Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Biomechanics in Industrial Engineering Curriculum

Biomechanics is an important course in industrial engineering discipline. To design human effort, industrial engineering have to study biomechanics and use the insights of that science.


Hand tool design and MSDs

Integration of ergonomics into handtool design

Hand tool design research in automotive sector


Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement
David A. Winter
John Wiley 2009

Ergonomic models of anthropometry, human biomechanics, and operator-equipment interfaces:
proceedings of a workshop

K. H. E. Kroemer, Thomas B. Sheridan, National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Human Factors, National Research Council (U.S.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Academies Press, 1988
Full book view

Introductory Biomechanics

From Cells to Organisms



C. Ross Ethier
University of Toronto
Craig A. Simmons
University of Toronto


C. Ross Ethier is a professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, the Canada Research Chair in Computational Mechanics, and the Director of the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering at the University of Toronto, with cross-appointment to the Department of Ophthalmology & Vision Sciences. His research focuses on biomechanical factors in glaucoma and blood flow and mass transfer in the large arteries. He has taught biomechanics for over ten years.

Craig A. Simmons is the Canada Research Chair in Mechanobiology and an assistant professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Toronto, with cross-appointments to the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering and the Faculty of Dentistry. His research interests include cell and tissue biomechanics and cell mechanobiology, particularly as it relates to tissue engineering and heart valve disease.


About the Book 

Introductory Biomechanics is a new, integrated text written specifically for engineering students. It provides a broad overview of this important branch of the rapidly growing field of bioengineering. A wide selection of topics is presented, ranging from the mechanics of single cells to the dynamics of human movement. No prior biological knowledge is assumed and in each chapter, the relevant anatomy and physiology are first described. The biological system is then analyzed from a mechanical viewpoint by reducing it to its essential elements, using the laws of mechanics and then tying mechanical insights back to biological function. This integrated approach provides students with a deeper understanding of both the mechanics and the biology than from qualitative study alone. The text is supported by a wealth of illustrations, tables and examples, a large selection of suitable problems and hundreds of current references, making it an essential textbook for any biomechanics course.
1. Introduction;
2. Cellular biomechanics;
3. Hemodynamics;
4. The circulatory system;
5. The interstitium;
6. Ocular biomechanics;
7. The respiratory system;
8. Muscles and movement;
9. Skeletal biomechanics;
10. Terrestrial locomotion;
Appendix A. The electrocardiogram; Index.
Publisher: Cambridge

Occupational Biomechanics, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-72343-1
376 pages
May 2006





1. Occupational Biomechanics as a Specialty.

1.1 Definition of Occupational Biomechanics.

1.2 Historical Development of Occupational Biomechanics.

1.2.1 Kinesiological Developments.

1.2.2 Developments in Biomechanical Modelling.

. 1.2.3 Developments in Anthropometry.

1.2.4 Methods for Evaluating Mechanical Work Capacity.

1.2.5 Developments in Bioinstrumentation.

1.2.6 Developments in Motion Classification and Time Prediction Systems.

1.3 The Need for an Occupational Biomechanics Specialty.

1.3.1 Epidemiological Support for Occupational Biomechanics.

1.3.2 Social and Legal Support for Occupational Biomechanics.

1.3.3 Ergonomic Support for Occupational Biomechanics.

1.4 Who Uses Occupational Biomechanics?.

1.5 Organization of The Book.

Review Questions.


2. The Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Connective Tissue.

2.2.1 Ligaments, Tendons, and Fascia.

2.2.2 Cartilage.

2.2.3 Bone.

2.3 Skeletal Muscle.

2.3.1 The Structure of Muscles.

2.3.2 The Molecular Basis of Muscle Contraction.

2.3.3 The Energy Metabolism of Muscle.

2.3.4 The Nerve Impulse Causing Muscle Contraction.

2.3.5 Mechanical Aspects of Muscle Contraction.

2.3.6 Muscle Fatigue.

2.3.7 Quantification and Prediction of Fatigue.

2.4 Joints.

2.4.1 The Synovial Joint.

2.4.2 Joint Lubrication.

2.4.3 Osteoarthritis.

2.4.4 Intervertebral Discs.

Review Questions.


