone who does -

Probing
Machining
Production Management
Microsoft Excel
CAD/CAM systems
Siemens controllers
Data Collection
Haas controllers
Fanuc Controllers

GS Productivity Solutions Ltd

37 Baileys Mead Road

Stapleton

Bristol

BS16 1AE

England

Trainor and Associates - IE Consultants - Bartlett, TN, USA



http://industrialengineeringconsultingfirm.com/


Trainor and Associates
Process Improvement Specialists
4285 Wind Tree Cove
Bartlett, TN 38135

bobtrainor@bellsouth.net
Phone: 901-373-8940

10 Industrial Engineering Services
http://industrialengineeringconsultingfirm.com/structured-processimprovements

Modern Approaches to Manufacturing Improvement: The Shingo System - Book Information

Modern Approaches to Manufacturing Improvement: The Shingo System
Shigeo Shingō
Productivity Press, 01-Apr-1990 - Business & Economics - 399 pages

Selection from Shingo's Books
Alan Robinson


Here's the quickest and most inexpensive way to learn about the pioneering work of Shigeo Shingo, co-creator (with Taiichi Ohno) of just-in-time. It's an introductory book containing excerpts of five of his classic books as well as an excellent introduction by Professor Robinson.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=4PPSwZ1qBrkC



Table of Contents
Publisher's Foreword
1. Editor's Introduction: Shigeo Shingo's Contributions to Manufacturing
2. Author's Introduction: Fundamental Flaws in European and American Production Philosophies

SECTION ONE: Improvement
Introduction
3. Basic Concepts for Improving Production System
4. Stage One: Problem Identification
5. Stage Two: Basic Approaches to Improvement
(I) Understand the Status Quo
6. Basic Approaches to Improvement
(II) The Pursuit of Goals
7. Basic Approaches to Improvement
(III) Better Means
8. Stage Three: Making Plans for Improvement
9. Stage Four: Translating Improvement Plans into Reality
10. Understanding and Conviction
11. The Force of Habit

SECTION TWO: Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and the Poka-Yoke System
Introduction
12. Inspections
13. Approaching the Zero QC Method
14. More on Inspection Systems
15. Using Poka-Yoke Systems

SECTION THREE: A Revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED System
Introduction
16. Introduction to SMED
17. Setup Operations in the Past
18. Fundamentals of SMED
19. Techniques for Applying SMED
20. Applying SMED to Internal Operations
21. Basic Examples of SMED
22. Effects of SMED


Difference Between Japanese and American Approaches to Production Systems, Management and Industrial Engineering

1. Japanese companies are more active about process improvement and simplification than their western counterparts.

2. The Japanese have a more enlightened approach to employees.

3. The Japanese appreciate the power of continuous improvement.

4. Japanese companies have better understanding of pervasiveness of invisible waste and how to eliminate it?

Lean and Agile Value Chain Management - 2010 Book Information




Lean and Agile Value Chain Management: A Guide to the Next Level of Improvement (Google eBook)
Ehap H. Sabri, Salim N. Shaikh
J. Ross Publishing, 2010 - Business & Economics - 454 pages


One of the biggest challenges for companies in today's competitive environment is to get products to customers when and where they need it, exactly the way they want it, with a competitive price and in a cost effective manner. Managing the value chain is becoming more complicated because of globalization, outsourcing, the need for shorter time to market, and the requirement for more responsiveness and flexibility due to customer changes.Although the benefits of applying lean concepts or improving the flexibility of a value chain are clear and desperately needed in today's competitive environment, none of the current literature provides guidance on how to do this. Lean & Agile Value Chain Management fills that gap by providing a breakthrough start-to-finish roadmap for organizations to implement a lean and agile value chain transformation program successfully. It brings together the field's latest advances and offers practical, proven tactics and detailed guidance into every aspect of value chain process redesign, including mapping the existing process, intelligently leveraging new technologies, building a strategy for strengthening the relationship with suppliers and customers, identifying comprehensive related metrics, and much more.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=tCg8zgG7Kg4C

