Monday, April 22, 2019

Industrial Engineering of Welding Processes






Picture source: https://www.army.mil/article/106672/welder_works_to_prevent_casualties_along_afghanistans_most_important_highway




LEARN TO IDENTIFY, MEASURE, AND MANAGE THE COSTS OF WELDING PRODUCTION PROCESSES


The American Welding Society  Course

Every year, welding manufacturing operations lose millions of dollars in profits due to the improper calculation of costs and inefficient welding practices. Participants in this course will learn to identify, measure, and manage the costs of production in order to reduce expenses and ensure quality. Topics include welding process variables, weld procedure specifications, calculating weld metal volume and deposition rates, and managing the costs of labor, materials, equipment, and overhead. Please see the course curriculum for a complete list of topics.


COURSE MODULES

MODULE 1 – Process Variables: Current, Amperage, Voltage

MODULE 2 – Process Variables: Polarity, Inductance, Arc Length, CTTWD, Shielding Gas

MODULE 3 – Process Variables: Travel Angle, Transverse Angle, Travel Speed, Electrode Position, Wire Feed Speed

MODULE 4 – SMAW: Process Variables

MODULE 5 – GTAW: Process Variables

MODULE 6 – GMAW: Process Variables

MODULE 7 – FCAW: Process Variables

MODULE 8 – SAW: Process Variables

MODULE 9 – Weld Process Comparison: Advantages and Disadvantages I

MODULE 10 – Weld Process Comparison: Advantages and Disadvantages II

MODULE 11 – Manufacturing Costs: Materials, Labor, Equipment, Overhead

MODULE 12 – Welding Procedure Specification

MODULE 13 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Area

MODULE 14 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Volume

MODULE 15 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Deposited Weight

MODULE 16 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Deposition Efficiency

MODULE 17 – Determining the Cost of Weld: Calculating Deposition Rate

MODULE 18 – Calculating Labor Costs: Arc Time, Non-Arc Time, Total Labor Time

MODULE 19 – Calculating Labor Costs: Operator Factor

MODULE 20 – Calculating Labor Costs: Problem Solving

MODULE 21 – Calculating Filler Metal and Labor Costs: Problem Solving

MODULE 22 – Calculating Weld Job Costs: Problem Solving

MODULE 23 – Managing Costs: Joint Design, Weld Design, WPS, Mistake Proofing, Production Planning

MODULE 24 – Managing Costs: Eliminating Operations, Supporting Activities, Field Welding, process Selection

MODULE 25 – Managing Costs: Unforeseen Costs, Quality Issues, Overwelding

Focus Area-wise Articles, Case Studies and Research Papers -  Industrial Engineering of Welding Processes


Productivity Science


Process Variables: Current, Amperage, Voltage, Polarity, Inductance, Arc Length, CTTWD, Shielding Gas, Travel Angle, Transverse Angle, Travel Speed, Electrode Position, Wire Feed Speed


Product Industrial Engineering


Design for welding: Design recommendations - nptel
https://nptel.ac.in/courses/107103012/module6/lec2.pdf

Design for Welding-I - nptel
https://nptel.ac.in/courses/112101005/21

Weld Joint Design
https://www.haynesintl.com/alloys/fabrication-brochure/welding-and-joining/weld-joint-design

DFM for Welding | Machine Design
https://www.machinedesign.com/mechanical/dfm-welding

A team of five people from a major Midwestern manufacturer of welding equipment joined together with a team of expert business strategists. The goal? To reduce the cost of one of their “heart-of-the-line” products – a welding rod.
https://adapt.consulting/project/improve-packaging/

29 March 2019
Using Value Engineering, IMI Remosa was able to re-develop its products which significantly reduced welding and other manufacturing costs and created a compelling solution for the customer at a competitive price.
https://www.imiplc.com/media/imi-in-action/imi-critical-engineering/value-engineering-delivering-competitive-advantage.aspx

Process Industrial Engineering


16-JAN-2019
Research to improve welding process for manufacturing industries
New research, led by the University of Leicester, will optimize the welding and additive and manufacturing process.
Arc welding and additive manufacturing are hugely important for creating large metal components relatively inexpensively and quickly.

New research led by Professor Hongbiao Dong from the University of Leicester's Department of Engineering has shown how to optimise this process to improve efficiency and cost.
the team inserted small tungsten and tantalum particles into the melt pool. Due to their high melting points, the particles remained solid in the melt pool long enough for them to be tracked using intense beams of X-rays.