3. Anthropometry in Occupational Biomechanics.

3.1 Measurement of Physical Properties of Body Segments.

3.1.1 Body-Segment Link Length Measurement Methods.

3.1.2 Body-Segment Volume and Weight.

3.1.3 Body-Segment Locations of Center of Mass.

3.1.4 Body-Segment Inertial Property Measurement Methods.

3.2 Anthropometric Data for Biomechanical Studies in Industry.

3.2.1 Segment Link Length Data.

3.2.2 Segment Weight Data.

3.2.3 Segment Mass-Center Location Data.

3.2.4 Segment Moment-of-inertia and Radius-of-Gyration Data.

3.3 Summary Of Anthropometry in Occupational Biomechanics.

Review Questions.


4. Mechanical Work Capacity Evaluation.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Joint Motion: Methods and Data.

4.2.1 Methods of Measuring Joint Motion.

4.2.2 Normal Ranges of Joint Motion.

4.2.3 Factors Affecting Range-of-Motion Data.

4.3 Muscle Strength Evaluation.

4.3.1 Definition of Muscular Strength.

4.3.2 Static and Dynamic Strength-Testing Methods.

4.3.3 Population Muscle Strength Values.

4.3.4. Personal Factors Affecting Strength.

4.4. Summary and Limitations of Mechanical Work-Capacity Data.

Review Questions.


5. Bioinstrumentation for Occupational Biomechanics.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Human Motion Analysis Systems.

5.2.1 Basis for Measuring Human Motion.

5.3 Muscle Activity Measurement.

5.3 .1 Applied Electromyography.

5.3.2 Mechanomyography.

5.3.3 Intra Muscular Pressure.

5.4 Muscle Strength Measurement Systems.

5.4.1 Localized Static Strength Measurement Systems.

5.4.2 Whole-body Static Strength Measurement System.

5.4.3 Whole-body Dynamic Strength Measurement System.

5.5 Intradiscal Pressure Measurement.

5.5.1 Measurement Concept.

5.5.2 Intradiscal Pressure Measurement System.

5.5.3 Applications and Limitations in Occupational Biomechanics.

5.6 Intra-abdominal (Intragastric) Measurements.

5.6.1 Measurement Development.

5.6.2 Measurement System.

5.6.3 Applications and Limitations in Occupational Biomechanics.

5.7 Seat Pressure Measurement Systems.

5.8 Stature Measurement System.

5.9 Force Platform System.

5.10 Foot and Hand Force Measurement Systems.

5.11 Measurement of Vibration in Humans.

Review Questions.


6. Occupational Biomechanical Models.

6.1 Why Model?.

6.2 Planar Static Biomechanical Models.

6.2.1 Single-Body-Segment Static Model.

6.2.2 Two-Body-Segment Static Model.

6.2.3 Static Planar Model of Nonparallel Forces.

6.2.4 Planar Static Analysis of Internal Forces.

6.2.5 Multiple-link Coplanar Static Modeling.

6.3 Three-dimensional Modeling of Static Strength.

6.4 Dynamic Biomechanical Models.

6.4.1 Single-Segment Dynamic Biomechanical Model.

6.4.2 Multiple-Segment Biodynamic Model of Load Lifting.

6.4.3 Coplanar Biomechanical Models of Foot Slip Potential While Pushing a Cart.

6.5. Special-purpose Biomechanical Models of Occupational Tasks.

6.5.1 Low-Back Biomechanical Models.

6.5.2 Biomechanical Models of the Wrist and Hand.

6.5.3 Modeling Muscle Strength.

6.6 Future Developments in Occupational Biomechanical Models.

Review Questions.