Eight Steps or Principles for SMED - Shigeo Shingo

STEP 1 – SEPARATE INTERNAL FROM EXTERNAL SETUP OPERATIONS :

Internal setup operations have to be done when machine is not running or producing. External setup operations can be done when the machine is doing its production job.
Examine and  identify which of the current setup operations must be performed while the machine is shut down  and which can be performed when the machine is running . For example, transportation of dies, jigs, fixtures, tools and materials to and from the machine can be done while the machine is running. Any preparatory activity on the die to be setup can be done without stopping the machine. Internal setup should be limited to removing the old die or tool and placing and securing the new one.
By simply separating and organizing external and internal operations in traditional setup operations, internal setup time  can be reduced by 30 to 50 per cent



Step 2 – CONVERT INTERNAL TO EXTERNAL SETUP :

There are opportunities convert some  internal operations  to external setup operations. For example, one can avoid  the internal setup time involved in shut height adjustments for the press dies, by standardizing the  die height and by attaching blocks or shims to smaller dies. Another simple conversion is to preheat dies for die-casting, which eliminates heating the die by trial shot after its was placed in the machine.

Shut Height -  Distance between the upper dead center and the lower dead centre in a die.



Step  3 – STANDARDIZE FUNCTION, NOT SHAPE :

Standardizing the shape and size of dies can reduce setup times considerably. Shape standardization is wasteful, however, because all dies would have to confirm to the largest size used, which would increase costs unnecessarily.
Function standardization, on the other hand, requires only uniformity in the parts and features necessary for setup operations. For example, adding a plate or block to the attachment edge of the die standardizes the dimensions of that part only and makes it possible to use the same clamps in different setups. The functions identified by Shingo in his book are clamping, centering, dimensioning, expelling, grasping, and maintaining loads. The engineers or industrial engineers must study various dies and standardize the features of the die that necessitate changes.

Step 4 – USE FUNCTIONAL CLAMPS OR ELIMINATE FASTERNERS ALTOGETHER:

Bolts are most commonly used to attach the die to ram and machine body, but tightening bolts can be very time consuming. Normally, about with fifteen threads must be turned fourteen times before it is actually tightened on the last turn. But Shingo's insight is that only the last turn tightens the bolt and the first loosens it – the other thirteen are wasted motion. If the purpose of the bolt is simply to fasten or unfasten, it should be just long enough for fasten in one turn. A bolt with one turn possibility is called a functional clamp by Shingo. One-turn functional clamps include the I- slot method, the pear shaped hole method, and the external clamp.
Threaded screws are by no means the only way to secure items. There are methods and industrial engineers have to explore then and examine them. One touch methods using wedges, cams, and clamps or springs reduce setup times considerably, as do interlocking improvements that simply fit and join two parts together. These methods can reduce setup times to seconds.



In clamping methods, the direction and magnitude of force required in the situation are critical considerations.An analysis needs to be done to find what is neeed to design the clamping method.
At Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, for example, stoppers were screwed to each of the spindles of a boring machine in a difficult and time-consuming way in extremely cramped conditions. An examination showed they are not necessary. This operation was improved by cutting grooves near the end of the spindles and attaching three springs around the edge of each stopper. When the stopper was placed over the end of the spindle, the springs snapped into the groove, and the spring tension held the stopper in place. This shortened the time for securing and removing stopper considerably.


Step 5 – USE INTERMEDIATE JIGS :

While the work piece attached to one jig is being processed, the next work piece is centered and attached to a second jig that is easily mounted on the machine for processing. This is using a duplicate jig to load the center the workpiece as an external operation.

For example, on  a profile milling machine, blocks for television picture tubes were being made. Marking off for concurring and setting heights for the template and the material was done as internal setup on the bed of the machine. Because of the many curves in the blocks, this was a complicated and time consuming operation. Two jigs were constructed.  While one item is machined, a template and next work piece are attached to the other jig, then centred and set for proper height.  Clamps are used to mount the jigs quickly and easily on the table. Intermediate jigs can also be used on large process with multiple dies of different sizes and heights. In that situation, they are used to move the internal centering and securing operations off the machine. With this improvement, the press needs to be turned off only while a forklift switches the intermediate jigs with the dies already mounted.