The X-rays were generated using the synchrotron particle accelerator at Diamond Light Source, which is the UK's National facility for synchrotron light. The results revealed that arc welding can be optimised by controlling the flow of the melt pool and changing the associated active elements on the surface.
https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-01/uol-rti011619.php
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190116115515.htm

T.Y. Chernysheva et al., "Overview Information Systems for Calculating Processes Welding Stainless Steels", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 938, pp. 12-17, 2018
The possibilities of using nanomaterials and nanocoatings for machine building are considered. The review of software for engineering calculations of welding processes and heat treatment is carried out. A decision support system for choosing a rational amount of nanostructured modifier powders for welding corrosion-resistant steels is proposed.
https://www.scientific.net/MSF.938.12

A good combination of tool, process, and technique for weld preparation contributes to making robust, defect-free welds
THE TUBE & PIPE JOURNAL JUNE 2018
Special tool for bevelling saddles
https://www.thefabricator.com/article/tubepipefabrication/good-looks-aren-t-everything-especially-in-welding

2007
Reducing Waste of Welding Resources


Design of Welding fixture for sample parts and user manual - Theseus
https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/141317/Theis_Ashek_Elahe.pdf


Industrial Engineering Optimization


2006

Welding parameters optimization for economic design using neural approximation and genetic algorithm, 

Hsien-Yu Tseng, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
February 2006, Volume 27, Issue 9–10, pp 897–901

Industrial Engineering Statistics

Industrial Engineering Economics


Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding  vs.  Shielded Metal Arc (Stick Electrode) Process


In Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), also known as Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, an electric arc is established between the workpiece and a consumable bare wire electrode. The arc continuously melts the wire as it is fed to the weld puddle. The weld metal is shielded from the atmosphere by a flow of an inert gas, or gas mixture.

Continuing developments have made the mig process applicable to the welding of all commercially important metals such as steel, aluminum, stainless steel, copper and several others. Materials above .030in. (.76 mm) thick can be welded in all positions, including flat, vertical and overhead.It is simple to choose the equipment, wire electrode, shielding gas, and welding conditions capable of producing high-quality welds at a low cost.

https://www.esabna.com/euweb/mig_handbook/592mig1_1.htm

The mig process can afford the user considerable cost savings when compared to other welding processes.The question that usually arises is whether mig will save me money and should I use it. Most commonly, the question concerns a comparison to the shielded metal arc (stick electrode) process.

The only way one can decide if the savings with the mig process can pay back the investment in new equipment, welder training and production changes is to evaluate it for your shop and your product. In order to determine this, cost studies must be made.

The most important factors in determining the welding cost are labor requirements, overhead allocations,and materials. Labor requirements and associated overhead allocation dominate the cost. However, there are many manufactured procedures associated with a completed weldment other than just the welding where the mig process affords economic benefits. These include weld cleaning, metal finishing, reduced inspection time, and a reduced number of defects. Other factors affecting the cost may be available fixturing, materials handling, work rules, customer requirements, welding fumes, etc.

The greatest incentives to investigate mig are the case histories over the past quarter century.

In those shops where welding is a significant part of the product cost, the cost of a weldment has been reduced by about 40% to 50% by using the mig process.

The standard formula presented for the major cost factors associated with making the weld can be used for any electric welding process.

https://www.esabna.com/euweb/mig_handbook/592mig9_1.htm


Human Effort Industrial Engineering



Virtual Reality-based Training System for Metal Active Gas Welding

By Hwa Jen Yap, Zahari Taha, Hui Kang Choo and Chee Khean Kok
November 26th 2014
https://www.intechopen.com/books/the-thousand-faces-of-virtual-reality/virtual-reality-based-training-system-for-metal-active-gas-welding

2014
Profiling mild steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions and costs in the workplace.
Keane MJ, Siert A, Chen BT, Stone SG.
Ann Occup Hyg. 2014 May;58(4):403-12

To provide quantitative information to choose the best welding processes for minimizing workplace emissions, nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for mild steel were assessed for fume generation rates, normalized fume generation rates (milligram fume per gram of electrode  consumed), and normalized generation rates for elemental manganese, nickel, and iron. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux-cored arc-welding (FCAW) processes were also profiled.