7. Methods Of Classifying And Evaluating Manual Work.

7.1 Traditional Methods.

7.1.1 Historical Perspective.

7.2 Traditional Work Analysis System.

7.2.1 MTM: An Example of a Predetermined Motion?Time System.

7.2.2 Benefits and Limitations in Contemporary Work Analysis Systems.

7.3 Contemporary Biomechanical Job Analysis.

7.3.1 Identification of Musculoskeletal Injury Problems.

7.3.2 Analyzing Biomechanical Risk Factors.

7.3.3 Specialized Biomechanical Risk Factor Evaluation.

7.3.4 EMGs in Job Evaluation.

7.4 Future Impact of Occupational Biomechanics on Work Analysis Systems.

Review Questions.


8. Manual Material-handling Limits.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2. Lifting Limits In Manual Material Handling.

8.2.1 Scope of NIOSH Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting.

8.2.2 Basis and Structure of the 1994 NIOSH-Recommended Weight-lifting Limit.

8.2.3 Example of NIOSH RWL Procedure.

8.2.4 Comments on the Status of the NIOSH Lifting Guide.

8.2.5 Alternative Recommendations for Evaluating Manual Lifting Tasks.

8.3 Pushing and Pulling Capabilities.

8.3.1 Foot-Slip Prevention During Pushing and Pulling.

8.4 Asymmetric Load Handling.

8.4.1 Toward a Comprehensive Manual Material-Handling Guide.

8.5 Recommendations for Improving Manual Materials Handling Tasks.

8.6 Summary of Manual Material-Handling Recommendations and Evaluation Methods.

Review Questions.


9. Guidelines For Work In Sitting Postures.

9.1 General Considerations Related to Sitting Postures.

9.2 Anthropometric Aspects of Seated Workers.

9.3 Comfort.

9.4 The Spine and Sitting.

9.4.1 Clinical Aspects of Sitting Postures.

9.4.2 Radiographic Data.

9.4.3 Disc Pressure Data During Sitting.

9.4.4 Muscle Activity.

9.4.5 Sitting Postures and The Spine.

9.5 The Shoulder and Sitting.

9.6 The Legs and Sitting.

9.7 The Sitting Workplace.

9.7.1 The Office Chair.

9.7.2 The Table in a Seated Workplace.

9.7.3 Visual Display Terminal Workstations.

9.8 Summary.

Review Questions.


10. Biomechanical Considerations in Machine Control and Workplace Design.

10.1 Introduction.

10.1.1 Localized Musculoskeletal Injury in Industry.

10.2 Practical Guidelines for Workplace and Machine Control Layout.

10.2.1 Structure-Function Characteristics of the Shoulder Mechanism.

10.2.2 Shoulder-Dependent Overhead Reach Limitations.

10.2.3 Shoulder-and Arm-Dependent Forward Reach Limits.

10.2.4 Neck?Head Posture Work Limitations.

10.2.5 Torso Postural Considerations in Workbench Height Limitations.

10.2.6 Biomechanical Considerations in the Design of Computer Workstations.

10.3 Summary.

Review Questions.


11. Hand-Tool Design Guidelines.

11.1 The Need for Biomechanical Concepts In Design.

11.2 Shape and Size Considerations.

11.2.1 Shape for Avoiding Wrist Deviation.

11.2.2 Shape for Avoiding Shoulder Abduction.

11.2.3 Shape to Assist Grip.

11.2.4 Size of Tool Handle to Facilitate Grip.

11.2.5 Finger Clearance Considerations.

11.2.6 Gloves.

11.3 Hand-Tool Weight and Use Considerations.

11.4 Force Reaction Considerations in Powered Hand-tool Design.

11.5 Keyboard Design Considerations.

11.5.1 Posture Stress.

11.5.2 Keying Exertion Force Repetition.

11.6 Summary.

Review Questions.