Step 66 – ADOPT PARALLEL OPERATIONS :

Operations on plastic molding or die-casting machines and large presses invariably involve setup work on both sides or at both the front and back of the of the machine.

If only one worker performs these operations, much time and motion are wasted as he goes from side to side or back and forth around the machine. But when two people perform the parallel operations simultaneously. Setup time is usually reduced by more than half, due to the economies of movement.  The assistance for these operations can be provided by even the foreman.



Step  7 : ELIMINATE ADJUSTMENTS :

Typically, adjustments and trials runs account for 50 to 70 percent of internal setup time. Their elimination products tremendous time savings.  The assumption that adjustment is an unavoidable leads to unnecessarily lengthy internal setup times and requires a high level of skills and experience on the part of the operator. Adjustments can be eliminated, however, if a gauge is used to precisely determine the correct position of the limit switch.  The first setup in doing away with it is to make calibrations which eliminate the need to rely on intuition. If an approximation is all that is required, a gradated scale may be sufficient, but it cannot do away with adjustments altogether. Greater precision is achieved using a dial gauge magnescale, or numerical control device.

Of course, the best kind of adjustment is no adjustment at all. For example, the least common multiple’ (LCM) system is based on the principle and that adjustment can be eliminated entirely when the number of setting is limited and unvarying.

In one plant, a limit switch was used to set the end point in machining shaft. Since there were five shaft lengths the switch had to be moved to five different location. It could not be positioned correctly without as many as four trial adjustments every time the set up changed. By installed limit switches at the five sites, each equipped with an electrical switch that is supplied with current independently of the other switches, this problem was eliminated Now setup is performed by flipping a switch.


A second example of the LCM approach:. In this operation, a drill was used to countersink a hole for a stationery screw in a motor core shaft. Stoppers had to be repositioned for eight different lengths which made repeated test runs and adjustments necessary. The adjustments were eliminated by mounting stopper plugs of eight different heights on a single plate. To change operations, to plate is simply rotated to set the stopper at the desired height and then secured. This one-touch method reduced internal setup to a matter of seconds.

The LCM approach as well as the one-touch and interlocking methods simplify setting or positioning and eliminate adjustment. For example, some presses are sold with adjustable shut heights because different companies have different requirements. This does not mean, companies actually operate with dies of varying shut heights. These companies should either standardize the heights or purchase presses customized for their needs. The same faculty logic is evident when expensive presses are equipped with motorized adjustable shut heights and highly accurate adjustment functions. When there is no need for adjustments, why invest in such functions with it is much more economical to eliminate adjustments through standardization.

Step 8 : MECHANIZATION :

Although changing small blades, jigs, dies and gauges does not pose much of a problem, mechanization is often essential to efficiently move large dies, casting dies, and plastic molds. Oil and air pressure can be used for convenient one-touch attachment of dies.
Investment in mechanization should, however, be considered very carefully. Recently, many companies have standardized the dimension of clamping plates and finished them to a high degree of precision. One-touch clamping is then performed by inserting these plates into special clamping fixtures. However, only the die actually forms the product considering the purpose of the operation, it is wasteful to finish clamping to a high degree of precision.
Mechanization should be considered only after every effort has been made to improve setups using the techniques described. The first seven principles can reduce a two-hour setup to three minutes, and mechanization will probably reduce that time only by another minute.

SMED is an analytical approach to setup improvement of which mechanization is only one component.
One should attempt to mechanize setups after they have first been thoroughly streamlined by applying the SMED principles.


Friday, December 6, 2013

SMED - YouTube Videos



Seeing believing. Recently in a class, I was describing the SMED procedure and a participant said, it is impossible. He would have believed it, if I showed him this video which I found it on 5.12.2013. The incident occurred some time in November 2013


Shanley Enterprises - Clamps - Die change video
______________

______________

In the above video the old die is removed, the new die is inserted and some bolts were tightened in 5.26 minutes.