Fume emission rates per gram of electrode consumed were highest for SMAW (~13 mg fume g(-1) electrode) and lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed spray (~1.5mg g(-1)) and CMT (~1mg g(-1)). Manganese emission rates per gram of electrode consumed ranged from 0.45 mg g(-1) (SMAW) to 0.08 mg g(-1) (CMT). Nickel emission rates were generally low and ranged from ~0.09 (GMAW short circuit) to 0.004 mg g(-1) (CMT). Iron emission rates ranged from 3.7 (spray-mode GMAW) to 0.49 mg g(-1) (CMT). The processes studied have significantly different costs, and cost factors are presented based on a case study to allow comparisons between processes in specific cost categories. Costs per linear meter of weld were $31.07 (SMAW), $12.37 (GMAW short circuit), and $10.89 (FCAW).

The study provides information to aid in the choice of process. Suggestions for overcoming barriers to utilizing new and less hazardous welding processes are also provided.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24515891

Productivity Measurement

(Cost, Time and Productivity Measurement and Estimating)

ESTIMATING AND COMPARING WELD METAL COSTS
https://www.esabna.com/euweb/awtc/lesson9_2.htm

2011
Estimation and Comparison of Welding Cost of MIG & MAG Process on Mild Steel
If MAG is used instead of MIG for the process where the properties required are satisfactory (by MAG welding) than one can make more profit.


Productivity Management


ESAB developed the Value Added Engineering (VAE) process to give our customers an edge. When you choose VAE, you get access to the only team of welding and cutting experts - industry-wide - who come to you, analyze your production processes, and make recommendations based on factual data collected at your shop.

Our value added engineering recommended modifications to your process have the potential to quantifiably improve quality, enhance productivity, and boost profits. We'll reveal untapped revenue opportunities through capacity growth, increased product sales, and improved employee productivity.
https://www.esabna.com/us/en/support/value-added-engineering/index.cfm





Year-wise Articles, Case Studies and Research Papers -  Industrial Engineering of Welding Processes


Process Selection for Welding

https://www.lincolnelectric.com/en-us/support/welding-how-to/Pages/process-selection-detail.aspx

https://awo.aws.org/online-courses/economics-of-welding/

Welding Handbook - 10th Edition, Volume 1
Welding and Cutting Science and Technology
https://www.aws.org/publications/page/10th-edition-volume-1

Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding  vs.  Shielded Metal Arc (Stick Electrode) Process


In Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), also known as Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, an electric arc is established between the workpiece and a consumable bare wire electrode. The arc continuously melts the wire as it is fed to the weld puddle. The weld metal is shielded from the atmosphere by a flow of an inert gas, or gas mixture.

Continuing developments have made the mig process applicable to the welding of all commercially important metals such as steel, aluminum, stainless steel, copper and several others. Materials above .030in. (.76 mm) thick can be welded in all positions, including flat, vertical and overhead.It is simple to choose the equipment, wire electrode, shielding gas, and welding conditions capable of producing high-quality welds at a low cost.

https://www.esabna.com/euweb/mig_handbook/592mig1_1.htm

The mig process can afford the user considerable cost savings when compared to other welding processes.The question that usually arises is whether mig will save me money and should I use it. Most commonly, the question concerns a comparison to the shielded metal arc (stick electrode) process.

The only way one can decide if the savings with the mig process can pay back the investment in new equipment, welder training and production changes is to evaluate it for your shop and your product. In order to determine this, cost studies must be made.

The most important factors in determining the welding cost are labor requirements, overhead allocations,and materials. Labor requirements and associated overhead allocation dominate the cost. However, there are many manufactured procedures associated with a completed weldment other than just the welding where the mig process affords economic benefits. These include weld cleaning, metal finishing, reduced inspection time, and a reduced number of defects. Other factors affecting the cost may be available fixturing, materials handling, work rules, customer requirements, welding fumes, etc.

The greatest incentives to investigate mig are the case histories over the past quarter century.

In those shops where welding is a significant part of the product cost, the cost of a weldment has been reduced by about 40% to 50% by using the mig process.

The standard formula presented for the major cost factors associated with making the weld can be used for any electric welding process.

https://www.esabna.com/euweb/mig_handbook/592mig9_1.htm


Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers,
on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/production/welders-cutters-solderers-and-brazers.htm


2019

16-JAN-2019
Research to improve welding process for manufacturing industries
New research, led by the University of Leicester, will optimize the welding and additive and manufacturing process.
Arc welding and additive manufacturing are hugely important for creating large metal components relatively inexpensively and quickly.

New research led by Professor Hongbiao Dong from the University of Leicester's Department of Engineering has shown how to optimise this process to improve efficiency and cost.
the team inserted small tungsten and tantalum particles into the melt pool. Due to their high melting points, the particles remained solid in the melt pool long enough for them to be tracked using intense beams of X-rays.

