Scientific study for improving efficiency and productivity was advocated by F.W. Taylor in his treatise on Scientific Management. Application of scientific management in engineering branches became the discipline of industrial engineering. Efficiency improvement practice was started in other economic activities also. The public administration discipline also adopted the scientific management principles of efficiency improvement.
I would like to write more about it in some more time.
But at this moment I request readers to download and read this document on successful suggestion programs released by a working group of Federal Government, USA.