Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Water Productivity - Why Waste Water? - Eliminate The Water Waste





"Why Waste Water?" is the theme of World Water Day 2017.
http://www.worldwaterday.org/theme/
http://www.unwater.org/news-events/news-details/en/c/468902/

The theme is relevant to industrial engineers? What is the water consumption in industry? Is the consumption efficient? Are industrial engineers doing analysis of water consumption. Resource use analysis or productivity analysis is the first part of IE study. The second part of coming out with more productive processes.

Industry uses 19% of the global consumption of water.
Iron & Steel industry uses 95,000 to 150,000 liters of water for producing a tonne of steel.

The uses of water

Only 1% of water used by humans (compared to the global sum of all withdrawals) is for drinking, washing and cooking. An additional 10% is calculated for all other domestic uses (toilet flushing etc). Industry uses 19% and the rest, a massive 70%, is used by agriculture for irrigation, drawing water from rivers, lakes and underground water strata.
http://www.unesco.org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Venice/pdf/special_events/bozza_scheda_DOW_9_1.2.pdf


The  concept  of  water  productivity  (WP) in Agriculture


The  concept  of  water  productivity  (WP)  is  offered  by  Molden  et  al. (2003)  as  a  robust
measure of the ability of agricultural systems to convert water into food. While it has been
used  principally  to  evaluate  the  function  of  irrigation  systems  as  the  amount  of  ‘crop  per
drop’, it seems reasonable to extend the concept toinclude other types of livelihood support,
such as mixed cropping, pasture, fisheries or forests.
WATER PRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT: Measuring and Mapping Methodologies
Basin Focal Project
Working Paper no. 2

www.waterforfood.org


World Water Productivity: Current Situation and Future Options

Ximing Cai and Mark W. Rosegrant
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA;
International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
2003. Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and
Opportunities for Improvement (eds J.W. Kijne, R. Barker and D. Molden)

The Water Productivity term plays a crucial role in modern agriculture which aims to
increase yield production per unit of water used, both under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
This can be achieved either by 1)increasing the marketable yield of the crops for each unit of
water transpired, 2) reducing the outflows/ losses, or 3) enhancing the effective use of
rainfall, of the water stored in the soil, and of the marginal quality water.

A note on Water use efficiency and water productivity

Ragab Ragab – WP3 - W4C
This note is based on a number of discussions that took place in Bari and Bangalore and as
the W4C project carries in its title the term “water use efficiency” and WP3 is dedicated to
Water Use Efficiency


India Initiatives

Prime Minister Narendra Modi  - More Crop per Drop

More GDP per Drop - More Value per Drop



Individual Company Initiatives

Between the years 2005 and 2010, Toyota was able to reduce water consumption at all global facilities by 35 percent.
http://cleantechies.com/2012/02/02/top-ten-sustainability-initiatives-of-general-motors-gm/

Toyota set a target of reducing water usage to 0.98 kgal / vehicle and achieved the target.
GM: Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing - MIT, 2009
http://actionlearning.mit.edu/files/slab_files/Projects/2009/GM,%20report.pdf


Thank God. Somebody used the word science along with productivity.


Irrigation Science

Volume 25, Issue 3, March 2007

Special Issue: Water productivity: science and practice


ISSN: 0342-7188 (Print) 1432-1319 (Online)
In this issue (8 articles)


Water productivity: science and practice—introduction
A. H. Kassam, D. Molden, E. Fereres, J. Doorenbos Pages 185-188


On the conservative behavior of biomass water productivity
Pasquale Steduto, Theodore C. Hsiao, Elìas Fereres Pages 189-207
Download PDF (417KB)  View Article


A systematic and quantitative approach to improve water use efficiency in agriculture
Theodore C. Hsiao, Pasquale Steduto, Elias Fereres Pages 209-231

Causes of the differences in efficiency in each step, going from water delivery to soil water
extraction, transpiration, photosynthesis, and conversion to crop biomass and yield, and to animal product are discussed in the paper. Based on an equation quantifying the impact of changes in efficiency of component steps on the overall efficiency, it is concluded that generally, it is
more effective to make modest improvements in as many steps as possible than to concentrate efforts to improve one or two steps.



Beyond irrigation efficiency
Marvin E. Jensen Pages 233-245

This paper describes how efficient management of water for irrigation requires a full understanding of water balance for the field, irrigation project, or river basin under consideration. Development of the classic term irrigation efficiency is summarized along with recent modifications such as effective irrigation efficiency which reflects the efficiency of the system in terms of the amount of water effectively consumed by the system, taking into account outflows water as not wholly “wasted” or “lost” from river basins and that can be recovered and made available for use in the context of the water balance of the river basin. This makes it possible to develop accounting procedures for water use, or water accounting based on the water balance approach for a water basin and analyzing the uses, depletion, and productivity of water.



Water uses and productivity of irrigation systems
A. J. Clemmens, D. J. Molden Pages 247-261



Measuring and enhancing the value of agricultural water in irrigated river basins
Intizar Hussain, Hugh Turral, David Molden, Mobin-ud-Din Ahmad Pages 263-282



Economics, adoption determinants, and impacts of micro-irrigation technologies: empirical results from India

R. E. Namara, R. K. Nagar, B. Upadhyay Pages 283-297

The study by Namara et al. (analyses of micro-irrigation adoption and impacts in selected localities of Maharashtra and Gujarat states in India) indicates that micro-irrigation technologies result in significant productivity improvement and hence economic gain over the traditional method of surface irrigation.  The most important
determinants of micro-irrigation adoption identified by the study include access to groundwater, the prevailing cropping pattern (proportion of staples vs. high value crops), level of education, availability of cash, the social stratum of the household, and the wealth or poverty status of the
farmer. The majority of the current adopters of low-cost micro-irrigation systems are the richer section of the farming population. Thus, reducing the cost alone is not yet effective to improve
the outreach of micro-irrigation technologies.



Water productivity in rainfed systems: overview of challenges and analysis of opportunities in water scarcity prone savannahs
Johan Rockström, Jennie Barron Pages 299-311





World Water Day - 22nd March

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