Wednesday, March 7, 2012

Crank Shaft Machining - For Reference in Industrial Engineering Course


About Crank Shaft

It is a central component of any internal combustion engine.  Crankshafts come in many shapes and sizes from small ones found in two-stroke small engines  to giant ones found in diesel engines in ships. Crankshafts in automotive engines also vary, each one unique to its engine type and make.

Video : Function of crank shaft
2.30 minutes
 VideoTruing Harley Davidson Crankshaft
9.54 minutes
Crankshaft more details

IC Engine and Components - Videos (11 Youtube videos)



Rapid prototype machining of crankshaft within 8 hours

Special Purpose Crank Shaft Milling Machine
September 2004

Bharat Fritz Werner Ltd. (BFW )  BFW has designed and built, for the first time in India, a SPM (Special Purpose Machine) for machining the pin and web portions of a crank shaft using the process of external milling for  one of the leading crankshaft manufacturers in Belgaum.
The machine has a large size spindle unit on which is mounted a big milling cutter having a diameter of 700mm. The spindle has a rigid nose as per IS 2582 to accommodate the heavy-duty cutter. This cutter is of a special design with cartridges mounted on the periphery and sides for simultaneous milling of the pin and web of a crankshaft. The spindle is driven through a gearbox by a 37kW motor. The spindle head is mounted on slide units, which are driven by servomotors through ball and lead screws. While one of the servomotors controls the feed movement of the cutter, another one is used to index the milling head in various positions. The spindle head slide is provided with a hydraulic counterbalance system.

The crank shaft is held using two hydraulic chucks, which in turn are mounted on NC ( Numerical Control ) synchronised rotary tables. All the feed and cutter movements are through servomotors and are controlled by a  Siemens 8100 CNC system. Hardened and ground guide-ways are provided on all axes.
The machine can accommodate crankshafts ranging in size from 350mm to 650mm in length, pin diameter from 40 to 60 mm and a maximum swing diameter of 220 mm.
The machine will result in increase in productivity. In the initial trials conducted, it took just 6 minutes to machine a 4 - pin crankshaft, while the conventional turning process took 80 minutes.
The price of the BFW machine is only one-fifth that of an equivalent one made by a reputed German company.

Crankshaft is usually outsourced for production by the automobile industry.  Belgaum in Karnataka is the home of the biggest cluster of crankshaft machining units in India.  The units are mainly deploying the old-fashioned turning process for machining of the pin and web portions in a crankshaft. This requires multiple set-ups of the component in the machine. In the process, crankshafts have  to be loaded on different machines with special work holding fixtures to complete the machining task. All this takes considerable amount of time and also results in inconsistent component accuracies due to the different set-ups.
The special purpose machine can reduce set up and machining time and increase quality.
Jet-Flex Center CNC waterjet deburring machine
For cleaning crank shafts
Historically, U.S. automakers machined the five Cs of engines—crankshafts, connecting rods, cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and camshafts—in house. Over the last 20 years, there has been a trend to offload this work to vendors.
Norton Manufacturing Company, Fostoria, Ohio is  a firm that manufactures crankshafts for diesel and gasoline engines, compressors and pumps.  It began machining prototype crankshafts for Ford, General Motors and Chrysler as early as 1982, and it received its first production crankshaft order (from Chrysler) in 1986.
Recently, Norton received an order from one of the big-three automakers for a steel crankshaft for a new engine with a big order quantity. The automaker specified that the crankshafts had to be within a 5 millipore rating, a cleanliness level that the firm found difficult to achieve with its existing slush washing equipment.
To provide the require cleaning of crank shaft, the slush washer equipment (presently in use) was replaced by a Jet-Flex Center CNC waterjet deburring machine, produced by Sugino Corp. (Schaumburg, Illinois).

Total cycle time for the cleaning and deburring operation is less than 2 minutes using CNC waterjet deburring machine. It about 5 percent of the time required for cleaning alone by the slush cleaning method. On completion, the pallet returns to the load/unload position, and the operator offloads the crankshaft to a shipping container. Total elapsed time is about 3 minutes.


Complete Model IC Engine Building Project

Casting kits can be purchased. A team has to machine all the components and assemble them into complete engine.

Detailed Information
It is a craftsmanship museum initiative


Bibliography - Crankshaft Machining and Machines

4.0L Crankshaft Machining Line Details (Full Process and details)
Crankshaft Production Line for mass production of a V-6, 3.5 L Crankshaft.
Manufacturing Line for Crank Shafts
The line can produce crankshafts for 4 cylinder engines of 1300 and 1600 cc.
Estimated annual production capacity is approx. 250.000 units. (Set up in 91-92)
How to Machine Single Cylinder Crankshaft (2005)
Crankshaft Grinding Tips

Side turn milling of a massive crankshaft (ship crankshaft), 2009

Videoclip of turning operation on a massive crankshaft
Minimum Quality Lubrication (MQL) in Crankshaft Machining.
BFW machines installed in Japanese Plant in India (2008)

world-class competence for crankshaft machining, 2008
Some crank shaft milling tools (SECO Tools international)
Special chucks for crankshafts
Introducing Crankshaft Miller Model GPM170F-5 of Komatsu (2007)

Analysis of Grinding Strategies Applied to Automotive Crankshaft Manufacturing
Crankshaft Machining Line from MAG

Robotic Crankshaft Deburring$File/401492%20crankshaft%20deburring.pdf

KISS Griding for Crankshafts  (2003)
Combination Thrust Wall & Pilot Bore Grinder Improves Quality and Efficiency of Crankshaft Manufacturing

New Multi-Process Landis Crankshaft Grinder Does Work of Four Separate Machines  (2002)

The Fitting of a Solid Crankshaft 1961
Journal of the American Society for Naval Engineers
Volume 3 Issue 3, Pages 328 - 334, 1961
(only abstract available)

Crankshaft design feature problems (2) - College examination

Crankshaft for straight six engine (Wapedia)

Crankshaft for V-8 engine (Wapedia)

Force modelling of the crankshaft pin grinding process

1905 - Charles H. Norton patents a crankshaft plunge grinder.

Crank Shaft Design - Bibliography

EPI Inc. Crankshaft Design, Materials and Manufacture Issues - Very good article

The design of overlapped crankshafts Part 1: crankpin fillets
Journal :Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Volume 215, Number 4 / 2001

Design of overlapped crankshafts. Part 3: holes in crankpin and journal. 
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D Journal of Automobile Engineering 217(10)

Crankshaft - Forging and Casting

Crankshaft forging and casting

Forged crankshaft technology 1 (3 part series with very good photos0
8.40 minutes

Video Harley Davidson - Forged or Cast

Originally posted in Knol 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2319
Videos to be inserted once again

1 comment:

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