A large stamping press die change over using an air cart and our mechanical die change clamps

http://DieChangeClamp.com


Atlas Technologies Automatic Die Change System - Video
_______________

_______________


Vidoe Published on 20 Aug 2012
Atlas Technologies fully automatic, domino die change utilizes one additional cart to the number of presses in the line. The line shown above exchanges die sets in less than 5 minutes.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

Removing the Old Die in 5.39 minutes
_______________

_______________


Fitting the New Die in 7.42 minutes
______________

______________


_____________ ______________

Sipe Engineering - York, Pennsylvania - Industrial Enginering Consultancy Services

call us at (717)-881-3145

Plant Layout
Plant Transformation
Operation Excellence
Lean Manufacturing
Facilities Engineering
Standard Data
Work Measurement Studies
Value and Non Value-Added Activities
Cellular Layout
Work Cell Designtire-building-factory-floor
AutoCad Layout
Work Flow
Process Improvement
Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
Setup Reduction


http://www.sipeengineering.com/services/

http://www.sipeengineering.com/contact/

Thursday, December 5, 2013

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

SMED Case Studies and Examples - Shigeo Shingo




SMED Case Studies - Shigeo Shingo's Book - A Revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED System

8. Implementing SMED

Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.

Washing Machine Division (Mikuni Plant)

A. Changing tips in six-spindle lathe used to machine the diameter of shafts used for the revolving blades in a washing machine

Before the improvement, tips were changed inside the machine and many fine adjustments were made. In the new process, tool holders were removed from the lathe and then tips are changed outside the machine. Fine dimensioning adjustments were done with the aid of a gauge.

Tip changing and adjustment times got reduced to five minutes from the fifteen minutes on the machine. Along with it size defects that were occurring due to set ups went from thirty per month to zero.

B. Grease Application Nozzles Changeover

Grease is to be applied at certain locations of the washing machine using automatic machines. The number and location of places to be greased vary by washing machine model. The improvements suggested. Rotary mounting hardware was made that can be rotated 180 degrees and the new nozzle arrangement brought into set up. This can handle only two varieties and when more variety is involved, nozzle change on the rotary mounting has to be done as an external operation. The result was grease nozzle change now took only thirty seconds compared to the earlier twelve minutes.

C. Changing Pallet Guides Automatically


Positioning guides for washing machine body were attached to the pallets. As body sizes vary with the model. these guides are to be changed whenever the product changes. Repositioning was done by hand and it created the following problems. The guides are to be changed on 100 pallets one after the other.  Some washing machine bodies were dented for gashed because of guide repositioning errors. The operation has unsafe features. Hence it was suggested to mechanize the operation. After the mechanization, a machine lifted all the four guides simultaneously with suction pads and then reset them.



9. Setup Improvements Based on the Toyota Production System
Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd.

10. A Quick-Setting ("Q-S") Campaign
Nippom Kogaku K.K. (Oi Plant)

11. Using SMED on a Farm Machinery Processing Line
Kubota, Ltd. (Sakai Plant)

12. Setup Improvements Based on Shop Circle Activities
Toyoto Auto Body Co., Ltd.

13. Comprehensive Development of the SMED Concept to Include Affiliated Plants
Arakawa Auto Body Industries K.K.

14. SMED Developments in Producing Slide bearings
T.H. Kogyo K.K.

15. Examples and Effects of the SMED System
Glory Industries K.K.

16. Achievement of SMEd through Company-wide Activities
Kyoei Kogyo K.K.

17. SMED in Tire Manufacturing Processes
Bridgestone Tire Co., Ltd.

18. Using SMED for Aluminium Die-Casting Dies
Tsuta Machine and Metals Co., Ltd.


Seeing is believing. Watch in YouTube video die changes in less than 9 minutes
SMED - YouTube Videos


Setup time reduction of electronics assembly - case studies
http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0f94x554#page-1

An application of SMED methodology - Berba Ulutas
http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v79/v79-22.pdf

SMED case study implementation - J tech. mgmt - 2011
http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/jotmi/v6n1/art11.pdf


Quick access fasteners - catalogue
http://www.southco.com/product/default.aspx?hid=7337

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Takeshi Kawase - Industrial Engineering - Definition


Takeshi Kawase is one of Japan’s foremost authorities on Industrial Engineering.



