Friday, July 15, 2016

Organization of Industrial Engineering Department - Suggestion by Hugo Diemer in 1912

HUGO DIEMER, M.E., Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylvania State College, and Consulting Industrial Engineer.

Hugo Diemer was the first faculty member of Industrial Engineering and he developed the first undergraduate programme in industrial engineering in Pennsylvania State College.

In the following article he explained the development of staff assistance to manufacturing department.

Factory Organization in Relation to Industrial Education
Author(s): Hugo Diemer
Source: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 44, TheOutlook for Industrial Peace (Nov., 1912), pp. 130-140
Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. in association with the American Academy ofPolitical and Social Science

Type of Staff Organization to be Applied to Manufacturing Side of Industries.

Mr. Harrington Emerson suggested staff control to cover four groups: 1, men; 2, materials; 3, equipment; 4, methods and conditions.

Mr. Frederick Taylor advocated  shop control to be handled by four types of executive functional heads whom he designates as 1, "gang boss;" 2, "speed boss;" 3, "inspector," and 4, "repair boss."

Diemer proposed staff departments for  1. records; 2. materials; 3. plant, equipment and processes; 4. men.

Work of  functional staff departments 

Department of Records.

It is primarily a research and advisory department the results of whose investigations and whose recommendations are brought up at such meetings of department heads and others as may have been predetermined. It is the duty of the record department to see that from each set of records is secured a method of most effective analysis so that the records of the past may be compared with records of the present and conclusions may be drawn as to future action. The individuals engaged in this department must be experts in theory of accounts, the science of statistics, the art of graphical presentation and cost accounting. The tendencies and facts indicated by an analysis of the records must be brought forcibly to the attention of all individuals whose actions based on experience and intuition differ from the action indicated by an analysis of figures, records and statistics.

Department of Materials.
This department assesses relation between materials indicated by the technology (designs) and the availability of various materials in the market, with constant attention to cost reduction as well as the bettering of product.

Department of Plant, Equipment and Processes.

This department is concerned with: 1., routing; 2. scheduling; 3. motion and time studies; 4. preparation of instruction sheets and cards; 5, standardization of equipment. In all of these matters the work of the staff department ends with the adoption of the method.

The routine work is carried on by men adapted to carry out routine work successfully that is line management and operating employees. For instance, the routine work of the planning or production department, is not a staff department activity.

1.Routing.-This involves a study of the processes and product and the preparation of process maps for the various classes of product and determination of most predominant paths, together with floor spaces, weights, bulks, etc., involved, and recommendations as to rearrangements of equipment, and departments and proposals as to building modifications and extensions. It consists further in the designation of which department, machine and class of individuals are to perform the operations indicated by the instructions and the recording of such assignments in such a way that the scheduling department can, in consultation with the department of records, prepare means for enabling the planning or production department to have positive definite information as to the work ahead for each individual, machine and department.

2. Scheduling.-This consists of the determination of the manner in which all orders which are to be worked on by the various departments of the establishment are to be listed so as to determine their sequence and the methods of preparing a definite program in order that the shop may be provided by the production department with a daily schedule covering the sequence of all work for the day.

3. Motion and Time Studies.-Motion study consists of the analysis of each process into its ultimate simplest steps, and the elimination of useless or improper motions. This process is prerequisite to and more difficult than time study, which consists in the timing with a stop watch all the elements indicated by the motion study. Based on motion studies, detailed instructions are to be prepared which are to be the standard practice and are not to be departed from. Proposals for different steps or methods from the standard are to be encouraged and duly rewarded if they result in improvements. The instruction sheets are to be furnished to the production or planning department by the staff department on plant, equipment and processes in just the same manner that the designing department furnishes the detailed shop working drawings for the designed product.

4. Standardization of Equipment.-This covers all items other than those involving motion and time studies, such as tools, appliances and fixtures.

5. Department of Men.-This staff department will consider: i). hygiene and efficiency; ii). psychology and efficiency; iii). industrial education and efficiency; iv).  development of loyalty, through social and religious activities.

Hygiene and Efficiency.-This section will deal with hygiene aspects like adequate provisions for pure and abundant drinking water, proper sanitary and toilet arrangements, first aid to the injured, eye-strain due to poor light, poorly directed light, glare, lassitude due to impure air or too dry air, discomfort due to temperature being too hot or too cold, together with installation of proper remedies and maintenance of proper conditions.

Psychology and Efficiency.- Careful researches must be made as to the presence of avoidable fatigue due to such factors as monotony of occupation, long maintenance of a single position, constant repeti- tion of certain movements, lack of conversation, studies of temperaments of eligible candidates for promotion so as to give due consideration to these characteristics of future gang leaders, assistant foremen, foremen and other officials.   Sympathy and discipline have to be simultaneously displayed by leaders of people.

Industrial Education.-This department provides for training of apprentices, and provides  means for each individual, so far as possible, for attaining greater efficiency. There must be systematic selection of each individual for his work and he must be given planned systematic training for further development.  This department also takes care of shop library or libraries.

Development of Loyalty Through Social and Religious Activities.- Systematic and continuous efforts must be made to make each individual's work inspiring and to get each man interested in his work. The system of promotion must be such as to afford numerous examples whereby ambition may be preserved.  Activities in the interests of good fellowship and social democracy will tend toward fair play for all and the avoidance of sharp practices in the dealings of employees with each other.

It is interesting to note this function indicated by Diemer.
4. Standardization of Equipment.-This covers all items other than those involving motion and time studies, such as tools, appliances and fixtures.

Industrial engineering has not developed adequately this aspect of industrial engineering.

Department of Materials.
This department assesses relation between materials indicated by the technology (designs) and the availability of various materials in the market, with constant attention to cost reduction as well as the bettering of product.

Department of materials is also an interesting idea that was later developed into value engineering by L.D. Miles.

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