The X-rays were generated using the synchrotron particle accelerator at Diamond Light Source, which is the UK's National facility for synchrotron light. The results revealed that arc welding can be optimised by controlling the flow of the melt pool and changing the associated active elements on the surface.
https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-01/uol-rti011619.php
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190116115515.htm


2018

Kemppi Robotic Welding Application Center Opens in India
Finland’s Kemppi opened up a robotic welding application center in Pune, India to respond to the increasing needs for welding automation.
The Pune center is equipped with Kemppi’s A7 MIG Welder and KempArc robotic welding systems integrated with robots from well-known robot manufacturers. The systems are presented in action to demonstrate the efficiency and quality that can be reached with Kemppi’s Wise optimized welding processes.
https://www.maintworld.com/Applications/Kemppi-Robotic-Welding-Application-Center-Opens-in-India


T.Y. Chernysheva et al., "Overview Information Systems for Calculating Processes Welding Stainless Steels", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 938, pp. 12-17, 2018
The possibilities of using nanomaterials and nanocoatings for machine building are considered. The review of software for engineering calculations of welding processes and heat treatment is carried out. A decision support system for choosing a rational amount of nanostructured modifier powders for welding corrosion-resistant steels is proposed.
https://www.scientific.net/MSF.938.12

A good combination of tool, process, and technique for weld preparation contributes to making robust, defect-free welds
THE TUBE & PIPE JOURNAL JUNE 2018
Special tool for bevelling saddles
https://www.thefabricator.com/article/tubepipefabrication/good-looks-aren-t-everything-especially-in-welding

2015
Economic analysis and justification for automated welding systems


2014
Profiling mild steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions and costs in the workplace.
Keane MJ, Siert A, Chen BT, Stone SG.
Ann Occup Hyg. 2014 May;58(4):403-12

To provide quantitative information to choose the best welding processes for minimizing workplace emissions, nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for mild steel were assessed for fume generation rates, normalized fume generation rates (milligram fume per gram of electrode  consumed), and normalized generation rates for elemental manganese, nickel, and iron. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux-cored arc-welding (FCAW) processes were also profiled.

Fume emission rates per gram of electrode consumed were highest for SMAW (~13 mg fume g(-1) electrode) and lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed spray (~1.5mg g(-1)) and CMT (~1mg g(-1)). Manganese emission rates per gram of electrode consumed ranged from 0.45 mg g(-1) (SMAW) to 0.08 mg g(-1) (CMT). Nickel emission rates were generally low and ranged from ~0.09 (GMAW short circuit) to 0.004 mg g(-1) (CMT). Iron emission rates ranged from 3.7 (spray-mode GMAW) to 0.49 mg g(-1) (CMT). The processes studied have significantly different costs, and cost factors are presented based on a case study to allow comparisons between processes in specific cost categories. Costs per linear meter of weld were $31.07 (SMAW), $12.37 (GMAW short circuit), and $10.89 (FCAW).

The study provides information to aid in the choice of process. Suggestions for overcoming barriers to utilizing new and less hazardous welding processes are also provided.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24515891


Virtual Reality-based Training System for Metal Active Gas Welding

By Hwa Jen Yap, Zahari Taha, Hui Kang Choo and Chee Khean Kok
November 26th 2014
https://www.intechopen.com/books/the-thousand-faces-of-virtual-reality/virtual-reality-based-training-system-for-metal-active-gas-welding

2012
Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Welding Processes

Radovan Kovacevic
Edited by Radovan Kovacevic
Southern Methodist University, United States of America
https://www.intechopen.com/books/welding-processes

2011
Estimation and Comparison of Welding Cost of MIG & MAG Process on Mild Steel
If MAG is used instead of MIG for the process where the properties required are satisfactory (by MAG welding) than one can make more profit.


2007
Reducing Waste of Welding Resources

2006

Welding parameters optimization for economic design using neural approximation and genetic algorithm, 

Hsien-Yu Tseng, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
February 2006, Volume 27, Issue 9–10, pp 897–901


Training Materials on Welding


BASIC WELDING FILLER METAL TECHNOLOGY
A Correspondence Course
©COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROUP, INC.ESAB Welding &Cutting Products
https://www.esabna.com/euweb/awtc/lesson1_1.htm



Updated 22 April 2019, 19 April 2019

Search results for "economics of welding processes"

1 comment:

  1. It is great to see such a piece of helpful information and thanks for sharing it.
    Welding Rotators
    welding roller

    ReplyDelete