12. Guidelines for Whole-Body and Segmental Vibration.

12.1 Definitions and Measurement.

12.1.1 Definitions.

12.1.2 Measurement of Vibration.

12.2 General Effects of Vibration on Human Beings.

12.3 Whole-Body Vibration.

12.3.1 Effects of Low-frequency Vibration.

12.3.2 Effects of Middle-frequency Vibration.

12.3.3 Biomechanical Effects on the Spine.

12.3.4 Physiological Responses.

12.4 Hand?Arm Vibration.

12.4.1 Transmission of Vibration in the Upper Extremity.

12.4.2 Hand?Arm Vibration Syndrome.

12.5 Sensorimotor Effects.

12.6 Vibration Exposure Criteria.

12.6.1 Whole-Body Vibration Recommendations.

12.6.2 Hand-Arm Vibration Recommendations.

12.7 Control and Prevention.

Review Questions.


13. Worker Selection, Training and Personal Protective Device Consideration.

13.1 Worker Selection.

13.1.1 Introduction to Worker Selection.

13.1.2 History and Physical Examination.

13.1.3 Radiographic Preplacement Examination.

13.1.4 Quantitative Physical Preplacement Screening.

13.2 Preplacement Training.

13.2.1 General Content of Training.

13.2.2 How Workers Should Be Trained.

13.3 Biomechanical Aspects of Back Belts.

13.3.1 Passive Stiffness Effects of Back Belts.

13.3.2 Abdominal Pressure Effects of Back Belts.

13.3.3 Reduced Torso Mobility Effects Due to Back Belts.

13.4 Job Rotation and Psychosocial Stress.

13.5 Summary.

Review Questions.


14. Summary.

Appendix A.

Part 1: Anatomical and Anthropometric Landmarks as Presented by Webb and Associates.

Part 2: Glossary of Anatomical and Anthropometric Terms.

Appendix B Population weight and Mass-Center data.

Table B.1 Segment Weight Values Derived from Regression Equations Using Total Body Weight as the Independent Variable.

Table B.2 Anatomical Location of Segment Centers of Gravity (Centers of Mass).

Table B.3 Segment Moments of Inertia.

Table B.4 Joint Center Locations and Link Definitions.

Appendix C Terms and Units of Measurement in Biomechanics.

Appendix D NIOSH 1994 Tables.

Appendix E Push and Pull Force Tables.

Appendix F Data Gathering ? Job Risk Factors.

Appendix G Some General Web Sites that Complement.

References in Text.





 Course at IA State
IE 571X XE Occupational Biomechanics
Courses at NCSU
Course Content
Anatomical, physiological, and biomechanical bases of physical ergonomics. Anthropometry, body mechanics, strength of biomaterials, human motor control. Use of bioinstrumentation, passive industrial surveillance techniques and active risk assessment techniques. Acute injury and cumulative trauma disorders. Static and dynamic biomechanical modeling. Emphasis on low back, shoulder and hand/wrist biomechanics.
ISE 543 Musculoskeletal Mechanics
ISE 544 Occupational Biomechanics
ISE 646 Research Practicum in Occupational Biomechanics
ISE 767 Upper Extremity Biomechanics
ISE 768 Spine Biomechanics

ISE 796 Research Practicum in Occupational Biomechanics
Course at Dalhousie University
IENG 4573.03 Industrial Biomechanics
The class primarily deals with the functioning of the structural elements of the human body and the effects of external and internal forces on the body. Due emphasis is given to the biomechanical approach to job design. This takes into account human motor capabilities and limitations, work physiology, task demands, equipment and workplace characteristics in an integrated manner. Use of bioinstrumentation and applications of biomechanics in work, industry and rehabilitation are discussed.

The Ohio State University - Integrated System Engineering Courses

560: Work Physiology and Biomechanics in Work Design
Atlantic International University
Master of Industrial Engineering (MS, MIE)

Original Knol - Knol Number 1168

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