"Industrial Engineering is System Efficiency Engineering and Human Effort Engineering."
“Industrial engineering is the engineering approach applied to all factors, including the human factor, involved in the production and distribution of products or services.” (Maynard, 1953) 
“Industrial engineering is that branch of engineering knowledge and practice which
1. Analyzes, measures, and improves the method of performing the tasks assigned to individuals,
2. Designs and installs better systems of integrating tasks assigned to a group,
3. Specifies, predicts, and evaluates the results obtained.
It does so by applying to materials, equipment and work specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical and physical sciences and the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design. Since, however, work has to be carried out by people; engineering knowledge needs to be supplemented by knowledge derived from the biological and social sciences.” (Lyndall Urwick, 1963) 
Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. 
Narayana Rao (2011)
2. Maynard, H.B., “Industrial Engineering”, Encyclopedia Americana, Americana Corporation, Vol. 15, 1953
3. Lehrer, Robert N., “The Nature of Industrial Engineering,” The Journal of Industrial Engineering, vol.5, No.1, January 1954, Page 4
4. Maynard, H.B., Handbook of Industrial Engineering, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.
5. Nadler, Gerald, Motion and Time Study", McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1955
6. Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.
8. Narayana Rao, K.V.S.S., “Definition of Industrial Engineering: Suggested Modification.” Udyog Pragati, October-December 2006, Pp. 1-4.
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineering can be better explained with the statement that the two focus areas of industrial engineering are human effort engineering and system efficiency engineering. These two focus areas match with Urwick’s statement 1 and 2. Industrial engineering (i) analyzes, measures, and improves the method of performing the tasks assigned to individuals, and (ii) Designs and installs better systems of integrating tasks assigned to a group (Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963).
System Efficiency Engineering - System Efficiency Design
Maynard stated the scope of industrial engineering in his preface to the second edition of Hand Book of Industrial Engineering, edited by him in 1963. Industrial engineers have been traditionally concerned with the design of manufacturing plants, methods improvement, work measurement, the design and administration of wage payment systems, cost control, quality control, production control and the like. These procedures are all directed toward the reduction of cost. All the techniques of industrial engineering reflect the common denominator of all industrial engineering work – an intense interest in improving thing that is currently being done or planned to be done . Cost reduction or efficiency improvement is the focus of industrial engineering. Maynard also pointed out in his preface that developments in applied mathematics and statistics during the post world war years facilitated industrial engineer to tackle efficiency design of much larger systems with more predictive power.
3. Human Effort Engineering
Methods of Industrial Engineering
Techniques of Industrial Engineering
Human Effort Engineering - Techniques
8. Time study of human effort or work elements - Work measurement of human work
System Efficiency Improvement Techniques of Industrial engineering
19. Poka Yoke
Development of Industrial Engineering - History
Among the pioneers, F.W. Taylor is hailed as the father of scientific management as he was the first person to perceive the interconnection between these initiatives and integrated them into a philosophy of management “Scientific Management.”
- Towne, Henry R., “Industrial Engineering” An Address Delivered At the Purdue University, Friday, February 24th, 1905, downloaded from http://www.cslib.org/stamford/towne1905.htm
2. Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.
Library Collections of Pioneers
Efficiency is the focus of Industrial Engineering
Professional Societies in Industrial Engineering
Society of Industrial Engineers was formed in 1917, as a measure for helping the war effort, from the Western Efficiency Society (1910)
SAM traces is origin to Taylor Society that was founded in 1912 by the colleagues and disciples of Frederick Taylor, the "Father of Scientific Management”. In 1936 the Taylor Society and the Society of Industrial Engineers merged to form the Society for the Advancement of Management.
In 1948, the American Institute of Industrial Engineers (AIIE) was established: its objectives were many and compelling, but perhaps the most important was the professional recognition of IE.
The Institute of Industrial Engineers Australia
The Institute of Industrial Engineers celebrated it's 50th Anniversary year in 2008. In 1958 the Australian Methods Engineering Society was incorporated to become IIE Australia.
Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE)
The name of the American Institute of Industrial Engineers was changed to Institute of Industrial Engineers.
Some Interesting Statements
 R. R. Hoxie. Scientific management and labor welfare. Journal of Political Economy, XXIV, 1916, p.838. (C.F. Taylor said many years ago: "Time study is by far the most important element in scientific management." q.v. by A. H. Mogensen. Common Sense Applied to Motion and Time Study. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1932, p. 7.)
If a pragmatic beginning is sought for industrial engineering, it can be found in the pioneering work of Taylor in his attempt to answer the question: What is a fair day's work? Taylor was fond of quoting President Theodore Roosevelt who insisted that "The conservation of our national resources is only preliminary to the larger question of national efficiency." Almost a hundred years ago, Taylor noted:
We can see our forests vanishing, our water-powers going to waste, our soil being carried by floods into the sea; and the end of our coal and iron is in sight. But our larger wastes of human effort, which go on every day through such of our acts are as blundering, ill-directed, or inefficient…
Engineering might be defined as the art of controlling the forces and materials of nature, and organizing and directing men for the benefit of the human race.
Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Industrial Engineering
Factory Organization and Administrationpublished by McGraw-Hill in 1910.
Industrial Engineering Subjects for Functions of Business Organization
Originally posted in Knol
http://knol.google.com/k/ industrial-engineering Knol number 1151
Updated 20 May 2020, 3 August 2018, 26 June 2016, 12 June 2016, 12 Oct 2012
The updates to this post are examples of industrial engineering - continuous improvement based on periodic reviews as well as when a relevant information becomes available or an idea comes to mind.
The first creation of the post is the example of basic engineering - product design as well as process design. The updates show the opportunities for industrial engineering in engineering systems.