Definition of Industrial Engineering

Kawase defines IE as dealing with the efficiency of systems that include humans.


Compare with definition of Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.
Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering.



Believing that IE lies between science and the humanities, he draws from both approaches. Thus, Kawase insists that manufacturing must be automated to the fullest, while never losing sight of the fact that people are not machines. As he clearly shows, above all else people make value judgments, and it is these judgments that will lead to effective problem solving.


Although well versed in the theories and techniques of IE, Takeshi Kawase focuses on the philosophy of problem solving. The keystones of his philosophy lie in the ideas that every problem has an owner and that a problem’s owner is the person best equipped to solve the problem, as long as the techniques are straightforward and the necessary support is provided. The goal therefore is to come up with a solution that matches the owner’s needs and that will enhance rather than diminish job satisfaction and pride. To this end, Human-Centered Problem Solving advocates the implementation of the line-centered model of problem solving as the most effective way to achieve this goal.


Human-Centered Problem Solving: The Management of Improvements   -  Book by Kawase

Human-Centered Problem Solving: The Management of Improvements presents problem solving as an on-going process. Thus, a problem is never entirely solved. It changes, evolves, and points to new goals, for a system without problems is static and therefore unproductive. Without problems, there can be no innovation. As Kawase reminds his readers, kaizen was a relatively unused word when it was chosen to translate the term “improvement” imported from the United States.

Human-Centered Problem Solving: The Management of Improvements does not offer a quick fix. Rather, it calls for a long-term perspective that allows for the democratization of problem solving. Only by avoiding the common mistake of delegating problem solving to “specialist” will every member of an organization become a problem-solving specialist. Only then will the organization become vibrant, innovative, and successful.

Human-Centered Problem Solving: The Management of Improvements is must reading for harried corporate staff overwhelmed by seemingly impossible problems. For students of IE, it will shape their thinking now and throughout their careers. Human-Centered Problem Solving: The Management of Improvements’ approach to problem solving points to a future when problems are seen as opportunities, not barriers.

http://www.apo-tokyo.org/catalogue/3library.pub.htm


About Gemba
http://andresugiyono.edublogs.org/2006/11/24/about-genba/

Industrial Engineering in Japan - Achievements - News Items




2012

Kou Kimura, currently MD of the Chennai (India) plant, will return to Japan to take up a senior position within NML’s Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering Division.
http://automotivehorizon.sulekha.com/takayuki-ishida-succeeds-timonobu-tokuyama-as-md-of_newsitem_4199


2011


Japan Management Association (JMA; Chairman: Norio Yamaguchi) has founded the GOOD
FACTORY AWARDs to commend Japanese companies’ factories for achieving results in their
kaizen activities, such as raising productivity and improving quality in manufacturing.
The first award winners were the following five companies: Aizu Olympus Co., Ltd.; Toshiba
Information Equipment (Philippines) Inc.; Toyota Motor Asia Pacific Eng. & Mfg./Toyota Motor
Thailand; Fuji Xerox of Shenzhen Ltd.; and PT. Yamaha Music Manufacturing Asia.
(For an outline of the GOOD FACTORY AWARDs, see p. 2.)

Olympus Corporation is pleased to announce that Aizu Olympus Co., Ltd. (Aizu Olympus) has won the Good Factory Award presented by the Japan Management Association (JMA). Aizu Olympus, the Medical Business Group of Olympus, is primarily involved in the manufacture of medical endoscopes.

Introduced in 2011, these prestigious awards will be presented each year to factories that are regarded as having set an example of excellence for manufacturing in Japan. The judges will examine various examples of organizational innovation initiatives at factories in Japan and throughout Asia, including productivity and quality improvements. The wide-ranging selection criteria include processes, success factors, workplace know-how, improvements in workers' awareness, and social contribution.

