Wednesday, February 6, 2019

Design for Productivity - Productivity Engineering - Product Industrial Engineering




Design for Productivity - A Productivity Engineering Task


"Design for Productivity" is task in which productivity science can be developed and productivity engineering is done. It is based on the proposition that as productivity of a machine or production equipment  increases, the price paid for it by the customer increases.

For each machine or production equipment or production item, productivity science needs to be developed. Productivity science guides engineering effort. (Narayana Rao, 6 February 2019).


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Illustration
Productivity Drivers - 3D Printing



The output per unit time of  3D printer depends on:

–Size of extrusion nozzle opening: ; The bigger the opening the more the material flow.

–Size of part to be printed. More volume, more time

–Part orientation on the build bed. X-Y orientations can usually be built faster than parts set up to build in the Z orientation.

–Complexity of part to be printed. Parts with many angles, curves and other geometric features will take longer to build than a straightforward box type shape.

–Material choice. In extrusion systems, every material flows at a different rate.

–Type of laser used in powder-bed systems.

–Type of material used in powder-bed systems. Plastics and metals will build at different rates.

–Required print resolution; Fine resolutions mean slower build rates.

–Part density. Fully dense parts can take longer to build than those with filler support.

https://formlabs.com/blog/fdm-vs-sla-vs-sls-how-to-choose-the-right-3d-printing-technology/


3D printers are being made more and more productive over time by developing ways in which productivity drivers can be increased in the 3D printers to give more and more productivity. For more information, please see:

3D Printing - Additive Manufacturing Industrial Engineering - Productivity Science and Engineering


Industrial engineering researchers and developers have to engage in design for productivity and come have to come out with themes and design directions.





"Design for Productivity" - Prior Use of the Concept


The term "Design for Productivity" is already employed some to indicate the need for the activity.

Design for Productivity is a Product Design Approach


Australian Productivity Council (APC)

Better Products, Lower Production Costs
The objective of the Design for Productivity process is to achieve a superior product, in aesthetic and technical terms, to improve market performance, while simultaneously reducing the resources needed to produce them.

Design for Productivity is a product design approach that applies market study, value analysis, industrial design, input substitution, product simplification and part count reduction in a rigorous, innovative and systematic way to dramatically improve the relationship between product cost and selling price.


The APC has achieved extraordinary results through the application of these methods – in some cases part counts have been reduced by 70% and embedded labour by 80%, expensive production facilities simplified and complex fixtures and assembly equipment eliminated. Reducing input costs while enhancing quality and appeal is the most effective way to improve competitiveness.

http://www.australianproductivity.com/productivity/design-for-productivity/


Technology Design and Development for Productivity


Product design for productivity and innovation with engineering thermoplastics and their blends in the nineties
C. Bailly  W. L. Sederel
October 1993 https://doi.org/10.1002/masy.19930750106
Macromolecular Symposia
Volume75, Issue 1, October 1993

 In today's competitive environment it is vital to be the high quality, low cost, green producer.  The drivers call for specific R&D approaches have to focus on  cost and ecological improvements of processes and products.

Possibilities are:

(i) novel catalysis with fewer process steps, higher yields and selectivity for the production of monomers and polymers.

(ii) solvent‐free polymerisation processes, resulting in lower investment cost, lower operating cost and the lack of solvent traces in the final product

(iii) design of polymer modifications, e.g. higher flow and/or higher heat co‐polymers such that products can be produced in existing equipment resulting in acceptable Return‐on‐Investment (ROI).

Higher flow products are specifically needed for thin‐wall designs to allow optimum use of the high mechanical properties of engineering thermoplastics, making shorter processing cycles possible during moulding and bringing less material in the environment.

This paper discusses various routes to high flow technology, such as improving processing window, molecular engineering and blends.



Design for productivity – achieve a step-change in the efficiency of your assembly line and dramatically increase the number of units you can make and the speed with which you can make them.

Good design can greatly simplify the process of manufacturing a product, resulting in significant reductions in cost and assembly time. To achieve this, however, it is essential that designers and engineers work together, so that products are developed with assembly in mind.

https://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ifmecs/industry/design-for-transformation/





13.11.2014 14:37
SLM: New machine design and exposure concept facilitates scalable productivity and building space
Petra Nolis M.A. Marketing & Kommunikation
Fraunhofer-Institut f├╝r Lasertechnik ILT
A this year’s EuroMold, which takes place in Frankfurt from November 25-28, 2014, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will for the first time present its new SLM machine design and exposure concept. This solution makes it easy to scale productivity and building space at significantly lower cost than previous machine designs allowed.

Additive manufacturing via selective laser melting (SLM) has been successfully used to make prototypes and small-series production runs of predominantly compact components for a number of years now. But users want the ability to increase productivity via higher build-up rates, and would like more flexibility in terms of available building space. Beyond this, it remains vitally important for series production on an industrial scale to have robust process engineering with reproducible component quality and the ability to monitor processes.

Experts are currently pursuing several approaches to increasing productivity and building space. Until now, productivity has mainly been boosted by using higher laser power in combination with optics systems that allow operators to adjust the beam diameter. Larger building spaces are currently achieved through the use of a movable single optical system or multiple parallel beam sources and scanner systems.

Systematic advantages of the new design

Scientists at Fraunhofer ILT used funding provided by the Cluster of Excellence »Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries« to develop, design and build a new machine concept at their site in Aachen. Their design dispenses with scanner systems altogether and instead relies on a printer head featuring several individually controllable diode lasers that is moved using linear axes. The advantage of multi-spot processing is that it means the system’s build-up rate can be increased significantly by adding a virtually unlimited number of beam sources – with no need for modifications to the system design, exposure control software or process parameters. The new plant design also makes it possible to increase building space simply by extending the travel lengths of the axis system and without changing the optical system. In addition, the processing head has a local shielding gas flow system that guarantees a constant stream of shielding gas at each processing point, regardless of the size of the installation space. This is essential for achieving position-independent, reproducible component quality. The new design also allows process monitoring systems to be incorporated into the production system. These monitoring systems can also be set up in much simpler form than current coaxial systems allow.

Fraunhofer ILT at EuroMold 2014

Experts from Fraunhofer ILT will use a laboratory demonstrator to present their new SLM machine concept at the joint Fraunhofer booth C66 in Hall 11.

Contact

M.Sc. Florian Eibl
Rapid Manufacturing Group
Telephone +49 241 8906-193
florian.eibl@ilt.fraunhofer.de

Dr. Wilhelm Meiners
Head of Rapid Manufacturing Group
Telephone +49 241 8906-301
wilhelm.meiners@ilt.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT
Steinbachstra├če 15
52074 Aachen, Germany

Weitere Informationen:
http://www.ilt.fraunhofer.de


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