Friday, April 20, 2012

Manufacturing System Losses Idenfied in TPM Literature

Definition of 16 Major losses

A.    Seven major losses that impede overall equipment efficiency

1 Failure losses (Breakdown) Losses due to failures.
Types of failures include sporadic function-stopping failures, and function-reduction failures in which the function of the equipment drops below normal levels.

2 Set up and adjustment losses
Stoppage losses that accompany set-up changeovers

3 Cutting blade change losses
Stoppage losses caused by changing the cutting blade due to breakage, or caused by changing the cutting
blade when the service life of the grinding stone, cutter or bite has been reached.

4 Start-up losses
When starting production, the losses that arise until equipment start-up, running-in and production processing
conditions stabilize.

5 Minor stoppage and idling losses

Losses that occur when the equipment temporarily stops or idles due to sensor actuation or jamming of the work. The equipment will operate normally through simple measures (removal of the work and resetting).

6 Speed losses
 Losses due to actual operating speed falling below the designed speed of the equipment.

7 Defect & rework loss
Losses due to defects & reworking

B. Losses that impede equipment loading time

8 Shutdown (SD) losses
Losses that arise from planned equipment stoppages at the production planning level in order to perform periodic inspection and statutory inspection

C. Five Major losses that impede workers efficiency

9 Management losses Waiting losses that are caused by management, such as waiting for materials, waiting for a dolly, waiting for tools, waiting for instructions etc.

10 Motion losses
Man-hour losses arising from differences in skills involved in etc.

11 Line organization losses
 Idle time losses when waiting for multiple processes or multiple platforms.

12 Distribution losses
 Distribution man-hour losses due to transport of materials, products (processed products) and dollies.

13 Measurement and adjustment losses
Work losses from frequent measurement and adjustment in order to prevent the occurrence and outflow of quality defects.

D Three major losses that impede efficient use of production subsidiary resources
14 Energy losses        
 Losses due to ineffective utilization of input energy (electric, gas, fuel oil, etc) in processing.

15 Die, jig and tool losses
Financial losses (expenses incurred in production,regarding renitriding, etc.) which occur with production or
repairs of dies, jigs and tolls due to aging beyond services life or breakage.

16 Yield losses
 Material losses due to differences in the weight of the input materials and the weight of the quality products
Improvement Techniques
Individual appraoches/techniques
1. Breakdown analysis
2. Setup time reduction
3. Tool life improvement
4. Startup time reduction
5. PM analysis
6. Cycle time reduction
7. Cp, Cpk improvement
8. N.V.A.A.
9. Operation method
10. Layout improvement
11. Inspection method
12. Yield improvement
13. Material saving method
14. Energy saving method
Systematic approaches
1. Operative maintenance
2. Preventive maintenance
3. Predictive maintenance
4. Quality maintenance
5. Quality assurance
6. Education and training
Original knol - 3211


  1. Sir
    Good article
    We have used all these tools in my previous company Bajaj Auto ltd. We practice TPM