There are four Good Factory Award categories. The award won by Olympus is the Monodzukuri Process Innovation Award, which is presented to a factory that has comprehensively enhanced and strengthened manufacturing processes in its factories and business sites through initiatives in such areas as industrial engineering (IE)*1 improvement, information technology (IT), quality assurance, process improvement, supply chain management (SCM)*2 improvement, just-in-time (JIT)*3 production, procurement innovation, logistics innovation and automation.

Terminology
*1 Industrial engineering (IE) is a general field of engineering encompassing the design, implementation, administration and improvement of systems to ensure the effective utilization of production resources, including human resources, facilities and information.
*2 Supply chain management (SCM) is a management method targeted toward the improvement of management efficiency through the integrated management of flows of goods from the procurement of materials through to later stages, including production, distribution and retailing.
*3 Just in time (JIT) production involves the production of the products needed by customers, in the quantities required, and at the times required.


August 2004

Nissan ‘Strike Zone’ Improves Ergonomic Practices
Nissan is getting down to the nitty gritty of improving its already industry-leading efficiency, says Hidetoshi Imazu, Nissan’s senior vice president-Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering.

That includes a new measure of worker ergonomic perfection Nissan has dubbed the “strike zone,” which Imazu says is a precisely defined body-movement area where a worker most efficiently can complete a given task with the least amount of strain.

Imazu says his company’s manufacturing engineers now are attempting to have every assembly line task performed in the strike zone, which not only eases effort but, ultimately, aids efficiency.

The strike-zone concept is proving particularly helpful in Japan, whose workforce is aging,
http://wardsauto.com/news-amp-analysis/nissan-strike-zone-improves-ergonomic-practices

Cost Management and Total Cost Management - Bibliography



Books

Total Cost Management Framework - Book by AACE
Association for Advancement of Cost Engineering
http://www.qsrequin.com/Papers/TCMFramework_WebEdition.pdf



ICEC Cost Management Journal - Collection of Classic Papers
http://www.icoste.org/ICMJ.htm


Handbook of Management Accounting Research, Volume 2
Christopher S. Chapman, Anthony G. Hopwood, Michael D. Shields
Elsevier, 14-Sep-2011 - Business & Economics - 742 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Nwg69xNyG54C


Papers

Bibliography - Selected Articles from Cost Management - Formerly Journal of Cost Management
http://maaw.info/JournalofCostManagement.htm  - Some articles have summaries also


Total cost of ownership for railway assets
by IIM Cal faculty
http://www.apiems.net/archive/apiems2004/pdf/apiems2004_8.5.pdf
(IE conference papers)



AN INTEGRATED ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING AND ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED
SYSTEM AS AN ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR MANUFACTURERS
Narcyz Roztocki
Kim LaScola Needy
University of Pittsburgh
Department of Industrial Engineering
http://www.logistics.tuc.gr/contents/lessons/kostol/ROZTOCKI.PDF



Activity-based cost management for design and
development stage
David Ben-Arieh*, Li Qian
Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Kansas State
2001 paper
http://www.efsa.unsa.ba/~nijaz.bajgoric/dst/abc2.pdf



Presentations
Role of Cost Management in Infrastructural Projects
2011 presentation
by President of Italian Association for Advancement of Total Cost Management
http://netlipse.eu/media/40193/NWM%20Bari%20-%20Gianluca%20di%20Castri%20%20-%20The%20Role%20of%20Total%20Cost%20Management%20in%20Controlling%20Major%20Infrastructural%20Projects.pdf

Cost Management in an imperfect world - Briding the gap between theory and practice - Ginette B. Basak
Plenary lecture 2006
http://www.icoste.org/SloveniaPlenaryLectures/icecFinal00185.pdf



Cost Estimating and Estimator's Job - A Description




Job Shop Estimating


Estimator’s job -  dozen tasks. In reality, these tasks may overlap or evolve in different sequences.

