Internal setup operations have to be done when machine is not running or producing. External setup operations can be done when the machine is doing its production job.
Step 2 – CONVERT INTERNAL TO EXTERNAL SETUP :
There are opportunities convert some internal operations to external setup operations. For example, one can avoid the internal setup time involved in shut height adjustments for the press dies, by standardizing the die height and by attaching blocks or shims to smaller dies. Another simple conversion is to preheat dies for die-casting, which eliminates heating the die by trial shot after its was placed in the machine.
Shut Height - Distance between the upper dead center and the lower dead centre in a die.
Step 3 – STANDARDIZE FUNCTION, NOT SHAPE :
Standardizing the shape and size of dies can reduce setup times considerably. Shape standardization is wasteful, however, because all dies would have to confirm to the largest size used, which would increase costs unnecessarily.
Function standardization, on the other hand, requires only uniformity in the parts and features necessary for setup operations. For example, adding a plate or block to the attachment edge of the die standardizes the dimensions of that part only and makes it possible to use the same clamps in different setups. The functions identified by Shingo in his book are clamping, centering, dimensioning, expelling, grasping, and maintaining loads. The engineers or industrial engineers must study various dies and standardize the features of the die that necessitate changes.
Step 4 – USE FUNCTIONAL CLAMPS OR ELIMINATE FASTERNERS ALTOGETHER:
Bolts are most commonly used to attach the die to ram and machine body, but tightening bolts can be very time consuming. Normally, about with fifteen threads must be turned fourteen times before it is actually tightened on the last turn. But Shingo's insight is that only the last turn tightens the bolt and the first loosens it – the other thirteen are wasted motion. If the purpose of the bolt is simply to fasten or unfasten, it should be just long enough for fasten in one turn. A bolt with one turn possibility is called a functional clamp by Shingo. One-turn functional clamps include the I- slot method, the pear shaped hole method, and the external clamp.
Threaded screws are by no means the only way to secure items. There are methods and industrial engineers have to explore then and examine them. One touch methods using wedges, cams, and clamps or springs reduce setup times considerably, as do interlocking improvements that simply fit and join two parts together. These methods can reduce setup times to seconds.
Step 5 – USE INTERMEDIATE JIGS :
While the work piece attached to one jig is being processed, the next work piece is centered and attached to a second jig that is easily mounted on the machine for processing. This is using a duplicate jig to load the center the workpiece as an external operation.
Step 66 – ADOPT PARALLEL OPERATIONS :
Operations on plastic molding or die-casting machines and large presses invariably involve setup work on both sides or at both the front and back of the of the machine.
Step 7 : ELIMINATE ADJUSTMENTS :
Of course, the best kind of adjustment is no adjustment at all. For example, the least common multiple’ (LCM) system is based on the principle and that adjustment can be eliminated entirely when the number of setting is limited and unvarying.
Step 8 : MECHANIZATION :