1. Process identification
2. History retrieval
3. Compatibility check
4. Work order prep
5. Time study
6. Material planning
7. Fixtures/special handling
8. Costing
9. Pricing
10. Presentation
11. Review
12. Optimization

Job shop estimating: A business process examined in 12 steps


The estimator is expected to know how to dissect a product design into a manufacturing sequence.

An estimator might review the documentation provided with a request for quote (RFQ)  in several passes or stages. Experienced estimators, in reality, are able to perform almost all of these modes of analysis simultaneously.

An early pass through the design is made to identify which features of the product can be manufactured in-house as well as those that must be subcontracted. The next stage might be to plan a sequence of manufacturing, starting with cutting raw material, progressing through each stage of fabrication, and ending with the product ready for shipment and invoicing. With the general work sequence outlined, the estimator will need to obtain bids for the subcontracted fabrication steps. While waiting for those bids to come in, the estimator refines each of the in-house manufacturing steps in terms of material condition on input, material condition on output, labor, machinery, tooling, fixtures, software, quality control, yield, and queue time.


Clearly, a detailed cost estimate can require a significant amount of effort on the part of the estimator. To minimize wasted effort, perhaps the first-pass evaluation is to determine compatibility. If the project is not a good fit with the shop, the shop shouldn’t waste time quoting it.

Subtleties involved in determining compatibility. This is essentially a measure of the degree of difficulty of the project. Part of the strategic vision for the shop is to define what the ideal project entails.
It is a matter of company policy to decide what to do about jobs that deviate from the “ideal” project. For example, the shop’s machinery capabilities allow it to hold tolerances that differentiate it from the competition. As a result, the shop’s mission might call for targeting high-precision work that demands rigorous quality control procedures to eliminate defects.

In this setting, the estimator may look at a project that has very coarse tolerances as if it required the precision capability available in-house. This decision is likely to result in a very high price quote relative to the competition’s with less capital overhead—essentially turning away the super-easy in favor of the ideal.

That same estimator might come across a project that requires more than the normal degree of precision. Perhaps the parts will have to be 100 percent inspected and sorted to achieve the desired consistency in a delivered batch of parts. The tactic is to quote the hypercritical project as if it were “routine.” This will result in a low price quote relative to the competition’s, which passes on all anticipated manufacturing expenses to the customer.

This “hard-is-easy” approach will attract work aggressively at the extreme level of difficulty for the shop. This is not a sustainable business model. Giving good work away for no gain is nonsense. With experience based on its performance, the shop can adjust its pricing tactics over time to establish both the ideal customer margin as well as the ideal mix of manufacturing projects.

Specifically, what is an estimator looking for while trying to determine how well a project fits with the shop?

Verifying the Capabilities

The estimator uses retrieval tools to pull the previous history of the project when updating a price quote.In the context of a compatibility check, the estimator attempts to verify that the project can be built “same as last time.”
Given that the design of the project has not changed, the estimator needs to verify that all of the machinery, tooling, fixtures, and skill set remain available. If there is a deficiency in capacity, then the estimator might consider subcontracting or some alternative response to the RFQ.

In terms of tooling, the considerations are very trade-specific. The goal is to identify tooling expenses that must be included in the price quotation. As an example of a tooling compatibility issue, imagine working in a sheet metal shop that operates a CNC turret press for punching and profiling the flat blank. To punch a rectangular hole, punch and die tooling can be manufactured to the perfect dimension. On the other hand, a smaller punch—either square or rectangular—can be used with several strokes to carve out the desired rectangular cutout.

The estimator will need to balance the expense of obtaining the perfect tooling—in this case, the rectangular punch and die tooling—with the extra machine time, cosmetic appearance, and deburring requirements of carving the hole with several strokes using on-hand tooling. If the production batch size is large enough, dedicated tooling is a cost advantage. For small batches or quick-turn jobs, using on-hand tooling in a less-than-ideal way might be the most cost-effective solution.

In addition to tooling, basic compatibility with the machinery is a vital consideration. If the part won’t fit in the machine, the estimator shouldn’t quote the project. In the sheet metal trade, the press brake equipment presents several constraints on what is buildable. These constraints are not always intuitive to the designer. A frequent problem is sheet metal that crashes into the machine during the final folding operation. Part designers often don’t take that into consideration.

Not the least important is compatibility with the raw material. There are the obvious errors and oversights, such as calling for anodize on steel parts or tapped holes in thin sheet metal. Some materials will not flow in an injection mold given the required cross section and distance. Many metal alloys are difficult to bend in a press brake—without the proper inside bend radius the part would crack at the bend. If the estimator fails to note these pitfalls, the shop will be doomed to less-than-stellar performance by either failing to produce the promised product or by producing the project at a loss.

Each manufacturing process has limitations. These include tolerance and precision, compatibility with raw materials, weight and size range of the raw billet, and schedule availability. Trade-specific considerations include details like minimum hole size, distance from hole to bend, and depth of the hole.

Establishing a Dialogue

When the estimator is confronted with designs that violate some manufacturing constraint, the project obviously cannot be built as designed. The shop’s strategic policy will govern what the estimator is to do. It might be productive to have the estimator make design suggestions to improve the manufacturability of the project. For example, if the issue is with a hole specification that is too small, the estimator could quote it based on the hole being changed to an acceptable size and noting that deviation on the price quotation.
Sometimes the customer will welcome these helpful suggestions. This cost-savings suggestion dialogue is an additional service that adds value to the business relationship between the customer and the job shop. However, the suggestion also can be offensive to some. The customer’s response might be, How dare you question my design?

Making an Operational Impact

One of the joys of being a job shop is being a shared resource. Over time the estimator may see a trend developing in the variety of projects that successfully pass through the shop. Perhaps that trapezoidal cutout that has been made with several machine cycles—for several different customers—should be converted to a dedicated tool or workcell. This would be an investment in tooling that the shop would make to improve its prevailing internal operating costs.

This overall review of trends in project compatibility might lead the estimator to make internal recommendations for upgrades in machinery as well as in tooling. “Designed for manufacturing” applies to the product as well as to the production line. If you find yourself subcontracting a lot of the same thing, why not do it in-house if it would improve scheduling, expense, or quality control? The review of how compatible the shop is with the target market is not always part of the estimator’s job responsibilities. However, if suggestions are solicited, the estimator has access to a gold mine of information.

Reviewing the performance history of the shop’s bids is a powerful tool. Company management can find out how compatible the estimator’s quotes are with the shop’s business goal. Again, the metrics and policies for reviewing an estimator’s performance will be specific to each firm. We will generalize by saying that a gross profit can be calculated for each project completed in the shop. A target gross profit could be established and used as one of the measures of the estimator’s compatibility with the shop.

Regular review and focused adjustments in behavior should result in harmony. Sometimes the behavioral adjustments happen on the production line, either as a result of improved work order instructions, setup procedures, or improved training.

The estimator’s performance is a function of vision. Knowing what the shop’s internal capabilities are is a vital contributor to excellent cost estimating. An occasional sabbatical as a shop worker can help the estimator to complete better time-and-motion studies and predictions for manufacturing operations.
Attending tradeshows gives the estimator a chance to investigate state-of-the-art equipment, which might be needed in the future.

Visiting the customer enables the estimator to understand the context of the project. These visits can help refine packaging, inspection, and cosmetic handling procedures.

Tours of subcontractors’ facilities are another great way to expand the estimator’s skill set. Businesses change and evolve. Keeping up with the best in the shop’s business network gives the estimator a definite competitive advantage.

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Articles on Steps of Job Estimating


Step 3: Evaluate the fit of the product being quoted
Step 4: Preparing the "work order"
Step 5: Preparing the "time study"
Step 6: Anticipating the costs of material inventory
Step 7: Dealing with the nonrecurring onetime expenses
Job shop estimating: Programming, fixtures, and special handling
Step 8: Feedback from completed work history
Step 9: Anticipating the needs of the marketing effort
Step 10: Documentation for the marketing effort
Step 11: Review with an eye on improvement